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Deformation of X and -Irradiated Alkali Halide Crystals

SAMEER THAKER, VINEET KUMAR SHUKLA and

JITENDRA KUMAR DEWANGAN

Department of Physics,

Govt. Nagarjuna P.G. College of Science, Raipur, C.G., INDIA.

ABSTRACT

During impulsive deformation of X and irradiated alkali halide

crystal two peaks are observed in the ML intensity versus time

curve. The peak ML intensity Im1 and Im2 increases with the impact

velocity v0, however the time tm1 and tm2 decreases with the

increasing impact velocity of the crystal. The slope of lnI versus

(t-tm1) plot decreases with increasing impact velocity v0, however

the slope of lnI versus (t-tm2) plot is independent of impact

velocity v0. Therefore ML intensity IT initially increases linearly

and then it tends to attain a saturation value for higher value of v0.

Keywords: Mechanoluminescence, Fractomechanoluminescence.

INTRODUCTION

In -irradiated alkali halide crystals,

the following two processes may give rise to

the light emission during their fracture: (i)

The charged surfaces produced during

fracture of certain alkali halide crystals may

produce gas discharge ML, and (ii) the

dislocations moving near the tip of cracks in

the crystal may capture electrons from the Fcentres and the electric field due to the

newly created charged surfaces at fracture

may release the dislocation captured

electrons and subsequent electron-hole

recombination may give rise to the light

emission.

produce

ML

during

their

elastic

deformation, plastic deformation and

fracture (Chandra 1998, 2011). As the

intensity of fracto ML is much more as

compared to that of elastico ML and plastico

ML, the elastico ML and plastico ML can be

neglected as compared to the fracto ML.

Theory

is

(Chandra et.al 2012) is given by

1 exp

exp

Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

(1)

299

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

where

=

=

=

=

a constant, = proportionality

constant, = volume of crystals

an exponent, = an exponent,

=a constant, =an exponent

an exponent, = an exponent,

= initial velocity of piston

thickness of the sample,

= rate-constant for the relaxation of

moving piston

time constant for the relaxation of

moving piston

and
rate constant for the decrease of

average surface area produced by

the movement of single crack

dislocation captured electrons by the

electrostatic field produced by the charged

dislocation, expressions are derived for the

transient ML intensity I, rise of ML intensity

Ir, ML intensity Im1 for the first peak, ML

intensity Im2 for the second peak, time tm1 for

the first peak, time tm2 for the second peak,

temperature dependence of ML, colour

centre density dependence of ML, crystal

size dependence of ML, total ML intensity

IT, fast decay of ML intensity Idf and for the

slow decay of ML intensity Ids. A

comparison made between the experimental

and theoretical results indicates a good

agreement. The expressions derived are

given below

exp

exp

(2)

ln

(3)

(4)

(5)

exp

(6)

(7)

2 ! " 1 exp$

%!

&exp%

exp

'

ln ()

(8)

(9)

2 *"

(10)

2 " 1 exp$

(11)

Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

exp%

300

(12)

" exp ( )

(13)

" exp ( )

(14)

" exp ( )

(15)

" exp ( )

(16)

PROPOSED THEORY

Fig.1 shows the time dependence of

the ML intensity of -irradiated KCl

crystals, in which the crystals were fractured

by the impact of a moving piston at different

impact velocities. It is seen that initially the

ML intensity increases with time, attains a

peak value and then it decreases with time,

and later on it again increases and attains a

Fig. 1

with time. It is seen that the peak ML

intensities Im1 and Im2 corresponding to the

first and second peaks in the ML intensity

versus time curve increase with the impact

velocity v0. It is also seen that the times tm1

and tm2 corresponding to the first and second

peaks of ML intensity versus time curve

decrease with the increasing impact velocity

of the piston. These results follow Eqs. (2).

Time dependence of the ML intensity of -irradiated KCl crystals (Curves I, II and III

correspond to the impact velocity 98.9, 197 and 280 cm/s, respectively.

Size of crystals=222 mm) (after Chandra and Ramrakhaini 1992).

Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

301

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

ML intensity versus (t-tm1) for -irradiated

KCl crystals. It is seen that the plots are

straight lines with negative slops. This result

follows Eq. (6). The values of

are found to

increase with increasing impact velocity.

Fig.3 shows the semilog plot of ML

intensity versus (t-tm2) for -irradiated KCl

crystals. It is seen that the plots are straight

line with negative slops. This result is in

accord with Eq. (12). It is seen that there is

no significant change in the value of % with

increasing impact velocity v0.

and Im2 on the impact velocity v0. It is seen

that both Im1 and Im2 increase linearly with

the impact velocity v0. These results follow

Eqs. (5) and (10).

Fig.5 shows the dependence of the

total ML intensity IT on the impact velocity

v0. It is seen that initially the ML intensity

increases with the impact velocity and later

on it tends to attain saturation value for the

high impact velocity v0. This result follows

Eq. (7).

Fig.6 shows that the value of tm1 and

tm2 decrease with increasing impact velocity

of the piston. This result follows Eq. (4).

Fig. 2 Semilog plot of ML intensity versus (t-tm1) for -irradiated KCl crystals (Curves I, II and III

correspond to the impact velocity 98.9, 197 and 280 cm/s, respectively. Size of crystals=222 mm)

Fig. 3 Semilog plot of ML intensity versus (t-tm2) for -irradiated KCl crystals (Curves I, II and III

correspond to the impact velocity 98.9, 197 and 280 cm/s, respectively. Size of crystals=222 mm).

Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

302

Fig. 4 Dependence of Im1 and Im2 on the impact velocity v0 of the piston for -irradiated KCl crystals.

Fig. 5

Impact velocity dependence of the total ML intensity IT for -irradiated KCl crystals

(Optoelectronics Lab. RDVV, Jabalpur).

Fig. 6 Dependence of tm1 and tm2 on the impact velocity v0 of the piston for -irradiated KCl crystals.

Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

303

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

CONCLUSION

When a -irradiated KCl crystal is

fractured impulsively by dropping a load

from a given height, then initially the ML

intensity increases with time, attains a peak

value and then it decreases with time and

later on it again increases and attains a peak

value again and later on it decreases with

time. Thus two peaks of intensities Im1 and

Im2 at times tm1 and tm2 respectively are found

in the ML intensity versus time curve of the

crystals. A good agreement is found between

the theoretical and experimental results.

REFRENCES

1. Chandra, B.P., Ramrakhiani, M. J. Phys.

54 (2), 287 (1992).

(Ed. D.R. Vij) , Plenum Press, New

York, P.361 (1998).

3. Chandra B.P. In Luminescence Of

Solids, Edited By Vij, D.R., Plenum

Press, New York Pp 361-389 (1998).

4. Chandra B.P. Mechanoluminescent

Smart Materials and Their Applications,

In: A. Stashans, S. Gonzalez, H.P. Pinto

(Eds.),

Electronic

and

Catalytic

Properties of Advanced Materials,

Transworld

Research

Network,

Trivandrum, Kerala, India, Pp1-37

(2011).

5. Chandra, B.P., Chandra, V.K., Jha, P.,

Patel, Rashmi, Shende, S.K., Thaker, S.,

Baghel, R.N. J. Lumin. 132, 2012-2022

(2012).

Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

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