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J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.

2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

Fractomechanoluminescence Produced During Impulsive


Deformation of X and -Irradiated Alkali Halide Crystals
SAMEER THAKER, VINEET KUMAR SHUKLA and
JITENDRA KUMAR DEWANGAN
Department of Physics,
Govt. Nagarjuna P.G. College of Science, Raipur, C.G., INDIA.
ABSTRACT
During impulsive deformation of X and irradiated alkali halide
crystal two peaks are observed in the ML intensity versus time
curve. The peak ML intensity Im1 and Im2 increases with the impact
velocity v0, however the time tm1 and tm2 decreases with the
increasing impact velocity of the crystal. The slope of lnI versus
(t-tm1) plot decreases with increasing impact velocity v0, however
the slope of lnI versus (t-tm2) plot is independent of impact
velocity v0. Therefore ML intensity IT initially increases linearly
and then it tends to attain a saturation value for higher value of v0.
Keywords: Mechanoluminescence, Fractomechanoluminescence.

INTRODUCTION
In -irradiated alkali halide crystals,
the following two processes may give rise to
the light emission during their fracture: (i)
The charged surfaces produced during
fracture of certain alkali halide crystals may
produce gas discharge ML, and (ii) the
dislocations moving near the tip of cracks in
the crystal may capture electrons from the Fcentres and the electric field due to the
newly created charged surfaces at fracture
may release the dislocation captured
electrons and subsequent electron-hole
recombination may give rise to the light
emission.

The coloured alkali halide crystals


produce
ML
during
their
elastic
deformation, plastic deformation and
fracture (Chandra 1998, 2011). As the
intensity of fracto ML is much more as
compared to that of elastico ML and plastico
ML, the elastico ML and plastico ML can be
neglected as compared to the fracto ML.
Theory
is

The rate of creation of new surfaces


(Chandra et.al 2012) is given by

       


 

1 exp 


exp  

Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

(1)

299

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

where
=
=
 =
=

a constant,  = proportionality
constant,  = volume of crystals
an exponent,  = an exponent, 
=a constant, =an exponent
an exponent,  = an exponent,
 = initial velocity of piston
thickness of the sample,
= rate-constant for the relaxation of

moving piston
time constant for the relaxation of
moving piston
and rate constant for the decrease of
average surface area produced by
the movement of single crack

Based on the detrapping of


dislocation captured electrons by the
electrostatic field produced by the charged
dislocation, expressions are derived for the
transient ML intensity I, rise of ML intensity
Ir, ML intensity Im1 for the first peak, ML
intensity Im2 for the second peak, time tm1 for
the first peak, time tm2 for the second peak,
temperature dependence of ML, colour
centre density dependence of ML, crystal
size dependence of ML, total ML intensity
IT, fast decay of ML intensity Idf and for the
slow decay of ML intensity Ids. A
comparison made between the experimental
and theoretical results indicates a good
agreement. The expressions derived are
given below

exp
  exp
  

(2)


 ln

(3)

(4)

(5)

  exp
   

(6)
(7)


2    !   " 1  exp$ 

  %!


&exp%

exp
'


ln ()

(8)
(9)


2       *"

(10)


2      " 1  exp$ 

(11)

Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)


 exp%   

300
(12)

" exp ( )

(13)

" exp ( )

(14)

" exp ( )

(15)

" exp ( )

(16)

EXPERIMENTAL SUPPORT TO THE


PROPOSED THEORY
Fig.1 shows the time dependence of
the ML intensity of -irradiated KCl
crystals, in which the crystals were fractured
by the impact of a moving piston at different
impact velocities. It is seen that initially the
ML intensity increases with time, attains a
peak value and then it decreases with time,
and later on it again increases and attains a

Fig. 1

peak value again and later on it decreases


with time. It is seen that the peak ML
intensities Im1 and Im2 corresponding to the
first and second peaks in the ML intensity
versus time curve increase with the impact
velocity v0. It is also seen that the times tm1
and tm2 corresponding to the first and second
peaks of ML intensity versus time curve
decrease with the increasing impact velocity
of the piston. These results follow Eqs. (2).

Time dependence of the ML intensity of -irradiated KCl crystals (Curves I, II and III
correspond to the impact velocity 98.9, 197 and 280 cm/s, respectively.
Size of crystals=222 mm) (after Chandra and Ramrakhaini 1992).
Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

301

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

Fig.2 illustrates the semilog plot of


ML intensity versus (t-tm1) for -irradiated
KCl crystals. It is seen that the plots are
straight lines with negative slops. This result
follows Eq. (6). The values of
are found to
increase with increasing impact velocity.
Fig.3 shows the semilog plot of ML
intensity versus (t-tm2) for -irradiated KCl
crystals. It is seen that the plots are straight
line with negative slops. This result is in
accord with Eq. (12). It is seen that there is
no significant change in the value of % with
increasing impact velocity v0.

Fig.4 shows the dependence of Im1


and Im2 on the impact velocity v0. It is seen
that both Im1 and Im2 increase linearly with
the impact velocity v0. These results follow
Eqs. (5) and (10).
Fig.5 shows the dependence of the
total ML intensity IT on the impact velocity
v0. It is seen that initially the ML intensity
increases with the impact velocity and later
on it tends to attain saturation value for the
high impact velocity v0. This result follows
Eq. (7).
Fig.6 shows that the value of tm1 and
tm2 decrease with increasing impact velocity
of the piston. This result follows Eq. (4).

Fig. 2 Semilog plot of ML intensity versus (t-tm1) for -irradiated KCl crystals (Curves I, II and III
correspond to the impact velocity 98.9, 197 and 280 cm/s, respectively. Size of crystals=222 mm)

Fig. 3 Semilog plot of ML intensity versus (t-tm2) for -irradiated KCl crystals (Curves I, II and III
correspond to the impact velocity 98.9, 197 and 280 cm/s, respectively. Size of crystals=222 mm).
Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

302

Fig. 4 Dependence of Im1 and Im2 on the impact velocity v0 of the piston for -irradiated KCl crystals.

Fig. 5

Impact velocity dependence of the total ML intensity IT for -irradiated KCl crystals
(Optoelectronics Lab. RDVV, Jabalpur).

Fig. 6 Dependence of tm1 and tm2 on the impact velocity v0 of the piston for -irradiated KCl crystals.
Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)

303

Sameer Thaker, et al., J. Pure Appl. & Ind. Phys. Vol.2 (3A), 298-303 (2012)

CONCLUSION
When a -irradiated KCl crystal is
fractured impulsively by dropping a load
from a given height, then initially the ML
intensity increases with time, attains a peak
value and then it decreases with time and
later on it again increases and attains a peak
value again and later on it decreases with
time. Thus two peaks of intensities Im1 and
Im2 at times tm1 and tm2 respectively are found
in the ML intensity versus time curve of the
crystals. A good agreement is found between
the theoretical and experimental results.
REFRENCES
1. Chandra, B.P., Ramrakhiani, M. J. Phys.
54 (2), 287 (1992).

2. Chandra B.P. Luminescence Of Solids


(Ed. D.R. Vij) , Plenum Press, New
York, P.361 (1998).
3. Chandra B.P. In Luminescence Of
Solids, Edited By Vij, D.R., Plenum
Press, New York Pp 361-389 (1998).
4. Chandra B.P. Mechanoluminescent
Smart Materials and Their Applications,
In: A. Stashans, S. Gonzalez, H.P. Pinto
(Eds.),
Electronic
and
Catalytic
Properties of Advanced Materials,
Transworld
Research
Network,
Trivandrum, Kerala, India, Pp1-37
(2011).
5. Chandra, B.P., Chandra, V.K., Jha, P.,
Patel, Rashmi, Shende, S.K., Thaker, S.,
Baghel, R.N. J. Lumin. 132, 2012-2022
(2012).

Journal of Pure Applied and Industrial Physics Vol.2, Issue 3A, 1 July, 2012, Pages (286-402)