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Gasliftinstallationdesign

Continuousflowgasliftisanalogoustonaturalflow,buttherearegenerallytwodistinctflowingpressuretraverses.Thetraversebelowthepointofgasinjectionincludesonly
formationgaswhereas,thetraverseabovethepointofgasinjectionincludesboththeformationandinjectiongases.Thesetwodistinctflowingpressuretraversesandtheir
correspondinggas/liquidratios(GLR)areillustratedinFig.1.

(/File%3AVol4_Page_522_Image_0001.png)
Fig.1Flowingpressuregradienttraversesabove
andbelowthedepthofgasinjectionina
continuousflowgasliftwell.

Contents
1Designmethods
2Descriptionofunloadingoperations
3Initialinstallationdesignconsiderations
4Assumptionsandsafetyfactors
5Orificecheckvalve
5.1Advantagesofanorificecheckvalve
5.2Disadvantageoftheorificecheckvalve
6Depthofthetopgasliftvalve
6.1Flowingpressureatdepth
6.1.1Example1
6.2Flowingtemperatureatdepth
7Nomenclature
8References
9NoteworthypapersinOnePetro
10Externallinks
11Seealso

Designmethods
Therearenumerousgasliftinstallationdesignmethodsofferedintheliterature.Severalinstallationdesignsrequireuniquevalveconstructionorgasliftvalveinjectiongas
throughputperformance.Onlytwodesigntechniquesareillustratedinthispage:
Adesignbasedonaconstantdecreaseintheoperatinginjectiongaspressureforeachsucceedinglowervalve(thisdesignisessentiallythesameastheAPIgasliftdesign
techniqueinRP11V6[1])
Analternativedesignforwellsrequiringhighinjectiongasrates.
TheAPIdesigncanbeusedonthemajorityofwellsintheUS.However,whenhighvolumeliftandhighinjectiongasratesarerequired,gasliftvalveperformanceshouldbe
consideredinthedesign.Bothofthesetechniquesusethesimplesingleelementtype,unbalanced,gasliftvalvewithanitrogenchargedbellows.Thistypeofvalveisthemost
widelyusedintheindustryandisavailablefromallmajorgasliftequipmentmanufacturers.
Gasliftinstallationdesigncalculationsaredividedintotwoparts:
Determinationofthegasliftvalvedepths
Calculationofthetestrackopeningpressuresofthegasliftvalves
Theopeningpressuresarecalculatedafterthevalvedepthsbecausetheoperatinginjectiongasandflowingproductionpressuresandtemperaturesduringunloadingarebasedon
thesevalvedepths.
Theprimaryobjectiveofthispageistooutlineindetailinstallationdesignmethodsforcalculatingthevalvedepthsandthetestrackopeningpressuresofthegasliftvalvesthatwill
unloadawelltoamaximumdepthofliftfortheavailableinjectiongasvolumeandpressure.Theunloadingoperations,asillustratedbythetwopenpressurerecorderchartinFig.2,
shouldbeautomatic.Thestaticloadfluidlevelwasnearthesurfaceinthecasingandtubingbeforeinitialunloadingbegan.Thewellheadpressureremainsrelativelyconstantduring
Utubingoperationsbeforeinjectiongasentersthetubingforthefirsttimethroughthetopgasliftvalve.Asurgeinwellheadtubingpressureandadecreaseintheinjectiongas
casingpressureoccurasthedepthofgasinjectiontransferstoeachlowergasliftvalve.Aseachlowergasliftvalveisuncovered,thevalveimmediatelyabovecloses,andthepoint
ofgasinjectiontransfersfromtheuppertothelowervalve.Allgasliftvalvesaboveanoperatingvalveshouldbeclosedandthevalvesbelowshouldbeopeninaproperlydesigned
gasliftinstallation.

(/File%3AVol4_Page_559_Image_0001.png)
Fig.2Twopenpressurerecorderchart
illustratingcontinuousflowgasliftunloading
operationswithchokecontroloftheinjectiongas.

Descriptionofunloadingoperations
Thedepthsoftheunloadinggasliftvalvesarecalculatedtounloadthekill(load)fluidtothedesigndepthoftheoperatingvalvewiththeinjectiongaspressureandgasvolume
availableatthewellsite.Astheinjectiongasisinitiallyinjectedintothecasingannulus,theinjectiongaspressuredownstreamofthecontroldeviceontheinjectiongasline
increasesastheloadfluidlevelinthecasingannulusisloweredduringUtubingoftheloadfluid.Theloadfluidistransferredintothetubingthroughtheopengasliftvalvesina
wellwithapacker,orthroughtheopengasliftvalvesandlowerendofthetubinginawellwithoutapacker.Initialgasliftoperationsbeginafterthefirstgasliftvalveisuncovered
andinjectiongasentersthetubingatthistopvalvedepth.
Thepressuresinthecasingandtubingareessentiallyequalattheinstantagasliftvalveisuncovered.Immediatelyafterinjectiongasbeginstoenterthetubingthroughthenext
lowergasliftvalve,theinjectiongaspressureinthecasingbeginstodecreasebecausethenewlyuncoveredgasliftvalveissettoremainopenatalowerinjectiongaspressurethan
theunloadingvalveabove.Lessandlessinjectiongasentersthetubingthroughtheupperunloadingvalve.Theinjectiongasratethroughthenewlyuncoveredvalveincreasesuntil
theinjectiongaspressureinthecasingdecreasestotheclosingpressureoftheupperunloadingvalve.Thedepthofgasinjectiontransferiscompletewhenallinjectiongasis
enteringthetubingthroughthelowervalveandalluppergasliftvalvesareclosed.Theprinciplesofcontinuousflowoperationareillustratedbyapressure/depthdiagramshownin
Fig.6.

(/File%3AVol4_Page_560_Image_0001.png)
Fig.6Principlesofcontinuousflowoperation
illustratedbyapressure/depthdiagram.The
datumdepth(Dd)forthestaticbottomhole
pressure(Pwsd)isthelowerendoftheproduction
conduit.

Asinjectiongasentersthetubingthroughanewlyuncoveredvalve,theflowingproductionpressuredecreases.Theinjectiongaspressureinthecasingbeginstoincreasefroma
decreasingopeningforcefromalowerflowingproductionpressureatthevalvedepthandtheneedforstrokingthevalvestemtoincreasetheinjectiongasrateintothetubingfor
uncoveringthenextlowervalve.Theincreaseintheinjectiongaspressureabovetheinitialvalveopeningpressureatvalvedepthforpassingtheinjectiongasratetoestablishthe
flowingproductiontransferpressuremustbedetermined.Thismaximuminjectiongaspressurerequiredtostrokethevalvestemsufficientlytopasstheinjectiongasratenecessary
totransferthedepthofgasinjectiontothenextlowervalvedependsonthegasliftvalveperformance.Thevalveportinnerdiameter(ID),bellowassemblyloadrate,andlinearstem
travelcontrolthegasliftvalveperformance.Thedesignmaximuminjectiongaspressureforestablishingtheflowingproductiontransferpressurefromalowervalveduring
unloadingshouldnotresultinreopeninganyoftheuppergasliftvalves.InFig.6,theinjectiongasisenteringtheproductionconduitthroughthefourthgasliftvalveandthethree
upperunloadinggasliftvalvesareclosed.Althoughthebottomgasliftvalveisopen,noinjectiongascanenterthisvalveatdepthD5becausetheflowingproductionpressure
exceedstheinjectiongaspressureatthisdepth.Theflowingpressureatdepthtraversegradient,gpfa,abovetheoperatinggasliftvalvedepth,Dov,includestheinjectionplusthe
formationgasproduction,andtheflowingpressureatdepthtraversegradient,gpfb,belowDovcontainsonlyformationgasproduction.

Initialinstallationdesignconsiderations
Continuousflowinstallationdesignsvarydependingonwhethercompleteandprecisewelldataareknown.Reliableinflowwellperformanceandanaccuratemultiphaseflow
correlationarerequiredtoestablishtheapproximatepointofgasinjectionindeepwells.Whenthewelldataarelimitedorquestionable,theexactpointofgasinjectioncannotbe
calculatedaccuratelyinmanywells.Ifthereisinsufficientinjectiongaspressuretoreachthebottomofthewell,adesireddepthofgasinjectionmaynotbepossible.Ifthereisno
changeininjectiongaspressureorwellconditions,thepointofgasinjectionshouldremainatthemaximumdepthforthelifeofthegasliftinstallation.
Retrievablegasliftvalvemandrelsareinstalled(usuallywithdummyvalvesinplace)inmanywellsbeforelittle,ifany,wellproductioninformationisavailable.Theengineermust
locatethesemandrelsinwellsbeforegasliftisrequired.Thedesignconsiderationsaresimilarforwellswithachangingpointofgasinjection.Ingeneral,manygasliftinstallations
areinthiscategory,inwhichaccuratewelldataareunknownorlimitedandthepointofgasinjectionisunknownand/orchangingasthereservoirisdepleted.

Assumptionsandsafetyfactors
Safetyfactorsareusedforcontinuousflowgasliftinstallationdesignwithunbalanced,singleelement,gasliftvalveswhentheloadrateandthegasthroughputperformanceofthe
valvearenotconsideredinthecalculations.Theinitialgasliftvalveopeningpressuresarebasedonthestaticforcebalanceequations.Safetyfactorsallowtheinjectiongasand/or
theflowingproductionpressuretoincreaseatvalvedepth,whichisneededtoproperlystrokethevalvestemandprovidetheequivalentportarearequiredtopasstheinjectiongas
ratenecessaryforunloadingandgasliftingmostwells.Thefollowingsafetyfactorscompensateforthefactthatmostoperatorssetthegasliftvalvestothenearesttubingjoint.The
actualdepthofthegasliftvalveisusuallywithin15ftofthecalculateddepth.
1. Theoperatinginjectiongaspressureusedfortheinstallationdesigncalculationsshouldbetheaverageandnotthemaximuminjectiongaspressureavailableatthewellsitefor
mostwells.Inspecialcases,akickoffpressurecanbeused.
2. Theunloadingdailyproductionrateisassumedequaltothedesigndailyproductionrate.Generally,theactualunloadingdailyproductionratemaybelessthanthedesign
productionrateandcanbecontrolledatthesurfacebytheinjectiongasrate.
3. Noformationgasisproducedduringtheunloadingoperations.Thetotalgas/liquidratioisbasedonthedailyinjectiongasrateavailableforunloadingthewell.
4. Theflowingpressureatdepthtraversesabovetheunloadinggasliftvalvesareassumedtobestraightlinesforthedesigncalculations.
5. Theunloadingflowingtemperatureatdepthtraverseisassumedtobeastraightratherthanacurvedlinebetweenanassignedunloadingflowingwellheadtemperature,Twhu,
andthebottomholetemperature,Twsd.
Thedesignsurfaceunloadingflowingtemperaturegenerallyisassumedtobelowerthanthefinal,operatingtemperature.Afinalflowingtemperaturethatisslightlyhigherthanthe
designtemperatureincreasestheinitialopeningpressureofabellowschargedgasliftvalveandaidsinkeepingtheuppervalvesclosedwhileliftingfromalowergasliftvalve.
1. Anassignedvalvespacingpressuredifferential,PsD,of20to60psiacrossavalveforunloadingisusedbymanygasliftdesignengineers.Asaresult,theactualminimum
flowingproductionpressurerequiredtouncoverthenextlowerunloadinggasliftvalveisgreaterbytheassignedPsD.
2. Theflowingpressuretraversebelowthepointofgasinjectionforlocatingthevalvedepthsisnormallyassumedtobethestaticloadfluidgradient.Onceformationproduction
occurs,theactualflowingpressuregradientdecreasesinmostwells.

Orificecheckvalve
Anorificebeingusedforgasliftingawellshouldincludeareverseflowcheckvalve.Thecheckdisk,ordart,shouldbeclosedbygravityorspringloaded.Inawellwithapacker,
thecheckportionshouldremainclosedtopreventdebrisfromaccumulatingontopofthepackerwhenthisvalveisbelowtheworkingfluidlevelandisnottheoperatingvalve.An
inletscreenisrecommendedfororificecheckvalveswithasmallchoketopreventpossibleplugging.Theindividualopeningsintheinletscreenshouldbesmallerthanthechokein
theorificecheckvalve.
Aproperlydesignedcontinuousflowgasliftinstallationwithanorificecheckvalvedoesnothaveahigherinjectiongasrequirementthanthesamewellwithaninjectionpressure
operatedgasliftvalve.Theinjectiongasrateforliftingawelliscontrolledbythemeteringdeviceontheinjectiongaslineatthesurface.Anorificecheckvalveratherthanamore
expensiveandcomplicatedpressureoperatedgasliftvalveshouldbeconsideredforthebottomvalveinmostcontinuousflowinstallations.

Advantagesofanorificecheckvalve
Theorificecheckvalveisthesimplestofalltypesofoperatingvalvesandhasaverylowpossibilityofmalfunction.Itcanbeusedasa"flag"becauseofthechangeinthesurface
injectiongaspressuredownstreamofthecontrolvalvewhentheorificecheckvalveisuncoveredandbecomesthepointofgasinjection.Fig.3illustratesanunloadingoperation
usinganorificecheckvalveonbottom.Theheadingflowingwellheadtubingpressureistheresultoftheopeningandclosingoftheunloadinggasliftvalvesbecauseofa24/64in.
chokeintheflowlineandafrictionaldragmechanisminthevalvetopreventstemshatter.Aftertheorificecheckvalveisuncoveredatapproximately3:00a.m.,thereisnoheading.
Theoperatinginjectiongaspressuredecreaseistheresultoflowreservoirdeliverabilityandnotthegasliftsystem.Aproperlysizedorificecheckvalvecanpreventsevereheading
orsurginginacontinuousflowgasliftinstallationbyensuringaconstantorificesize.Noinjectiongaspressureincreaseisrequiredtostrokeanorificecheckvalve,andtheorifice
sizeisalwaysknownbecauseitisequaltothechokesizeinthevalve.Theorificecheckvalveisalwaysopenandpassesgasaslongasinjectiongaspressureatvalvedepthexceeds
theflowingproductionpressureatthesamedepth.Aproperlysizedorificeisrequiredtocontroltheinjectiongasvolumeforgasliftingsomewells.Oneapplicationisgasliftingone
zoneofadualgasliftinstallationwithacommoninjectiongassourceinthecasingannulus.Adesignpressuredifferentialofatleast100to200psiacrosstheorificeisnecessaryto
ensureareasonablyaccurategaspassageprediction.

(/File%3AVol4_Page_563_Image_0001.png)
Fig.3Twopenpressurerecordingunloading
chartfromacontinuousflowgasliftinstallation
withanorificecheckvalveonbottom.

Disadvantageoftheorificecheckvalve
Iftheinjectiongaslinepressureishigh,relativetotheflowingproductionpressureattheorificecheckvalvedepth,freezingcanoccuratthesurfaceifwetgasisused.Theweak
wellswithanorificecheckoperatingvalvewillcontinuetoconsumeinjectiongasatlowerinjectiongaslinepressurethanstrongerwellswithhigherflowingproductionpressuresat
thedepthoftheoperatingorificecheckvalve.
Aholeinthetubingoraleakingpackerisindistinguishablefromanorificecheckvalveduringanormal,uninterrupted,continuousflowgasliftoperation.Anorificecheckvalve
generallyisnotrecommendedforasmallclosedrotativegasliftsystemwhencostlymakeupgasisrequiredtochargethesystemafterashutdown.Aproperlysetinjectionpressure
operatedgasliftvalveclosesafteraslightdecreaseintheinjectiongaspressureandpreventstheunnecessarylossofinjectiongasfromthecasingannulusandthesmallhigh
pressuresystem.

Depthofthetopgasliftvalve
ThetopgasliftvalveshouldbelocatedatthemaximumdepththatpermitsUtubingtheloadfluidfromthisdepthwiththeavailableinjectiongaspressure.Ifthewellisloadedto
thesurfacewithakillfluid,thedepthofthetopvalvecanbecalculatedwithoneofthefollowingequations.
(/File%3AVol4_page_0562_eq_001.png)....................(1)

(/File%3AVol4_page_0563_eq_001.png)....................(2)
or
(/File%3AVol4_page_0563_eq_002.png)....................(3)
where
Dv1 = depthoftopvalve,ft,
Pko = surfacekickofforaveragefieldinjectiongaspressure(optional),psig,
Pwhu = surfacewellheadUtubing(unloading)pressure,psig,
PsD = assignedspacingpressuredifferentialatvalvedepth,psi,
gls = staticload(kill)fluidpressuregradient,psi/ft,
and
ggio = injectiongaspressureatdepthgradient,psi/ft.
Eq.1doesnotincludetheincreaseintheinjectiongaspressuretothevalvedepth,Dv1.Thisequationiswidelyusedbecauseofasafetyfactorfromneglectingthisincreaseingas
pressurewithdepth.Eq.2yieldsthesamedepthasagraphicalsolutionwithoutanypressuredropacrossthetopgasliftvalveattheinstantthisvalveisuncovered.Inotherwords,
thetopvalveisnotuncoverediftheactualkickoffinjectiongaspressureislessthanthedesignvalueoriftheUtubingwellheadpressureishigherthanassumed.Eq.3includes
injectiongascolumnweightandanassignedpressuredifferentialattheinstantthetopvalveisuncovered.
ThesurfaceUtubingwellheadpressureislessthantheflowingwellheadpressureformostinstallations.Thedifferencebetweenthesetwopressuresincreasesforlongerflowlines
andhigherproductionrates.ThewellheadUtubingpressureisapproximatelyequaltotheseparatororproductionheaderpressurebecausetherateofloadfluidtransferisverylow
duringtheUtubingoperationandnoinjectiongascanentertheflowlineuntilthetopgasliftvalveisuncovered.Gasliftoperationsdonotbeginuntilinjectiongasentersthe
productionconduitthroughthetopvalve.Flowingwellheadpressureshouldbeusedtolocatethedepthsoftheremaininggasliftvalves.
AloadfluidtraversebasedonglscanbedrawnfromthewellheadUtubingpressuretotheintersectionofthekickoffinjectiongaspressureatdepthcurve(PkoDtraverse)ona
pressure/depthplot.Thetopvalvemaybelocatedatthisintersection,whichisthesamedepthascalculatedwithEq.2.Anarbitrarypressuredropacrossthetopgasliftvalvecanbe
assumedinconjunctionwiththegraphicalmethod,andthistechniqueisthesameasEq.3.Ifnogaspressureincreasewithdepthisassumed,thismethodbecomessimilartothe
calculationofDv1withEq.1.Forsimplicity,Eq.4isoftenusedfortopvalvespacingcalculations.
(/File%3AVol4_page_0571_eq_002.png)....................(4)

Flowingpressureatdepth
Accurateflowingpressureatdepthpredictionsareessentialforgoodcontinuousflowgasliftinstallationdesignandanalysis.Whencomputerprogramsforgasliftinstallation
designandanalysisareunavailablefordailyroutinecalculations,thegasliftdesignersmustrelyonpublishedgradientcurvestodetermineflowingpressuresatdepth.Manyoil
producingcompanieshavetheirownmultiphaseflowcorrelationsandpublishinhousegradientcurves.Gradientcurvesareavailablefromthegasliftmanufacturersandare
publishedinbooksthatcanbepurchased.Wherepossible,usefielddatatoverifytheaccuracyofthecomputerprogramcalculationsandgradientcurves.Itisnotthepurposeofthis
chaptertocomparethevariousmultiphaseflowcorrelationsorpublishedgradientcurves.
Thewidelyacceptedmultiphaseflowcorrelationsandmechanisticmodelsarebasedonpseudosteadystateflowwithoutseriousheadingthroughacleanproductionconduitwithan
unrestrictedcrosssectionalarea.Accuratepressurescannotbeobtainedfromgradientcurvesbasedonthesecorrelationsiftheconduitispartiallypluggedwithparaffinorscale.
Emulsionsalsocanpreventtheapplicationofthesecorrelationsandgradientcurves.Theapplicabilityofaparticularcorrelationorsetofgradientcurvesforagivenwellcanbe
establishedonlybycomparingameasuredflowingpressuretoapressureatdepthdeterminedfromthecorrelationorgradientcurves.Themeasuredproductiondatamustbeaccurate
andrepeatablebeforediscountingthemultiphaseflowcorrelationsorgradientcurves.
AsetoftypicalgradientcurvesisgiveninFig.4.ThesegradientcurvesareusedintheexampleinstallationdesigncalculationsinExample1.GLRandnotgas/oilratio(GOR)is
usedfortheseinstallationdesigncalculations.

(/File%3AVol4_Page_565_Image_0001.png)
Fig.4Flowingpressureatdepthgradientcurves
for800B/Dwitha50%watercutthrough27/8
in.ODtubing.

MostgradientcurvesdisplayGLRratherthanGOR.Forthisreason,thefirststepintheapplicationofgradientcurvesistoconvertGORtoGLR,ifonlyGORisreportedandthe
wellproduceswater.TheGLRcanbecalculatedforagivenGORandwatercutwithEq.5.
(/File%3AVol4_page_0564_eq_001.png)....................(5)
where
Rglf = formationgas/liquidratio,scf/STB,
fo = oilcut(lfw),fraction,
and
Rgo = gas/oilratio,scf/STB.
Example1
Given:
Rgo=500scf/STB
Watercutfw=0.60(60%)
CalculatetheformationGLR:Rglf=(10.6)500=200scf/STB.
Whengradientcurvesareused,thedepthisarelativedepthandmaybeshifted,whereaspressureisnevershifted.Ifaflowingpressureatdepthtraverseisbeingtraced,the
pressuresonthepressure/depthplotmustalwaysoverliethesamepressuresonthegradientcurves.Fordeviatedwellswherefrictionissmall,usetrueverticaldepthsratherthan
measureddepthsinagraphicaldesign.

Flowingtemperatureatdepth
Theaccuratepredictionoftheflowingproductionfluidtemperatureatvalvedepthisimportantinthedesignandanalysisofmanygasliftinstallationswithnitrogenchargedgaslift
valves.Thetemperatureofawirelineretrievablevalveisassumedtobethesameasthetemperatureoftheflowingfluidsatthevalvedepth.Aretrievablegasliftvalveislocatedina
mandrelpocketinsidethetubingandisincontactwiththeproductionfromthewell.Thetemperatureofaconventionalvalveisbetweentheflowingfluidtemperatureandthe
geothermaltemperatureforthewellbutisnormallyclosertotheflowingfluidtemperaturebecausesteelhashigherthermalconductivitythangas.
Kirkpatrick[2]publishedoneofthemostwidelyusedflowingtemperaturegradientcorrelationsin1959.ThefamilyofflowingtemperaturegradientcurvesinFig.5isbasedondata
fromhighwatercutwellsbeingproducedbygasliftthrough27/8in.ODtubingoverawiderangeofproductionrates.Althoughthecorrelationdoesnotincludeseveralimportant
parameters,suchasGLRandfluidproperties,theestimatedsurfacetemperatureandtemperaturesatdepthhaveprovedtobereasonablyaccurateformanygasliftoperations.Sagar
etal.[3]publishedanotherflowingtemperaturecorrelation.Thisempiricalmethodforcalculatingflowingtemperatureprofilesisfarmorerigorousandisbasedonwelldatafrom
severalareas.Thecalculationprocedurecanbeprogrammedeasilyforpredictingsurfaceflowingtemperaturesinverticalandinclinedwells.However,thebestapproach,when
possible,istomeasurethetemperatureatdepthtraverseintheactualgasliftwell.

(/File%3AVol4_Page_567_Image_0001.png)
Fig.5Flowingfluidtemperaturegradientsinthe
productionconduitfordifferentflowratesand
geothermalgradients.

Nomenclature
Dv1 = depthoftopvalve,ft
fo
= oilcut,fraction
fw

= watercut,fraction

Fp

= productionpressurefactor,dimensionless
ggio = staticinjectiongaspressureatdepthgradient,psi/ft
glc = averagepressuregradientforliquidproductioninchamber,psi/ft
gls

= staticload(kill)fluidpressuregradient,psi/ft
PbvD = nitrogenchargedbellowspressureatvalvetemperature,psig
Pko = surfacekickofforaveragefieldinjectiongaspressure(optional),psig
Ppfd = flowingproductionpressureatDdbasedondesignqltandRglu,psig
PpfD = flowingproductionpressureatvalvedepth,psig
Pwhu = wellheadUtubingunloadingpressure,psig
PsD = assignedspacingpressuredifferentialatvalvedepth,psi

References
1. APIRP11V6,RecommendedPracticeforDesignofContinuousFlowGasLiftInstallationsUsingInjectionPressureOperatedValves,secondedition.1999.Washington,
DC:API.
2. Kirkpatrick,C.V.1959.AdvancesinGasLiftTechnology.Drill.&Prod.Prac.(March):24.
3. Sagar,R.,Doty,D.R.,andSchmidt,Z.1991.PredictingTemperatureProfilesinaFlowingWell.SPEProdEng6(4):441448.SPE19702PA.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19702PA(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19702PA).

NoteworthypapersinOnePetro
UsethissectiontolistpapersinOnePetrothatareaderwhowantstolearnmoreshoulddefinitelyread

Externallinks
UsethissectiontoprovidelinkstorelevantmaterialonwebsitesotherthanPetroWikiandOnePetro

Seealso
Gasliftsystemdesign(/Gas_lift_system_design)
Gasliftinstallationdesignmethods(/Gas_lift_installation_design_methods)
Intermittentflowgasliftinstallationdesign(/Intermittentflow_gas_lift_installation_design)
Gasliftforunusualenvironments(/Gas_lift_for_unusual_environments)
Gaslift(/Gas_lift)
PEH:GasLift(/PEH%3AGas_Lift)

(https://www.onepetro.org/search?q=Gasliftinstallationdesign)

(http://scholar.google.ca/scholar?q=Gasliftinstallationdesign)

(http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Gasliftinstallationdesign)

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