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Overview of Water Supply in

Asian Cities
Dr. Vitor Vieira Vasconcelos
Stockholm Environment Institute
Exploring Water City Planning for Bangkok
Final Workshop: Extending Urban Metabolism
Novotel Siam Square, Bangkok Thailand
13 November 2014

Contents
Challenges faced by Asian cities
Constraints on choices for water supply
Comparison of water sources and losses for 10
cities in Asia
General trends of water supply
How Bangkok fits into these patterns

Open questions on strategies for water


management

Challenges of Asian Megacities


Urban Growth
Increasing demand
Pollution of existing resources

Private or non-formal water extraction


Limited budget or revenue capacity

Water Quantity Constraints


Surface water
Which option
to use?

Rivers and Reservoirs capacity


Is there a water supply
structure available?

Groundwater
Aquifer depletion
Subsidence

Water Quality Constraints


Surface water
Which option
to use?

Sewage

Groundwater
Aquifer geochemistry
Saltwater intrusion
Leakage from surface water
Rivers and canals
Flood

A Comparison on Water Sources

Each city has a different natural potential


Each city has as a different societal history
What is similar? What is different?
Can we learn with the history of each other?

Water Sources
Surface Water
Rain Harvest
Desalinization

Groundwater
Reclamation Water

Bangkok
Bandung
Ho Chi Minh
Tianjin
Colombo
Kandy
Dhaka
Manila
Bangalore
Singapore

IGES - Institute for


Global Environmental
(2007). Sustainable
Groundwater
Management in Asian
Cities. Japan. 179p.

Haq, KA (2006) Water Management in Dhaka.


Water Resources Development 22(2): 291311.
Taniguchi, M 2011,03 Groundwater and
Subsurface Environments Human Impacts in
Asian Coastal Cities . Springer, 312pp
Grnwall, JT, et al. (2010) Groundwater, selfsupply and poor urban dwellers: A review with
case studies of Bangalore and Lusaka (26). IIED
Singapore National Water Agency. (2013). Our
Water, Our Future. http://www.pub.gov.sg/

0%

20%

40%

60%

80% 100%

Water Sources
Surface Water
Rain Harvest
Desalinization

Groundwater
Reclamation Water

Bangkok
Bandung
Ho Chi Minh
Tianjin
Colombo
Kandy
Dhaka
Manila
Bangalore
Singapore

Large
infrastructure
for surface
water supply

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Water Sources
Surface Water
Rain Harvest
Desalinization

Groundwater
Reclamation Water

Bangkok
Bandung
Ho Chi Minh
Tianjin
Colombo
Kandy
Dhaka
Manila
Bangalore
Singapore

Large deltas,
but unequal
infrastructure for
surface water
supply

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Water Sources
Surface Water
Rain Harvest
Desalinization

Groundwater
Reclamation Water

Bangkok
Bandung
Ho Chi Minh
Tianjin
Colombo
Kandy
Dhaka
Manila
Bangalore
Singapore

Plateaus limited surface


and groundwater
sources

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Water Sources
Surface Water
Rain Harvest
Desalinization

Groundwater
Reclamation Water

Bangkok
Bandung
Ho Chi Minh
Tianjin
Colombo
Kandy
Dhaka
Manila
Bangalore
Singapore

Small basins,
relying on
inter-basin
transfer

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Water Sources
Surface Water
Rain Harvest
Desalinization

Groundwater
Reclamation Water

Bangkok
Bandung
Ho Chi Minh
Tianjin
Colombo
Kandy
Dhaka
Manila
Bangalore
Singapore

Coastal cities:
risk of
saltwater
intrusion

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Water Sources
Surface Water
Rain Harvest
Desalinization

Groundwater
Reclamation Water

Bangkok
Bandung
Ho Chi Minh
Tianjin
Colombo
Kandy
Dhaka
Manila
Bangalore
Singapore

Deltas

Coastal cities:
risk of salt
intrusion

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Water Losses

Pressure X Losses
Pipes age
Subsidence
Reforms:
Management focus
Capital

Efficiency changing along time


Water Losses (%)

70

Manila (east)

60

Dhaka
50

Colombo
Bandung

40

Bangalore
30

Bangkok
Ho Chi Minh

20

Kandy
10

Singapore

Source: WMA and many reference databases

2013

2011

2009

2007

2005

2003

2001

1999

1997

1995

1993

What could we learn?


The private or public choice for surface or groundwater
depends on constraints of quantity and quality
Developing surface water supply is an essential policy to
deal with groundwater over-abstraction
Coastal, deltaic and plateau cities face different challenges
on constraints to surface and groundwater use
Dealing with water loss is a challenging but rewarding
measure

Typical evolution of water supply sources in large


cities (surrounded by high-yielding aquifers)

Foster, S., Vairavamoorthy, K. (2013). GWP- Urban Groundwater: Policies and Institutions for Integrated Management. GWP Perspectives Papers. 20p.

Water table trend in Bangkok

Source : Department of Groundwater Resources

Water table trend in Bangkok


1st critical zoning
(1983)

2st critical zoning


(1994)

Million m3/day

1st Revision of GW Act


(1992)

3st critical zoning


(2000)

2nd Revision of GW Act


(2003)

4.94
(2013)

Endo, T. Sinking Cities and Governmental Action:


Institutional Responses to Land Subsidence in
Osaka and Bangkok. In: Taniguchi, M 2011,03
Groundwater and Subsurface Environments
Human Impacts in Asian Coastal Cities .
Springer, 312pp

Water table trend in Samutprakarn

History of Groundwater Use

Dhaka
Ho Chi Min
Yoshikoshi, A. Urban Development and Water Environment Changes in Asian Megacities. In: Taniguchi, M (2011) Groundwater
and Subsurface Environments: Human Impacts in Asian Coastal Cities. Springer, 312pp

Household Demand

Pattern for
cities in
developing
countries?

Taniguchi, M (2011) Groundwater and Subsurface Environments: Human Impacts in Asian Coastal Cities. Springer, 312pp

190

Residential Water Use Per


Capita in Bangkok

170

m3/year

150
130
110
90
70
50

Source: WMA

Water Use Per Capita

Concluding Reflections
Policy enforcement and tariff scheme in Bangkok
were effective in returning the overall level of
water table over 15 years.
A new zoning could evidence
Remaining critical areas where there is still subsidence, in
Bangkok and expanded neighborhood
If we should prepare for the risk of uplifting

Household demand tends to stabilize


And what is next? Could we decrease household
demand?

Concluding Reflections
Knowing where we are,
and estimating the possible trends,
where should we prioritize the investments?
- Network rehabilitation?
- Enforcement on control of groundwater use?
- Development of surface water supply?
- Wastewater treatment?

Comments?
Questions?
!
Dr. Vitor Vieira Vasconcelos
vitor.vasconcelos@sei-international.org