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# -CNC PART PROGRAMMING-

Hours

Marks

10

18

## Axes configuration- X, Y and Z axes.

Procedure for developing the Part program
ISO Codes used in programming
Simple Part programming as per ISO codes on
CNC and VMC for operations like turning, drilling
and Milling.

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Rohan Desai Automobile Dept. - New Polytechnic, Kolhapur.

## 6. CNC PART PROGRAMMING

 AXES IDENTIFICATION
The first axis to be identified is the Z axis. This is then followed by the X and Y axes
respectively.
Z axis and motion:

Location: The Z axis motion is either along the spindle axis or parallel to the
spindle axis. In the case of machine without a spindle such as shapers and
planers, it is identified as the one perpendicular to the work holding surface,
which may or may not be passing through the control point (e.g. the cutting
tool tip in case of shaper).

Direction: The tool moving away from the work holding surface is designated
as positive Z direction. This means during machining tool moves in negative Z
direction.

## X axis and motion:

Location: It is perpendicular to the Z axis and should be horizontal and
parallel to the work holding surface wherever possible.
Direction: When looking from the principal spindle to the column, the positive
X is to the right. For turning machines it is radial and parallel to the cross
slide.

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Rohan Desai Automobile Dept. - New Polytechnic, Kolhapur.

## -CNC PART PROGRAMMING-

Y axis and motion: It is perpendicular to both X and Z axes and the direction is
identified by the right hand Cartesian coordinate system.
Rotary motions: A, B and C define the primary rotary motions.
Location: These motions are located about the axis parallel to X, Y and Z
respectively.
Direction: Positive A, B and C are in the directions which advance right-hand screws
in the positive X, Y and Z directions respectively.

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Rohan Desai Automobile Dept. - New Polytechnic, Kolhapur.

## Q. what do you mean by reference positions?

There are three reference positions on CNC machine,
1. Machine zero point
2. Work zero point
3. Tool home position
1. Machine zero point: At this point coordinates of all axes are zero. Tool moves
with respect to this point and position of all axes can be seen on computer
screen. Machine zero point is decided by manufacturer of machine.

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Rohan Desai Automobile Dept. - New Polytechnic, Kolhapur.

## -CNC PART PROGRAMMING-

2. Work zero point: For preparing a program, first tool path is prepared
according to operation sequence and then coordinates of all points are
determined. These coordinates are determined by considering an original
point on the job where all the axes intersect and coordinates of that point are
zero. This original point is known as work zero point.

3. Tool home position: Tool is placed away from work zero point as well as
machine zero point for sake of safety of tool, job and machine. The tool is
changed only at home position.

5
Rohan Desai Automobile Dept. - New Polytechnic, Kolhapur.

##  PROCEDURE FOR DEVELOPING THE PART PROGRAM.

There are two methods of part programming: manual part program and computer
assisted part programming.
Manual part programming: To prepare a part program using the manual
method,
1. The programmer writes the machining instructions on a special form called a
part programming manuscript. The manuscript is a listing of the relative tool
and workpiece location.
2. The NC tape is prepared directly from the manuscript.
3. Define the axis coordinates in relation to the work part.
4. Define safe (target point) point and origin point (work zero).
5. The tape is inserted to read the first block in to the system.
6. The functions like machining, tool changing, spindle ON/OFF, coolant
ON/OFF, program stop and tape rewinding are carried out as per the
program.
Computer- assisted part programming: This method is useful for most critical
and complex parts. The part programmer and the computer are main tools in this
method.
1. The part programmer first defines the work part geometry.
2. He specifies the operation sequence and tool path.
3. The computer interprets the list of part programming instructions, performs
the necessary calculations to convert this into a detailed set of machine tool
motion commands, and then controls a tape punch device to prepare the
tape.
4. The tape is verified for accuracy.
5. The NC system machines (makes) the part according to the instructions on
tape.

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Rohan Desai Automobile Dept. - New Polytechnic, Kolhapur.

## Q. What is program configuration (format)?

Program is the main part on the CNC machine. English letters and numbers are
used to prepare these programs. These alphabets (letters) are termed as Address.
A Word is formed by making pair of an address and numbers. e.g. X52.6, G00, M30
etc. When these words are arranged in a line to perform the specific operations, the
line is known as block. Every instruction or block is ended with EOB (end of block).
e.g. G01 X42 Z-45 F80 EOB
Program format:
Program number
Block 1
Block 2
Block 3
Block n
Program end
Q. what is block format?
N_

G_

X_ Y_ Z_ R_

F_

S_

T_

M_

EOB

N: Every block has given number according to tool path. Numbers from 1 to 9999
can be used. e.g. N05
G: For preparatory functions i.e. for all type of tool movement, codes obtained by
address G are used. G code is followed by coordinates of X, Y and Z axes. e.g. G00
X, Y, and Z: These addresses are used to represent the distances travelled by tool
with respect to axes. e.g. X20, Y50 and Z-20.
R: Radius for curvature is given by address R it is also used to give parameters. e.g.
R20 or R4=56.
F: This address is used to give feed. It can be given as mm/min or mm/rev. e.g.
F80 or F0.8

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Rohan Desai Automobile Dept. - New Polytechnic, Kolhapur.

## S: To give spindle speed, this address is used. e.g. S500

T: The tools in the magazine or in turret head are numbered. Address T is followed
by tool number in the turret head or tool magazine. e.g. T05
M: For miscellaneous functions or all activities except tool movements M codes are
used. e.g. M05
EOB: This sign is used to represent end of block.
 ISO CODES USED FOR PREPARATORY AND MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS
G codes

M codes

(lathe/milling)

(lathe/milling)

## G54 to G59- work offset codes 1 to 6

selection (lathe/milling)

(lathe/milling)

(lathe/milling)

M08- Coolant ON