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Role of NGOs in removing Poverty in India

Submitted to:

Miss.Eritriya Roy
On : 24-11-2014
(Faculty, Economics)

Submitted by:

Vivek kumar sai

Roll No. 146
Semester: III
B.A.-LL.B. (Hons.)

Hidayatullah National Law University

Raipur (C.G.)

I have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind
support and help of many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. I
am highly indebted to Miss.Eritriya Roy for putting trust in me and giving me a project topic as
such as this and for having the faith in me to deliver.
It is with her guidance and constant supervision and support in completing the project. I would like
to express my gratitude towards my parents & member of HNLU for their kind co-operation and
encouragement which help me in completion of this project.
My thanks and appreciations also go to my colleagues in developing the project and people who
have willingly helped me out with their abilities.

Table of Contents
Table of contents. 3
Research methods and Data Base.5
What is Poverty?.............................................................................................6
Measures for Poverty Reduction..7
NGOs in India.8
Government-NGOs Partnership..11
Websites Referred..18

NGO is the most important serving sector in India. It is the prime mover of Indian society.
Funding problem, political interference political problem, interference from other NGOs, lack of
devoted manpower, co-option of NGOs by Government is very bed for the sector. Keeping
constant updates from micro to macro is very difficult being in the field. It is not providing only
food, shelter and clothes for needy persons of the nation with a population of 102.7 crore in 2001
and employment for million but it is also a source of providing justice for the weaker section of
the country. It is the main source of transferring services from rich to poor healthy to needy and
publicly enforcement of efforts in the favour of those who are not able to put their efforts for
moving in the country. NGOs are also provided their services in the field of water arrangements,
tree - plantation, sanitary/sanitation, sports and also do awareness among people.
A Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) is any association having a definite cultural,
economic, educational, religious or social cause or any non-profit voluntary citizens group which
is organized around specific issues, such as education, environmental conservation, social
welfare, rural development sanitation, healthcare or human rights, on a local, national or
international level. The World Bank defines NGOs as "private organisations that pursue
activities to relieve suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provides
basic social services, or undertake community development. NGOs include an array of groups
and institutions that are entirely or largely independent of government and characterised
primarily by humanitarian or cooperative, rather than commercial objectives". According to a
World Bank key document, the term NGO can be applied to any non-profit organisation, which
is entirely or largely independent from government and exists to serve humanitaria1 social or
cultural interests either of their memberships or of social as a who1e. NGOs are typically valuebased organizations, which depend, wholly or in part, on charitable donations and voluntary
service. Although, the NGO sector has become increasingly professionalised over the last two
decades, principles of altruism and voluntarism remain key defining characteristics.


To study about NGO

To study about the practices by NGOs to remove poverty in India

To study its results on India

Future of these programs in India

Research Methodology
The research project is descriptive and analytic in nature. The research project is mainly based on
secondary sources which include books and web pages. Ive used empirical methods in making
this project by referring to various books kept in the library.
These methods do not include field work and mainly depend on electronic resources. I owe my
chief source of inspiration to our respected faculty. The data base referred is not copied from ant
other source and is purely authentic and genuine.

First we need to know that what are the objects for which they are fighting for. Poverty. What is
Poverty? Poverty is the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or
money. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the deprivation of basic human needs, which
commonly includes food, water, sanitation, clothing, shelter, health care and education. Relative
poverty is defined contextually as economic inequality in the location or society in which people
Poverty is the primary cause of the street children crisis. Poverty dumps a crowd of problems
onto a child. Not only do these problems cause immediate suffering, they also conspire to keep
the child poor throughout his/her life. In order to survive, a poor child in India will probably be
forced to sacrifice education and training; without skills the child will, as an adult, remain at the
bottom of the economic heap.
The root causes of poverty are beyond a single NGOs power to change, but I-India believes in
helping where it can. Street schools provide some education, as does mainstreaming of children
into government schools and offering scholarships to private schools. Vocational training centres
are a pragmatic, but powerful, tool to assist children in escaping the poverty trap. Children at
these centres learn skills such as jewellery-making and tailoring which can prove more valuable
to them than additional formal schooling. The money children earn at the centres alleviates some
of their poverty, and encourages the child and his/her parents to choose vocational training over
child labour. I-India has also been active in promoting Child Rights.

Measures taken for Poverty reduction

Like all the Government various policies NGOs also work for the reduction of poverty in
India.But the main difference between them is the working style.Goverenment works on the
plans and schemes which is described by the upper authority while NGOs turn their working
style with the needs and environment.
The various areas on which the Government and also NGOs are working but by different styles.

1.1 Increasing the supply of basic needs


Food and other goods

Health care and education

Removing constraints on government services

Reversing brain drain

Controlling overpopulation

4.2 Increasing personal income


Income grants

Economic freedoms

Financial services

Cultural factors to productivity

Registration of NGOs2
Societies Registration Act, 1860 is a central act for registering not-for-profit organizations. Almost
all the states in India have adopted (with modifications, if any) the central Act for creating state
level authorities for registering various types of not-for-profit entities.. According to the act any
seven persons who subscribe to the Memorandum3 of Association (MOA) can register a society.
The memorandum should include names of the society, its objectives, its names, addresses and

a document recording the terms of a transaction.


occupations of the members subscribing to it as well as the first governing body to be constituted
on registration.

Some NGOs working in India4

Gram Vikas
Gram Vikas has been working in the State of Orissa since January 1979. Previously, the
NGO was composed of a group of student activists at Madras University. They formed the
Young Students Movement for Development (YSMD) committed to social change on the
regional and national level. YSMD became involved in relief operations in Cuttack district after
this area was hit by a massive cyclone in 1971. YSMD then moved to Ganjam District in 1976,
and in 1979, they formed Gram Vikas. Up to 2001, Gram Vikas had staffs with the strength of
224 persons, and with more than 400 volunteers at the villages (Gram Vikas, 2001).
From the beginning, the aim of Gram Vikas is to support the people to help themselves. The
NGO claims that it only believes in two parties- the have and the have not, and its mission is
to convert
Inclusion means that all families in every village/habitation are covered by a program
specifically the poorest and most marginalized people. They must be involved in the
development processes and benefit from such. The principle of social equity is understood as the
representation of all sections of the community in decision-making processes across caste, class
and other societal barriers. Gender equity implies that men and women have an equal
representation and participation in the community level decision-making and control. They can
articulate their concerns and interests, take responsibility, and actively participate in the
development processes. In regard to sustainability, the development programs are based on
sound environmental values and necessarily have built-in institutional and financial mechanisms
to sustain beyond the life of the project. Finally, cost sharing means that poor people can and will

pay for the development services but there are some social costs which society at large must
meet. These social costs are provided by government, donor agencies and individual donations.
These core principles must be reflected in all development programs and institutional features.
In the light of such principles, Gram Vikas reach out its target groups. Gram Vikas program
is concentrated in predominantly adivasis5 and poor districts of Orissa. The NGO puts the target
to work with 1% of Orissas population (80 to 100,000 families) over the next decade. The total
population of Orissa is more than 32 million, and 80% of the population live below poverty line
(Gram Vikas, 2001). In rural areas, less than one-fifth has access to clean water and fewer than
5% have access to adequate sanitation. Apart from periodic cyclones, the population is disrupted
by regular floods and chronic water-borne disease, causing widespread illness and death (Todd &
Palakudiyil, 2004). Up to 2001, it reached out to nearly 20,000 families in 500 villages in 12
districts of the state of Orissa (Gram Vikas, 2001).
In relation to the target groups, Gram Vikas plays the dual role of an implementer and
facilitator to achieve the group collective action. It involves mobilization of communities in
identified clusters, initiation of development processes, supervision and management. It is
followed by a gradual role transformation enabling communities to manage processes and
eventual withdrawal upon handing over full controls to communities. Generally, this process
takes five to seven years in each village or community. The Gram Vikas facilitators work with a
network of small and medium non-government and community-based organizations, which
mobilize communities and engage in direct field action. Gram Vikas support involves transfer of
knowledge, skills and resources (Gram Vikas, 2006: 5).
In designing the development program, Gram Vikas highly consider a context specific approach,
based on the needs and priorities of the communities. Because of the diverse social and economic
situation of the communities, the relative importance of the sectors varies across regions and

Adivasis are the indigenous people, designated as Scheduled Tribes under the Constitution of


Dalits were labeled untouchable in the Hindu Caste system. Mahatma Gandhi called them
Harijan or Children of God, during Indias freedom movement. They are designated as
Scheduled Castes under the Constitution of India.
It is the combination of four focal areas: self-governing peoples institutions, education and
health, enabling infrastructure, and livelihoods and food security.

In line of these local areas, Gram Vikas has developed many development programs. Some

development programs that have very significant achievements are support to peoples
movement (in 1980s), biogas program (1983-1993), social forestry program (since 1985),
housing program (since 1985), residential schools for adivasi children (since 1982), and water
and sanitation program especially under Rural Health and Environment Programme (RHEP)
(since 1992) (Gram Vikas, 2001). Because of some significant achievements and the pioneering
efforts in development, Gram Vikas has received several national and international awards in
recognition of their work.

Suraj Vikas Sansthan

This NGO is situated in Kondagaon (C.G.).This NGO works on different aspects for the removal
of poverty.For example they work on educating the children of backward area so that in futre
they will be a part of the Literate India and will work so that they can contribute in the Economy
of India.This NGO also works on the Food Supply Quantity as we all know poverty is a
condition in which a person dont get a minimum quantity of food and fresh water.So this Ngo
had built various homes and provided them food and also somehow managed to provide
employment also.


Government - NGO Partnerships for Social Service

I do not think that the need for partnership between a state and civil society organisations
foreffective and efficient service delivery requires much debate. Service delivery, we know, in a
fragmented, un-coordinated fashion where various role players go about in the delivery of
services in a unilateral manner without them being part of a comprehensive, coherent strategy,
would have great difficulty in meaningfully respond to needs. We also know that unless there is
mutual respect for each others roles and Government and the NGO community are well informed
of each others roles and there is negotiated agreement on how the respective parties are going to
pursue a shared vision and common goals, the social services arena can be a chaotic one. I am of
the opinion that one of the obstacles to social development and poverty eradication in the
developing world relates to fragmented, scattered, hit-and-run efforts in responding to social
needs and that resources are not mustered and harnessed towards integrated and holistic
programmes. Partnership arrangements, especially between government and the social services
and development NGO community would go a long way in the development of joint policies and
inter-related, comprehensive service programmes.
A Case for Social Services NGO's
It is widely acknowledged that the state alone cannot achieve its goals in addressing social needs
and that organs of civil society in a democratic dispensation, firmly rooted in society and with
popular participation and voluntary support, are essential for a caring, responsive and effective
service delivery network. The degree to which there is a presence and activity of a voluntary
welfare initiative and wider NGO life is said to be an indicator of the level of a country's
democracy. The flexibility, responsiveness and innovation of the private sector is readily
acknowledged and where NGO programmes are supported by Government funding, NGO's
contribute extra time, resources and ongoing commitment. Considerable funds are also leveraged
from the public, the corporate sector and other donors. The Government that fails to recognise


and formally acknowledge the invaluable role the NGO community plays in social development,
is indeed a foolish one. This recognition and formal acknowledgement needs to be settled with a
partnership agreement.

What is a Partnership Arrangement About?

A formal partnership arrangement acknowledges and cements the distinct but complimentary and
supplementary roles of state and the NGO community into a synergistic strategy to achieve a
shared vision and.common.goal.

It is acknowledged that partnerships are fluid and flexible and that they evolve. The nature of the
partnership would also vary significantly according to the unique characteristics, such as
structure, culture and objectives of a particular NGO or consortium of NGO's. Nevertheless, a
policy framework within which partnerships are enabled to develop and grow, would form the
basic instrument for the Government and NGO's to, in a coordinated fashion, live out their
shared vision and attain their distinct, but mutually complimentary and supplementary roles.
Examples of such policy documents to govern the development of a relationship between a
government and civil society are widespread in the developed world. It is ironic that in the
developing world where there is a much more urgent need for the strengthening of capacity
through joining hands, such formal partnership arrangements are few and far between.

Conceptualizing8 Government-NGO Partnerships

Government-NGO partnership can be described as a relationship rooted in the acceptance of both
parties of their shared vision and responsibility for the delivery of social services within policy
and legislative frameworks governing a country's response to its social needs and problems.
It is an acknowledgement, acceptance and respect by each party of the other's distinct, but
mutually complementary and interdependent roles for the attainment of shared goals.

form a concept or idea of.


Partnership embodies the notion of acceptance by both parties that their respective roles are of
equal importance in the pursuit of their shared vision and goals, specifically as they relate to
social justice and


Partnership demands both close co-operation between the parties and the co-ordination of roles
and functions throughout the entire process of policy development to service delivery.
A partnership accepts that there is strength in unity and that the total is greater than the sum of



Partnership allows for such levels of consultation and negotiations that would result in the filling
of the investment gap in social service provision, i.e. ensuring services are provided in areas not
covered or sufficiently covered and ensuring the relevance and appropriateness of services.

Accountability between the parties is reciprocal with the parties carrying equal status.
The interdependent and interactive nature of the partnership as a working relationship requires

Partnership for Capacity Building

In referring to capacity, I think it is important to note at this point that a partnership also implies
an inter-relatedness and inter-dependence between the respective parties. A policy acknowledges
this inter-relatedness and inter-dependence. It provides for communication structures and
processes where values, knowledge and skills are shared, where needs, frustrations and
aspirations are communicated and responded to. Mutual influencing takes place in a partnership
arrangement and it provides the platform for training and development and as such contributes to
the building of capacity. The Northern Ireland Compact acknowledges "that the provision of
funding and other forms of support by Government is an important means of strengthening the
capacity of the voluntary and community sector and enabling it to contribute effectively to the
attainment of Government objectives."

Considering the value of vibrant civil society organisations for the welfare of a nation,
Governments have the responsibility to promote the NGO community and strengthen its
capacity, thereby contributing to enable social service NGO's to function and deliver optimally.
This responsibility of Government and opportunity for NGO's would be greatly enhanced within
the context of a partnership policy framework within which roles and responsibilities are
negotiated and clarified. In South Africa , and in many other parts of the developing and even the
developed world, a dwindling of the social services NGO community is very evident. This is due
mainly to declining Government financial support, which in turn seems to be rooted in macroeconomic policies, dictated by global economic forces. And global economic forces do not take
kindly to Governments' social spending. The irony in South Africa is that the deterioration in
capacity of NGO's impacts directly on the Government's ability to achieve its development,
social justice and equality goals, since these are exactly the aspirations of many of the NGO's
which are being crippled by lack of Government support.
The ability of the NGO community with its readily accepted anchors in and direct participation
and support by civil society to guide and strengthen the capacity of Government organs should
not be underestimated. It advises Government on issues of concern and advocates and campaigns
for change as a response to need. It can guide and significantly contribute to legislative and
policy making processes. A partnership implies that NGO's are draw in by Government, in a
structured way, to contribute to the legislative and policy-making processes. It accepts that the
NGO community with its constituent base and unique character of representation can
legitimately guide Government policies and practices.

Roles in a Partnership

The State has a governing responsibility to ensure that there is the required
delivery of services within legislative and policy frameworks.

The State therefore accepts primary responsibility for the development of policies
and legislation to facilitate and direct the design and implementation of service

In acknowledging the central role of the voluntary welfare sector in the

implementation of services, rooted in policies and legislation, the development of
policies and legislation is a joint process between the parties with the State
driving, facilitating and co-ordinating the process. Since policies directly impact
on the NGO sector and the consumers of their services the State acknowledges the
NGO sector as stakeholder with equity in policy and legislative processes.
Against this background it is the role of the State to ensure and provide for the
necessary mechanisms and structures for communication and consultation.
Consultative processes start right at the onset and initiation of deliberations for the
development of policies, legislation and implementation strategies. The State
accepts responsibility for engaging with the voluntary or NGO sector from this
fundamental initial stage.

In acknowledging its primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, it

accepts the responsibility for creating and maintaining an enabling environment
for the delivery of such services.

Fundamental9 to the notion of an enabling environment for the delivery of

services is the State's responsibility to adequately fund the instruments
(organisations) rendering the services.

By virtue of its governing responsibility and its funding the State accepts the role
of approving, monitoring, and evaluating the State funded service programmes of
welfare organisations.

It accepts the responsibility to be reciprocally accountable to the welfare sector

for its policies and practices.

It engages the voluntary sector in the planning of its own service programmes and
on the co-ordination of services between the department and welfare

a central or primary rule or principle.


Government is to ensure its accessibility to the voluntary welfare sector. This

includes accessibility to information and other resources of the Department.

Communication mechanisms are to provide for timeous and comprehensive

information dissemination between the parties.

The NGO Sector

It is the role of NGO's to deliver services efficiently and effectively within the
framework of Government policies, and strategies consulted and negotiated
between NGO's and Government

Work in partnership with Government to achieve common aims and objectives

It is accountable to Government for its policies and service programmes.

It is open, transparent and accountable to the public

As an instrument of civil society the NGO sector accepts the role of watchdog
over the policies and practices of Government in the interest of the consumers, its
services and the wider public. In this role it will target Government in its
advocacy, lobbying and negotiating functions when required.

It has the role to ensure the co-ordination of its own services and to engage
Government in discussions on the co-ordination of services between the
Government and NGO's.

The NGO sector, through representative structures will be accessible to the

Government for purposes of joint planning, information sharing and decision


It is imperative that the respective roles and responsibilities of Government and

the NGO sector are negotiated, clarified and understood by all. This is based on a
shared vision and common goal, the competencies and mandates of the partners.

As discussed in the present project work we came across different aspects on which one can
remove poverty from India.NGOs play an vital role for this cause and they are more successful
in doing so as we all know that poverty basically lies in the backward area.And all the
Government policies which are passed are implemented but the impact of these plants doesnt hit
the backward area in which the upliftment is required the most.At this particular point of time
NGOs come into work and they work really hard for the backward area which are left by the
Government policies.
Another factor that shows that NGOs are better is that they work according to the situations
while the Goverenment policies work on a pre-described manner.But it is also known that an
NGO also require help from the Government if its related to funds or if its about registration of
that particular NGO.So we can say that NGO runs on the framework which is made by the help

Non-Governmental Organizations and Development
By David Lewis, Nazneen Kanji
Poverty Alleviation Strategies of NGOs
By D. Rajasekhar

Websites Referred