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Reference section

Contents
Grammar reference
Review

Tenses: review

page 112

Unit 1

Relative clauses

page 115

Unit 2

Modal verbs

page 117

Unit 3

Complex clauses and linkers

page 119

Unit 4

Reported speech

page 120

Unit 5

The passive

page 123

Unit 6

Conditionals

page 125

Unit 7

Reported speech

page 127

Writing reference
A discussion essay

page 129

A dialogue

page 130

A narrative

page 131

A summary

page 132

An opinion essay

page 133

A biography

page 134

A description of a person

page 135

A formal letter

page 136

A description of a place

page 137

Vocabulary reference

page 138

Irregular verbs

page 143

REFERENCE SECTION 105

Grammar reference
Tenses review
Present tenses

Present perfect simple

Present simple i present continuous

s
Sutilitza el present perfect simple:

per parlar destats, accions o esdeveniments que

El present simple sutilitza per parlar de:

van comenar en el passat i que continuen en el


present.
How long have you been here? Quant de temps fa que ets
aqu?
per referir-se a fets del passat que tenen
repercussi en el present.
Shes passed her exams so shes going to university.
Ha aprovat els seus exmens, aix que anir a la
universitat.
per descriure experincies del passat sense
especificar quan es van produir.
Ive made a lot of new friends. He fet molts amics
nous.

fets generals i estats.

The library doesnt close until 10 p.m. La biblioteca no


tanca fins a les 22.00.
Im pretty tired right now. Estic bastant cansat ara
mateix.
hbits i accions que es repeteixen.
I usually get up early. Solo llevar-me aviat.
I often meet friends. Sovint quedo amb els meus
amics.
Utilitzem el present continuous per parlar de:

accions en progrs.

Im studying design and technology. Estic estudiant


disseny i tecnologia.
Shes going to the library. Va de cam a la biblioteca.
situacions temporals.
At the moment, Im living in a university building. En
aquest moment visc en un edifici de la universitat.
Right now, hes feeling a bit nervous. Ara mateix est
una mica nervis.

RECORDA!
Hi ha verbs que mai no sutilitzen en la forma
contnua. Sn els anomenats verbs destat. Els ms
comuns sn:
believe, know, understand, remember, forget, think (=
believe), like, love, prefer, hate, be, have (got), own.

Past tenses
Past simple i past continuous

s
Sutilitza el past simple per parlar de:

fets o accions del passat que han finalitzat.

I spent a fortnight in Cornwall with my family. Vaig


passar dues setmanes a Cornualla amb la meva famlia.
coses que ocorrien repetidament en el passat.
We went to London every weekend last year. Lany
passat anvem a Londres tots els caps de setmana.
estats en el passat.
I was very shy when I was young. Quan era petit, era
molt tmid.
Utilitzem el past continuous per parlar de:

una acci en progrs en un moment determinat del

passat.
I saw you yesterday. You were sitting on the bus. Et
vaig veure ahir. Estaves asseguda a lautobs.
una acci en progrs en el passat.
While I was working, my sister was watching TV.
Mentre jo treballava, la meva germana veia la televisi.

112

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

Grammar reference
El past simple i el past continuous es poden combinar
en la mateixa frase utilitzant when y while:

per referir-se a una acci passada ininterrompuda


per una altra. El past continuous sutilitza per


descriure lacci en progrs i el past simple per
descriure lacci que la interromp.
I was shopping in town one day when I noticed a job
advert. Estava comprant al centre un dia quan vaig
veure un anunci de feina.
I saw her while I was cycling to work. La vaig veure
quan anava amb bicicleta a la feina.

Past simple i past perfect simple

s
Sutilitza el past simple per parlar duna acci acabada.
I got to the station at 7.30. Vaig arribar a lestaci a les
7.30.
Utilitzem el past perfect per parlar daccions o
situacions del passat que van tenir lloc abans que
daltres. Per parlar de les accions o situacions ms
recents utilitzem el past simple.
I got to the station at 7.30 but the train had already left.
Vaig arribar a lestaci a les 7.30 per el tren ja havia
marxat.
Sutilitza for i since amb el past perfect per indicar la
durada duna acci o situaci del passat. For i since mai
no sutilitzen amb temps verbals simples.
Id known her for years. Feia anys que la coneixia.
Hed worked there since March. Hi treballava des de mar.
Past simple i present perfect simple

s
Utilitzem el past simple per parlar dun estat o una
acci que ha acabat.
I worked in London last summer. (I dont work in London
now.) Lestiu passat treballava a Londres. (Ja no hi treballo.)
El present perfect simple sutilitza per parlar dun estat
o una acci que va comenar en el passat i que
continua en el present.
Ive worked in London since 2004. (I still work in London.)
Treballo a Londres des de lany 2004. (Encara treballo a
Londres.)
Utilitzem el past simple quan expressem el moment o
lpoca en qu va succeir alguna cosa. Especifiquem el
moment fent servir una expressi de temps (ago, then,
when, for two days, in 2006, etc.).

Utilitzem el present perfect simple quan no


especifiquem el moment en el qual va succeir alguna
cosa. Utilitzem adverbis de temps per mostrar el vincle
entre el passat i el present (never, ever, already, just,
yet, for, since).
Have you already finished your project? (It doesnt matter
when.) Has acabat el teu projecte? (No importa quan.)
used to

Estructura
afirmativa
I/he/she/it/you/we/
+ used to
+ infinitive
they
She used to love eating sweets. Abans li encantava menjar
caramels.
negativa
I/he/she/it/you/we/
+ didnt use to
+ infinitive
they
I didnt use to like coffee. Abans no magradava el caf.
interrogativa
+ I/he/she/it/you/we/
Did
+ use to + infinitive
they
Did you use to live here? Vivies aqu abans?

Uso
used to sutilitza per contrastar un costum o situaci
del passat amb un altre del present. Utilitzem used to
per expressar que aquest costum o situaci ja no es
produeix en el present.
She used to go to our college. (but she doesnt go to our
college now) Anava a la nostra escola. (per ja no hi va)
I didnt use to have an MP3 player. (but now I do) Abans
no tenia un reproductor dMP3. (per ara s)

RECORDA!

per parlar dun costum del passat tamb podem

utilitzar would + infinitiu.


When she was little, she would play here all day long.
Quan era petita, jugava aqu tot el dia.
per no es pot utilitzar would + infinitiu per parlar
dun estat passat.
When she was little, she would have a pet rabbit.

I finished my project last weekend. Vaig acabar el meu


projecte el cap de setmana passat.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

113

Grammar reference
be / get used to

Present continuous per expressar futur


Utilitzem el present continuous per parlar de plans a
curt termini. Se sol indicar lhora o el lloc.

Estructura
be used to es forma amb be + used to + -ing

We are going to Rome in May. El maig anem a Roma.

Im used to getting up early. Estic acostumada a llevar-me


aviat.

Im cooking tonight. Aquesta nit cuino jo.

get used to es forma utilitzant get + used to + -ing


He got used to walking everywhere. Es va acostumar a
caminar per tot arreu.
be i get es poden utilitzar en diferents temps verbals,
per used to mai no varia.

be used to significa estar acostumat a


get used to significa acostumar-se a
RECORDA!
No confonguis be used to i get used to amb used to.
Tenen significats i estructures diferents.

Future forms
will
Utilitzem will:

per fer prediccions o donar opinions sobre el futur.

It will be hot this summer. Aquest estiu far calor.


I think the holiday will be great. Crec que les vacances
seran fantstiques.
per expressar decisions preses en aquell moment.
I cant afford to go out for lunch. Ill pay for you. No
em puc permetre menjar fora. Jo et convido!
I think Ill read this book. Crec que llegir aquest llibre.

going to
Utilitzem going to:

per parlar sobre els nostres plans i intencions.


What are you going to do in the Christmas holidays?
Qu fars les vacances de Nadal?
Im going to see Shakira at the Arena tonight. Aquesta
nit anir a veure un concert de Shakira a lArena.
per fer prediccions basades en levidncia del
moment en qu es parla.
The sky is clear. The weather is going to be nice. El cel
s clar. Far bon temps.
The bus still hasnt arrived. Were going to be late!
Encara no ha arribat lautobs. Farem tard!

Future continuous

Estructura
afirmativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/
+ will
+ be
+ -ing
they
Ill be moving to England. Em mudar a Anglaterra.
negativa
I/he/she/it/we/you/
+ wont
+ be
+ -ing
they
I wont be revising tonight. Aquesta nit no repassar.
interrogativa
Will
I/he/she/it/we/you/they + be
+ -ing
Will they be coming to the party? Vindran a la festa?

s
Utilitzem el future continuous per referir-nos a accions
futures:

que tindran lloc durant un perode de temps.

I cant meet you tomorrow Ill be visiting my


grandmother. No puc quedar amb tu dem. Estar
visitant la meva via.
planejades per endavant.
Well be leaving on the day after Christmas. Ens en
anem lendem de Nadal.

Future perfect simple

Estructura
afirmativa
I/he/she/it/we/
+ will
+ have
+ past participle
you/they
Ill have been here for six hours. Deu fer sis hores que sc
aqu.

negativa
I/he/she/it/we/
+wont
+ have
+ past participle
you/they
She wont have arrived yet. Encara no deu haver arribat.

interrogativa
+ I/he/she/it/we/
Will
you/they
114

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

+ have

+ past participle

Grammar reference
Will you have finished by midday? Haurs acabat cap al
migdia?

Unit 1 Relative clauses


Relative pronouns

Usem el future perfect per parlar dalguna cosa que


haur finalitzat en un determinat moment del futur.
Normalment utilitzem by per indicar aquest moment.
Well have learnt how to ski perfectly by the end of the
holiday. Quan sacabin les vacances, haurem aprs a
esquiar perfectament.
Ill have passed all my exams by this time next year. Lany
que ve, per aquestes dates, haur aprovat tots els meus
exmens.

Question forms
Lordre de les paraules en les preguntes
Per formular preguntes amb verbs en present simple o
en past simple, se sol utilitzar lauxiliar do / does.
Do you come here often? Vns sovint per aqu?
When did he go to Cornwall? Quan va anar a Cornualla?
No sutilitza do /does amb els verbs be, have got ni amb
verbs modals. En lloc seu, cal posar be, have o el verb
modal abans del subjecte.

that, which, when, where, who, whose


Per afegir una nova oraci a una frase, es pot fer servir
un pronom relatiu. Sutilitza un pronom relatiu que faci
referncia al nom que est abans de loraci de relatiu.
Youre the person who gets the highest marks.
Ets la persona que treu les notes ms altes.
Utilitzem who i that per referir-nos a les persones.
The girl who / that works at the library is very friendly.
La noia que treballa a la biblioteca s molt simptica.
Tamb es pot utilitzar whom per referir-se a la gent,
per noms en un llenguatge molt formal, i noms quan
la persona s el complement directe de la frase. Whom
se sol utilitzar noms en situacions molt formals.
The young lady whom I met at the library was most helpful.
La jove que vaig conixer a la biblioteca va ser de gran ajut.
(formal)

Is she a student? s estudiant?

The girl (who / that) I met at the library was really helpful.
La noia que vaig conixer a la biblioteca em va ajudar
molt. (informal)

Have you got a mirror? Tens un mirall?

Sutilitzen which i that per referir-se a les coses.

Can I help you? Et puc ajudar?


No sutilitza do /does amb les formes contnues ni amb
going to.
Is he teaching this class? Fa ell aquesta classe?
Will you be going on holiday this summer? Marxars de
vacances aquest estiu?
Are you going shopping later? Anirs desprs a comprar?
Preguntes amb Wh- i How
Per formular preguntes utilitzem determinades paraules
(how, what, when, where, which, who, whom, why).
When did you arrive? Quan has arribat?
What time is it? Quina hora s?
How will we get there? Com hi arribarem?

Im revising the language which / that we studied last


week. Estic repassant el llenguatge que vam estudiar la
setmana passada.
School is a place which / that gives you an education.
Lescola s un lloc que et proporciona una educaci.
Sutilitza when per referir-se al temps.
There are times when my mind goes completely blank
during his lessons. Hi ha moments durant les seves classes
en qu la ment sem queda completament en blanc.
Sutilitza where per referir-se a espais i llocs.
You need to find a room where you can study properly.
Necessites trobar una habitaci on puguis estudiar b.
School is the place (where) I was happiest. Lescola s el
lloc on vaig ser ms feli.
Sutilitza whose per parlar de pertinena.
There isnt anyone in the class whose marks are worse
than mine. No hi ha cap persona a classe les notes de la
qual siguin ms dolentes que les meves.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

115

Grammar reference
whos and whose
No sha de confondre whos i whose en les oracions de
relatiu. Whose s un pronom relatiu que es refereix a la
pertinena.
Hes the person whose achievements I admire the most. Ell
s la persona les fites de la qual ms admiro.
Whos s la contracci de who is o who has.
Hes the one whos very intelligent. (who is) Ell s la
persona que s molt intelligent.
Hes the boy whos lived in Kosovo. (who has) Ell s el noi
que ha viscut a Kosovo.

Omission of relative pronouns


Podem ometre el pronom relatiu quan es tracta del
complement directe de loraci.
Thats the film (that / which) we saw. Aquella s la pellcula
que vam veure.
Hes the teacher (that / who) I cant stand. Aquell s el
professor que no suporto.
Se solen ometre els pronoms relatius that, which, when
i who en el llenguatge oral.

RECORDA!
El pronom whose no es pot ometre.

Defining relative clauses


Oracions especificatives
Les oracions especificatives proporcionen informaci
essencial sobre el nom que acompanyen. Sense loraci
especificativa, la frase quedaria incompleta i no tindria
sentit.
Shes the teacher.
Esta frase est incompleta; necesita una oracin especificativa.
Shes the teacher.
Shes the teacher who gave
interesting lessons. s la professora.
s la professora
que feia classes interessants.
Maths is the subject.
Maths is the subject that gives
me most problems. Matemtiques s lassignatura.
Matemtiques s lassignatura que em dna ms
problemes.

Non-defining relative clauses


Oracions explicatives
Les oracions explicatives donen informaci que no s
essencial sobre el nom que acompanyen. Sense loraci
explicativa, la frase continua tenint sentit.
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GRAMMAR REFERENCE

Walter Turnbull has just passed an A-level in Spanish.


Walter Turnball acaba de treure un A-level en llengua
castellana.
Aquesta frase ja est completa, per podem afegir
informaci addicional amb una oraci explicativa.
Walter Turnbull, who is 81 years old, has just passed an
Alevel in Spanish. Walter Turnball, que t 81 anys, acaba
de treure un A-level en llengua castellana.
No podem ometre el pronom relatiu en una oraci
explicativa.
His teachers at Lancaster College, where he took the
exam, are delighted. Els seus professors de Lancaster
College, on va fer lexamen, estan encantats.
His grades, which are mostly Bs and Cs, are not important
to him. Les seves notes, que sn principalment B i C, no
sn importants per a ell.
Sempre es posen comes per separar loraci explicativa
de la resta de la frase.
Walter, whose granddaughter Tess also did the exam, now
has 39 A-levels! En Walter, la nta del qual, la Tess, tamb
va fer lexamen, ja t 39 A-levels.
My university has a great library, which is a big advantage.
La meva universitat t una biblioteca estupenda, la qual
cosa s un gran avantatge.
Podem combinar dues frases simples fent servir una
oraci explicativa.
Jaimes sister is called Pilar. Shes a teacher. La germana del
Jaime es diu Pilar. s professora.
Jaimes sister, whos a teacher, is called Pilar. La
germana del Jaime, que s professora, es diu Pilar.
O Jaimes sister, whos called Pilar, is a teacher. La
germana del Jaime, que es diu Pilar, s professora.

RECORDA!
Mai no sutilitza that en una oraci explicativa;
sempre sutilitza who o which.
My primary school, which was in a village, closed down
recently. NO My primary school, that was in a village,
closed down recently. La meva escola, que estava en un
poble, va tancar no fa gaire.
The student, who was brilliant with computers, set up her
own business. NO The student, that was brilliant with
computers, set up her own business. Lalumna, que tenia la
m trencada amb els ordinadors, va muntar el seu propi
negoci.

Grammar reference
Unit 2 Modal verbs
Modal verbs: general points
Els verbs modals sn verbs amb caracterstiques
especials. Acompanyen el verb principal per afegir
determinats matisos a la frase, per exemple, obligaci o
consell.

Estructura
Els verbs modals tenen les caracterstiques segents:

Modals of ability and permission


can, could, be able to, be allowed to
Sutilitza el verb modal can per expressar el que un sap
o pot fer en el present.
My boyfriend can ride a motorbike. El meu xicot sap
conduir una moto.
I cant hear you. NO I dont hear you. No tescolto.
Utilitzem el verb modal could per expressar el que un
podia o no podia fer en el passat.

Gaireb tots van seguits dun infinitiu sense to

I couldnt drive last week, but I can now! La setmana


passada no podia conduir, per ara s!

It was so dark I couldnt see anything. NO It was so dark I


didnt see anything. Era tan fosc que no mhi veia.

(excepte ought to).


I must look for my passport. He de buscar el meu
passaport.
She should go to the doctors. Hauria danar a cal
metge.
PERO I ought to call my friend. Hauria de trucar al
meu amic.
En els verbs modals, la tercera persona no duu -s.
I can speak English. Parlo angls.
He can speak English. Ell parla angls.
En els verbs modals no sutilitza el verb auxiliar do /
does en la forma negativa o interrogativa, i tampoc
per a les respostes curtes.
She shouldnt work so hard. No hauria de treballar
tant.
Can you drive? Yes, I can. Saps conduir? S.
You couldnt do me a favour, could you? Timportaria
fer-me un favor?
We neednt pay this bill until next month. No hem de
pagar aquesta factura fins al mes vinent.
En els verbs modals es poden fer servir contraccions
en frases negatives.
We should not spend so much money.
We
shouldnt spend so much money. No haurem de
gastar tants diners.
Els verbs modals noms tenen una forma. Per tant,
per expressar diferents temps, de vegades shan de
fer servir altres verbs amb significats similars.
He might take a gap year next year.
They thought
he was probably going to take a gap year.
Potser es prendr un any sabtic lany vinent. Van
pensar que probablement es prendria un any sabtic.

s
Molts verbs modals tenen diferents significats tot
depenent del context.

Puesto que no se pueden usar can y could en todos los


tiempos, utilizamos be able to (que no es un verbo
modal) para otros tiempos verbales.
Soon Peter will be able to speak Spanish fluently. Aviat el
Peter sabr parlar castell amb fludesa.
People have been able to talk to each other in internet
chat rooms since 1988. La gent pot parlar per Internet en
xats des de 1988.
Sutilitza el verb modal can per expressar perms en el
present.
Can we go? Hi podem anar?
I cant stay out after midnight. He de ser a casa abans de
mitjanit.
Com que can no es pot fer servir en tots els temps,
utilitzem be allowed to (que no s un verb modal) per
expressar perms en altres temps.
I wont be allowed to go to the Coldplay concert next
weekend. No em deixaran anar al concert de Coldplay el
cap de setmana vinent.
You were allowed to stay out late last Saturday. Et van
deixar que et quedessis fins tard dissabte passat.
Tamb podem utilitzar could per expressar perms
general en el passat. No obstant, could no es pot
utilitzar per expressar perms per a una acci del
passat en particular. En lloc seu fem servir la forma
corresponent be allowed to.
When she was little she could watch cartoons whenever
she wanted to. Quan era petita, podia veure dibuixos
animats quan volia. (perms en general)
Yesterday evening, she was allowed to watch a cartoon.
NO Yesterday evening she could watch a cartoon. Ahir a la
nit li van deixar veure dibuixos animats. (perms per a una
acci del passat en particular)

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

117

Grammar reference
Modals of advice, necessity, obligation
and prohibition
must, have to, need

had better
Sutilitza had better + infinitiu per donar consells o
expressar una intenci. T un significat semblant a
ought to i should.

Sutilitza must i have to (que no s un verb modal), per


expressar obligaci.

Youd better apologize to her. Li hauries de demanar


perd.

You must arrive on time. Has de ser puntual.

La negativa es forma afegint not davant del verb


principal.

You have to look good on a date. Has danar arreglat a una


cita.
Sutilitza neednt i dont have to, que no sn verbs
modals, quan no hi ha obligaci.
You neednt pay for everything on a date. No cal que ho
paguis tot en una cita.
We dont have to see each other every weekend. No cal
que ens veiem tots els caps de setmana.
El verb need (sense to) noms sutilitza en frases
negatives i interrogatives. En les afirmatives, sutilitza
need to per expressar necessitat.
You neednt call me later. No cal que em truquis ms tard.
I need to buy my boyfriend a present today. NO I need buy
my boyfriend a present today. Li he de comprar un regal al
meu xicot avui.
Se utiliza mustnt para expresar prohibicin.
You mustnt cheat on your boy or girlfriend. No has
denganyar el teu xicot o la teva xicota.

RECORDA!
Els significats sn semblants en la forma afirmativa,
per completament diferents en la negativa.
Sutilitza mustnt per expressar una prohibici
rotunda, i dont have to quan no hi ha obligaci.
You have to call me this afternoon. (= You must ring
me.) Mhas de telefonar aquesta tarda.
You mustnt call me this afternoon. (= Dont call me.)
No mhas de telefonar aquesta tarda.
You dont have to call me this afternoon. (= It isnt
necessary to call me.) No cal que em telefonis aquesta
tarda.

ought to, should


Sutilitza ought to i should / shouldnt per donar
consells i fer recomanacions.
You ought to dress smartly. Hauries danar ben vestit.
You should arrive on time. Hauries de ser puntual..

118 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

I feel terrible! Id better not go out. Em trobo malament!


No hauria de sortir.
Podem fer servir had better (not) per amenaar.
Youd better not be late, or Ill be furious! Val ms que no
arribis tard, o menfadar molt!

Modals of possibility and certainty


may, might, can, could, must
Sutilitza may, may not, might, might not i could per
parlar de possibilitat en el present o en el futur.
My date with Ben could be a disaster. NO My date with
Ben can be a disaster. La meva cita amb el Ben podria ser
un desastre.
We might have nothing in common. Pot ser que no
tinguem res en com..
They could be on the train now. Potser ara sn al tren.
You may get on really well. Pot ser que us porteu molt b.
Utilizamos cant cuando creemos o imaginamos que
algo esimposible.
He cant be boring hes in a band! Es imposible que sea
aburrido, est en un grupo de msica!
Utilitzem cant quan creiem o imaginem que alguna
cosa s impossible.
He must be a nice person if hes Jeffs friend. Deu ser una
bona persona, si s amic del Jeff.
Sutilitza must i cant per fer deduccions lgiques.
That must be his brother they look alike. Ese debe de ser
su hermano, se parecen.
Linda cant be at home because she didnt answer the
phone. s impossible que la Linda sigui a casa perqu no
agafava el telfon.

Grammar reference
Modals + perfect infinitives
Es poden utilitzar alguns verbs modals amb have + participi
passat per referir-se a esdeveniments passats.
cant have + participi passat
Utilitzem cant have + participi passat per expressar
una impossibilitat en el passat.
I cant have made a good impression because he hasnt
phoned. No dec haver-li causat bona impressi perqu no
mha trucat.
could have + participi passat
Sutilitza could have + participi passat per expressar
alguna cosa que podria haver succet en el passat,
encara que ja sigui massa tard.
You could have told me that Jo fancied my sister. Em
podries haver dit que al Jo li agradava la meva germana.
could / may / might have + participi passat
Sutilitza might, may o could have + participi passat per
expressar el que ha pogut succeir en el passat.
They might / may / could have broken up. Pot ser que
shagin separat.
must have + participi passat

Unit 3 Complex clauses and linkers


Complex clauses
Les oracions complexes ens proporcionen informaci
addicional sobre una frase i sintrodueixen per mitj de
paraules o frases denlla, p.ex. although, so that, etc.
Aquestes paraules i frases es coneixen com linkers
connectors. Les oracions complexes poden tenir diferents
significats tot depenent del connector que sutilitzi:

contrast. Sutilitzen connectors com: although,


though, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that

propsit. Sutilitzen connectors com: so that
ra. Sutilitzen connectors com: because, as, since
conseqncia. Sutilitzen connectors com: so that,
such that

RECORDA!
Quan loraci complexa es troba al principi de
la frase, es posa una coma per separar les dues
oracions:
He still did the bungee jump although he was scared. Va
fer salt de pont a pesar que li feia por.
PERO Although he was scared, he still did the bungee
jump. A pesar que li feia por, va fer salt de pont.

Utilitzem must have + participi passat per expressar


certesa o fer una deducci lgica sobre el passat.
She must have known that I fancied Ben it was obvious!
Devia saber que magradava el Ben, era obvi!
should have + participi passat
Utilitzem should have + participi passat per expressar
una opini sobre esdeveniments passats, encara que ja
sigui massa tard.
I was worried he should have called me. Estava
preocupada; mhauria dhaver trucat.
shouldnt have + participi passat
Fem servir shouldnt have + participi passat per expressar
penediment o crtica desdeveniments passats.
You shouldnt have lied to me. No mhauries dhaver
mentit.

Linkers of contrast
Utilitzem els segents connectors per expressar
contrast: although, though, despite, despite the fact
that, in spite of, in spite of the fact that. Aquests
connectors sutilitzen de la manera segent:

although / though + oraci. Although y though

tenen el mateix significat, per though s ms


corrent en langls informal.
So far James has visited five countries, although he
has only spent ten euros! Fins ara el James ha visitat
cinc pasos, tot i que noms sha gastat deu euros!
Though the website started recently, James has had
lots of offers. Tot i que la pgina web es va crear fa
poc, al James li han arribat moltes ofertes.
despite the fact that / in spite of the fact that +
oracin.
We bought the tickets despite the fact that they
were expensive. Vam comprar els bitllets a pesar que
eren cars.
In spite of the fact that he has very little money,
James has travelled a lot. Tot i que tenia molts pocs
diners, el James ha viatjat molt.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

119

Grammar reference
despite / in spite of + nom / pronom o gerundi.

In spite of all the discounts offered by travel agents,


going on holiday can still be expensive. A pesar dels
descomptes que ofereixen les agncies de viatges,
anar de vacances encara pot ser car.
Despite having little money, James Beck has found a
way to travel the world for free! NO Despite of having
little money ... Tot i que t pocs diners, el James Beck
ha trobat una forma de viatjar gratis pel mn.

Linkers of purpose and reason


Es poden utilitzar els segents connectors per
expressar el propsit duna acci: to, in order (not) to,
so as (not) to, so, to.

to / in order (not) to / so as (not) to +infinitiu. Tots

aquests tenen el mateix significat, per no es pot


utilitzar to en la forma negativa. In order (not) to i
so as not to sutilitzen amb freqncia en un angls
ms formal.
I hired a car to tour the island. Vaig llogar un cotxe
per recrrer lilla.
I started the website in order to save money. Vaig
crear la pgina web per estalviar diners.
He went to Alaska so as to experience something
new. Va anar a Alaska per experimentar quelcom nou.
He left early in order not to miss his flight home NO
He left early not to miss his flight home. Va sortir aviat
per no perdre el vol cap a casa.
so / so that + oraci. Aquests tenen el mateix
significat. Amb freqncia somet la paraula that en
langls informal o oral. Se solen utilitzar aquests
connectors amb can / cant / could / will / wont /
wouldnt.
Id love to go to Alaska so I can have a white
Christmas! Mencantaria anar a Alaska per passar un
Nadal blanc.
He took a notebook so that he could write about his
holiday. Es va endur una llibreta per poder escriure
sobre les seves vacances.
Podem utilitzar els segents connectors per expressar
la ra duna acci o un esdeveniment: as, because,
because of, since.

as / because / since + oraci.


As the flight was cancelled, we stayed an extra night.
Com que van cancellar el vol, ens vam quedar una nit
ms.
James started the website because he wanted to
travel. El James va crear la pgina web perqu volia
viatjar.
Since the weather was bad, we spent the day at the

120 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

hotel. Com que feia mal temps, vam passar el dia a


lhotel.
because of + nom / sintagma nominal.
He couldnt go jet-skiing because of the bad weather.
No va poder anar amb moto aqutica perqu feia mal
temps.

Linkers of result
Podem utilitzar els segents connectors per expressar el
resultat o conseqncia dalguna cosa: so that, such
that.

so + adjectiu + oraci amb that.


Its so cold today that I had to borrow a coat. Avui


fa tant de fred, que he hagut de demanar prestat un
abric.
so + adverbi + oraci amb that.
Sometimes the temperature falls so quickly that
my breath freezes instantly. De vegades les
temperatures baixen tan rpidament que sem congela
lal de forma instantnia.
such + a(n) + adjectiu + nom singular + oraci amb
that.
Its such a beautiful country that Id like to stay.
s un pas tan maco que magradaria quedar-mhi.
such + adjectiu + nom incomptable + oraci amb
that.
It has such bad weather that its often too
dangerous to go out. Fa tan mal temps, que sovint s
massa perills sortir al carrer.

Unit 4 Reported speech


Utilitzem lestil indirecte per informar sobre el que una
altra persona ha dit sense citar les seves paraules
exactes.
estil directe

estil indirecte

Im a witness.
He said that he was a witness. Sc
testimoni
Va dir que era testimoni.
En el llenguatge formal utilitzem that per comenar
loraci que cont el llenguatge directe. En el
llenguatge informal, es pot ometre that.
Im going to call the police.
The man said (that) he
was going to call the police. Trucar a la policia.
Lhome va dir que trucaria a la policia.
Recorda que no sutilitzen cometes en lestil indirecte.
There has been a burglary, said the police officer.
The
police officer said (that) there had been a burglary. Hi ha
hagut un robatori -va dir lagent de policia.
Lagent de
policia va dir que hi havia hagut un robatori.

Grammar reference
Reported statements: tense changes
Quan convertim lestil directe en estil indirecte,
canviem el temps del verb principal posant-lo en
passat.
I babysat for him.
She said that she had babysat for
him. Vaig ser el seu cangur.
Va dir que havia sigut el
seu cangur.

Estilo directo
present simple
I see Jo veig

Estilo indirecto
past simple
I saw Jo vaig veure

present continuous
Im seeing Jo estic veient

past continuous
I was seeing Jo estava veient

present perfect simple

past perfect simple

I have seen Jo he vist

I had seen Jo havia vist

past simple
I saw Jo vaig veure

past perfect simple


I had seen Jo havia vist

will
I will see Jo veur

would
I would see Jo veuria

can

could

I can see Jo veig

I could see Jo veia

must
I must see He de veure

had to
I had to see Havia de veure

RECORDA!
El past perfect simple no canvia en estil indirecte.

He said that his bike


My bike has been stolen.
had been stolen. Mhan robat la bici.
Va dir que li
havien robat la bici.
les expressions de temps i de lloc solen canviar.
We cant stay in here tonight.
He said that they
couldnt stay there that night. No ens podem quedar
aqu aquesta nit
Va dir que no es podien quedar
all aquella nit.
These men are dangerous.
She said that those
men were dangerous. Aquests homes sn perillosos.
Va dir que aquells homes eren perillosos.

Estilo directo

Estilo indirecto

here aqu
this aquest, aquesta,
aix
these aquests,
aquestes
now ara
next week
la setmana vinent
today avui
tonight aquesta nit
tomorrow dem
yesterday ahir
last week
la setmana passada

there all
that aquell, aquella, all
those aquells, aquelles
then aleshores
the following week
la setmana segent
that day aquell dia
that night aquella nit
the following day lendem
the day before el dia anterior
the week before
la setmana anterior

Reported commands and requests


Reported statements: other changes
Quan passem estil directe a estil indirecte:

la majoria dels verbs modals (per exemple, should,

could, would, might, ought to) no varien.


You should report the theft.
She said that
I should report the theft. Hauries de denunciar
el robatori.
Va dir que havia de denunciar el
robatori.
The burglar could still be in the house.
He said
that the burglar could still be in the house. Pot ser
que el lladre sigui a la casa.
Va dir que el lladre
podria seguir a la casa.
PER I can see the vandals from my window.
He
said that he could see the vandals from his window.
Veo a los gamberros desde mi ventana.
Dijo que
vea a los gamberros desde su ventana.
els pronoms solen canviar.
Well take you to the scene of the crime.
She said
that they would take me to the scene of the crime. Et
durem a lescena del crim.
Va dir que em durien a
lescena del crim.

En estil directe utilitzem limperatiu per donar ordres i


demanar coses. Al passar-lo a estil indirecte utilitzem
les estructures segents:

ordres: tell + verb + complement directe + infinitiu


(amb to).
peticions: ask + verb + complement + infinitiu (amb

to).
Watch the door!
The lawyer told the court to
watch the door. Mirin la porta.
Ladvocat va dir
al jurat que mirs la porta.
Please can you explain?
The lawyer asked
the judge to explain. Si us plau, pot donar una
explicaci?
Ladvocat li va demanar al jutge que
dons una explicaci.
Si volem donar una ordre o fer una petici en negatiu, en
estil indirecte posem not davant de linfinitiu (amb to):

subjecte + verb + objecte + not + infinitiu (amb to).


Dont touch anything!
The detective told us not to
touch anything. No toqueu res.
El detectiu ens va dir
que no toqussim res.
GRAMMAR REFERENCE

121

Grammar reference
Please dont send my client to prison.
The lawyer
asked the judge not to send his client to prison. Si us
plau, no envi el meu client a pres
Ladvocat va
demanar al jutge que no envis el seu client a pres.

Can I see your driving licence?


The detective asked if
she could see his driving licence. Puc veure el seu perms
de conduir?
El detective le pregunt si poda ver su
carn de conducir.

Es poden utilitzar altres verbs per donar ordres i fer


peticions en estil indirecte, per exemple: advise, ask,
encourage, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, warn.

Were you at the art gallery?


She asked him if /
whether he had been at the art gallery. Vas estar al
museu dart?
Li va preguntar si havia estat al museu
dart.

You should tell the police


My friend advised me to
tell the police. Hauries de dir-ho a la policia.
La meva
amiga em va aconsellar que ho digus a la policia.
Dont forget to lock your car.
our car. Deixa anar el ganivet
tanqussim el cotxe.

She reminded us to lock


Ens va recordar que

Drop the knife!


The detective ordered him to drop
the knife. Si us plau, intenti recordar tots els detalls.
El policia em va animar perqu records tots els detalls.
The police
Please try to remember all the details.
officer encouraged me to remember all the details. Si us
plau, intenti recordar tots els detalls.
El policia em va
animar perqu records tots els detalls.

Reported questions
En les preguntes en estil indirecte, lordre de les
paraules varia respecte de les preguntes en estil
directe. Sutilitza el mateix ordre que per a les frases
afirmatives.
verbo + subjecte (pregunta en estil directe) subjecte +
verb (pregunta en estil indirecte).
Whats your name? he asked.
He asked (her) what
her name was. NO He asked (her) what was her name.
Com et dius?
Li va preguntar com es deia.
do / did / does no sutilitzen en preguntes en estil
indirecte.
Do you recognize the suspect?
They asked if she
recognized the suspect. Reconeixes el sospits?
Li
van preguntar si reconeixia el sospits.
Si una paraula en estil directe cont partcules
interrogatives (p.ex. who, why, when, how, what),
aquestes es repeteixen en la pregunta en estil
indirecte.
When will you finish the book?
He asked (her) when
she would finish the book. Quan acabars el llibre?
Li
va preguntar quan acabaria el llibre.
What are you reading?
reading. Qu llegeixes?

He asked (her) what she was


Li va preguntar qu llegia.

Si una pregunta no duu partcula interrogativa (p.ex.


who, why, when, how, what), utilitzem if o whether en la
pregunta en estil indirecte.
122 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

RECORDA!
En estil indirecte no sutilitzen signes dinterrogaci.
What are you doing?
They asked us what we were
doing. Qu feu?
Ens van preguntar qu fiem.

Reporting verbs
Per introduir lestil indirecte es poden utilitzar molts de
verbs. Sutilitzen de la manera segent:

verbo+ objecte + infinitiu amb to. Aquests solen

ser els verbs que sutilitzen en ordres i peticions


en estil indirecte, quan li demanem a alg que faci
alguna cosa. Entre ells hi ha: ask, advise, invite,
order, remind, tell, encourage, persuade,warn.
Whatever you do, dont touch the gun!
He warned
me not to touch the gun. Facis el que facis, no toquis la
pistola.
Em va avisar que no toqus la pistola.
You ought to tell them the truth.
She advised
them to tell the truth. Els hauries de dir la veritat.
Em va aconsellar que els digus la veritat.
verbo + infinitiu amb to. Entre ells hi ha: agree,
offer, promise, refuse.
Ill drive you to the police station.
He offered to
drive me to the police station. Et porto a comissaria.
Va oferir portar-me a comissaria.
No, we cant help you.
They refused to help us.
No, no us podem ajudar.
Es van negar a ajudar-nos.
verb + (that) + subjecte + verb en el temps
corresponent. Entre ells hi ha: admit, declare,
explain, insist, promise, recommend, reply, reveal,
say, suggest, add. En el llenguatge informal se sol
ometre that.
Why dont you get a burglar alarm.
She
suggested (that) we got a burglar alarm. Per qu
no compreu una alarma antirobatori?
Ens va
suggerir que comprssim una alarma antirobatori.
You need to call this number.
He explained
(to me) (that) I needed to call that number. NO He
explained me Has de telefonar a aquest nmero.
Em va explicar que havia de telefonar a aquell
nmero.

Grammar reference
s

verb + for + -ing: apologize for.

Im sorry I was rude.


She apologized for being
rude. Em sap greu haver estat mal educada.
Es
va disculpar per haver estat mal educada.

RECORDA!
Els verbs say i tell signifiquen el mateix, per
sutilitzen de forma diferent:
say (+ that) + estil indirecte.
tell + complement indirecte (+ that) + estil indirecte.
The police officer said (that) they had found the vandals.
El policia va dir que havien trobat els brtols.
The police officer told me that they had found the
vandals.
NO The police officer told they had found the vandals.
O The police officer said me they had found the vandals.
El policia em va dir que havien trobat els brtols.

Estructura
La veu passiva es forma amb el verb be + participi
passat. Utilitzem be en el mateix temps en qu
utilitzarem el verb en la frase activa.
activa

pasiva

A Canadian invented

Buy Nothing Day was

Buy Nothing Day. invented by a Canadian.


(past simple)
Buy Nothing Day.
Millions of people will

per ressaltar lacci (el verb) en lloc de la persona o


cosa que ha realitzat lacci.
per posar la idea ms important al principi de la

frase.
They will sell millions of trainers next year.
Millions
of trainers will be sold next year. Vendran milions de
vambes lany que ve.
Milions de vambes seran
venudes lany que ve.

by + agent
En les frases passives utilitzem by abans del complement
directe. El complement directe de les estructures passives
sanomena agent.
Nokia manufactured this mobile phone.
This mobile
phone is manufactured by Nokia. Nokia va fabricar aquest
mbil.
Aquest mbil ha estat fabricat per Nokia.
Ometem by + agent:

Unit 5 The passive

Un canadenc va inventar

Utilitzem la veu passiva:

Buy Nothing Day va ser


inventat per un canadenc.
Buy Nothing Day will be

celebrate Buy Nothing Day. celebrated by millions of


people. (future)
Buy Nothing Day ser
Moltes persones
celebraran Buy Nothing Day. celebrat per moltes persones.

quan no es coneix lagent.


quan lagent no s important.
quan no volem mencionar lagent.

My car window has been broken. (I dont know who


broke it.)
Mhan trencat la finestra del cotxe. (No s qui me lha
trencada.)
No siempre es posible omitir by + agente. Algunas
frases requieren un agente porque se trata de
informacin importante.
Buy Nothing Day was invented.
invented by Ted Dave.
Buy Nothing Day va ser inventat.
ser inventat per Ted Dave.

Transformations:
active
passive

Buy Nothing Day was


Buy Nothing Day va

active

Quan passem una frase dactiva a passiva, el


complement directe de la frase activa es converteix en
el subjecte de la frase passiva.

Podem utilitzar els segents cinc passos per transformar


una frase en veu activa en una frase en veu passiva:

Les companyies discogrfiques van anunciar el CD.

Adidas est creant molts dissenys nous.

Music companies

advertised

the CD.

subject

verb

object

subject

verb

(agent)

The CD

was advertised

(by music companies).

El CD va ser anunciat per les companyies discogrfiques.

Active: Adidas is manufacturing many new designs.


1 Identifica el complement directe de la frase activa:
many new designs.
2 Converteix-lo en el subjecte de la frase passiva:
Many new designs
3 Identifica el temps verbal de la frase activa: is
manufacturing = present continuous.

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

123

Grammar reference
Els verbs informatius sutilitzen en la passiva de dues
maneres.

4 Utilitza el mateix temps del verb be amb el participi


passat del verb principal: are being manufactured.
5 Decideix si has dutilitzar by + agent (Adidas): Many
new designs are being manufactured
Passive: Many new designs are being manufactured by Adidas.

subjecte + verb informatiu en passiva + to + infinitiu


It + verb informatiu en passiva + that

The problem is expected to get worse. El problema


sespera que empitjori.

A Adidas sestan creant molts dissenys nous.


Per transformar una frase passiva en una dactiva
repeteix aquests passos per al revs. Potser thaurs
dinventar un subjecte: pensa qui va poder realitzar
lacci.

It is expected that the problem will get worse. Sespera


que el problema empitjori.

Passive: The phone was broken. El telfon es va trencar.


(Qui el va trencar?)

It is thought that advertising is effective. Es creu que la


publicitat s efectiva.

Advertising is thought to be effective. La publicitat es


creu que s efectiva.

Active: Someone broke the phone. Alg (nom?) el va trencar.

Verbs with two objects


Moltes frases tenen solament un complement (el
complement directe).

have / get something done


Estructura
have / get (qualsevol temps) + objecte + participi passat
Im getting my hair cut. (= Someone else will cut my hair.)
Em tallaran els cabells. (Mels tallar una altra persona.)

I bought some CDs. Vaig comprar alguns CD.


We recycle paper. Reciclem el paper.
No obstant, algunes frases tenen dos complements: un
complement directe i un dindirecte. Aquestes frases
sempre duen un verb que necessita un complement
indirecte, per exemple: give, lend, offer, pay, promise,
refuse, show, send, teach, tell.

He had the room painted. (= Someone else painted the


room.) Li van pintar lhabitaci. (La va pintar una altra
persona.)

My parents gave me a new mobile. (a new mobile = direct


object; me = indirect object) Els meus pares em van
regalar un mbil nou. (un mbil nou = complement directe,
a mi= complement indirecte)

Sutilitza have something done / get something done


(causatiu) per parlar daccions que no podem fer
nosaltres mateixos o que preferim no fer, i que, moltes
vegades, les realitza un professional. Amb aquesta
estructura podem utilitzar qualsevol temps verbal.

Somebody sent us this advert. (us = indirect object; this


advert = direct object) Alg ens va enviar aquest anunci. (ens=
complement indirecte, aquest anunci= complement directe)

Amy got her camera repaired. A lAmy li van reparar la


cmera.

Per formar una frase passiva sagafa el complement de


la frase activa i sutilitza com a subjecte. Quan la frase
activa t dos complements, podem escollir-ne un dels
dos com a nou subjecte, tot i que s molt ms habitual
usar el complement indirecte.

Totes dues expressions tenen el mateix significat, per get


something done s ms informal que have something done.

Active: Somebody sent us this advert. Alg ens va enviar


aquest anunci.
Passive: This advert was sent to us. O We were sent this
advert. Aquest anunci ens va ser enviat.

The passive with reporting verbs


Es pot utilitzar la passiva per comunicar sentiments i
creences. Noms shi inclou lagent si s necessari.
Alguns dels verbs informatius ms usats en la passiva
sn: accept, believe, expect, hope, know, say, think,
understand.
124 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

I havent had my flat decorated yet. Encara no mhan


decorat el pis.

Tal com passa amb les oracions passives, no sempre cal


dir qui s lagent.
Were having / getting our house painted. Ens pintaran la
casa. (bviament ho far un pintor i per aix somet)
Compara la frase con: Were painting our house. Pintarem
casa nostra. (Ho farem nosaltres mateixos.)
Quan alg fa alguna cosa que no se sol fer sol, es pot
afegir un pronom reflexiu (myself, yourself, himself,
herself, itself, ourselves, themselves) per emfasitzar-lo.
Theyre building the house themselves. Sestan construint
la casa ells mateixos.
Shes organizing the holiday herself. Est organitzant les
vacances ella mateixa.

Grammar reference
Unit 6 Conditionals
Wishes and regrets

s
Utilitzem la condicional de segon grau per parlar de
situacions hipottiques en el present i en el futur.

Les frases condicionals contenen dues oracions: la


condicional (que comena per if) i la de resultat.

If I were a famous chef, Id cook better meals (Im not a


famous chef.) Si fos un cuiner fams, prepararia plats ms
bons. (No sc cap cuiner fams.)

If I trained harder, Id be a lot fitter. Si entrens ms,


estaria molt ms en forma.
Lordre de les oracions s flexible, per cal recordar de
posar una coma desprs de loraci condicional quan
posem aquesta la primera.
If you were a top athlete, youd have to think very carefully
about your diet. = Youd have to think very carefully about
your diet if you were a top athlete. Si fossis un atleta dalta
competici, hauries de fer molta atenci a la dieta. =
Hauries de fer molta atenci a la dieta si fossis un atleta
dalta competici.
Hi ha tres tipus de condicionals (primer grau, segon
grau i tercer grau) que corresponen al grau de
probabilitat que expressen.

Condicional de primer grau

RECORDA!
Per regla general utilitzem were, i no was, en la
primera i tercera persona en langls escrit i langls
formal parlat.
If she were fitter, shed feel better. Si estigus ms en
forma, se sentiria ms b.
A veces utilizamos was en la primera y tercera
persona en el ingls informal hablado.
If I was you, Id join a gym. Si jo fos tu, mapuntaria a un
gimns.

Condicional de tercer grau


Estructura
<if + past perfect>, <would have + participi passat> O
<would have + participi passat> <if + past perfect>

Estructura
<if + present simple>, <will + infinitiu> O
<will + infinitiu> <if + present simple>
If you dont eat the right foods, you wont perform as
well. = You wont perform as well if you dont eat the
right foods. Si no talimentes b, no rendirs. = No rendirs
si no talimentes b.

s
Utilitzem la condicional de primer grau per:

parlar desdeveniments futurs possibles o probables.

If Im fit enough, Ill run the marathon. Si estic prou en


forma, far la marat.
You wont succeed if you dont try. No tindrs xit si
no ho intentes.
fer promeses i advertncies.
If we buy an exercise bike, Ill use it every day. Si
comprem una bicicleta esttica, la far servir tots els dies.
If you eat all that food, youll get stomach ache. Si et
menges tot aix, et far mal la panxa.

Condicional de segon grau


Estructura
<if + past simple>, <would + infinitiu> O
<would + infinitiu> <if + past simple>
If I were you, Id take up a sport. = Id take up a sport if I
were you. Si jo fos tu, faria algun esport. = Jo faria algun
esport si fos tu.

If theyd eaten the right food, they probably would have


performed better. = They probably would have performed
better if theyd eaten the right food. Si shaguessin alimentat
b, probablement haurien rendit ms. = Probablement haurien
rendit ms si shaguessin alimentat b.

s
Utilitzem la condicional de tercer grau per parlar de
fets hipottics en el passat.
If Serena had trained more, she would have won the
race. Si la Serena hagus entrenat ms, hauria guanyat la
carrera. (No va entrenar prou.)
If she had been fit, she would have run the marathon. Si
hagus estat en forma, hauria fet la marat. (No estava en
forma.)

RECORDA!

Had i would es poden contraure en d.


En les condicionals de primer, segon o tercer

grau podem utilitzar verbs modals en loraci de


resultat en comptes de will o would.
If Im fit enough, I may run the marathon. Si estic prou
en forma, pot ser que faci la marat.
If wed had a better diet, we might have performed
better. Si hagussim menjat ms b, podrem haver rendit
ms.
GRAMMAR REFERENCE 125

Grammar reference
Transformations: conditional sentences
Per transformar una frase en condicional de primer,
segon o tercer grau segueix aquests passos:
Frase: I felt sleepy because I didnt have any coffee.
Madormia perqu no havia pres caf.

1 Mira la frase. Identifica la referncia temporal:


passat, present o futur: I felt sleepy (passat)
2 Decideix quin grau de condicional necessites,
primer, segon o tercer: Un esdeveniment passat que
no va tenir lloc. (tercer grau)
3 Posa els verbs en la forma correcta: I wouldnt have
felt; Idhad
4 Escriu la frase completa i comprova si necessites
fer algun altre canvi: any
some. Comprova la
puntuaci.
Condicional: If Id had some coffee I wouldnt have felt
sleepy. Si hagus pres caf, no mhauria mig adormit.

as long as, even if, providing that, unless


Loraci condicional sol comenar per if. Hem de
recordar de posar una coma darrere loraci
condicional quan aquesta va al principi.
Podem usar as long as, even if o providing that en la
frase condicional en comptes de if.
Podem fer servir as long as o providing that amb el
sentit de per noms si. Solem utilitzar aquestes
frases en les condicionals de primer grau.
Theyll win the match but only if they play regularly.
Guanyaran el partit, per noms si entrenen regularment.
Theyll win the match as long as they play regularly.
Guanyaran el partit sempre que entrenin regularment.
Shell pay for dinner but only if its not too expensive.
Pagar el sopar, per noms si no s massa car.
Shell pay for dinner providing that it isnt too expensive.
Pagar el sopar si no s massa car.
Sutilitza even if per emfasitzar la condici en el
present, futur o passat.
I wouldnt go on a diet even if I was overweight. (present /
future) No em posaria a rgim encara que estigus gras.
(present / futur)
We wouldnt have won even if wed trained harder. (past)
No haurem guanyat encara que hagussim entrenat ms.
(passat)

126 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

Podem expressar condicions negatives mitjanant if ...


not i notunless.
Ill play tennis this weekend unless the weather is bad. =
Ill play tennis this weekend if the weather isnt bad.
Jugar a tennis el cap de setmana, tret que faci mal temps.
= Jugar a tenis aquest cap de setmana si no fa mal temps
Unless you cut down on fattening foods, you wont lose
weight. = If you dont cut down on fattening foods you
wont lose weight. Llevat que mengis menys aliments que
engreixen, no perdrs pes. = Si no menges menys aliments
que engreixin, no perdrs pes.

Wishes and regrets


Utilitzem wish / if only + past simple / continuous quan
volem que alguna cosa fos diferent en el present.
I wish I was good at tennis. (Im not good at tennis.) Tant
de bo jugus b a tennis. (No jugo b a tennis.)
If only I had some good trainers. (I dont have any good
trainers.) Tant de bo tingus unes bones vambes. (No tinc
unes bones vambes.)
Utilitzem wish / if only + had + past perfect simple quan
ens penedim dalguna cosa que va tenir lloc en el passat.
I wish Id eaten some pasta before the race. (I didnt eat
any pasta.) Tant de bo hagus menjat una mica de pasta
abans de la carrera. (No vaig menjar pasta.)
If only it hadnt been raining. (It was raining.) Si no hagus
plogut. (Plovia.)
Utilitzem wish / if only + would per queixar-nos
dalguna cosa o situaci.
I wish you would stop making excuses. Magradaria que
deixessis de donar excuses.
If only it would stop raining. Tant de bo pars de ploure.
If only s ms emftic que wish.
If only we could be friends. = I really wish we could be
friends. Si pogussim ser amics. = Desitjo de deb que
pogussim ser amics.
If only you hadnt told him a lie. = I really wish you hadnt
told him a lie. Si no li haguessis mentit. = Tant de bo no li
haguessis mentit.

RECORDA!
Per formular un desig utilitzem hope.
I hope you can come. Espero que puguis venir.
They hope that peoples diets will improve. Esperen que
millori lalimentaci de la gent.

Grammar reference
Unit 7 Gerund and infinitive
Articles
Uses of the gerund
El gerundi (-ing) sutilitza:

desprs de noms.

Psychologists are always interested in finding out


more about our emotions. Als psiclegs sempre els
interessa saber ms sobre les nostres emocions.
desprs dadjectius.
Youll soon start cheering up! Aviat comenars a
estar ms content!
com a substantiu, sobretot quan s el subjecte
duna frase o oraci.
Scoring a goal makes players look up. Quan fan un gol,
els jugadors miren cap a dalt.

Uses of the infinitive


Utilitzem linfinitiu amb to:

despus de nombres.
The study suggests a new way to help pessimistic
people. Linforme suggereix noves formes dajudar els
pessimistes.
despus de adjetivos.
Its wrong to look down when you feel sad. Est
malament mirar cap a baix quan ests trist.
desprs de certs verbs.
Wouldnt you like to be happy all the time? No
tagradaria ser feli sempre?

Verbs + gerunds / infinitives


Quan utilitzem dos verbs junts, el segon pot ser gerundi
o infinitiu (amb to).
The most important thing is to enjoy being with each
other. (verb + gerundi) El ms important s gaudir de la
companyia de laltre.
There is a boy I really want to go out with. (verb +
infinitiu) Hi ha un noi amb qui magradaria mot sortir.
Quan aprens un nou verb, s til aprendre si duu
gerundi o infinitiu.

Verb + gerundi
Aquests sn alguns dels verbs que van amb gerundi:
admit advise avoid cant help cant imagine
cant stand complete consider discuss dislike
dontmind enjoy finish give up imagine keep
mention mind miss practise recommend regret
report resist risk suggest

I regret going out with him. Em penedeixo dhaver sortit


amb ell.
Do you enjoy meeting new people? Tagrada conixer
gent nova?
I cant avoid seeing her every day at school. No puc evitar
veure-la a lescola tots els dies.
En oracions negatives, posem not davant del gerundi.
Imagine not having friends! Imaginat no tenir amics!
I cant imagine not seeing my family. No em puc imaginar
no veure la meva famlia.

Verb + infinitiu
Aquests sn alguns dels verbs que van amb infinitiu
(amb to):
afford agree appear arrange ask attempt beg
choose dare decide demand deserve expect
fail hesitate hope intend learn manage mean
need offer prepare pretend promise refuse
seem threaten wait want wish

Would you like to come out with us tonight? Tagradaria


sortir amb nosaltres aquesta nit?
She refused to accept my apology. Es va negar a acceptar
les meves disculpes.
I didnt manage to speak to Helen. No vaig aconseguir
parlar amb la Helen.
En oracions negatives, posem not davant de linfinitiu.
We agreed not to argue any more. Vam acordar no discutir
ms.
I decided not to go on the date. Vaig decidir no anar a la
cita.

Verbs + gerundi o infinitiu


Alguns verbs poden anar amb gerundi i amb infinitiu, i
hi pot haver:

poca variaci en el significat. Alguns exemples sn:

begin, hate, like, love, prefer, start.


I love learning languages. / I love to learn languages.
Mencanta aprendre idiomes.
You should start to have some fun. / You should start
having some fun. Hauries de comenar a passar-tho
b.
variaci en el significat. Alguns exemples sn:
forget, remember, stop, try.

forget + infinitivo = oblidar fer alguna cosa en el futur.


forget + gerundio = oblidar alguna cosa que ha passat
He always forgets to call me. Sempre soblida de trucar-me.
Shell never forget meeting him. Mai no oblidar el
dia que el va conixer.
GRAMMAR REFERENCE

127

Grammar reference











remember + infinitiu = recordar-se de fer alguna


cosa en el futur
remember + gerundi = recordar un fet passat
Please remember to post the letter! Recordat
denviar la carta!
I remember posting the letter last week. Recordo que
vaig enviar la carta la setmana passada.
stop + infinitiu = parar per fer alguna cosa
stop + gerundi = parar una acci
He stopped to talk to me at school. Es va aturar a
parlar amb mi a linstitut.
He stopped talking to me after we rowed. Em va
deixar de parlar quan ens vam barallar.
try + infinitiu = intentar de fer alguna cosa (i
normalment no aconseguir-ho)
try + gerundi = provar alguna cosa
I tried to run, but I was too tired. Vaig intentar crrer,
per estava massa cansada.
I tried running in order to get fit. Vaig provar de
crrer per posar-me en forma.

Articles
a / an i the
Utilitzem a / an (larticle indeterminat) amb noms
comptables singulars. Utilitzem a amb noms que
comencen per so consonntic (incls /ju:/) i an amb
noms que comencen per so voclic.
Hes a pilot. He has to wear a uniform. s pilot. Ha de dur
uniforme.
Shes an artist with a studio in London. s artista i t un
estudi a Londres.
No utilitzem a / an amb noms incomptables o plurals.
I need some advice. Necessito consell.
My friends are students. Els meus amics sn estudiants.

128 GRAMMAR REFERENCE

RECORDA!
Amb les professions utilitzem a / an.
Shes a model. s model.
Hes an assistant manager. s ajudant del director.
Sutilitza a, i no one, per parlar dobjectes individuals.
Noms utilitzem one per ressaltar o especificar el
nmero.
Ive got a cat. NO Ive got one cat. Tinc un gat.
Ive only got one cat, but my sister has got three. Noms
tinc un gat, per la meva germana en t tres.
Utilitzem the (larticle determinat) quan volem
especificar o ressaltar un nom.
What does the article say? Qu diu larticle?
The film was very interesting. La pellcula va ser molt
interessant.

Sense article
No utilitzem article amb:

noms plurals i incomptables quan parlem de

persones o coses en general.


People are interested in psychology. A la gent li
interessa la psicologia.
Petrol is getting more and more expensive. El petroli
s cada vegada ms car.
I love films. Mencanten les pellcules.
expressions de lloc i temps, incloses
at / from home a / de casa
to / at / in / from church a / de lesglsia
to / in / from class a / de classe
by bus / train, etc. amb bus / tren, etc.
to / in / into / out of hospital a l / de lhospital
in / out of bed al / del llit
at/ from / to university / school de / a la universitat /
lescola
last / next week la setmana passada / que ve
on Monday, etc. dilluns, etc.
in May, etc. al maig, etc.

Writing reference
Una redacci de debat
En una redacci de debat es presenta un raonament
equilibrat amb opinions a favor i en contra dun assumpte.
Al final de la redacci, expressem la nostra prpia opini.

Escull els punts ms fcils de desenvolupar i agrupals


per pargrafs.
Pensa en fets o idees que refermin els teus arguments.
Utilitza connectors per introduir les teves idees i
expressar arguments addicionals.

Recorda!

Vocabulari dutilitat

1 Estructura

En el pargraf dintroducci, escriu una afirmaci per

presentar lassumpte i digues que hi ha arguments a


favor i en contra daquest assumpte.
En el pargraf segent, dna les opinions a favor de
lassumpte o els avantatges.
En el pargraf segent, dna les opinions en contra de
lassumpte o els desavantatges.
En lltim pargraf, resumeix totes les opinions i explica
la teva conclusi.

2 Contingut

Comena escrivint una llista de punts a favor o en

Per comenar: Many people say / think that /


It is true that / There are many reasons for
Per parlar sobre lassumpte: This is not an easy question. /
There is not a clear answer / We must look at both
sides of the question.
Per introduir arguments Firstly, / Secondly, / On the one
hand, / One advantage is that .
Per contrastar: On the other hand, / However, / But
Per afegir ms informaci: Whats more, / In addition,
Furthermore, / Moreover, / too / as well / also
Per expressar causa i resultat: This is because /
Because / So / Therefore
Per acabar: On balance, / In my opinion, / In conclusion,

contra o els avantatges i inconvenients.

Pregunta model

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of being a celebrity today.


Escriu els avantatges i inconvenients de ser fams avui dia.

Resposta
model

Nearly everyone thinks that they would like to be famous. However, there
are also disadvantages to being in the public eye. We must look at both
sides of the question.
It is true that if you are famous people recognize you all the time and
ask for your autograph. You belong to a special group of people and
this can be fun. In addition to this, fame usually brings money. A very
big advantage of being a celebrity is that you probably live in a fantastic
house, drive a fast car and have holidays in wonderful places.
On the other hand, it is not always easy being a celebrity today. A major
disadvantage is that it becomes difficult to have a private life. Journalists
take photos of you in your home, on the beach, or after a late party!
Whats more, some people become obsessed with celebrities and follow
them everywhere.
On balance, I think the life of a celebrity has disadvantages, but it also has
a lot of attractions. I would like to have the opportunity to try it!

presentaci del tema


per afegir informaci
per parlar sobre el tema
argumentos a favor
para aadir informacin

arguments en contra
contrast
per afegir informaci
conclusi i opini
WRITING REFERENCE 129

Un dileg
Un dileg s una conversa entre dues o ms persones.
Quan escrivim un dileg hem de deixar clara la seva
funci, per exemple, explicar / donar notcies.

Recorda!

Pensa en els personatges i en qu dirien i farien.


Utilitza llenguatge natural i informal, i inclou

expressions colloquials, contraccions, expressions


daddici, verbs amb partcules i respostes curtes.

Vocabulari dutilitat

1 Estructura

Un dileg cont:

2 Contingut

- un principi (per deixar clara la funci de la conversa)


- un nus (lintercanvi principal)
- un final (la conclusi)
Organitza el dileg clarament perqu el lector pugui
veure fcilment qui est parlant.

Salutacions: Hi! / How are you? / Hows life? / How are


things? / Fine. / Great. / Not bad, thanks.
Verbs amb partcules pick up / put off / drop in / pop round
/ look forward to
Expressions colloquials: Hiya! / Whats up? / Cool! / Sure. /
Sounds good. / Youre kidding! / Do you fancy ? / Hang
on! / OK.
Expressions daddici: erm / umm / look, / oh, /
well,
Acomiadaments: Great to see you. / See you soon. / Say
Hi! to for me. / Ill be in touch. / Bye.

Pregunta model

Write a telephone conversation between two friends making arrangements to go to the beach.
Escriu una conversa telefnica entre dos amics que fan plans per anar a la platja.

Resposta model

130 WRITING REFERENCE

Becky
Trish
Becky
Trish


Becky


Trish


Becky

Trish

Becky

Trish
Becky
Trish

Hello.
salutacions
Hi Becky! Its me.
Trish, hi! How are things?
OK. But Im so bored. I really want to go
contracci
out somewhere and do something. Listen, are you
expressions daddici
doing anything this afternoon?
Nope. Im bored too. Theres no one at
expressi colloquial
home, nothing on TV, and Ive finished
all my homework. So, where do you want to go?
Do you fancy going to the beach? We could give
expressi colloquial
Ben and Jim a ring and find out if they want to
come. Bens got his dads car for the weekend too!
contracci
Great idea! We could take a picnic and the
volleyball things.
Cool! Ill phone Ben and Jim and
expressi colloquial
well pick you up in half an hour.
verb amb partcules
Sounds good. Ill make some sandwiches. And
expressi colloquial
dont forget the suncream!
contracci
I wont! And remember Ben is a vegetarian!
resposta curta
OK. See you in half an hour.
acomiadament
See you.

Una narraci
Un dileg s una conversa entre dues o ms persones.
Quan escrivim un dileg hem de deixar clara la seva
funci, per exemple, explicar / donar notcies.

expressions colloquials, contraccions, expressions


daddici, verbs amb partcules i respostes curtes.

Vocabulari dutilitat

Recorda!
1 Estructura

Un dileg cont:

Utilitza llenguatge natural i informal, i inclou

- un principi (per deixar clara la funci de la conversa)


- un nus (lintercanvi principal)
- un final (la conclusi)
Organitza el dileg clarament perqu el lector pugui
veure fcilment qui est parlant.

2 Contingut

Pensa en els personatges i en qu dirien i farien.

Salutacions: Hi! / How are you? / Hows life? / How are


things? / Fine. / Great. / Not bad, thanks.
Verbs amb partcules: pick up / put off / drop in /
pop round / look forward to
Expressions colloquials: Hiya! / Whats up? / Cool! / Sure. /
Sounds good. / Youre kidding! / Do you fancy ? /
Hang on! / OK.
Expressions daddici: erm / umm / look, / oh, /
well,
Acomiadaments: Great to see you. / See you soon. / Say
Hi! to for me. / Ill be in touch. / Bye.

Pregunta model

Write a story about something frightening that happened on a journey.


Escriu una histria sobre algun fet aterrador que va passar en un viatge.

Resposta model
It was the most frightening moment of my life! I was
interessant
late because I had overslept. I missed my normal train,
so I took the 10.00 train instead. When I got off at
Wyford, I stepped into a real nightmare.
I knew something was wrong as soon as I started walking
along the platform. There was a group of people standing
very still and looking at something or someone. When I
got nearer, I saw that a man and a woman were
standing outside the ticket office. The man was pointing
a gun at the woman. I was terrified!
It was so strange. Everyone stopped moving and watched
the man. It was like a scene from a film! Suddenly, two police
officers came up behind the man and knocked the gun out
of his hand. Later, someone told me that it wasnt a real gun,
it was a toy. The man had stolen money from the ticket
office and the woman had tried to stop him.
Fortunately, the man was caught and no one was hurt, but
I hope that nothing as frightening as this ever happens again!

comenament
temps passats
connectors de temps
ambient

adverbi de grau

sentiments
ambient
adverbi de mode
seqncia

comentari amb adverbi


final

WRITING REFERENCE

131

Un resum
Escrivim un resum per transmetre les idees principals
dun text en poques frases.

Recorda!

Inclou noms la informaci ms important.


No incloguis informaci que no sigui important, com ara
exemples, detalls, discurs directe.
Utilitza les teves prpies paraules i no repeteixis
expressions senceres del text.
No donis la teva opini o afegeixis informaci addicional.

Per preparar

Llegeix el text rpidament per buscar la informaci


essencial.
Torna a llegir el text i subratlla les tres o quatre idees
ms importants.

Sense mirar de nou el text, escriu quatre o cinc

Torna a llegir el text i revisa el teu resum. Assegurat

que (a) has incls tota la informaci important, (b) no


has copiat del text, (c) thas ajustat al nombre lmit de
paraules.
Si el resum s massa llarg, talla els detalls innecessaris.

Vocabulari dutilitat
Connectors (de contrast): : In spite of / Despite /
Although / However,
Connectors (per afegir informaci): In addition, /
Both / also / too
Connectors (de causa i resultat): This is because /
Because / So / Therefore
Oracions subordinades relatives: The film, which is about
a safari, shows that / The statement that he gave in
March is no longer true

frases sobre ell de memria. Intenta utilitzar paraules


diferents.

Pregunta model

Summarize the following article in fewer than 50 words.


Fes un resum daquest article en menys de 50 paraules.

The Island
In recent years, we have seen significant developments in cloning.
Sheep, cows, cats and, more recently, dogs have all been cloned
in the name of scientific progress. One of the potential uses of
cloning is to grow replacement organs for people who are ill
in human clones. It is this subject that is portrayed in a new film
released this week in the USA called The Island.

(1) tema

The film features Ewan McGregor and Scarlett Johanssen and


it raises awareness of this highly controversial moral issue.
(2) polmica
However, in spite of excellent performances from both main
(3) bona interpretaci,
actors and spectacular special effects, the film received a b o n s e f e c t e s e s p e c i a l s
disappointing reaction from the American audiences. It is
(4) no ha estat ben rebuda
possible that the subject is too difficult and that some a l s E U A
audiences prefer their thrillers without the moral dilemmas.
(5) raons del seu poc xit
The film opens in the UK next week and it will be interesting
to see how the British audiences react.

Resposta model

132 WRITING REFERENCE

The new film The Island, which deals with the controversial
subject of cloning people, has not been received well in the USA.
Although the acting and effects are very good, some audiences
may have been put off by the moral message of the film.

Una redacci dopini


Escrivim una redacci dopini per dir el que pensem
sobre un assumpte. Noms expressem la nostra opini,
no hi incloem altres punts de vista.

Recorda!
1 Estructura

En el pargraf dintroducci, explica lassumpte i dna la


teva opini.

En els segents dos o tres pargrafs, dna arguments
per recolzar la teva opini.

En lltim pargraf, resumeix la teva opini.
Comena cada pargraf amb una frase sobre lassumpte,
resumint les teves idees principals.

2 Contingut

Vocabulari dutilitat
Per donar una opini: In my opinion, / Personally, I think /
I believe that / I feel very strongly that /
To my mind, / I (completely) agree/disagree with /
It seems to me that
Per explicar fets: It is a fact that / It is widely known that
/ There is/are definitely / It is true that
Per referir-se a les idees daltres persones: Many people
say/believe that
Per expressar causa i resultat: This is because /
Asaresult, / Therefore / My main reason is /
Anotherreasonis
Per afegir informaci: Whats more, / In addition, /
Furthermore, / Moreover, / too / as well / also
Per finalitzar: To sum up, / To conclude, /
In conclusion, / It is clear that

Inclou fets i exemples senzills per refermar les teves


idees.

No escriguis sobre els avantatges i inconvenients o els
arguments a favor o en contra

Pregunta model

Life is more stressful today than in the past. Do you agree?


La vida s ms estressant avui dia que en el passat. Hi ests dacord?

Resposta model

Many people believe that life today is more stressful than


ever before, but is this really true? In my opinion, there
has always been stress in peoples lives, but the type of
stress has changed.

per explicar lassumpte


per donar la teva opini

In the past, people were stressed as a result of different


things. It is a fact that many people had large families and
little money. In addition, people has less health care than
they do today. People had to work very long hours and they
often had no holidays. To my mind, this implies that life was
extremely stressful in the past.

per expressar la causa


per explicar fets
per afegir informaci

Today, technology has made our lives easier. However, I


think that it has also brought a different stress into our lives.
Because of technology, life has become faster and faster.
We are never alone and we are always rushing somewhere.
The world is a very busy and noisy place.

per expressar contrast


per donar la teva opini
per donar raons

In conclusion, although I agree that modern life is stressful,


I also think that people in the past faced many problems.
To my mind, life is not more stressful today, the stress
is just different.

per acabar

per donar la teva opini

per resumir la teva opini

WRITING REFERENCE

133

Una biografia
Una biografia s un resum de la vida duna persona, que
inclou els fets ms importants i interessants.
Comena amb el naixement de la persona i continua fins
a la seva mort o fins al present.

Recorda!
1 Estructura

En el pargraf dintroducci, digues per qu la persona


s famosa / important. Dna detalls sobre el seu
naixement / infantesa.
En el pargraf segent, dna detalls sobre la vida i la
professi de la persona.
En lltim pargraf, explica el que la persona fa ara
/ al final de la seva vida. Dna la teva opini sobre la
importncia de la persona avui dia.

2 Contingut

Utilitza els temps passats per escriure sobre alg que ha

Utilitza paraules per expressar la successi dels fets per


deixar clar lordre desdeveniments.
Utilitza adjectius del carcter per descriure la persona.
Vocabulari dutilitat
Etapes de la vida: was born on/in / At an early age /
His/her early life was / He/She was educated at / grew
up in / He/She lived in / spent years / retired in /
died in
Per expressar la successi dels fets: At first, / After /
Afterwards, / Later, / Then, / Finally, /
In the end, / in 1986
Per afegir informaci: Not only / but also / He/She both
and
Per expressar resultat: As a result of this, / Consequently,
/ Because of this
Adjectius del carcter: famous / imaginative / talented /
brilliant / exceptional / creative / influential / popular /
inspiring / successful / well-known

mort i els temps presents i lindicatiu passat per escriure


sobre alg que encara s viu.

Pregunta model

Write about a person from the fashion industry who you admire. Why do you admire this person?
Escriu sobre una persona del mn de la moda a la qual admiris. Per qu admires aquesta persona?

Resposta model

Jan Carstairs was born in London in 1945 and she became


interested in art and design at an early age. By the 1960s,
Jan had become one of the most influential designers of
the 1960s and her clothes were worn by the top models of
the time.
Jan came from quite a poor family but she won a scholarship
to a famous London art college in 1959. Four years later,
she was designing the mini skirts and paper dresses that
appeared on the covers of the most popular magazines
of the 60s.
Jan was brilliant but very shy. Because of this, she avoided
publicity and in 1974 she moved to a small town in France
where she lived until she died in 2004. Jan Carstairs was an
exceptionally talented designer and is still remembered
and copied by fashion designers today.

134 WRITING REFERENCE

etapes de la vida
importncia

per expressar la successi


dels fets

adjectius de carcter; resultat

opini i importncia avui dia

Una descripci duna persona


Quan sescriu la descripci duna persona, sinforma al
lector sobre la seva aparena fsica i carcter.
Tamb podem dir el que nosaltres o altres persones
opinen daquesta persona.
Podem descriure alg que coneixem o una persona
famosa.

Dna exemples de coses que fa aquesta persona i que


demostren la seva personalitat.
Fes servir una varietat dadjectius, adverbis i
modificadors per afegir inters.
Utilitza modismes o smils per afegir inters a la teva
descripci.

Vocabulari dutilitat

Recorda!
1 Estructura

En el primer pargraf, presenta la persona i descriu-ne


laparena fsica.

En el pargraf segent, descriu la personalitat de la
persona (caracterstiques negatives i positives).
En lltim pargraf, dna la teva opini sobre la persona
i raona-la.

2 Contingut

Usa els temps presents per escriure sobre alg que

coneixes en el present i els temps passats per escriure


sobre alg del passat.

Edat: 20 years old / about 20 / in his/her twenties / elderly


Aparena fsica tall / short / slim / dark hair / fair hair /
blue eyes / pretty / handsome / good-looking / looks/
looked like
Roba: wears/wore colourful clothes / a lot of jewellery /
glasses
Personalitat: quiet / intelligent / kind / shy / funny /
outgoing / patient / friendly / honest / chatty
Smils i modismes: as quiet as a mouse / as gentle as a lamb
/ a heart of gold / is a pain in the neck
Modificadors: a bit / quite / a little / slightly / extremely /
very / really
Adverbis de freqncia: always / usually / often /
sometimes / never / occasionally

Pregunta model

Write a description of someone in your family that you admire.


Escriu una descripci dalg de la teva famlia a qui admiris.

Resposta model

The person I admire most in my family is my grandmother,


Granny Em. Granny Em has fine, white hair and bright,
blue eyes. Shes as strong as an ox and she refuses to
slow down! She is eighty now, but shes really fit for her
age and she is still extremely active. Every day, she
visits a rest home for elderly people to help them and
have a chat. Most of them are younger than she is!

introducci
aparena fsica
smil
modificador

Granny Em is a determined old lady, but she is kind,


gentle and understanding too. She has had a difficult
life and has learned a lot of things. That is why shes
the person I go to when I have problems, and she
always gives great advice.

personalitat

Granny Em has a very big family and we all love and


respect her. In my opinion, but she has a heart of gold
and she continues to make a difference to our lives.

opinions raonades
modisme

evidncia

WRITING REFERENCE

135

Una carta formal


En cartes formals, escrivim a organitzacions (oficines,
universitats, negocis, etc.) o a persones que no coneixem
gaire b.
Podem escriure per demanar informaci, sollicitar feina,
posar una queixa, etc.

Fes servir les expressions correctes en la salutaci i


lacomiadament.
Explica clarament el motiu pel qual escrius.
Utilitza connectors per enllaar les teves idees.
Vocabulari dutilitat

Recorda!
1 Esquema

Escriu la teva adrea a la part superior dreta de la

pgina i ladrea de la persona / empresa a la qual ests


escrivint a la part esquerra.
Escriu la data sota la teva adrea.
Deixa una lnia buida entre ladrea del destinatari i la
salutaci.
Escriu el teu nom sota la teva signatura.

2 Estil i contingut

Utilitza vocabulari i frases formals.


No facis servir contraccions.
No utilitzis llenguatge colloquial.

Salutacions: Dear Mr / Ms (Lee), (si sabes el nombre) / Dear


Sir or Madam, (si no sabes el nombre).
Motiu pel qual escrius la carta: I am writing to apply for /
request some information about / ask about /
complain about / I saw your advertisement in / I read
about / Regarding
Per expressar la successi dels fets: Firstly, /
Secondly, / Finally, / In conclusion
Llenguatge formal: I would like to point out that, / I would
be grateful if you could / Could you possibly ? / I am
afraid I
Per adjuntar documents: I enclose my most recent CV. / a
stamped addressed envelope.
Per finalitzar: I look forward to hearing from you. / Yours
faithfully, (con Dear Sir or Madam) / Yours sincerely, (con
Dear Mr/Ms (Lee))

Pregunta model

You want to enter the competition Young Journalist of the Year. Write to ask for more information.
Vols participar en el concurs Periodista jove de lany. Escriu per demanar ms informaci.

Resposta model

19 Briar Road
Southampton
Hampshire
15th November 2008

Young News Magazine


118 High Street
Leeds
Dear Sir or Madam,
I read about the competition for Young Journalist of the Year on your
website and I am writing to ask for some more information.
Firstly, I would be grateful if you could tell me how long the article
should be. Also, would it be acceptable for me to enter an article that
has already been published? Secondly, could you let me know if I should
send photographs with the article? Finally, could you please confirm the
closing date of the competition?

adrea del remitent


data
adrea de la companyia
salutaci
motiu pel qual sescriu
successi de fets; llenguatge
formal
successi de fets; llenguatge
formal
successi de fets; llenguatge
formal

I look forward to hearing from you.


Yours faithfully,
K.M.Newman
K.M.Newman

136 WRITING REFERENCE

per acabar

signatura
nom

Una descripci dun lloc


Podem escriure una descripci dun lloc especial, un
edifici, una ciutat, una rea, una habitaci, etc.
Podem descriure laspecte del lloc, lambient, coses que
hi passen i per qu ens agrada o disgusta aquest lloc.

2 Contingut

Dna exemples de les coses / persones que hi ha en


aquest lloc.

Explica per qu el lloc s interessant o important.
Utilitza diferents tipus dadjectius per descriure
mida / aspecte / ambient..

Recorda!

Vocabulari dutilitat

1 Estructura

En el primer pargraf, explica on es troba el lloc i


resumeix el motiu pel qual lhas escollit.

En el pargraf o pargrafs segents, dna ms

informaci sobre el lloc, tant general com especfica.


Pensa qu shi veu / fa / olora / escolta. Com et fa
sentir?
En lltim pargraf, digues per qu a tu / altres persones
us agrada / no us agrada el lloc.

Ubicaci: only ten minutes from where I live /


very close to / in the town centre /
on the south coast of / opposite / next to / near
Comparatius i superlatius: the best/most popular / most
interesting / busier than / not as as
Per donar raons: What I like about is /
The main reason I like is / because
Adjectius: huge / tiny / modern / traditional / peaceful /
busy / crowded / interesting / historical
Noms: architecture / design / layout / history /
facilities / buildings
Per fer una recomanaci: This is a building every tourist
should see. / I would recommend a visit to /
If youre looking for a , dont miss

Pregunta model

Describe an interesting place to visit in your town. Why do you like it?
Descriu un lloc interessant per visitar a la teva localitat. Per qu tagrada?

Resposta model

If you visit my town, you must go to the Five Ways


Hotel. Its in the centre of the town and it is one of the
oldest and most interesting buildings in the area. It
is also famous all over the country for its restaurant,
where they serve traditional food cooked in the
original style.
The Five Ways is a small building, but you cant miss
it. The walls are covered with lovely climbing plants and
the tiny windows make the rooms quite dark. It feels very
safe and secure! It was built hundreds of years ago, when
people who were travelling to London stopped here for
food and rest. It was very popular because of the five
roads that met here.
Today, the small rooms have newer furniture and the
kitchen has the latest equipment, but the walls are
original and you can walk on the same floors as
people did centuries ago.
For me, this is an amazing place and for anyone
interested in history and good food I thoroughly
recommend a visit.

lloc
ubicaci
ra

adjectius
sentiments
histria
funci

comparatiu / superlatiu

opini
recomanaci

WRITING REFERENCE

137

Vocabulary reference
Unit 1 Student life
Education: verbs
achieve /@2"tSi;v/ aconseguir
cheat /tSi;t/ fer trampa
copy /"kQpi/ copiar
fail /feIl/ suspendre
get a high mark /get @ "haI mA;k/ treure bona nota
get a low mark /get @ "l@U mA;k/ treure mala nota
pass /pA;s/ aprovar
panic /"p&nIk/ posar-se molt nervis
retake /ri;"teIk/ tornar a fer (un examen)
revise /rI"vaIs/ repassar
study /"stVdi/ estudiar
take /teIk/ fer (un examen)

Education: nouns
primary school /"praIm@ri sku;l/ escola primria
secondary school /"sek@ndri sku;l/ institut de secundria
subject /"sVbdZekt/ assignatura
uniform /"ju;nIfO;m/ uniforme
university /ju;nI"v3;s@ti/ universitat

Adjective, verb and noun prefixes


anti-learning /&nti "l3;nIN/ antiaprenentatge
anti-war /&nti "wO;/ antiguerra
co-educational /k@UedZu"keISnl/ coeducacional
coexist /k@UIg"zIst/ coexistir
cooperation /k@UQp@"reISn/ cooperaci
misbehave /mIsbI"heIv/ portar-se malament
misprint /"mIsprInt/ errata
misunderstand /mIsVnd@"st&nd/ entendre (alguna cosa) malament
outperform /aUtp@"fO;m/ fer alguna cosa ms b (que alg)
outplay /aUt"pleI/ jugar ms b (que alg)
outrun /aUt"rVn/ crrer ms (que alg)
overcharge /@Uv@"tSA;dZ/ cobrar de ms
overconfident /@Uv@"kQnfId@nt/ massa segur dun mateix
overwork /@Uv@"wO;k/ treballar massa
rewrite /ri;"raIt/ tornar a escriure
redo /ri;"du;/ refer
underachieve /Vnd@r@"tSi;v/ rendir menys del compte
undercook /Vnd@"kUk/ no cuinar prou (alguna cosa)
underestimate /Vnd@r"estImeIt/ subestimar

Adjectives + prepositions
addicted to /@"dIktId tu;/ addicte a alguna cosa
bad at /"b&d @t/ ser dolent en alguna cosa (no tenir facilitat
per a alguna cosa)
dependent on /dI"pend@nt Qn/ ser dependent dalguna cosa/alg
excited about /Ik"saItId @baUt/ fer illusi, estar entusiasmat
amb alguna cosa/alg
famous for /"faIm@s f@/ ser fams per alguna cosa
good at /"gUd @t/ fer alguna cosa b, ser bo en alguna cosa
interested in /"Intr@stId In/ estar interessat en alguna cosa

138 VOCABULARY REFERENCE

involved in /In"vQlvd In/ estar involucrat/ficat en alguna cosa


jealous of /"dZel@s @v/ estar gels dalguna cosa/alg
keen on /"ki;n Qn/ ser molt aficionat a alguna cosa
obsessed with /@b"sest wID/ estar obsessionat amb alguna
cosa/alg
pleased with /"pli;zd wID/ estar content amb alguna cosa/alg
proud of /"praUd @v/ estar orgulls dalguna cosa/alg
remembered for /rI"memb@d f@/ ser recordat per alguna cosa
serious about /"sI@rI@s @baUt/ prendres quelcom seriosament
similar to /"sImIl@ tu;/ semblant a

False friends
advise /@d"vaIz/ donar consell
attend /@"tend/ assistir
career /k@"rI@/ carrera professional
college /"kQlIdZ/ institut de formaci
lecture /"lektS@/ classe magistral
library /"laIbr@ri/ biblioteca
realize /"ri;@laIz/ adonar-se
success /s@k"ses/ xit

Unit 2 Its a date


Love and relationships: verbs
beright for somebody /bi raIt f@ "sVmb@di/
ser adequat per a alg
date /deIt/ sortir amb alg
enjoy somebodys company /@ndZOI sVmb@di;z "kVmp@ni/
gaudir de la companyia dalg
fall in love /fO;l @n "lVv/ enamorar-se
fancy /"f&nsi/ agradar
finish with /"fInIS wID/ deixar-ho amb
flirt /flE;t/ flirtejar
have something in common /h&v sVmTIN In "kQm@n/
tenir alguna cosa en com
keep in touch /ki;p In "tVtS/ mantenir el contacte
kiss /kIs/ besar
make a good impression /meIk @ gUd Im"preSn/
causar bona impressi
row /raU/ barallar-se

Love and relationships: nouns


date /deIt/ parella
rejection /rI"dZekSn/ rebuig
partner /"pA;tn@/ parella

Negative prefixes
disapprove /dIs@"pru;v/ no estar dacord amb
dishonesty /dIs"Qn@sti/ manca dhonradesa
disloyalty /dIs"lOI@lti/ deslleialtat
illegal /I"li;gl/ illegal
illegible /I"ledZ@bl/ illegible
immature /Im@"tjU@/ immadur
impolite /Imp@"laIt/ mal educat
impossible /Im"pQs@bl/ impossible
incompatible /Ink@m"p&t@bl/ incompatible

irrational /I"r&S@nl/ irracional


irresponsible /IrI"spQns@bl/ irresponsable
uncomfortable /Vn"kVmft@bl/ incmode
unusual /Vn"ju;Zu@l/ inusual

Extreme and normal adjectives


amazed /@"meIzd/ sorprs
attractive /@"tr&ktIv/ atractiu
brilliant /"brIli@nt/ brillant, genial
clever /"klev@/ intelligent, llest
delighted /dI"laItId/ encantat
devastated /"dev@steItId/ desolat, destrossat
fascinated /"f&sIneItId/ fascinat
funny /"fVni/ gracis/ estrany
gorgeous /"gO;dZ@s/ precis, magnfic
hideous /"hIdI@s/ espants, horrors
hilarious /hI"le@rI@s/ divertidssim
interested /"Intr@stId/ interessat
miserable /"mIz@r@bl/ abatut, infeli
pleased /"pli;zd/ content, satisfet
sad /s&d/ trist
scared /ske@d/ espantat
surprised /s@"praIzd/ sorprs
terrified /"terIfaId/ aterrat, horroritzat
ugly /"Vgli/ lleig
upset /Vp"set/ alterat

Phrasal verbs (1): relationships


ask out /A;sk "aUt/ demanar per sortir
chat up /tS&t "Vp/ lligar amb alg
fall for /"fO;l f@/ enamorar-se
fall out /fO;l "aUt/ enfadar-se
get on /get "Qn/ portar-se b
go out /g@U "aUt/ sortir
grow apart /gr@U @"pA;t/ distanciar-se
put up with /pUt "Vp wID/ suportar
settle down /setl "daUn/ posar seny
split up /splIt "Vp/ deixar una relaci

Unit 3 Adventure
Travel and adventure: verbs
book /bUk/ reservar
catch (a plane) /k&tS (@ "pleIn)/ agafar (un avi)
explore /Ik"splO:/ explorar
go (swimming) /g@U ("swImIN)/ anar (a nedar)
go on an adventure /g@U Qn @n @d"ventS@/ anar daventura
go on holiday /g@U Qn "hQl@deI/ anar de vacances
hire /"haI@/ llogar
pack /p&k/ fer la maleta
spend (a day) /spend (@ deI)/ passar (un dia)
sunbathe /"sVnbeID/ prendre el sol
take a trip /teIk @ "trIp/ anar de viatge, fer una excursi
take a photograph /teIk @ "f@Ut@grA;f/ treure una foto

Travel and adventure: nouns


bungee jump /"bVndZi dZVmp/ salt de pont
crevasse /kr@"v&s/ esquerda
desert /"dez@t/ desert
summit /"sVmIt/ cim
sunburn /"sVnb3;n/ cremada de sol
suntan /"sVnt&n/ bronzejat
survival /s@"vaIvl/ supervivncia

Noun suffixes
ability /@"bIl@ti/ habilitat
ambition /&m"bISn/ ambici
caution /"kO;Sn/ cura

determination /dIt3;mI"neISn/ determinaci, resoluci


encouragement /In"kVrIdZm@nt/ nim
endurance /In"djU@r@ns/ resistncia
enjoyment /In"dZOIm@nt/ plaer
happiness /"h&pInIs/ alegria
imagination /Im&dZI"neISn/ imaginaci
inspiration /Insp@"reISn/ inspiraci
patience /"peISns/ pacincia
performance /p@"fO;m@ns/ actuaci
reality /ri"&l@ti/ realitat
toughness /"tVfnIs/ resistncia
violence /"vaI@l@ns/ violncia
weakness /"wi;kn@s/ debilitat

get, lose and take


get a job /get @ "dZQb/ aconseguir una feina
get nowhere /get "n@Uwe@/ no anar enlloc
get permission /get p@"mIS@n/ obtenir perms per fer alguna
cosa
get the chance /get De "tSA;ns/ tenir loportunitat de fer
alguna cosa
lose touch /lu;z "tVtS/ perdre el contacte amb alguna cosa/alg
lose your memory /lu;z j@ "mem@rI/ perdre la memria
lose your temper /lu;z j@ "temp@/ perdre els estreps
lose weight /lu;z "weIt/ perdre pes
take a break /teIk @ "breIk/ prendres/fer un descans
take a look /teIk @ "lUk/ fer una ullada
take notes /teIk "n@Uts/ agafar apunts
take your time /teIk j@ "taIm/ prendres alguna cosa amb
calma, amb temps

Phrasal verbs (2): travel


break down /breIk "daUn/ espatllar-se
carry on /"k&ri Qn/ seguir
come across /kVm @"krQs/ trobar-se amb
get away /get @"weI/ escapar
get back /get "b&k/ tornar
head for /"hed f@/ anar cap a
pick up /pIk "Vp/ recollir
see off /si; "Qf/ acomiadar
set off /set "Qf/ sortir
take off /teIk "Qf/ enlairar-se

Unit 4 Crime and justice


Law and justice: adjectives
guilty /"gIlti/ culpable
innocent /"In@snt/ innocent

Law and justice: nouns


court /kO;t/ jutjat
crime /kraIm/ crim
criminal /krImInl/ criminal
detective /dI"tektIv/ detectiu
evidence /"evId@ns/ proves
judge /dZVdZ/ jurat
jury /"dZU@ri/ jurado
justice /"dZVstIs/ justcia
law /lO;/ dret
lawyer /"lO;j@/ advocat
prison /"prIzn/ pres
punishment /"pVnISm@nt/ cstig
sentence /"sent@ns/ sentncia
suspect /"sVspekt/ sospits
victim /"vIktIm/ vctima
witness /"wItn@s/ testimoni

VOCABULARY REFERENCE

139

Law and justice: verbs


arrest /@"rest/ arrestar
commit (a crime) /k@"mIt (@ kraIm)/ cometre (un crim)
investigate /In"vestIgeIt/ investigar
prove /pru;v/ demostrar

Compound nouns
bus stop /"bVs stQp/ parada dautobs
care home /"ke@ h@Um/ residncia
community service /k@mju;n@ti "s3;vIs/
servei comunitari
crime scene /"kraIm si;n/ el lloc del delicte
defence lawyer /dI"fens lO;j@/ advocat defensor
detective series /dI"tektIv sI@ri;z/ srie de detectius
exam result /Ig"z&m rIzVlt/ resultat dun examen
football team /"fUtbO;l ti;m/ equip de futbol
keyboard /"ki;bO;d/ teclat
notebook /"n@UtbUk/ llibreta, quadern
police car /p@"li;s ka;/ cotxe de policia
policeman /p@"li;sm@n/ policia
school building /"sku;l bIldIN/ edifici de lescola
summer holiday /sVm@ "hQl@deI/ vacances destiu
traffic lights /"tr&fIk laIts/ semfor

Prepositions + nouns
against the law /@genst De "lO;/ en contra de la llei
against the odds /@genst De Qdz/
a pesar dels pronstics
at all times /&t O;l "taImz/ sempre, en tot moment
at risk /&t "rIsk/ en perill
by accident /baI "&ksId@nt/ per casualitat, sense voler
by yourself /baI jO;"self/ sense lajut de ning
for a living /f@ @ "lIvIN/ per guanyar-se la vida, de
qu es treballa
for certain /f@ "s3;tn/ amb seguretat
in debt /In "det/ en deute
in front /In "frVnt/ davant
on purpose /Qn "p3;p@s/ a propsit
on your own /Qn jO; "OUn/ estar sol
under arrest /Vnd@ @"rest/ estar detingut
under the circumstances /Vnd@ De "sek@mst@ns@z/
donades les circumstncies
without doubt /wIDaUt "daUt/ sens dubte
without exception /wIDaUt Ik"sepS@n/ sense excepci

Crimes and criminals


burglar /"b3;gl@/ lladre (de cases)
burglary /"b3;gl@ri/ robatori (duna casa)
burgle /"b3;gl/ robar (una casa)
kidnap /"kIdn&p/ segrestar
kidnapper /"kIdn&p@/ segrestador
kidnapping /"kIdn&pIN/ segrest
mug /mVg/ atracar
mugger /"mVg@/ atracador
mugging /"mVgIN/ atracament
murder (noun) /"m3;d@/ assassinat
murder (verb) /"m3;d@/ assassinar
murderer /"m3;d@r@/ assass
rob /rQb/ robar
robber /"rQb@/ lladre
robbery /"rQb@ri/ robatori
shoplift /"SQplIft/ robar (en una botiga)
shoplifter /"SQplIft@/ lladre (en una botiga)
shoplifting /"SQplIftIN/ robar (en una botiga)
steal /sti;l/ robar
theft /Teft/ robatori
thief /Ti;f/ lladre

140 VOCABULARY REFERENCE

vandal /"v&ndl/ vndal


vandalism /"v&nd@lIz@m/ vandalisme
vandalize /"v&nd@laIz/ destrossar

Unit 5 Rubbish!
Advertising and marketing: verbs
advertise /"&dv@taIz/ anunciar
appeal to /@"pi;l t@/ agradar a
manufacture /m&nju"f&ktS@/ produir
package /"p&kIdZ/ embolcall, paquet
purchase /"p3;tS@s/ adquirir
recycle /ri;"saIkl/ reciclar
reuse /ri;"ju;z/ reutilitzar
spend /spend/ gastar
target /"tA;gIt/ estar dirigit a
throw away /Tr@U @"weI/ llenar a les escombraries

Shopping: nouns
appliance /@"plaI@ns/ aparell
credit card /"kredIt kA;d/ targeta de crdit
factory /"f&ktri/ fbrica
jumble sale /"dZVmbl seIl/ mercat
product /"prQdVkt/ producte
second-hand shop /sek@nd "h&nd SQp/
botiga de segona m

Waste: verbs
pollute /p@"lu;t/ polluir
throw away /Tr@U @"weI/ llenar a les escombraries
use up /ju;z "Vp/ utilitzar-ho tot

Waste: nouns
dump /dVmp/ abocador
fine /faIn/ multa
natural resource /n&tSr@l rI"sO;s/ recurs natural
rubbish /"rVbIS/ escombraries
waste /weIst/ deixalla

Adjective suffixes
active /"&ktIv/ actiu
adventurous /@d"ventS@r@s/ aventurer
angry /"&Ngri/ enfadat
careless /"ke@lIs/ descuidat, despreocupat
daily /"deIli/ diari, quotidi
dangerous /"deIndZ@r@s/ perills
effective /I"fektIv/ efica
English /"INglIS/ angls
environmental /In"vaIr@nm@nt/ mediambiental
fashionable /"f&Sn@bl/ de moda
foolish /"fu;lIS/ insensat, estpid
harmful /"hA;mfl/ nociu
hazardous /"h&z@d@s/ perills
knowledgeable /"nQlIdZ@bl/ ents, culte
lively /"laIvli/ animat, alegre
natural /"n&tSr@l/ natural
pleasurable /"pleZ@r@bl/ agradable, grat
rainy /"reIni/ plujs
selfish /"selfIS/ egoista
successful /s@k"sesfl/ amb xit

Collocations: the environment


carbon emissions /kA;bn I"mIS@nz/ emissions de carboni
damage the environment /d&mIdZ De In"vaIr@nm@nt/
malmetre el medi ambient
donate money to charity /d@UneIt mVnI t@ "tS&rItI/
donar diners per a obres benfiques
emit pollution /ImIt p@"lu;S@n/ produir contaminaci

endangered species /IndeIndZId "spi;Si;z/ espcies en perill


dextinci
environmentally-friendly /InvaIr@nm@nt@lI "frendli/
ecolgic, que no malmet el medi ambient
global warming /gl@Ubl "wO;mIN/
escalfament del planeta
natural resources /n&tSr@l rI"sO;s@z/ recursos naturals
ozone layer /"@Uz@Un leI@/ capa doz
rubbish dump /"rVbIS dVmp/ abocador
take care of (something) /taIk "ke@ @v (sVmTIN)/
tenir cura dalguna cosa

Phrasal verbs (3): problems and solutions


bring about /brIN @"baUt/ donar lloc a
carry out /k&ri "aUt/ dur alguna cosa a terme
deal with /"di;l wID/ resoldre
face up to /feIs "Vp t@/ enfrontar-se a
get across /get @"krQs/ transmetre
look into /lUk "Int@/ investigar
point out /pOInt "aUt/ remarcar
put off /pUt "Qf/ ajornar

Unit 6 Food
Food: adjectives
fast /fA;st/ rpid
fattening /"f&tnIN/ que engreixa
fresh /freS/ fresc
healthy /"helTi/ sa
junk /dZVNk/ (comida) escombraries
spicy /"spaIsi/ picant
sugary /"SUg@ri/ dol
sweet /swi;t/ dol
tasty /"teIsti/ sabors

Food: nouns
carbohydrate /kA;b@U"haIdreIt/ hidrat de carboni
diet /"daI@t/ rgim
energy /"en@dZi/ energia
flavour /"fleIv@/ sabor

Food: verbs
cut out /kVt "aUt/ eliminar
eat out /i;t "aUt/ sortir a sopar
give up /gIv "Vp/ deixar
go on a diet /g@U Qn @ "dai@t/ posar-se a rgim
put on weight /pUt Qn "weIt/ agafar pes
stick to (a diet) /stIk t@ (@ "dai@t)/ seguir (un rgim)

Nouns + prepositions
addiction to /@"dIkSn t@/ addicci a
argument with /"A;gjum@nt wID/ discussi amb
ban on /b&n @n/ prohibici de
damage to /"d&mIdZ t@/ dany a
description of /dI"skrIpSn @v/ descripci de
improvement in /Im"pru;vm@nt In/ millora de
influence on /"Influ@ns Qn/ influncia sobre
interview with /"Int@vju; wID/ entrevista amb
pride in /"praId In/ orgull de
problem with /"prQbl@m wID/ problema amb
reason for /"ri;zn f@/ ra per
recipe for /"res@pi f@/ recepta de
responsibility for /rIspQns@"bIl@ti f@/ responsabilitat sobre
risk of /"rIsk @v/ risc de
smell of /"smel @v/ olor de
solution to /s@"lu;Sn t@/ soluci a

Words with similar meanings


delighted /dI"laItId/ encantat
dissatisfied /dIs"s&tIsfaId/ descontentat
glance /glA;ns/ mirada, ullada
heartbroken /"hA;tbr@Ukn/ desolat
jog /dZQg/ empujoncito/estmulo/cursa a trot curt
obese /@U"bi;s/ obs
peckish /"pekIS/ amb ganes de menjar alguna cosa
pleased /"pli;zd/ content, satisfet
scent /sent/ perfum, aroma
skinny /"skIni/ prim
slim /slIm/ prim, esvelt
sprint /sprint/ esprint
stare /ste@/ mirar fixament
starving /"stA;vIN/ afamat
well-built /wel "bIlt/ de construcci slida, fornit

Senses: nouns
hearing /"hI@rIN/ oda
sight /saIt/ vista
smell /smel/ olfacte
taste /teIst/ sabor
touch /tVtS/ tacte

Senses: verbs
feel /fi;l/ sentir
look /lUk/ mirar
seem /si;m/ semblar
smell /smel/ olorar
sound /saUnd/ sonar
taste /teIst/ saber

Senses: expressions
as if /&z "If/ com si
as though /&z "D@U/ com si
like /laIk/ de forma semblant a

Unit 7 Personality
Personality: adjectives
adventurous /@d"ventS@r@s/ aventurer
ambitious /&m"bIS@s/ ambicis
calm /kA;m/ calma
caring /"ke@rIN/ protector
charming /"tSA;mIN/ encantador
confident /"kQnfId@nt/ segur dun mateix
easy-going /i;zi "g@UIN/ tranquil
embarrassed /Im"b&r@st/ avergonyit
emotional /I"m@US@nl/ sensible, emotiu
energetic /en@"dZetIk/ energtic
hard-working /hA;d "w3;kIN/ treballador
independent /IndI"pend@nt/ independent
lazy /"leIzi/ drpol
moody /"mu;di/ temperamental
optimistic /QptI"mIstIk/ optimista
pessimistic /pesI"mIstIk/ pessimista
quick-tempered /kwIk "temp@d/ amb molt de geni
sensible /"sens@bl/ sensat
sensitive /"sens@tIv/ sensible
sweet /swi;t/ dol
unselfish /Vn"selfIS/ geners

Compound adjectives
badly-behaved /b&dli bI"heIvd/ que es porta malament
bad-tempered /b&d "temp@d/ de mal geni, malhumorat
best-selling /"best selIN/ de major venda
broad-minded /brO;d "maIndId/ obert de ment

VOCABULARY REFERENCE

141

cold-hearted /k@Uld "hA;tId/ despietat


cool-headed /ku;l "hedId/ ser
dark-haired /dA;k "he@d/ de pl fosc
easy-going /i;zi "g@UIN/ de tracte fcil, relaxat
fair-haired /fe@ "he@d/ de pl clar
far-reaching /fA; "ri;tSIN/ de gran abast
good-looking /gUd "lUkIN/ maco, de bon veure
good-natured /gUd "neItS@d/ de bon carcter
good-tempered /gUd "temp@d/ amists, de bon humor
hot-headed /hQt "hedId/ impetus
narrow-minded /n&r@U "maIndId/ estret de mires
quick-tempered /kwIk "temp@d/ amb molt de geni
strong-willed /strQN "wIld/ decidit
warm-hearted /wO;m "hA;tId/ de bon cor
well-behaved W/wel bI"heIvd/ que es porta b
well-dressed /Wwel "drest/ ben vestit

reference /"refr@ns/ referncia


salary /"s&l@ri/ salari
qualification /kwQlIfI"keISn/ qualificaci
workaholic /Ww3;k@hQlIk/ addicte al treball

Work: verbs
apply /@"plaI/ sollicitar
earn /3;n/ cobrar
employ /Im"plOI/ contractar
enquire /In"kwaI@/ preguntar

Verbs + prepositions

ascool as a cucumber /@z ku;l @z @ "kju;kVmb@/


ser una persona tranquilla
as gentle as a lamb /@z dZentl @z @ "l&m/ amable, bo
as quiet as a mouse /@z kwaI@t @z @ "maUs/ molt callat
asred as a beetroot /@z red @z @ "bi;tru;t/
vermell com un pebrot
as thin as a rake /@z Tin @z @ "reIk/ molt prim

agree with /@"gri; wiD/ estar dacord amb


apply for /@"plai f@/ sollicitar, demanar
approve of /@"pru;v @v/ semblar b, estar dacord
argue about "Agju; @baUt discutir sobre
belong to /bI"lQN t@/ pertnyer a
borrow from /"bQr@U fr@m/ agafar prestat
come from /"kVm fr@m/ venir de, ser de
compare with /k@m"pe@ wiD/ comparar amb
consist of /k@n"sIst @v/ constar de, consistir a
convince of /k@n"vIns @v/ convncer de
depend on dI"pend Qn dependre de
disagree with dis@"gri; wiD no estar dacord amb
happen to /"h&pn t@/ succeir alguna cosa per casualitat
help with "help wID ajudar amb
listen to "lIsn t@ escoltar a
look for "lUk f@ buscar
plan on /"pl&n Qn/ comptar amb
recover from /rI"kVv@ fr@m/ recuperar-se de
rely on rI"laI Qn dependre de
search for /"s3;tS f@/ buscar
talk to "tO;k t@ parlar amb
think of "TINk @v pensar en
work for "w3;k f@ treballar per a
worry about /"wVri @baUt/ preocupar-se dalguna cosa

Idioms

Word families

down in the dumps /daUn In D@ "dVmps/ deprimit


fly off the handle /flaI Qf D@ "h&ndl/ perdre els estreps
heart of gold /hA;t @v "gQld/ cor dor
over the moon /@Uv@ D@ "mu;n/ molt content
pain in the neck /peIn In D@ "nek/ ser un pesat

commitment /k@"mItm@nt/ obligaci


committed /k@"mItId/ comproms
compete /k@m"pi;t/ competir
competition /k@mpI"tIS@n/ competici
educated /"edjUkeItId0/ culte
education /edjU"keIS@n/ educaci, estudis
experience /Ik"spI@rI@ns/ experincia
experienced /Ik"spI@rI@nst/ amb experincia
knowledge /"nQlIdZ/ coneixement
knowledgeable /"nQlIdZ@bl/ informat, ents
preparation /prep@"reIS@n/ preparaci
prepared /pre"pe@d/ preparat
qualification /kwQlIfIkeIS@n/ ttol
qualified /"kwQlIfaId/ titulat
success /s@k"ses/ xit
successful /s@k"sesfl/ tenir xit
sympathetic /sImp@"TetIk/ compassiu, comprensiu
sympathy /"sImp@TI/ compassi, solidaritat

Nouns from phrasal verbs


breakdown /"breIkdaUn/ fallada, fracs, ruptura
get-together /"get t@geD@/ reuni, festa
grown-up /"gr@Un Vp/ adult
makeup /"meIkVp/ maquillatge
outcry /"aUtkraI/ protesta, enrenou
takeaway /"teIk@weI/ (botiga, menjar) per emportar
take-off /"teIkQf/ enlairament
upbringing /"VpbrININ/ educaci
washing-up /wQSIN "Vp/ rentar els plats

Similes

Unit 8 Get a job!


Work: adjectives
full-time /fUl "taIm/ a temps complet
part-time /pA;t "taIm/ mitja jornada
trainee /treI"ni;/ empleat en prctiques

Work: people
au pair /@U "pe@/ au pair
chef /Sef/ cuiner
entrepreneur /Qntr@pr@"n3;/ empresari
journalist /"dZ3;n@lIst/ periodista
manager /"m&nIdZ@/ director
model /"mQdl/ model
sales assistant /seIlz @"sIst@nt/ venedor
sculptor /"skVlpt@/ escultor
tutor /"tju;t@/ tutor

Work: other nouns


application form /&plI"keISn fO;m/ formulari de sollicitud
CV /si;"vi;/ currculum
employment /Im"plOIm@nt/ treball
experience /Ik"spI@ri@ns/ experincia

142 VOCABULARY REFERENCE

Phrasal verbs (4): with get and put


get by /get "baI/ sobreviure (econmicament)
get down to /get "daUn t@/ posar-se
get on /get "Qn/ tener xit
get through /get "Tru;/ acabar
put across /pUt @"krQs/ transmetre
put in /pUt "In/ enviar
put off /pUt "Qf/ ajornar
put up /pUt "Vp/ pujar

Irregular verbs
infinitive
be /bi;/
bear /be@/
beat /bi;t/
become /bI"kVm/
begin /bI"gIn/
bend /bend/
bet /bet/
bite /baIt/
bleed /bli;d/
blow /bl@U/
break /breIk/
bring /brIN/
build /bIld/
burn /b3;n/
buy /baI/
catch /k&tS/
choose /tSu;z/
come /kVm/
cost /kQst/
cut /kVt/
dig /dIg/
do /du;/
draw /drO;/
dream /dri;m/
drink /drINk/
drive /draIv/
eat /i;t/
fall /fO;l/
feed /fi;d/
feel /fi;l/
fight /faIt/
find /faInd/
fly /flaI/
forbid /f@"bId/
forget /f@"get/
forgive /f@"gIv/
freeze /fri;z/
get /get/
give /gIv/
go /g@U/
grow /gr@U/
hang /h&N/
have /h&v/
hear /hI@/
hit /hIt/
hold /h@Uld/
hurt /h3;t/
keep /ki;p/
know /n@U/
lead /li;d/
learn /l3;n/
leave /li;v/
lend /lend/
let /let/

past simple
was / were /wQz/
bore /bO;/
beat /bi;t/
became /bI"keIm/
began /bI"g&n/
bent /bent/
bet /bet/
bit /bIt/
bled /bled/
blew /blu;/
broke /br@Uk/
brought /brO;t/
built /bIlt/
burned, burnt /b3;nd, b3;nt/
bought /bO;t/
caught /kO;t/
chose /tS@Uz/
came /keIm/
cost /kQst/
cut /kVt/
dug /dVg/
did /dId/
drew /dru;/
dreamed, dreamt /dri;md, dremt/
drank /dr&Nk/
drove /dr@Uv/
ate /eIt/
fell /fel/
fed /fed/
felt /felt/
fought /fO;t/
found /faUnd/
flew /flu;/
forbade /f@"beId/
forgot /f@"gQt/
forgave /f@"geIv/
froze /fr@Uz/
got /gQt/
gave /geIv/
went /went/
grew /gru;/
hung /hVN/
had /h&d/
heard /h3;d/
hit /hIt/
held /held/
hurt /h3;t/
kept /kept/
knew /nju;/
led /led/
learnt, learned /l3;nt, l3;nt/
left /left/
lent /lent/
let /let/

past participle
been /bi;n/
borne /bO;n/
beaten /"bi;t@n/
become /bI"kVm/
begun /bI"gVn/
bent /bent/
bet /bet/
bitten /"bItn/
bled /bled/
blown /bl@Un/
broken /"br@Ukn/
brought /brO;t/
built /bIlt/
burned, burnt /b3;nd, b3;nt/
bought /bO;t/
caught /kO;t/
chosen /"tS@Uzn/
come /kVm/
cost /kQst/
cut /kVt/
dug /dVg/
done /dVn/
drawn /drO;n/
dreamed, dreamt /dri;md, dremt/
drunk /drVNk/
driven /"drIv@n/
eaten /"i;t@n/
fallen /"fO;l@n/
fed /fed/
felt /felt/
fought /fO;t/
found /faUnd/
flown /fl@Un/
forbidden /f@"bIdn/
forgotten /f@"gQtn/
forgiven /f@"gIvn/
frozen /"fr@Uz@n/
got /gQt/
given /"gIvn/
been / gone /bi;n, gQn/
grown /gr@Un/
hung /hVN/
had /h&d/
heard /h3;d/
hit /hIt/
held /held/
hurt /h3;t/
kept /kept/
known /n@Un/
led /led/
learnt, learned /l3;nt, l3;nt/
left /left/
lent /lent/
let /let/

translation
ser, estar
aguantar
guanyar
esdevenir
comenar
doblegar
apostar
mossegar
sagnar
bufar
trencar
portar
construir
burned / cremar
comprar
agafar
escollir
venir
costar
cortar
cavar
fer
dibuixar
somiar
beure
conduir
menjar
caure
donar de
sentir(se)
barallar(se)
trobar
volar
prohibir
oblidar
perdonar
congelar(se)
obtenir, aconseguir
donar
anar
crixer
penjar
tenir
escoltar
pegar
tenir (a la m)
ferir, fer(-se) mal
mantenir
saber, conixer
dirigir
aprendre
deixar, abandonar
deixar prestat
permetre
IRREGULAR VERBS

143

infinitive
lie /laI/
light /laIt/
lose /lu;z/
make /meIk/
mean /mi;n/
meet /mi;t/
pay /peI/
put /pUt/
read /ri;d/
ride /raId/

ring /rIN/
rise /raIz/
run /rVn/
say /seI/
see /si;/
sell /sel/
send /send/
shake /SeIk/
shine /SaIn/
shoot /Su;t/
show /S@U/
shut /SVt/
sing /sIN/
sink /sINk/
sit /sIt/
sleep /sli;p/
smell /smel/
speak /spi;k/
spell /spel/
spend /spend/
spill /spIl/
spin /spIn/
split /splIt/
spoil /spOIl/
spread /spred/
spring /sprIN/
stand /st&nd/
steal /sti;l/
stick /stIk/
sting /stIN/
sweep /swi;p/
swim /swIm/
swing /swIN/
take /teIk/
teach /ti;tS/
tear /te@/
tell /tel/
think /TINk/
throw /Tr@U/
understand /Vnd@"st&nd/
wake /weIk/
wear /we@/
win /wIn/
write /raIt/

144 IRREGULAR VERBS

past simple
lay /leI/
lit /lIt/
lost /lQst/
made /meId/
meant /ment/
met /met/
paid /peId/
put /pUt/
read /red/
rode /r@Ud/

rang /r&N/
rose /r@Uz/
ran /r&n/
said /sed/
saw /sO;/
sold /s@Uld/
sent /sent/
shook /SUk/
shone /SQn/
shot /SQt/
showed /S@Ud/
shut /SVt/
sang /s&N/
sank /s&Nk/
sat /s&t/
slept /slept/
smelt /smelt/
spoke /sp@Uk/
spelt /spelt/
spent /spent/
spilt /spIlt/
spun /spVn/
split /splIt/
spoilt /spOIl/
spread /spred/
sprang /spr&N/
stood /stUd/
stole /st@Ul/
stuck /stVk/
stung /stVN/
swept /swept/
swam /sw&m/
swung /swVN/
took /tUk/
taught /tO;t/
tore /tO;/
told /t@Uld/
thought /TO;t/
threw /Tru;/
understood /Vnd@"stUd/
woke /w@Uk/
wore /wO;/
won /wVn/
wrote /r@Ut/

past participle
lain /leIn/
lit /lIt/
lost /lQst/
made /meId/
meant /ment/
met /met/
paid /peId/
put /pUt/
read /red/
ridden /"rIdn/

rung /rVN/
risen /"rIzn/
run /rVn/
said /sed/
seen /si;n/
sold /s@Uld/
sent /sent/
shaken /SeIkn/
shone /SQn/
shot /SQt/
shown /S@Un/
shut /SVt/
sung /sVN/
sunk /sVNk/
sat /s&t/
slept /slept/
smelt /smelt/
spoken /"sp@Ukn/
spelt /spelt/
spent /spent/
spilt /spIlt/
spun /spVn/
split /splIt/
spoilt /spOIlt/
spread /spred/
sprung /sprVN/
stood /stUd/
stolen /st@Ul@n/
stuck /stVk/
stung /stVN/
swept /swept/
swum /swVm/
swung /swVN/
taken /"teIkn/
taught /tO;t/
torn /tO;n/
told /t@Uld/
thought /TO;t/
thrown /Tr@Un/
understood /Vnd@"stUd/
woken /w@Ukn/
worn /wO;n/
won /wVn/
written /"rItn/

translation
jeure
encendre
perdre
fer
significar
trobar(se)
pagar
posar
llegir
muntar (a cavall),
anar (amb bicicleta)
sonar, trucar
pujar
crrer
dir
veure
vendre
enviar
sacsejar
brillar
disparar
ensenyar
tancar
cantar
enfonsar(se)
seure
dormir
olorar
parlar
lletrejar
gastar (diners), passar (temps)
vessar
girar
trencar (en dos)
arrunar, mimar
estendre's
brotar
estar de peu, tolerar
robar
enganxar amb cola
picar
escombrar
nedar
balancejar
agafar, prendre, portar (temps)
ensenyar
esquinar
dir
pensar
llenar
entendre
despertar-se
dur posat
guanyar
escriure

3
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