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3D Joints for Bars, Solids, Space Membranes and Semiloof Shell

Corners

3D Joints for Bars, Solids, Space Membranes and Semiloof


Shell Corners
General
Element Name

JNT4, JL43

Y,v

x
y
3

X,u
Z,w

1
2
z

Element Group

Joints

Element Subgroup

3D Joints

Element Description

A 3D joint element which connects two nodes by three


springs in the local x, y and z-directions. Use JL43 for
semiloof shell corner nodes.

Number Of Nodes

4. The 3rd and 4th nodes are used to define the local xaxis and local xy-plane.

Freedoms

U, V, W: at nodes 1 and 2 (active nodes).

Node Coordinates

X, Y, Z: at each node.

Geometric Properties

Joints

Not applicable.

Material Properties
Linear Not applicable.
Matrix Stiffness:

Mass:

MATRIX PROPERTIES STIFFNESS 6 K1,...,


K21 element stiffness matrix (Not supported
in LUSAS Modeller)
MATRIX PROPERTIES MASS 6 M1,..., M21
element mass matrix (Not supported in
LUSAS Modeller)

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Joint Elements
Damping:

Joint Standard:
Dynamic
general:
Elasto-plastic:
Elasto-plastic:

Concrete
Elasto-Plastic
Rubber
Composite
Field
Stress Potential
Creep
Damage
Viscosity

Nonlinear
contact:
Nonlinear
friction:
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.
Not applicable.

MATRIX PROPERTIES DAMPING 6 C1,...,


C21 element damping matrix (Not supported
in LUSAS Modeller)
JOINT PROPERTIES 3 (Joint: 3/Stiffness)
JOINT PROPERTIES GENERAL 3 (Joint:
3/General)
JOINT PROPERTIES NONLINEAR 31 3
(Joint: 3/Elasto-Plastic)
JOINT PROPERTIES NONLINEAR 32 3
(Joint: 3/Asymmetric)
JOINT PROPERTIES NONLINEAR 33 3
(Joint: 3/Initial Gap)
JOINT PROPERTIES NONLINEAR 34 3
(Joint: 3/Frictional)

Loading
Prescribed
Value
Concentrated
Loads
Element Loads
Distributed
Loads
Body Forces

PDSP, TPDSP

Prescribed variable. U, V, W: at active nodes.

CL

Concentrated loads. Px, Py, Pz: at active nodes.

Not applicable.
Not applicable.
CBF

BFP, BFPE
Velocities VELO
Accelerations ACCE
Initial SSI, SSIE
Stress/Strains
SSIG

Constant body forces for element. Xcbf, Ycbf,


Zcbf, x, y, z, x, y, z
Not applicable.
Velocities. Vx, Vy, Vz: at nodes.
Accelerations. Ax, Ay, Az: at nodes.
Initial stresses/strains at nodes/for element. Fx,
Fy, Fz: spring forces in local directions. x, y,
z: spring strains in local directions.
Not applicable.

272

3D Joints for Bars, Solids, Space Membranes and Semiloof Shell


Corners
Residual Not applicable.
Stresses
Temperatures TEMP, TMPE

Temperatures at nodes/for element. T1, T2, T3,


T1o, T2o, T3o: actual and initial spring
temperatures.

Field Loads Not applicable.


Temp Not applicable.
Dependent
Loads

Output
LUSAS Solver

Force: Fx, Fy, Fz: spring forces in local directions.

LUSAS Modeller

See Results Tables (Appendix K).

Strain: x, y, z: spring strains in local directions.

Local Axes
q Standard joint element

Sign Convention
q Standard joint element

Formulation
Geometric Nonlinearity
Not applicable.

Stiffness Default.
Fine.
Mass Default.
Fine

1-point.
As default.
1-point.
As default.

Mass Modelling
Lumped mass only. The position of the mass(es) relative to the two active joint nodes
is defined in the joint material data. See Mass Lumping in LUSAS for a description
of the use of joint elements as point masses.

Options
55
119

Output strains as well as stresses.


Invokes temperature input for joints.
273

Joints

Integration Schemes

Joint Elements

Notes on Use
1. The nodes of a joint element need not be coincident, but for correct response the
distance between them should be as small as possible. This is particularly
important with joint elements which contain rotational degrees of freedom, since
the stiffness matrix is not formulated using engineering beam theory. This means
that a joint moment is independent of both shear force and its length. For
instance, the moment calculated with a joint length of zero will remain the same
magnitude at any other joint length.
These effects can be exacerbated significantly in dynamic analyses (e.g.
eigenvalue extraction or Hilber dynamics) and, therefore, we recommend that
joint elements representing lumped masses are placed between active nodes of the
structure. In this way a zero stiffness may be used for all the degrees of freedom
of the joint - the mass applied to whichever freedom is appropriate. Noncoincident nodes will lead to additional forces in the solution which are not in
equilibrium (usually small and swamped, but could be significant sometimes).
We do not recommend having joints hanging off the side of the structure,
having a large stiffness associated.
2. Joints do not support any geometric nonlinearity. They may be used, however, in
geometrically nonlinear analyses but will themselves remain geometrically linear
(i.e. infinitesimal strain is assumed and large deformation effects are ignored).
3. The strain for a joint element is measured as follows:
Strain measure = (displacement for 2nd node) - (displacement for 1st node)
This strain being measured in the local axis system. Therefore, if node 1 is
restrained, node 2 would need to be displaced in the negative local (x/y/z)
direction to generate compressive contact forces.
4. The rotation output for a joint element is measured in radians.

Restrictions
Not applicable.

Recommendation on Usage
The joint elements may be used to release degrees of freedom between elements, e.g.
a hinged shell, or to provide nonlinear support conditions, e.g. friction-gap
condition. Also, point masses may be represented by including a joint at an element
node.
The following table shows the finite elements compatible with each joint element.
Joint Elements

Compatible Finite Elements

JNT3

Bars

BAR2, BAR3

274

2D Plane Stress

QPM4, QPM8, TPM3,


TPM6, QPK8, TPK6,
QPM4M

2D Plane Strain

QPN4, QPN8, TPN3, TPN6,


QNK8, TNK6, QPN4M,
QPN4L

JPH3

2D Beams

BEAM, BM3, BMX3

JF3

2D Grillage

GRIL

2D Plates

TF3, QF4, TF6, QSC4,


TTF6, QTF8

Ribbed Beams

BRP2

Ribbed Plates

TRP3, RPI4

3D Bars

BRS2, BRS3

3D Solids

HX8, HX16, HX20, PN6,


PN12, PN15, TH4, TH10,
HX8M

JRP3
JNT4

Space Membranes

TSM3, SMI4

JL43

Semiloof Shells

TSL6, QSL8 (corner nodes)

JSH4

3D Beams

BMS3, BS3, BS4, BSX4

3D Shells

TS3, QSI4, SHI4, TTS3,


TTS6, QTS4, QTS8

JL46

Semiloof Beams

BSL3, BSL4, BXL4 (corner


nodes)

JSL4

Semiloof Beams

BSL3, BSL4, BXL4 (midside nodes)

Semiloof Shells

QSL8, TSL6 (mid-side


nodes)

JAX3

Axisymmetric Solids

QAX4, QAX8, TAX3,


TAX6, TXK6, QXK8,
QAX4M, QAX4L

JXS3

Axisymmetric Shells

BXS3

275

Joints

3D Joints for Bars, Solids, Space Membranes and Semiloof Shell


Corners