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QCS 2010

Section 5

Part 2

Aggregates

Page 1

2.

AGGREGATES .............................................................................................. 2

2.1

GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4

Scope
References
Source Approval
Sampling

2.2

QUALITY AND TESTING............................................................................... 3

2.3

STORAGE ..................................................................................................... 4

2.4

FINE AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE AND MORTAR................................. 6

2.5

COARSE AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE ................................................... 7

2.6

COMBINED AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE .............................................. 7

2.7

WASHING AND PROCESSING .................................................................... 8

2.8

LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATES .................................................................... 8

2.9

RECYCLED AGGREGATE ............................................................................ 8

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QCS 2010

Section 5

Part 2

Aggregates

2.

AGGREGATES

2.1

GENERAL

2.1.1

Scope

This part covers the requirements of aggregates for use in structural concrete.

Related Sections and Parts are as follows:

Page 2

2.1.2

References
ACI 237 ------------------ Self-Consolidating Concrete
ACI 555 ------------------ Concrete with Recycled Materials
ASTM C33 -------------- Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates
ASTM C40 -------------- Test Method for Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregates for Concrete
ASTM C87 -------------- Standard Test Method for Effect of Organic Impurities in Fine
Aggregate
on Strength of Mortar
ASTM C88 -------------- Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulphate
or Magnesium Sulphate
ASTM C114 ------------- Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to 4-in. (50.8
to 114-mm)) Steel Castings
ASTM C117 ------------- Standard Test Method for Materials Finer than 75-m (No. 200) Sieve
in Mineral Aggregates by Washing
ASTM C123 ------------- Test Method for Lightweight Pieces in Aggregate
ASTM C127 ------------- Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate
ASTM C128 ------------- Test Method for Specific Gravity and Absorption of Fine Aggregate
ASTM C131 ------------- Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse
Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
ASTM C142 ------------- Test Method for Clay Lumps and Friable Particles in Aggregates.
ASTM C227 ------------- Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Cement-Aggregate
Combinations (Mortar-Bar Method)
ASTM C289 ------------- Test Method for Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Aggregates
(Chemical Method)
ASTM C330 ------------- Standard Specification for Lightweight Aggregates for Structural
Concrete.
ASTM C535 ------------- Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of Large-Size Coarse
Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
ASTM C641 ------------- Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Carbon Steel
Wire
ASTM C702 ------------- Standard Practice for Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size
ASTM D75 -------------- Standard Practice for Sampling Aggregates
ASTM D2419 ----------- Standard Test Method for Sand Equivalent Value of Soils and Fine
Aggregate
ASTM D4791 ----------- Standard Test Method for Flat Particles, Elongated Particles, or Flat
and Elongated Particles in Coarse Aggregate

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This Section
Part 3, Cement
Part 4, Water
Part 6, Property Requirements
Part 7, Batching and Mixing
Part 8, Transportation and Planning of Concrete
Part 15, Hot weather Concreting
Part 17, Structural Precast Concrete
Part 18, Prestressed Concrete

QCS 2010

Section 5

Part 2

Aggregates

Page 3

ISO 9001:2008 --------- Quality management systems -- Requirements


ISO 17025--------------- General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration
laboratories
2.1.3

Source Approval

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for approval full details of the proposed sources
of aggregate. These sources of aggregate supply shall be regularly and thoroughly
investigated to ensure that the quality of the material supply is satisfactory and that it does
not deteriorate during the performance of the project.

The aggregates supplier shall provide the source name for every lot of aggregates delivered
to the concrete supplier

The aggregates supplier and the aggregates producer are preferable to be considered as
ISO 9001 with a proper quality management system.

Upon the engineer request, the aggregate supplier shall be ready to provide a geotechnical
analysis on the rock samples before blasting and grinding to ensure the proper quality of
materials.

The aggregates shall be properly stocked and labelled without intermingling as classified at
any storage area.

Upon the engineer request, the aggregates supplier shall provide a historical data for the
past 3 years that shows the consistency of materials and conformity with this specification.

The supplier shall verify the compliance of aggregates as per QCS by an independent
qualified testing agency accredited to ISO 17025

The technicians conducting the tests shall be qualified

2.1.4

Sampling

The Contractor shall provide samples of both fine and course aggregate to the Engineer, in
accordance with the requirements of relevant standards in QCS for sampling, sample
reducing and testing of Aggregates, for testing at least two weeks before beginning
deliveries to the Site.

All samples shall be taken in the presence of the Engineer or an approved testing agency
assigned by the Engineer.

2.2

QUALITY AND TESTING

Aggregates shall consist of tough, hard, durable and uncoated particles containing no
harmful material in quantities sufficient to adversely affect the concrete or reinforcing steel,

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BRE Digest 330-2 ----- Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete Detailed Guidance for New
Construction.
BS 812 ------------------- Testing aggregates
BS 8500 part 2 --------- Concrete. Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1.
Specification for constituent materials and concrete
BS EN 12620 ----------- Aggregates for concrete
BS EN 1744-1 ---------- Tests for chemical properties of aggregates, Chemical analysis
BS EN 1367-4 ---------- Determination of drying shrinkage
BS EN 933 -------------- Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates
BS EN 1097-6 ---------- Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates.
Determination of particle density and water absorption
BS EN13055-1 --------- Lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar
and grout.
BS PD 6682 ------------ Aggregates. Aggregates for concrete

QCS 2010

Section 5

Part 2

Aggregates

Page 4

and shall contain no materials likely to cause staining or otherwise disfigure the concrete
surface.
Aggregates which shall be obtained from a source approved by the Engineer, shall comply
with the requirements of BS EN 12620 with BS PD 6682, EN 12620, EN 13139 , EN 998-1 ,
EN 998-2, ASTM C33 and relevant EN, ACI and ASTM standards and codes of practice and
subject to Engineers acceptance except as modified here under. If required by the Engineer,
and in order to comply with these requirements the aggregates shall be washed with water to
meet with the requirements of part 04.

Contractor shall provide all data as specified in QCS

Contractor shall ensure that aggregates to be supplied will not be susceptible to alkali
aggregate reaction.

Sampling of the aggregates shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of BS
EN 12620, BS EN 933, ASTM D75 and ASTM C702

Fine aggregates shall be natural sand or manufactured crushed rock sand. Crushed rock
sand shall be the direct product of a manufacturing process, not the by-product of coarse
aggregate production.

Beach sand shall not be permitted for use in concrete mixes.

The use of clean Dune Sand, blended with coarser sand, may be permitted providing it can
be shown that the sand is free from contaminants.

Aggregates shall meet the requirements of Table 2.1

10

Frequency of routine testing shall meet the requirements as listed in Section 1, part 8.
Frequency of testing might increase as per engineer request if testing results show
inconsistency, and frequency might reduce if approved by engineer if materials are highly
consistent.

11

Mineralogical tests are to be carried out as instructed by the Engineer.

12

No aggregate deliveries shall be made to the Site until the Engineer has approved the
samples as complying with this specification.

13

Samples of aggregates shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of Table 2.2.

2.3

STORAGE

The Contractor shall provide a means of storing aggregate at each point where concrete is
made such that
(a)

each nominal size of coarse aggregate and the fine aggregate shall be kept
separated at all times.

(b)

building stockpiles are to prevent harmful segregation and breakage

(c)

stockpiles shall be on hard and clean surfaces with not more than 5 % slope

(d)

contamination of the aggregates by the ground or other foreign matter shall be


effectively prevented at all times

(e)

each heap of aggregate shall be capable of draining freely

(f)

stockpiles shall be protected from direct sunlight

(g)

intermingling of aggregates shall not be approved

(h)

unloading aggregate are to prevent harmful segregation and breakage.

(i)

Stockpiles located to prevent contamination; arranged to assure that each aggregate


as removed from its stockpile is distinct and not intermingled with others.

The Contractor shall maintain the stockpiles of coarse aggregate in separate gradings.

The preparation, location and size of any stockpiles, and the methods of segregation shall be
to the approval of the Engineer.

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QCS 2010

Section 5

Part 2

Aggregates

Page 5

Table 2.1
Limits for Physical, Chemical and Mechanical Properties of Aggregates for Normal Concrete
Item
No.
1.
2.

or

Grading
Material finer than 0.075 mm.
Natural, Uncrushed/Crushed

BS / EN

ASTM

933
933

C136
C117 &
C136

Crushed Rock
Material finer than 0.063 mm.
Natural, Uncrushed/Crushed
or used for foundations, retaining
structures and structure elements
exposed to the weather.
Crushed Rock or used for
structure elements not exposed
to the weather.
Clay lumps and friable particles
Lightweight pieces

5.

Organic impurities for fine


aggregates

6.

Water absorption (saturated


surface dry)
Sand Equivalent
Specific gravity (apparent) for
normal weight concrete
Used for reinforced concrete

7.
8.

Test Methods

C142
C123
C40
1097-6
EN 933
1097-6

C128/
C127
D2419
C128/
C127

Used for non-reinforced concrete


9.

Shell Content:

933-7

10.

Particle shape:

933-3

Permissible Limits
GSO

Fines

Coarse

Standard

Standard

3% max
5% max

2% max
2% max

3% max

1.5 % max

5% max

1.5 % max

2% max
0.5% max

2% max
0.5%
max
Colour standard not darker
than plate No. 31
2.3% max
2.0% max
Min 70%

N.A

2.6 min

2.6 min

2.4 min
3% max

2.4 min
3% max

D4791

Flakiness index
Used for reinforced concrete

30% max

Used for plain or non-reinforced


concrete

40% max

Elongation index
Used for reinforced concrete

11.

Used for plain or non-reinforced


concrete
Acid-soluble chlorides:
A.
Reinforced concrete with
SRPC
OPC and MSRPC
B.
Mass concrete with
SRPC
OPC/MSRPC

QCS 2010

35% max
45% max
1744
0.06% max
0.06% max

0.03% max
0.03% max

0.06% max
0.06% max

0.03% max
0.03% max

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3.
4.

Requirement

QCS 2010
Item
No.

Section 5

Part 2

Requirement
C.
and

Aggregates
Test Methods
BS / EN

ASTM

GSO

Fines

Coarse

0.01% max
0.4% max

0.01% max
0.3% max

Acid-soluble sulphate

13.

Loss by magnesium sulphate


Soundness (5 cycles)
Loss by Sodium Sulphate
Mechanical Strength:
10% fines value (dry condition)3
Aggregate Impact value4
Loss by Los Angeles abrasion
Aggregate Crushing Value
Drying shrinkage
Potential reactivity:

Of aggregates:
alkali-silica reaction
alkali-carbonation reaction

Of cement-aggregate
Combination

1744

15% max

15% max

C88

12% max
812- 111

1097-2
1097-2
812- 110

C131/C5
35

1367-4

150 kN min(5
25% max
30% max
0.075% max

C289
C586

Not reactive
6 month expansion 0.10%
max

C227

6 month expansion 0.10%


max

Notes:
1- Use of a fine aggregate failing in the test is not prohibited, provided that:
a- The discoloration is due principally to the presence of small quantities of coal, lignite, or
similar discrete particles.
b- When tested for the effect of organic impurities on strength of mortar, the relative strength
at 7 days, calculated in accordance with ASTM C87, is not less than 95 %.
2- Air-cooled blast-furnace slag aggregate shall meet the requirements in BS EN 12620:2002 for
acid-soluble sulfate category AS1,0. In accordance with BS PD 6682-1 and BS EN 12620, air
cooled blast-furnace slag shall be free from dicalcium disintegration and from iron
disintegration when tested in accordance with BS EN 1744-1
3- The limit of 10% fines value (dry condition) is for 20 mm aggregates. Reference BS 812-111.
4- AIV The impact test can be used as an alternative to the Los Angeles test but a correlation
with the Los Angeles test should first be established to avoid double testing and ensure
mutual recognition of results. The Los Angeles test (reference method) should be used in
cases of dispute
5- It is applicable only for 20mm aggregates, for high strength concrete using 10 mm aggregates
the 10% fines value will be at least 100 KN

2.4

FINE AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE AND MORTAR

Fine aggregate consist of natural clean sand, stone screenings or a combination and can be
produced from natural disintegration of rock or gravel and/or by the crushing of rock or
gravel or processing of manufactured aggregate or artificial, conforming to the requirements
of physical and chemical properties complying with table 2.1 and subject to Engineer's
acceptance.

The gradation of fine aggregate for concrete and mortar shall be in accordance with the
gradation designations in EN 12620 with BS PD 6682, EN 13139 , EN 998-1 , EN 998-2,

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12.

15.
16.

Permissible Limits

Prestressed concrete
steam cured structural
concrete

14.

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QCS 2010

Section 5

Part 2

Aggregates

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relevant ACI and ASTM standards and codes of practice and subject to Engineers
acceptance.
Each batch of aggregate delivered to the Site shall be kept separate from previous batches,
and shall be stored to allow for inspection and tests to be carried out.

The Contractor shall mechanically wash the aggregate to remove salts and other impurities
in order to meet the specified requirements.

The storage area for the clean washed sand shall be shaded from the direct rays of the sun
and shall be screened for protection from dust. The area in the neighbourhood of
stockpile/mixing plant shall be watered as necessary, to reduce as far as possible the rising
of dust.

The usage of dune sand shall be accepted as governed by the regulations of Qatar ministry
of environment and shall be:
(a)

Not used for any reinforced concrete

(b)

Used only for blocks, block mortar, plasters, soil cement, shotcrete and insulation
concrete.

2.5

COARSE AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE

The coarse aggregate shall consist of clean crushed rock and free from deleterious matter,
conforming to the requirements of physical and chemical properties requirements complying
with table 2.1 as a minimum requirements and subject to Engineer's acceptance with in BS
EN 12620, BS PD 6682 and ASTM C33

For other types of concrete mixes subject to Engineer's acceptance, coarse aggregate shall
be complying with the relevant EN, ACI and ASTM standards and codes such as EN
guideline and ACI 237 for Self Consolidating Concrete (SCC) and ACI for shotcrete.

Aggregates that are deleteriously reactive with the alkalis in cement shall not be used.

Exception: Aggregates that have been shown by test or actual service to produce concrete
of adequate strength and durability and approved by the building official.

Nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall be not larger than: (a) 1/5 the narrowest
dimension between sides of forms, nor (b) 1/3 the depth of slabs, nor (c) 3/4 the minimum
clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires, bundles of bars, individual
tendons, bundled tendons, or ducts.

These limitations shall not apply if, in the judgment of the licensed design professional,
workability and methods of consolidation are such that concrete can be placed without
honeycombs or voids.

The Contractor shall mechanically wash the aggregates to remove salts and other impurities
in order to meet the requirements specified.

2.6

COMBINED AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE

The material passing the 0.063 mm sieve shall not exceed 3.0 % of the combined aggregate
(by weight) and not exceeding 3.5% on 0.075mm sieve when used in accordance with ASTM
C117.

Combined aggregate gradation used in the work shall be as specified, except when
otherwise approved or directed by the Engineer.

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QCS 2010

Section 5

Part 2

Aggregates

Page 8

Changes in the approved gradation shall not be made during the progress of the works
unless approved or directed by the Engineer.

2.7

WASHING AND PROCESSING

Where aggregates have been washed shortly before delivery to the Site, or if stockpiles have
been sprayed to cool them samples of the aggregate shall be taken frequently to determine
the correct amount of water to add to the mix.

2.8

LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATES

Two general types of lightweight aggregates are covered by this specification, as follows:

Aggregates prepared by expanding, pelletizing, or sintering products such as blast-furnace


slag, clay, diatomite, fly ash, shale, or slate, and Aggregates prepared by processing natural
materials, such as pumice, scoria, or tuff. The aggregates shall be composed predominately
of lightweight-cellular and granular inorganic material.

Lightweight aggregates shall be in accordance with ASTM C330 or BS PD 6682 and BS


EN13055-1.

Lightweight aggregates shall not contain excessive amounts of deleterious substances, as


determined by the following limits:

Organic Impurities (Test Method ASTM C 40): Lightweight aggregates that, upon being
subjected to test for organic impurities, produce a colour darker than the standard shall be
rejected, unless it is demonstrated that the discoloration is due to small quantities of
materials not harmful to the concrete.

Staining (Test Method ASTM C 641): An aggregate producing a stain index of 60 or higher
shall be rejected when the deposited stain is found upon chemical analysis to contain an iron
content, expressed as Fe2O3 equal to or greater than 1.5 mg/200 g of sample

Loss on ignition (Test Methods ASTM C 114): The loss on ignition of lightweight aggregates
shall not exceed 5 %.

The acid soluble sulfate content shall be not more than 1% when measured in accordance
with BS EN 1744-1

2.9

RECYCLED AGGREGATE

Recycled Aggregates RA and Recycled Concrete Aggregates RCA could be used in


concrete with designed strength of maximum 20 MPa. Its proportion shall be not more than a
mass fraction of 20% of coarse aggregate (BS 8500-2 sec 6.2.2).

A representative sample of the RCA or RA is sieved into size fractions. For each size fraction
the particles are sorted by hand into concrete and normal-weight aggregates; masonry;
lightweight block materials; asphalt; other foreign matter.

The mass of each of these groups is determined and expressed as a mass fraction (%) of
the sieve size. For each sieve size, tests are carried out on duplicate test portions and the
test result is the average percentage from the two tests. The data for the different sieve sizes
are then manipulated to determine the mass fraction (%) of the combined RCA or RA.

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QCS 2010
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Section 5

Part 2

Aggregates

Page 9

When the composition of coarse RCA and coarse RA is tested in accordance with BS 8500
part 2 Annex B, the test result obtained for each type of particle shall not exceed the
maximum value specified in Table 2.3.
Table 2.3 Requirements for coarse RCA and coarse RA Requirements given as mass fraction (%)
(BS 8500-2)
Requirement 1
Maximum
masonry
content

Maximum
fines

Maximum
lightweight
material 2

Maximum
Asphalt

Maximum
foreign
material
e.g. glass,
plastic,
metals

Maximum
acid soluble
sulphate
(SO3)

RCA 1, 3

5.0

5.0

0.5

5.0

1.0

1.0

RA

100

1.0

10.0

1.0

-4

2
3
4

Where the material to be used is obtained by crushing hardened concrete of known composition
that has not been in use, e.g. surplus precast units or returned fresh concrete, and not
contaminated during storage and processing, the only requirements are those for grading and
maximum fines.
Material with a density less than 1 000 kg/m3
The provisions for coarse RCA may be applied to mixtures of natural coarse aggregates blended
with the listed constituents.
The appropriate limit and test method needs to be determined on a case-by-case basis (see Note
6 to 4.3 of BS 8500-2).

Glass aggregates are specifically excluded from BRE Digest 330-2, and recycled aggregates
should be treated as highly reactive aggregate. The alkali contribution from Recycled
concrete aggregate shall be (reference made to BRE Digest 330-2) taken as either:
(a)

0.20 kg Na2O eq per 100 kg of recycled concrete aggregate; or

(b)

where the composition of the recycled concrete aggregate is known (e.g. surplus
precast units; fresh concrete returned to the plant, allowed to harden and then
crushed), the alkali content calculated for the original concrete.

In addressing the risks of damaging alkali-silica reaction in concrete containing recycled


concrete aggregate, the 0.6 kg Na2O eq/m3 limit on alkalis contributed to the fresh concrete
from sources other than the cement or combination does not apply to alkali contributed by
the recycled concrete aggregate. The other aggregates in the concrete mixture should not
be classed as highly reactive.

For manufacturing of masonry concrete blocks the usage of recycled aggregates can reach
100% of coarse aggregates, if applicable then ACI 555 requirements shall be applied.
END OF PART

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Type of
Aggregate