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# ComputerScience : Formula for geometrical figures

pi ()=3.1415926535 ...

Perimeter formula
Square

4 * side

Rectangle

2 * (length + width)

Parallelogram

2 * (side1 + side2)

Triangle

Trapezoid

Trapezoid

## base1 + base2 + height * [csc(theta1) + csc(theta2)]

Circle

Ellipse

E(k,pi/2) is the Complete Elliptic Integral of the Second Kind

Area formula
Square

side2

Rectangle

length * width

Parallelogram

base * height

Triangle

base * height / 2

Trapezoid

## height * (base1 + base2) / 2

Circle

Ellipse

Cube (surface)

6 * side2

Sphere (surface)

Cylinder (surface)

2 * pi * radius * height

Cone (surface)

Torus (surface)

Volume formula
Cube

side3

Sphere

Ellipsoid

Cylinder

Cone

Pyramid

Torus

## Source: Spiegel, Murray R. Mathematical Handbook of Formulas and Tables.

Schaum's Outline series in Mathematics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1968.

Geometric Formulas
Plane Geometry

Parallelogram
Rectangle

Area: A = b*h

Area: A = L*w
Perimeter: P = 2*L = 2*w

Solid Geometry
Square
Area: A=s2
Perimeter: P = 4*s

Triangle
Area = *b*h

Rectangular Solid
Volume: V - L*w*h
Surface Area: 2L*w+2w*h+2L*h

Cube
Volume: V = a3

A + B + C = 180

## Right Circular Cylinder

Right Triangle

Volume: V = *r2*h

Pythagorean Theorem: A2 + B2 = C2

Trapezoid

## Right Circular Cone

Volume: V = 1/3* *r2*h

## Surface Area: *r2 + * r * s

Circle
Sphere

Area: A = *r2
Circumference: C = * d or C =2*
*r

Volume: V = 4/3 * * r3
Surface Area: S = 4* *r2

## Definitions and Formulas

= equal to

right angle

not equal to

triangle

approximately equal to

perpendicular to

2 parallel to

~ similar to

congruent to

not congruent to

## not less than or equal to

+ plus or minus

3.14

line segment AB

angle
line AB
Abbreviations for Units of Measurement
U.S. Standard
Distance

Volume

Weight/Mass

Temperature

Metric

in.

inch

meter

ft.

foot

km

kilometer

mi.

mile

cm

centimeter

mm

millimeter

gal.

gallon

liter

qt.

quart

mL

milliliter

cc

cubic centimeter

lb.

pound

gram

oz.

ounce

kg

kilogram

mg

milligram

degree Celsius

degree Fahrenheit

Time

Speed

sec.

second

min.

minute

hr.

hour

mph

## miles per hour

Formulas
Quadratic formula: If ax2 + bx + c = 0, and a 0

Line:

Slope = m =

## Slope-intercept form for the equation of a line: y = mx + b

Point-slope form for the equation of a line: y - y 1 = m(x - x 1)

Distance =

Midpoint =

## Commonly Used Formulas

Here is a collection of commonly used mathematical formulas, grouped by topic, and
linked to the location in the text where they are introduced. Each includes a
description in English. Remember: To apply a formula to a given expression, you
should:
a. match up the variables on one side of the formula you wish to use with the
corresponding parts of the given expression to obtain values for each of the
variables in the formula,
b. substitute on both sides of the formula with the values from part a),
c. substitute the other side of the formula into the given expression.
Note: Any formula may be used "in either direction"; that is, you can match the leftside and substitute the right, or vice-versa.

Geometry

If a line y = a x + b, goes through the two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), then ,
and b = the y-value where the line crosses the y-axis (i.e., when x = 0): this is
often referred to as the "slope-intercept form" of a line.
The distance between two points a and b on the number line is given by |a - b|,
where |x| is the absolute value function: the distance formula for points on a
line.
If a right triangle has sides of length a, b, and c, as in the following diagram:

## then a2 + b2 = c2: this is the Pythagorean theorem.

The distance d between two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in the plane is given by
the equation : this is the distance formula in the plane.

Note: Using the distance formula on the horizontal and vertical number lines,
respectively:

(and the fact that |z|2 = z2), this equations follows from applying the square root to
both sides of the equation of the Pythagorean Theorem, with c = d, a = |y1 - y2|, and b
= |x1 - x2| .

The equation for an arbitrary point (x, y) circle of radius r centered at the point
(a, b) is given by the equation (x - a)2 + (y - b)2 = r2: since the distance from
the center to a point on the circle is equal to the radius, this equation comes
from squaring both sides of distance formula in the plane.
The area, A, of a circle of radius r is A = r2. That is because:
o all circles are the result of scaling the circle of radius 1 by a factor of r,
o the area of a circle of radius 1 is , and
o scaling by r changes the area of any plane figure by a factor of r2.
The circumference of (i.e., length around) a circle of radius r is 2 r. That is
because:
o all circles are the result of scaling the circle of radius 1 by a factor of r,
o the area, A, of a symmetric plane figure (such as a square, hexagon,
circle, etc.) is equal to its circumference, C, times half the distance, r,
from the center to a "side". Note: This follows from the area formula
for triangles A = 1/2hb. In other words, A = 1/2Cr, so that for circles,
r2 = 1/2Cr, and C = 2 r.
Note: As you might expect, this formula reflects the fact that scaling by r
changes the length of any plane figure by a factor of r.

Algebra

## x(y + z) = xy + xz, (x + y)(z + w) = xz + xw + yz + yw, etc.: "When multiplying

sums, you must add every possible product"; this is called the distributive law.
If ax2 + bx + c = 0, then : "The quadratic formula".
: "The absolute value function gives the magnitude of a number, i.e., as a
positive value."

Exponents

## x2 = xx, x3 = xxx, etc.: "Whole number powers are repeated products."

x5x3 = x8, x8/x3 = x5 "When multiplying/dividing, exponents add/subtract."
(3y5z)2 = 32(y5)2z2, etc.: "Powers distribute across multiplication."
(y5)2 = y10, etc.: "Successive powers multiply."

Note: While the first "rule" is actually a definition, the last three rules follow logically
from the first and basic rules of arithmetic.

## x0 = 1: "Any exponential takes 0 to 1"

x-2 = 1/x2, (x/y)-3/2 = (y/x)3/2: "A negative exponent stands for reciprocation."
: "A reciprocal in an exponent is like a root."

Note: These rules are also definitions, designed to ensure that the previous rules still
hold even when the exponents are no longer positive whole numbers.

## : " An 'ordinary' radical is always assumed to be a square root."

Logarithms

logb = expb-1, where expb is the exponential function with base b, expb(x) = bx:
"Logarithms are the inverses of exponentials."

with base b".

logb(bx) = x and

## : "Logarithms and exponentials cancel each other out."

Note: Because of the characteristic property of inverses, the previous rule is exactly
the same as the one before it; it simply looks different algebraically and in English.

log = log10: "If you don't see a base, you can assume it is base 10."
ln = loge: "The 'natural' logarithm uses base e."

## Note: These rules are also definitions.

Notice that the following rules are exactly the reverse of the corresponding rules of
exponents.

## logb(1) = 0: "Any logarithm takes 1 to 0"

logb(s) + logb(t) = logb(st), logb(s) - logb(t) = logb(s/t): "When
logb(st) = logb(s) + logb(t), logb(s/t) = logb(s) - logb(t): "Logarithms turn
products/quotients into sums/differences."

Note: The previous rule is exactly the same as the one before it; it just sounds
different when you say it in English.

## logc(x) = logc(b) logb(x) and : "The change-of-base formulas."

log1/b(x) = logb(1/x) = -logb(x) and : "Reciprocation of the input corresponds
to negation of the output or reciprocation of the base."

Complex Numbers

## : "Complex conjugation replaces i by -i."

, , , and for complex numbers x = a + b i and y = c + d i (where a, b, c,
and d are all real numbers) "Complex conjugation preserves all arithmetic
operations on complex numbers."
, where x and y are both real numbers: "The distance formula using complex
arithmetic."

Trigonometry

## et i = cos(t) + sin(t) i: "Euler's formula."

1 = cos2(t) + sin2(t) : "The Pythagorean identity."
csc(t) = 1/sin(t), sec(t) = 1/cos(t), cot(t) = cos(t)/sin(t), tan(t) = sin(t)/cos(t):
"Basic definitions."
cos(t) = sin( /2 - t), csc(t) = sec( /2 - t), cot(t) = tan( /2 - t): "Co-functions
are functions of complementary angles."

cos(t s) = cos(t)cos(s)

## tan(t s) = (tan(t) tan(s))/(1 tan(t)tan(s)): "The angle sum/difference

formulas."
cos(2t) = cos2(t) - sin2(t) = 2cos2(t) - 1 = 1 - 2sin2(t), sin(2t) = 2sin(t)cos(t),
tan(2t) = 2tan(t)(1-tan2(t)): "The double-angle formulas."
, , : "The half-angle formulas."