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INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS TO PREVENT EROSION/CORROSION DEGRADATION IN WATER COOLED DUCTS FOR EAF FUME EXTRACTION

Alejandro Sanz

Abstract

Water Cooled Ducts (WCD) in the fume Direct Extraction Systems (DES) are generally identified as erosion-prone areas. The introduction of several contaminants in the scrap or during the operating practice have introduce corrosion to the already erosive environment. The protection of the WCD components to erosion/corrosion conditions is essential to minimize maintenance costs and the loss of available production time. Advanced protection solutions for fumes WCD are a relatively new field. Several solutions applied or under study in the steel industry are reviewed and compared to those used in the field of fuel boilers. Enhanced longevity and reliability are the main followed objectives aimed at attaining a significant reduction of downtimes at the scheduled outages. New advanced steel production methods and more rigorous operating conditions are also opening the possibilities for new coating techniques and materials.

Water Cooled Ducts environment and damaging mechanisms

The primary fumes are sucked from the 4 th hole on the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) roof through a water-cooled elbow duct. The water-cooled duct is of tube-to-tube design and consists of flanged sections not exceeding 8 m so as to facilitate the erection work.

A combustion chamber is installed near the furnace; it is fitted with water-cooled roof and refractories lined or water cooled walls. All the non refractory parts (roof, access door and eventually the chamber’s walls) are made of water cooled steel panels (tube-to-tube design) Cooling water is provided by the water cooled duct closed loop distribution system Both the mobile duct and the connection pipe to the settling chamber are designed to prevent the accumulation of slag and scrap possibly sucked from the EAF, which could involve a partial clogging of duct.

Case I Air Fumes flow direction Eroded
Case I
Air
Fumes flow direction
Eroded
Case II Air Fumes flow direction Eroded
Case II
Air
Fumes flow direction
Eroded

Figure 1: Most common distribution of the erosion areas in the WCD.

In the first section of the WCD and in the combustion chamber, the CO sucked from the furnace is completely burned and it is at this time that the fumes reach their highest temperatures. The damage distribution in the WCD is schematically shown in Figure 1.

Case I can be easily correlated with a typical erosion problem with an homogeneous thickness reduction of the tubes in those areas mainly exposed to the fume stream. Case II cannot be explained by a pure erosion approach since the eroded areas are in the gas stream shadow zones. In these low pressure areas deposits are formed due to the low internal wall temperature that leads to the condensation of several acid compounds. Chemical analysis of the interstice deposits show sulphate contents ranging from 2-10 % and chlorides contents varying from 0.2 -1 % which allow the formation of sulfuric and/or hydrocloric acids. Much attention have been given to the H 2 SO 4 dewpoint corrosion because its dew- point temperature (just below 180°C) is the highest temperarute at which acid condensation occurs. It also known that the corrosion rates of plain-carbon steel can be increased (even at temperatures below 60°C) when HCl is present in the gas stream. In case II the surface degradation is locacalized mainly in the side wall panels of the completely water cooled combustion chambers. Due to the highly turbulent fluidynamic conditions inside the chamber, the damage is not only due to a chemical attack but to a synergistic erosive/corrosive action. A metallurgical analysis of several WCD segments confirms that erosion and corrosion are taking place simultaneously (see Figure 2).

The average life of a water cooled duct is highly variable (2 – 8 years) depending very much on the composition of the raw materials that are used, the operating practices and the geometrical characteristics of the fume plant and its influence on the fluidynamics of the fumes stream.

Erosion, corrosion and erosion/corrosion material solutions.

Erosion: [Tucker, 1997] defines erosion as the loss of material from a solid surface due to relative motion in contact with a fluid that contains solid particles. After [Zanmbelli and Vincent, 1998] and [Rabinowicz, 1995] the erosion problem could be assumed, in a very simplified way, as a repetitive indentation process where:

d

0

(

)

HA z dz

=

1

2

(

2

mv

)

V

d

=

0

(

)

A z dz

V =

2

mv

2

H

(if H is constant)

Where H is the penetration hardness of the solid surface to be eroded (equivalent to the indentation pressure of the particles); A(z) is the contact surface between the surface and the impinging particle; z is the deepness of penetration of the erosive particle on the surface at a moment t; d is the total indentation deepness; V is the final indentation volume ; m and v are, respectively, the average mass and velocity of erosive particles. Erosive wear is proportional to the second power of the velocity for speeds below 200m/s (also called low speed erosion). As can be seen the erosive phenomena is highly dependent on the composition, hardness and microstructure of the surface to be eroded as well as on the geometry (size and shape) and average mass of the impacting particles. In particular the erosion dependence on the angle of attack of the impacting particles is summarized in Table1.

Table 1: Effect of the impact angle on material response to solid particle impact. After [Bhushan and Gupta, 1997]

MATERIAL

 

ANGLE OF IMPINGEMENT

<20 °

45°

90°

Elastic (elastomer)

No effect

No observable effect

Surface deformation

Ductile

Maximum cutting wear

Mixed regime

Maximum deformation wear

Hard (brittle)

Very little erosion

Intermediate erosion

Maximum erosion

It is quite common, in engineering, to refer the erosive available energy (E) as a function of the total weight of abrasive

particle (W) and the gravitational constant (g) instead of the average mass of the impinging particles.

It also usual to

report erosion in terms of the ratio between the volume of abrasive material and the volume removed from the surface (assuming that a fraction K e of the eroded surface, with a density ρ, is removed). The previously cited expressions can be written as follows:

E =

Wv

2

2 g

Volume

removed

K

e

ρ

v

2

=

Volume

abrasive

gH

As can be seen the solution of erosive problems in the WCD must be found by either modifying geometry of the system (kinetic energy, angles of impacts, etc) or by choosing appropriated materials. No significant change of geometry can be introduced in direct extraction systems of an EAF leaving the choice of appropriated materials as the only feasible way to enhance the erosion resistance.

For the conditions existing in the WCD for primary fumes, the material selection must be focused on a hard material able to absorb a significant amount of energy before plastic deformation and cracking (ultimate resilience). The ultimate resilience of a given material can be expressed as:

Ultimateresilience =

σ

y

2 E

A second approach on material selection is just to increase the thickness of the tubes forming the WCD in order to spread in longer time periods the scheduled outages. The use of refractories for erosion protection is limited (sidewalls of the settling chamber and in some cases the mobile elbow) due to the resultant decrease in heat transfer.

Corrosion: The dew point a substance is a function of the concentration of the species present in the gas. When the fumes contain several different species that can condense out at different temperatures, peaks in the corrosion rates are observed. As previously noted, the corrosive problems faced by the water cooled ducts are due to the fact that their surface remains always below the dew-point of several compounds leaving the possibility to some acidic attacks. This study will be focused on the material selection where there could be contact with sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). This selection is based on the fact that sulfurs and chorides were found in the worn out tubes studied as well as to the fact that the presence of HCl can accelerate the corrosion rate of low-carbon steels to at least three times the high temperature maximum. The formation of a dilute sulfuric/hydrochloric acid solution is enhanced by the potential water condensation during the “cold” periods in the furnace cycle (tapping/charging, maintenance, etc.) and by eventual leaking from the WCD. The pitting attack (and eventually leaking and failure) is linked with the deposit formation,

which causes differential aeration and concentration cell. The interstice deposits will more readily retain moisture during off-load periods, thereby increasing the duration to which the underlying substrate is exposed to an aggressive wet environment. Finally, once a tube has been perforated, the water leaking will result in high humidities and will wet the deposits on nearby tubes, increasing the corrosion rates. If pitting is not present, the “classical” dew-point conditions do not necessarily yield unacceptably high corrosion rates in practice.

Plain carbon steel is normally used in applications where concentrated H 2 SO 4 solutions (more than 70 %) are found but is not suitable in situations where more diluted solutions (less than 65% are found). Alternative engineering materials for dilute concentrations and for the measured working temperatures are basically nickel base alloys. Stainless steels are not generally used for being in contact with sulfuric acid. [Fontana, 1998]

Since it is well know that a material is inert against dew-point corrosion if the it is kept above the condensation temperature, a secondary approach followed to solve the corrosion problem consisted in considering the possibility of rising the cooling water temperature and to analyze the effective increase in the internal wall temperature. The analysis focused on the settling chamber and in the WCD leaving the chamber (two corrosion-prone areas). The possibility of using two different tube thicknesses based in erosion considerations (as above stated) was included. In all cases the maximum temperature variation in the water circuit is kept at 15-20°C. The results of this computing simulation are shown in Table 2.

 

WATER COOLING DUCT INTERNAL TEMPERATURE RANGE

Settling chamber

WCD leaving the settling chamber

Cooling water inlet temperature

5.6 mm thick tube

11 mm thick tube

5.6 mm thick tube

11 mm thick tube

35

°C

71 - 82

75 – 89

– 85

  • 70 75 – 94

50

°C

86 – 97

90 – 104

– 99

  • 85 89 – 108

85

°C

121 – 131

124 – 138

– 132

  • 119 124 – 141

100 °C

135 - 145

139 - 152

– 147

  • 134 138 - 156

Any increase in both the water inlet temperature or in the thickness of the tubes won’t allow the WCD to be protected against pure H 2 SO 4 dew-point corrosion and could be a deleterious factor by increasing the corrosion and erosion rates. In this particular case, the only viable technical solution is to change the chemical nature of the surface of the tubes by either choosing a different bulk material or an appropriated coating. However, the approach of rising the WCD cooling water temperature seems to be promising for dilute H 2 SO 4 /HCl dilute solutions provided that the acid deposition curve is obtained to allow a proper setting of the water temperature. This technical solution could be applied on completion with other new approaches that will be discussed in the next sections. Beside the tests with different cooling water temperatures, it is necessary to quantify the acid deposition curve for the S/Cl ratio range found in the fumes in order to better fix the duct working temperature (identifying the harmful operating regions directly). A precise operational monitoring and control are key elements to allow a confident safe use of the EAF off gas system. The variability of the excess oxygen, the sulfur/chloride ratio, the furnace temperature, and the CO combustion stoichiometry as well as the chemical nature of the dust may play a significant role changing the corrosion kinetics. As far as possible, it is useful to keep the WCD warm during the stand-by periods (charging/tapping) by thermo-setting the inlet valve at the cooling units (plate heat exchanger an/or cooling tower) in order to prevent excessive off-line attack during hot shut-downs. For brand new furnaces, continuous feeding or single bucket charge practice will allow to reduce start-up periods (low gas flow periods).

Erosion/corrosion: In the fume exhausting water-cooled ducts, this definition covers the increase in the rate of corrosive degradation of the metallic surface by erosive deterioration. The maximum internal wall temperature remains always below the dew-point of the pure sulfuric acid; acid condensation remains the source chemical attack while increasing the temperature usually accelerates the erosion rate of ductile materials (as the plain carbon steel used in for WCD) and the kinetics of any temperature dependent reaction. Higher working temperatures also lead to preferential chemical attack at the grain boundaries level and the removal of material is enhanced. The erosion /corrosion phenomena is characterized in appearance by grooves and gullies at the eroded surface. Erosion/corrosion phenomena are highly dependent on the flow velocities and the degree of turbulence. The increased velocity factor in the case of WCD regards mainly the erosive component of the degradation while turbulence results in more intimate contact between the environment and the metallic surface.

The hardness of a given material could be used as the first, right, consideration to improve the erosion/corrosion behavior for a WCD but it must be also considered the corrosion behavior of the chosen material. If it is true that hard materials are less susceptible to erosion/corrosion, it is also true that all the factors that affect corrosion must be taken

into account. Beside the increases in the cooling water temperature, several potential solutions exist for improving the longevity and reliability of the WCD against erosion /corrosion:

  • a) to choose a better bulk material,

  • b) to apply a protective coating on a conventional bulk material,

  • c) to change the geometry of the design and

  • d) To alterate the environment.

Option “a” and option “b” seems to be those in which the selection range is wider and solutions could be found in the short term. Option “c” is limited to the beneficial effects of a good sealing approach off the WCD avoiding any unnecessary air in-leakage. Airtight fits at the settling chamber will prevent long low operating temperatures that are often related with air entry in the system. The use of neutralizing additives (option “d”) have been tested and is effective for reducing the gas acidity but limited to non continuous conditions (e.g. oil-fired situations). Injections of calcium or magnesium oxide/hydroxide or NH 3 have been employed but lead to mud formation (sticking bisulfate deposits) in the bagfilter heavily increasing the head losses of the system. The practical, continuous application of these systems as well as their ability to prevent acid dew-point corrosion in the long term is not certain.

The rest of this work will be focused on options “a” and “b” exploring its potentialities and drawbacks. In order to have a reference point, attention has been paid to several solutions already applied in the field of fuel boilers, where situations of erosion/corrosion also exist.

Table 3 shows the comparative analysis of the working environment for an electrical arc furnace, a ladle furnace, a converter and a fuel boiler. Comparing the erosion conditions in a furnace and in a boiler it could be remarked that the fumes in the WCD in the EAF have a higher velocity but a lower temperature and a lower amount of particles in the gas stream. The sulfur distribution is also different between the two examples: the EAF fume stream is rich in SOx pollutants while this chemical element is found in the boiler system as sulfur rich particles. The preliminary analysis shows that erosion conditions are worse in the EAF water-cooled duct but potential corrosion is higher in the boilers. The situation in a converter is different: the working temperatures are the highest with high fume velocities. Both the boiler and the converter have water cooled ducts with working temperature well above the dew-point of sulfuric acid but approaching those in which hot corrosion (type II) is possible. The ladle furnace fume exhaust duct is normally done in single wall ducts; it consist mostly of flanged and bolted sectors made of painted construction steel or, whenever

deemed necessary, of Corten ® (ASTM A588/A588M-88a). This is low alloyed steel featuring a high resistance against atmospheric corrosion (4 to 6 times that of a normal carbon steel) and it is used in an unpainted state.

Among the potential solutions that have been studied, two main branches can easily been identified: bulk materials and coatings. A better bulk material that gives a better resistance against erosion/corrosion is indicated in the literature [Fontana, 1988] as one of the most economically viable solutions for most erosion/corrosion problems. A coating could produce a resilient barrier between the metallic surface and the environment. Table 4 summarizes the different materials properties used to find the most technically and economically suitable materials solution to prevent erosion/corrosion in the fumes direct exhaust systems.

The bulk material solutions could be divided in three categories: stainless steels, Ni base alloy (Hastelloy ® C-22) and Co-base alloy (Ultimet ® ). The standard stainless steels are not recommended for erosive environment applications and for the corrosion resistance against sulfuric acid, they are only used for handling cold very dilute solutions. The stainless steels could only give a light corrosion protection (without any erosion resistance improvement) while increasing the cost by a factor of two or three. These two elements confirm that common stainless steels are not the right choice for enhancing the WCD life.

Hastelloy ® C-22 is a highly versatile Ni-Cr-Mo-W alloy with improved resistance to both uniform and localized corrosion. The alloy shows a superior weldability (resisting the formation of grain-boundary precipitates in the weld heat-affected zone). When exposed to oxidizing sulfuric acid solution, there is minimal corrosion attack on this Ni-base alloy. The main drawback of this corrosion resistant alloy is its lack of hardness (erosion resistance) and its price. A WCD made out of pure Hastelloy ® C-22 tubes (and welds) will cost ten times the price of a conventional duct.

The research for a bulk material combining a good erosion and corrosion resistance lead to analyze the cobalt base alloys. In particular the Ultimet ® alloy seemed to be the right technical answer for the WCD: The Ultimet ® (Co-Cr base alloy) combines the excellent corrosion resistance of the Hastelloy ® alloys with the erosion resistance of the Stellite ® alloys. Tests in mixed H 2 SO 4 /HCL /FeCl 3 solutions show a corrosion behavior similar to Hastelloy ® alloys and three fold better than AISI 316L stainless steel. This Co-base alloy is technically suited for the WCD applications but its cost renders it economically unviable for this application.

The second variant of the potential solutions consisted in several coatings to be applied on the surface of conventional

steel for WCD (ASTM coatings.

106 or Fe430). Two main types of coatings were analyzed: amorphous coatings and cermet

Typical metals form a crystalline structure. Atoms are positioned in ordered planes. Grain boundaries serve as natural pathways for corrosive elements to the substrate metal. Surface roughness is related to the grain size (10-100 µm) form craters that capture and provide an anchor for dust and flying ash build-up. In contrast, amorphous alloys form a structure where atoms are randomly placed in a continuous, eliminating the corrosion-path grain boundaries. A very minimal surface roughness of less than a few atoms is achieved. The glassy, ultra-smooth surface prevents build-up on tube surfaces. The general form of the microstructure of these deposits is a two phase solid with dendritic chromium borides in a matrix of iron-chromium or nickel-chromium (depending on the type of coating) which is predominantly amorphous (40-50%). The arc sprayed, is one of the most cost-effective and most portable coating techniques. Twin arc spraying is particularly well adapted for on-site coatings of large equipment [J-G Legoux et al., 1997]. However, the coating shows a larger dendritic structure than in thermal spray coatings due to the substantially longer time in the molten state (the best properties are seen when the dendrite structure is the most refined) [A. Dent et al., 1997].

Amorphous coatings may vitrify a thin (5-8 µm) outer layer under abrasive conditions. The changes at the surface translate in a substantial increase in hardness. This hard erosive resistant layer is supported by the thickness of a tough, strong bulk coating. The surface transformation continues as the surface wears. This surface replenishing will continue throughout the thickness of the coating.

Cermet coatings (Ni-base reinforced with either WC-TiC or Cr 3 C 2 ) are effective protection barriers against erosion/corrosion. Various high velocity combustion powder-spraying methods are available for applying these coatings. These cermet coatings possess high compressive strength and extremely high hardness and wear resistance. They combine the toughness and corrosion resistance of the nickel base with the extremely high values of hardness of the carbides. The sprayed coatings retains the metal element (Ni) as the matrix material, each particle of the feedstock usually contains both phases (the matrix phase and the reinforcement). This is the type coating most applied in the steel industry (first industrial field testing starting in the late 80’). Several steel mills (both with BOF and EAF) are using this type of coating for components as varied as: fume hoods and ducts, heat recovery boilers, converters WCD, etc)

In general the denser and harder a coating is, the better it behaves in erosive/corrosive environments. Based in this physical principles it can be foreseen that HP-HVOF (High Pressure-High Velocity OxyFuel) and super D-gun coatings

will last longer than plasma sprayed coatings and that the later will last more than twin arc sprayed coatings (but it is very difficult to establish how much the life expectancy could be increased by changing the deposition technique).

A computing evaluation of the temperature distribution was carried out (as per the different thickness values in Table 2). The results (see Table 5) show that the presence of a relatively thick coating (800 µm) does not affect significantly the working temperature of the tubes.

 

TABLE 5: WATER COOLING DUCT INTERNAL TEMPERATURE WITH COATED TUBES

Settling chamber

WCD leaving the settling chamber

Cooling water inlet temperature

5.6 mm thick tube

11 mm thick tube

5.6 mm thick tube

11 mm thick tube

35

°C

74- 87

78 – 95

73 – 89

78 – 94

50

°C

89 – 102

93 – 109

88– 105

93 – 112

85

°C

124 – 135

127 – 143

123

– 136

127 – 145

100 °C

138 - 149

142 - 156

138

– 151

142 - 159

Pricing of coating options is high and very dependable on the equipment and materials required to apply the coating. On-site coatings can be performed but its cost depends on the site location, the schedule requirements and availability of supporting services. Coating applications is not aimed at protecting the whole internal surface of the fumes WCD but to be more localized (as the wastage itself) reducing the surface area coated and decreasing the prices.

Conclusions

  • - The damaging mechanism in water-cooled ducts for extracting primary fumes in electrical arc furnaces is erosion assisted acid dew-point corrosion. The pitting attack (and eventually leaking and failure) is linked with the deposit formation, which causes differential aeration and concentration cell. The water vapor content of the gas is particularly important in determining the corrosivity of the condensates. If pitting is not present, the “classical”

dew-point conditions do not necessarily yield unacceptably high corrosion rates in practice. The damage will be site and process specific.

  • - The use of refractories for erosion protection is limited due to the resultant decrease in heat transfer.

  • - Increasing the water inlet temperature doesn’t provide protection against pure sulfuric acid attacks but seems to be a promising approach for H 2 SO 4 /HCl dilute solutions provided that the acid deposition curve is obtained to allow proper setting of the water temperature. This solution could be applied together with other approaches (coatings, new materials, etc). As far as possible, it is useful to keep the WCD warm during the stand-by periods (charging/tapping) by thermo-setting the cooling system in order to prevent excessive off-line attack during hot shut-downs. The drawback of increasing the cooling water temperature is the increase of the erosion rate of ductile materials (as the plain carbon steel used in for WCD) and faster kinetics of any temperature dependent reaction. For brand new furnaces, continuous feeding or single bucket charge practice will allow to reduce start-up periods (low gas flow periods). Efforts must be made in the sense of adding on-line monitoring to the chemical (and electrochemical) fluctuations in the duct as well as controlling the operational process.

  • - Bulk solutions for enhancing the longevity of the WCD could be of two types: a) increasing the thickness of the tubes and b) choosing a better material instead of the conventional plain carbon steel. The former solution doesn’t improve the resistance to the erosive/corrosive environment but increases the time period between overhauls. The later solutions have proven economically non-viable for this application.

  • - The coatings do not significantly influence the heat conductivity of the tubes. The coating generates no stresses in the steel construction. Coatings can be applied on used and new steel constructions and locally repaired if necessary. Recoating is possible.

  • - It would be a mistake to think that a thermal spray coating could be applied and left in an erosive/corrosive environment for long periods of time without some maintenance. The replacement of a coating will depend on the extent of the periodic repairs and rate of general thinning of the coating. As long as the coating prevents erosion of the duct tubing, the process of repair and replacement of the coating can theoretically go on indefinitely.

  • - Due to their very high costs, a coating solution must be carefully studied and limited to those erosion/corrosion prone areas (that must be identified by proper fluidynamic simulation of the system or by periodic maintenance).

  • - New approaches of reduction of controllable costs (savings in WCD tube replacement costs over the life of the system) are opening the possibilities for new coating techniques and new coating materials. However a general advise on material selection for lessening the wastage in WCD due to combined erosion/dew-point corrosion is hard to give since very much dependent on the plant configuration and operating routines. Any attempt to formulate a solution for this type of problem requires the following information:

    • a) the variation in gas temperature and composition along the duct,

    • b) the dew-point and deposition curve of the gases within the duct,

    • c) fluid-dynamic modeling of the off gas system to identify the erosion prone areas,

    • d) the variation in the WCD metal temperatures through the ductwork and

    • e) the chemical nature of the species deposited and the influence of the above mentioned variables in the corrosion rates.

  • - A precise operational monitoring and control are key elements to allow a confident safe use of the EAF off gas system.

  • References

    • - BHARAT B and GUPTA B. K., Handbook of trilogy, Materials, Coatings and Surface. Krieger Publishing Company. Malabar, Florida, USA. 1997.

    • - DENT A. H. , HORLOCK A.J. , McCARTNEY D. C. and HARRIS S.J. The structure and properties of two Fe- Cr-B Based coatings sprayed using HVOF. UTSC’97, Indianapolis 15-19 Sept. Published by ASM International. Materials Park, Ohio, USA. 1997.

    1997..

    C.C. Berndt editor.

    • - EDWARDS J. Coating and surface treatment systems for metals (ISBN 0-07-021463-8). ASM International finishing publications. Materials Park, Ohio, USA. 1997.

    • - Corrosion Engineering, third edition (ISBN 0-904477-16-9). McGraw-Hill International

    FONTANA M. G.

    Editors.1988

    • - IRONS G. KRATOCHVIL W.R., BULLOCK W.R. and ROY A. Investigation of erosion –resistant chromium carbide coatings sprayed with the high pressure HVOF process. 7 th National Thermal Spray Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.20-24 June 1994.

    • - LEGOUX J-G, HAWTHORNE H. and BERNARD A. Slurry erosion of arc-sprayed metal and composite coatings. UTSC’97, Indianapolis 15-19 Sept. 1997. C.C. Berndt editor. Published by ASM International. Materials Park, Ohio, USA. 1997.

    • - McMINN A., MARSHALL E., KRINGS H and VERPOORT C. Investigation of wear mechanisms of heat exchanger tubes under erosion conditions. Thermische Spritzkonferenz TS’93. Aacgen, Germany, 3-5 March 1993.

    • - PARAMESWARAN V. R., NAGY D., IMMARIGEON J. P., CHOW D. and MORPHY D. Erosion resistant coatings for compressor applications. Advances in High temperature structural materials and protective coatings (ISBN 0-660-15140-5). Edited by A.K. Koul, V. R Parameswaran, J-P Immarigeon and W. Wallace. A publication from the National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada.1994.

    • - RABINOWICZ E. Friction and wear of materials, second edition (ISBN 0-471-83084-4). Wiley-Interscience Publications. John Wiley & Sons Inc. New York, USA. 1995.

    • - SANZ A. La Metallurgia Italiana. February 1999. pp. 1-19.

    • - SOLOMON N.G. Erosion resistant coatings for fluidized bed boilers. 10 th National Thermal Spray Conference, San Diego, California, USA.16-20 May. 1997.

    • - TUCKER R. C. Wear Failures. Friction and wear testing source book: Selected references from ASTM standards and ASM handbooks (ISBN 0-871170-617-2). Steve Lampman Park, Ohio, USA. 1997.

    editor. .

    Published by ASM International. Materials

    • - VERPOORT C. and BAUMANN R. Vershleißmechanismen untersuchen, verstehen und einschränken. Zeitschrift Metall Oberflrche 46. September 1992.

    • - VERPOORT C. Hochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzen im turbinenbau. Oberflachenveredelung durch thermisches spritzen. Schweißtechnische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt. Duisburg, Germany. May 12 th 1993.

    • - ZAMBELLI G. and VINCENT L. Matériaux et contacts, Une approache tribologique (ISBN 2-88074-338-9). Presses Polytechniques et Universitaires Romandes Lausanne, Switzerland. 1998.

       

    TABLE 3: COMPARATIVE ANALYS IS OF THE D IRECT FUME EXHAUST CONDIT IONS

    (1/2)

     
     

    EAF (160 ton)

    LF (160 ton)

    Converter

    Boiler

     

    (220 ton)

     

    Carbon steel

    Alloy steel

    Carbon steel

    Alloy steel

       

    Fu me temperature [°C]

     

    900 - 1000

    150 - 200

    1600 - 2000

    800 -925- 1500

    Fu me velocity [m/s]

     

    30

    - 55

    26

    – 28

    20 – 30

    4 – 8

    Fu me

    N 2

     

    75

    – 79

    75

    – 79

    8 -10

    72

    Composition

    O 2

     

    17

    – 20

    17

    – 20

     

    3

    [ volume %]

    CO 2

     

    4 – 10

    2 – 4

    12

    - 17

    14

    H 2 O

     

    0.5 – 3

    0.5 – 4

    1 - 2.5

    10

    CO

     

    traces

    traces

    75

    - 80

     

    Polutant

    SOx

     

    10-30

     

    Depends on the

    1

    emission

    NOx

     

    100-150

     

    raw material

     

    [ mg/Nm 3 ]

     

    Others

     

    100-200

     

    H 2 : 1- 2.7

     

    (VOC, etc)

    Depends on the raw material

    Flow rate [m 3 /h]

     

    630.000

    130.000

    130.000

    760.000

    Amount of particles in the gas stream

           

    [mg/ m 3 ]

     

    5.8 - 6 x 10 3

    0.95 x 10 3

    7 – 7.5 x 10 3

    1.4 x 10 4

    Water ci rcuit

    Pressure [bar]

     

    6 - 8

     

    22

    - 42

    16-40 (saturated H 2 O)

    Working

    Temperature

     

    45

    40

     

    250

    200-250

    conditions

    H 2 O (average)

       

    WCD Thickness

     

    5

    - 11

    5

     

    5

    6.35

    [mm]

     

    (single wall duct)

     

    Hot face

     

    80 - 100

    150

     

    350

    250-350

    temperature

       

    Duct life-limiting

     

    Erosion/corrosion

    Seldom replaced

    Erosion

    Erosion/corrosion

    cause

     
       

    TABLE 3: COMPARATIVE ANALYS IS OF THE D IRECT FUME EXHAUST CONDIT IONS

    (2/2)

     

    EAF (160 ton)

    LF (160 ton)

    Converter

    Boiler

     

    Carbon steel

    Alloy steel

    Carbon steel

    Alloy steel

    (220 ton)

    Particles average size [%]

       

    1 – 100 µµm

    90%

    Less than 1 µµm

    0.05 – 1.5 µµm

    1 – 200 µµm

    50 %

     

    100 – 2000 µµm

    10%

    200 – 1000 µµm

    45 %

    Particles

    ZnO

     

    32.5

     

    2.5

       

    6

     

    composition

    PbO

     

    3

     

    0.5

       

    1.5

     

    [weight percent]

    Fe 2 O 3

     

    40

     

    43

    50

    43

    65

     
       

    (Fe 2 O 3 / Fe 3 O 4 )

    Cr 2 O 3

     

    0.5

     

    19

    0.5

    19

       

    NiO

     

    0.2

     

    6

    0.2

    6

       

    MnO

     

    3

     

    6

    12

    6

    5

     

    MoO 3

     

    Traces

         

    CaO

     

    5.5

    7.5

    12

    8

    9

    22

    SiO 2

     

    8

     

    7

    9

    7

    6

    40

    MgO

     

    1

     

    4.5

    8

    6

    2

    1

    Al 2 O 3

     

    1

     

    0.5

    1

    0.5

    1.5

    13

    Na 2 O

     

    2

     

    1.5

    2

    1.5

       

    K 2 O

     

    1

     

    0.5

    1

    0.5

       

    Ce

     

    1.5

     

    1.5

    1.5

    1.5

       

    F

     

    0.5

     

    0.5

    0.5

    0.5

       

    C

       

    1

    0.5

    2

     

    S

       

    1

    1

       

    CaSO 4

             

    20

    CaCO 3

             

    4

    Combustion processes inside the duct

     

    2CO + O 2

    2CO 2 + E

    None

    None

    Fossil fuel combustion

     

    Working cycle:

       

    Non continuous

    continuous

    Legend:

    : Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Boiler

     

    : Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler

     
     

    TABLE 4: Comparative Anal ysis for Mat erial Solutions in Fumes Direct Extraction S ystem in an Electrical Arc Furnace (1/2)

     

    REFERENCE

     

    Bulk materials

     

    COATINGS

     

    MATERIAL

     

    Amorphous coating

    Cermet

    Low carbon

    AISI

    AISI

    Duplex

    Hastelloy

    Ultimet

    Arc wire

    HP-

    Plasma

    Spray/

    steel

    304L

    316L

    Stainless

    C-22

    sprayed

    HVOF

    sprayed

    fused

    ASTM106

    steel

    sprayed

    coating

    Composition

    C: < 0.17

    C:<0.03

    C:<0.03

    C:<0.03

    Cr: 22

    Cr: 26

    Si: 1.2

    Si: 2

    Cr:11

    NiCr: 26

    (wei ght percent)

    Si: 0.10-0.35

    Si: 0.5

    Si: 0.5

    Si: 0.5

    Mo: 13.5

    Ni: 9

    Cr: 14

    Cr: 44.5

    Si: 2.5

    Cr 3 C 2 : rest

    Mn: 0.4-0.8

    Mn: 1.5

    Mn: 1.5

    Mn: 1.5

    W: 3

    Mo: 5

    Ni: 4.5

    S: 0.2

    B. 2.5

    P: < 0.04

    Cr: 18

    Cr: 17

    Cr: 22

    Co: 2.5

    Fe: 3

    Mn: 0.6

    B: 5.9

    Fe: 2.5

    S: < 0.004

    Ni: 10

    Mo: 2.5

    Mo: 3

    Fe: 3

    W: 2

    B: 1.9

    Ni: rest

    C: 0.5

    Fe: rest

    Fe: rest

    Ni: 12

    Ni: 5

    Mn: 0.5

    Mn: 0.8

    WC: 26

    WC: 32

    Fe: rest

    N: 0.1

    Va: 0.35

    Si: 0.3

    TiC: 6

    Ni: rest

    Fe: rest

    Ni: rest

    Co: rest

    Fe: rest

    Hardness [HV]

    168

    184 max

    220 max

    275

    190

    296

    1300

    1400

    1100

    780

    Yield stress

    300

    170

    200

    450

    380

    545

           

    [N/ mm 2 ]

    Ultimate stress

    420-500

    450-650

    450-700

    650-900

    790

    1020

           

    [N/ mm 2 ]

    E [GPa]

    190-220

    200

    200

    200

    206

    215

           

    Density ( kg/m 3 )

    7850

    7900

    7980

    7800

    8690

    8470

    7900

    6700

    7700

    6420

    Thermal

    58

    16

    16

    15

    10.1

    12.3

    6

    4.3

    6.5

    N.A.

    conductivity

    (W/mK)

    Porosity [%]

               

    10

    < 1

    5-10

    5.7

    Max. working

    480

    890

    890

    600

    1150

    980

    925

    925

    815

    850

    temperature [°C]

    Bond-strength

               

    > 34

    > 68

    > 41

    > 41

    [N/ mm 2 ]

    Thickness [µµm]

               

    880

    500

    200

    300

     

    TABLE 4: Comparative Anal ysis for Mat erial Solutions in Fumes Direct Extraction S ystem in an Electrical Arc Furnace (2/2)

     

    REFERENCE

     

    BULK MATERIALS

       

    COATINGS

     

    MATERIAL

     

    Amorphous coating

     

    Cermet

    Low carbon

    AISI

    AISI

    Duplex

    Hastelloy

    Ultimet

    Arc wire

    HP-

    Plasma

    Spray/

    steel

    304L

    316L

    Stainless

    C-22

    sprayed

    HVOF

    sprayed

    fused

    ASTM106

    steel

    sprayed

    coating

    Erosion

    N.A.

    12.38 mm 3 /g x 10 4

    12.65

    10.34

    23

    N.A.

    21.4

    N.A.

    resistance

    mm 3 /g x 10 4

    mm 3 /g x 10 4

    mm 3 /10 3 rev

    mm 3 /10 3 rev

    Cost

                   

    On-site

               

    1000 $/m 2

    • 1800 $/m 2

    1450

    $/m 2

     

    Workshop

    3.75-5 $/kg

     

    6.5- 10 $/kg

    90 $/kg

    200 $/kg

    900 $/m 2

    $/m 2

    • 1300 1400 $/m 2

    1100

    $/m 2

     

    Typical

    High

    Used where corrosion

    High

    Chemical

    Hard

    Heater tubes, erosion

    EAF’s

    Converter

    applications

    production

    resistance and

    strength /

    industry.

    facing for

    areas, cyclone inlet

    WCD,

    hoods, heat

    items

    toughness are of

    moderate

    Refinery

    wear and

    tubes, furnace

    Converter

    recovery

    primary concern

    corrosion

    industry.

    corrosion

    waterwall tubes, fan

    hood,

    boilers,

    resistance

    resistance

    blades.

    boilers.

    Comments

    WCD life

    Stainless steels provide a better

    Cost renders them a non

    Hard, dense coatings (HP-HVOF, D-gun) show

    enhancement

    corrosion behavior ( at low

    viable solution. Ultimet

    higher values of hardness and density leading to

    achievable by

    concentrations and temperatures)

    shows the corrosion

    longer life expectancy in erosive environ ments.

    increasing the

    with no improvement in the erosive

    resistance of the

    Coatings are repairable. As long as the coating

    duct thickness

    resistance. Constructive problems

    Hastelloy alloys and a

    prevents erosion of the duct tubing, the process of

    will additionally increase costs. Post

    wear resistance si milar

    repair and replacement of the coating can

    weld heat treatments required

    to the Stellite alloys.

     

    theoreti cally go on indefinitely.

     

    Legend:

    N.A.: non available : Indicative costs for WCD construction or coating : onl y considered for coating (or repairing) and existing duct. Additional costs

    includes set-up of coating installations at work (all peripher y activities around coating work : assembling and dismantling, servicing and cleaning equipment,

    adapting to admittance, etc.). Mobilization to job site (personnel costs shipment of equipment) not included. Scaffolding is assumed to be available on site. :

    Ex-works : For bulk materials is report ed the scaling temperature which is the temperature below which oxidation is negli gible. : ASTM standard G76

    (modified), erodent: 400 µm angular SiC, velocit y: 20 m/s, angle of impact 60°, total flow: 80 g of erodent at room temperature : ASTM 65-81 test with sand

    particles, 6000 rev. During the same t est campai gn the Ultimet allo y (wrought) show an average volume loss of 45.5 mm 3 /1000rev. : G. Irons et al. Report that

    HP-HVOF coatings have an erosion resistance 1.5 better than the equivalent coating plasma spra yed. : Amorphous allo ys form a structure ver y different from

    cr ystalline solids. Atoms are randoml y placed in a continuous coating, eliminating the corrosion-path grain boundaries. The top surface (5 µm) shows a substantial

    increas e in hardness. The coatings have 40-60% amorphous structure as applied : Tough matrix with hard ceramic reinforcement. The carbide size is a function

    of the impacting erosive particles size.