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Outline of geography

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Outline of geography
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geography:
Geography – science that studies the spatial differentiation and distribution of phenomena of Earth.[1]

Nature of geography
Geography is
• an academic discipline – a body of
knowledge given to - or received by - a
disciple (student); a branch or sphere of
knowledge, or field of study, that an
individual has chosen to specialize in.
Modern geography is an
all-encompassing discipline that seeks to
understand the Earth and all of its human
and natural complexities—not merely
where objects are, but how they have
changed and come to be. Geography has
been called 'the world discipline'.[2]
• a field of science – widely recognized
category of specialized expertise within
science, and typically embodies its own
terminology and nomenclature. Such a
field will usually be represented by one
or more scientific journals, where peer
reviewed research is published. There are
many geography-related scientific
journals.

The physical world.

The human world.

• a natural science – field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of natural environment (physical
geography).
• a social science – field of academic scholarship that explores aspects of human society (human geography).
• an interdisciplinary field – a field that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of
thought, as new needs and professions have emerged. Many of the branches of physical geography are also
branches of Earth science.

Outline of geography

Etymology of geography
Etymology of "geography": from Greek γεωγραφία - geographia, lit. "earth describe-write"[3]
• geo- – a prefix taken from the Greek word γη or γαια meaning "earth", usually in the sense of "ground or land".
Geo- is a prefix for many words dealing in some way with the earth.
• -graphy – an English suffix. Words that include this suffix usually are about a work, an art, or a field of study.

Branches of geography
As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches:
• human geography
• physical geography[4][5][6]
Other branches include:
• integrated geography
• geomatics
• regional geography
All the branches are further described below...

Physical geography
• Physical geography – examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation & life, soil, water, and
landforms are produced and interact.[]
Fields of physical geography
• Geomorphology – study of landforms and the processes that shape them, and more broadly, the evolution of
processes controlling the topography of any planet. Seeks to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to
understand landform history and dynamics, and to predict future changes through a combination of field
observation, physical experiment, and numerical modeling.
• Hydrology – study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth, including the
hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.




• Glaciology – study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
• Oceanography – studies a wide range of topics pertaining to oceans, including marine organisms and
ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology
of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across
its boundaries.
Biogeography – study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally. Over areal ecological changes, it is
also tied to the concepts of species and their past, or present living 'refugium', their survival locales, or their
interim living sites. It aims to reveal where organisms live, and at what abundance.[7]
Climatology – study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.[8]
Meteorology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and
short term forecasting (in contrast with climatology).
Pedology – study of soils in their natural environment[9] that deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology, and soil
classification.
Palaeogeography – study of what the geography was in times past, most often concerning the physical landscape,
but also the human or cultural environment.

• Coastal geography – study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the
physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography
(sociology and history) of the coast. It involves an understanding of coastal weathering processes, particularly

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Human geography broadly differs from physical geography in that it focuses on the built environment and how space is created. sediment movement and weather. There are two principal fields of study within the geography of language: 1.[15][16][17][18][19] 3 .[14] 2. pets. The range of focii within children's geographies include: • Children and the city • Children and the countryside • Children and technology • Children and nature. from one place to another and on explaining how humans function spatially.Outline of geography wave action.6 million years. it is the study of human use and understanding of the world and the processes which have affected it. and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. Geography of languages – deals with the distribution through history and space of languages. characterized experientially. which encompasses the last 2. See also the quantitative revolution. The pluralisation in the title is intended to imply that children's lives will be markedly different in differing times and places and in differing circumstances such as gender. and class. politically and ethically significant and which are worthy of study. including the last ice age and the Holocene period. Children's geographies rests on the idea that children as a social group share certain characteristics which are experientially. Another impetus that has influenced the development of the field are ecofeminist and other environmentalist viewpoints on nature-society relations (including questions of animal welfare and rights). wild animals in the city). It focuses on describing and analyzing the ways language. farm animals. • Language geography – studies the geographic distribution of language or its constituent elements.[10][11][12] Approaches of physical geography • Quantitative geography – Quantitative research tools and methods applied to geography. • Quaternary science – focuses on the Quaternary period. Linguistic geography – deals with regional linguistic variations within languages.[13] • Children's geographies – study of places and spaces of children's lives. • Landscape ecology – the relationship between spatial patterns of urban development and ecological processes on a multitude of landscape scales and organizational levels. • Systems approach – Human geography • Human geography – one of the two main subfields of geography. economy. government and other cultural phenomena vary or remain constant. and also the ways in which humans interact with the coast. politically and ethically.[] Fields of human geography • Cultural geography – study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places. because social life and space is heavily populated by animals of many differing kinds and in many differing ways (e. religion. family.g. • Children and globalization • Methodologies of researching children's worlds • Ethics of researching children's worlds • Otherness of childhood • Animal geographies – studies the spaces and places occupied by animals in human culture. viewed.

• Time geography – study of the temporal factor on spatial human activities within the following constraints: 1. • Strategic geography – concerned with the control of. and seeks to determine how cultural features of various societies across the planet emerged and evolved. Capability . movement is restricted by biological factors. including how people have interacted with their environment and created the cultural landscape. Measures development by looking at economic. information. and sleep 3. anchoring him or her to a location while interacting with other individuals in order to complete a task • Historical geography – study of the human. use of sexualised locations in the arts. gendered economies. sex tourism. Authority .[21][22] and sexual citizenship. the distribution of disease in an area. • Political geography – study of the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. spatial areas that have an impact on the security and prosperity of nations. perspectives. the economics of urban form.limitations on the movement of individuals. and of the effects of regional factors upon voting behavior. and place.[23] • Religion geography – study of the impact of geography. the relationship between the environment and the economy (tying into a long history of geographers studying culture-environment interaction). history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales. to provide a spatial understanding of a population's health.Outline of geography • Sexuality and space – encompasses all relationships and interactions between human sexuality. Basically. real estate. core-periphery theory. or access to. sites of queer resistance. Coupling . the inter-relationships between people. such as the need for food. theoretical. fictional. It also deals with accessibility to health care and spatial distribution of health care providers. ranging from the level of the state to international. • Marketing geography – a discipline within marketing analysis which uses geolocation (geographic information) in the process of planning and implementation of marketing activities. gentrification. • Electoral geography – study of the relationship between election results and the regions they affect (such as the environmental impact of voting decisions).[25] It can be used in any aspect of the marketing mix – the product. drink. disease. and the environment's effect on health and disease. space. by understanding how a place or region changes through time. distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world. • Geopolitics – analysis of geography. economies of agglomeration (also known as "linkages"). political and social factors. promotion. price. international trade and development. It studies humans and their use of vehicles or other modes of traveling as well as how markets are serviced by flows of finished goods and raw materials. • Transportation geography – branch of economic geography that investigates spatial interactions between people. Subjects of interest include but are not limited to the location of industries. For example. on religious belief. or place (geo targeting). i. and techniques to solve military problems in peacetime or war. and territory.restraint of an individual. and health care. and seeks to understand both the geographical causes and consequences of varying development. • Health geography – application of geographical information.limits of accessibility to certain places or domains placed on individuals by owners or authorities 2. place and space. transportation. and methods to the study of health.[20] the geographies of prostitution and adult entertainment.[24] • Development geography – study of the Earth's geography with reference to the standard of living and quality of life of its human inhabitants. global sexualities. freight and information. • Military geography – the application of geographic tools. public sex environments. and globalization. physical. state. ethnic economies. including the geographies of LGBT residence. in part by comparing More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs) with Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs). 4 .e. and "real" geographies of the past. • Economic geography – study of the location. based on their nature.

meteorology. migration. Geomatics • Geomatics – branch of geography and the discipline of gathering. and geomorphology. economy. cartography. or spatially referenced information. and delivering geographic information. storing. GALILEO. and their impact on places. Global Navigation Satellite Systems. in terms of concentration. COMPASS) Global Positioning System – Hydrography – Mathematics – Navigation – Photogrammetry – • Remote sensing – • Surveying – 5 . including the environmental impact of tourism. processing. the geographies of tourism and leisure economies. as an industry and as a social and cultural activity. answering tourism industry and management concerns and the sociology of tourism and locations of tourism. as well as the ways in which human societies conceptualize the environment. Geographic Information Systems (GIS). ecology. Approaches of human geography • • • • • • • Behavioral geography – Critical geography – Feminist geography – Marxist geography – Non-representational theory – Postcolonialism – Post-structuralism[26] – • Qualitative geography – qualitative research tools and methods applied to geography. photogrammetry. biogeography. infrastructure. and related forms of earth mapping. composition. Integrated geography • Integrated geography – branch of geography that describes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world. Fields contributing to geomatics • • • • • • • • • • • • Photogrammetry – Cartography – Digital terrain modelling – Geodesy – Geographic information systems – Geospatial – Global navigation satellite systems – (GPS. and growth of populations are related to the nature of places. • Urban geography – the study of urban areas. It requires an understanding of the dynamics of geology. • Tourism geography – study of travel and tourism. and environmental impacts. It is a widespread interdisciplinary field that includes the tools and techniques used in land surveying.Outline of geography • Population geography – study of the ways in which spatial variations in the distribution. remote sensing. hydrology. GLONASS.

They are generally identified by convention rather than any specific criteria. as in a country on a continent. human characteristics. defined by physical characteristics. or craton.Outline of geography 6 Regional geography Regional geography – study of world regions. or functional characteristics. Asia   (outline) – Earth may have had a single supercontinent called "Pangaea" . They are: 1. North America   (outline) – 5. Supercontinents Main article: List of supercontinents A supercontinent is a landmass comprising more than one continental core. but seven areas are commonly regarded as continents. and regionalization which covers the techniques of delineating space into regions. South America   (outline) – Eurasia: 6. Africa   (outline) – 2. Regional geography breaks down into the study of specific regions. Attention is paid to unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural elements. or as one part of a larger whole. • Afro-Eurasia (formed 5 million years ago) • Americas (formed 15 million years ago) • Eurasia (formed 60 million years ago) Continents A continent is one of several large landmasses on Earth. Australia   (outline) – The Americas: 4. A region can be seen as a collection of smaller units. human elements. Europe   (outline) – 7. The term is used in various ways among the different branches of geography. such as a country and its political divisions. Antarctica – 3. Region – an area.

9 mil.1 mil. New Guinea. km² (including Australia.5 mil. and neighboring islands). km² (including the bulk of Eurasia and North Africa) • Afrotropic 22. km² (including most of North America) • Palearctic 54.0 mil. km² (including Sub-Saharan Africa) • Indomalaya 7. Geography of the political divisions of the World • Geography of Africa   (Outline) • West Africa#Geography and climate • • • • • • • • • Geography of Benin   (Outline) Geography of Burkina Faso   (Outline) Geography of Cape Verde   (Outline) Geography of Côte d'Ivoire   (Outline) Geography of Gambia   (Outline) Geography of Ghana   (Outline) Geography of Guinea   (Outline) Geography of Guinea-Bissau   (Outline) Geography of Liberia   (Outline) • Geography of Mali   (Outline) • Geography of Mauritania   (Outline) . • Neotropic 19.7 mil. km² (including Antarctica). See Lists of ecoregions by country. km² (including South America and the Caribbean) • Oceania 1.1 mil.3 mil. Fiji and Micronesia) • Antarctic 0. km² (including Polynesia.0 mil. km² (including the South Asian subcontinent and Southeast Asia) Map of six of the world's eight ecozones   Nearctic  Palearctic  Afrotropic  Indomalaya  Australasia ecozoneAustralasia  Neotropic  Oceania ecozoneOceania and Antarctic ecozoneAntarctic ecozones not shown • Australasia 7.Outline of geography 7 Subregions Subregion (list) Biogeographic regions Ecozone Main article: Ecozone The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) developed a system of eight biogeographic realms (ecozones): • Nearctic 22. The World has over 800 terrestrial ecoregions. Ecoregions Main article: Ecoregion Ecozones are further divided into ecoregions. The northern boundary of this zone is known as the Wallace line.

Outline of geography • Geography of Niger   (Outline) • Geography of Nigeria   (Outline) • Geography of Senegal   (Outline) • Geography of Sierra Leone   (Outline) • Geography of Togo   (Outline) • North Africa#Geography • Geography of Algeria   (Outline) • Geography of Egypt   (Outline) • Geography of Libya   (Outline) • Geography of Mauritania   (Outline) • Geography of Morocco   (Outline) • Geography of Sudan   (Outline) • Geography of Tunisia   (Outline) • Geography of Western Sahara   (Outline) • Central Africa • Geography of Angola   (Outline) • Geography of Burundi   (Outline) • Geography of Cameroon   (Outline) • Geography of Central African Republic   (Outline) • Geography of Chad   (Outline) • Geography of Democratic Republic of the Congo   (Outline) • Geography of Equatorial Guinea   (Outline) • Geography of Gabon   (Outline) • Geography of Republic of the Congo   (Outline) • Geography of Rwanda   (Outline) • Geography of São Tomé and Príncipe   (Outline) • East Africa#Geography and climate • Geography of Burundi   (Outline) • Geography of Comoros   (Outline) • Geography of Djibouti   (Outline) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Geography of Eritrea   (Outline) Geography of Ethiopia   (Outline) Geography of Kenya   (Outline) Geography of Madagascar   (Outline) Geography of Malawi   (Outline) Geography of Mauritius   (Outline) Geography of Mozambique   (Outline) Geography of Rwanda   (Outline) Geography of Seychelles   (Outline) Geography of Somalia   (Outline) Geography of Tanzania   (Outline) Geography of Uganda   (Outline) Geography of Zambia   (Outline) Geography of Zimbabwe   (Outline) • Southern Africa#Geography • Geography of Botswana   (Outline) 8 .

Outline of geography • Geography of Lesotho   (Outline) • Geography of Namibia   (Outline) • Geography of South Africa   (Outline) • Geography of Swaziland   (Outline) • Dependencies in Africa • • • • • • • • • • • • Geography of British Indian Ocean Territory   (Outline) (UK) Geography of Mayotte   (Outline) (France) Geography of Réunion   (Outline) (France) Geography of Saint Helena   (Outline) (UK) Canary Islands#Geography   (Outline) (Spain) Geography of Ceuta   (Outline) (Spain) Geography of Madeira   (Outline) (Portugal) Geography of Melilla   (Outline) (Spain) Geography of Socotra   (Outline) (Yemen) Geography of Puntland   (Outline) Geography of Somaliland   (Outline) Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic   (Outline) • Geography of Antarctica   (Outline) • Geography of Asia   (Outline) • Central Asia#Geography • Geography of Kazakhstan   (Outline) • Geography of Kyrgyzstan   (Outline) • Geography of Tajikistan   (Outline) • Geography of Turkmenistan   (Outline) • Geography of Uzbekistan   (Outline) • East Asia • Geography of China   (Outline) • Geography of Tibet   (Outline) • Geography of Hong Kong   (Outline) • Geography of Macau   (Outline) • Geography of Japan   (Outline) • Geography of North Korea   (Outline) • Geography of South Korea   (Outline) • Geography of Mongolia   (Outline) • Geography of Taiwan   (Outline) • North Asia#Geography • Geography of Russia   (Outline) • Southeast Asia#Geography • • • • • Geography of Brunei   (Outline) Burma (Myanmar) .Outline) Geography of Cambodia   (Outline) East Timor (Timor-Leste) .Outline) Geography of Indonesia   (Outline) • Geography of Laos   (Outline) • Geography of Malaysia   (Outline) • Geography of the Philippines   (Outline) 9 .

Adyghea. Dagestan. Krasnodar Krai. or between them) • North Caucasus • Geography of Russia   (Outline) (the following parts of Russia are in the North Caucasus: Chechnya. Karachay–Cherkessia. including: • Geography of Abkhazia   (Outline) (disputed territory) • Geography of South Ossetia   (Outline) (disputed territory) • Armenia#Geography   (Outline) • Geography of Azerbaijan   (Outline). including: • Geography of Nagorno-Karabakh   (Outline) (disputed territory) • Geography of Europe   (Outline) 10 . Ingushetia. North Ossetia. including: • Geography of Northern Cyprus   (Outline) (disputed territory) • Georgia   (Outline) • Geography of Iraq   (Outline) • Geography of Israel   (Outline) • Geography of Jordan   (Outline) • Geography of Kuwait   (Outline) • Geography of Lebanon   (Outline) • Geography of Oman   (Outline) • Geography of the Palestinian territories   (Outline) • Geography of Qatar   (Outline) • Geography of Saudi Arabia   (Outline) • Geography of Syria   (Outline) • Geography of Turkey   (Outline) • Geography of United Arab Emirates   (Outline) • Geography of Yemen   (Outline) • Caucasus#Geography and ecology (a region considered to be in both Asia and Europe. Stavropol Krai) • South Caucasus • Georgia   (Outline). Kabardino-Balkaria.Outline of geography • Geography of Singapore   (Outline) • Geography of Thailand   (Outline) • Geography of Vietnam   (Outline) • South Asia#Geography • Geography of Afghanistan   (Outline) • Geography of Bangladesh   (Outline) • Geography of Bhutan   (Outline) • Geography of India   (Outline) • Geography of Iran   (Outline) • Geography of Maldives   (Outline) • Geography of Nepal   (Outline) • Geography of Pakistan   (Outline) • Geography of Sri Lanka   (Outline) • Western Asia#Geography • Armenia#Geography   (Outline) • Geography of Azerbaijan   (Outline) • Geography of Bahrain   (Outline) • Geography of Cyprus   (Outline).

Outline of geography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Geography of Akrotiri and Dhekelia   (Outline) Geography of Åland   (Outline) Geography of Albania   (Outline) Geography of Andorra   (Outline) Geography of Armenia   (Outline) Geography of Austria   (Outline) Geography of Azerbaijan   (Outline) Geography of Belarus   (Outline) Geography of Belgium   (Outline) Geography of Bosnia and Herzegovina   (Outline) Geography of Bulgaria   (Outline) Geography of Croatia   (Outline) Geography of Cyprus   (Outline) Geography of Czech Republic   (Outline) Geography of Denmark   (Outline) Geography of Estonia   (Outline) Faroe Islands#Geography   (Outline) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Geography of Finland   (Outline) Geography of France   (Outline) Geography of Georgia   (Outline) Geography of Germany   (Outline) Geography of Gibraltar   (Outline) Geography of Greece   (Outline) Geography of Guernsey   (Outline) Geography of Hungary   (Outline) Geography of Iceland   (Outline) Republic of Ireland#Geography   (Outline) Geography of the Isle of Man   (Outline) Geography of Italy   (Outline) Geography of Jersey   (Outline) Geography of Kazakhstan   (Outline) Geography of Kosovo   (Outline) Geography of Latvia   (Outline) Geography of Liechtenstein   (Outline) Geography of Lithuania   (Outline) • • • • Geography of Luxembourg   (Outline) Geography of Macedonia   (Outline) Geography of Malta   (Outline) Geography of Moldova   (Outline). including: • • • • • Geography of Transnistria   (Outline) (disputed territory) Geography of Monaco   (Outline) Geography of Montenegro   (Outline) Geography of Netherlands   (Outline) Geography of Norway   (Outline) • Geography of Poland   (Outline) • Geography of Portugal   (Outline) • Geography of Romania   (Outline) 11 .

Outline of geography • • • • • • • • • • • • Geography of Russia   (Outline) Geography of San Marino   (Outline) Geography of Serbia   (Outline) Geography of Slovakia   (Outline) Geography of Slovenia   (Outline) Geography of Spain   (Outline) Geography of Svalbard   (Outline) Geography of Sweden   (Outline) Geography of Switzerland   (Outline) Geography of Turkey   (Outline) Geography of Ukraine   (Outline) Geography of United Kingdom   (Outline) • Geography of England   (Outline) • Geography of Northern Ireland   (Outline) • Geography of Scotland   (Outline) • Geography of Wales   (Outline) • Geography of Vatican City   (Outline) • Geography of North America   (Outline) • Geography of Canada   (Outline) • By province • Geography of Alberta • Geography of British Columbia   (Outline) • Geography of Manitoba • Geography of New Brunswick • Geography of Newfoundland and Labrador • Geography of Nova Scotia • Geography of Ontario • Geography of Prince Edward Island • Geography of Quebec   (Outline) • Geography of Saskatchewan   (Outline) • By territory • • • • • Geography of the Northwest Territories • Geography of Nunavut • Geography of Yukon Geography of Greenland   (Outline) Geography of Mexico   (Outline) Geography of Saint Pierre and Miquelon   (Outline) Geography of United States   (Outline) • • • • • • Geography of Alabama   (Outline) Geography of Alaska   (Outline) Geography of Arizona   (Outline) Geography of Arkansas   (Outline) Geography of California   (Outline) Geography of Colorado   (Outline) • Geography of Connecticut   (Outline) • Geography of Delaware   (Outline) 12 .

) • Central America#Geography   (Outline) • Geography of Belize   (Outline) • Geography of Costa Rica   (Outline) • Geography of El Salvador   (Outline) 13 .C. D.C. D.   (Outline) (Washington.Outline of geography • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Geography of Florida   (Outline) Geography of Georgia   (Outline) Geography of Hawaii   (Outline) Geography of Idaho   (Outline) Geography of Illinois   (Outline) Geography of Indiana   (Outline) Geography of Iowa   (Outline) Geography of Montana   (Outline) Geography of Kansas   (Outline) Geography of Kentucky   (Outline) Geography of Louisiana   (Outline) Geography of Maine   (Outline) Geography of Maryland   (Outline) Geography of Massachusetts   (Outline) Geography of Michigan   (Outline) Geography of Minnesota   (Outline) Geography of Mississippi   (Outline) • Geography of Missouri   (Outline) • Geography of Nebraska   (Outline) • Geography of Nevada   (Outline) • Geography of New Hampshire   (Outline) • Geography of New Jersey   (Outline) • Geography of New Mexico   (Outline) • Geography of New York   (Outline) • Geography of North Carolina   (Outline) • Geography of North Dakota   (Outline) • Geography of Ohio   (Outline) • Geography of Oklahoma   (Outline) • Geography of Oregon   (Outline) • Geography of Pennsylvania   (Outline) • Geography of Rhode Island   (Outline) • Geography of South Carolina   (Outline) • Geography of South Dakota   (Outline) • Geography of Tennessee   (Outline) • Geography of Texas   (Outline) • Geography of Utah   (Outline) • Geography of Vermont   (Outline) • Geography of Virginia   (Outline) • Geography of Washington   (Outline) • Geography of West Virginia   (Outline) • Geography of Wisconsin   (Outline) • Geography of Wyoming   (Outline) • Geography of Washington.

Outline of geography • Geography of Guatemala   (Outline) • Geography of Honduras   (Outline) • Geography of Nicaragua   (Outline) • Geography of Panama   (Outline) • Geography of the Caribbean   (Outline) • • • • • • • • • • • • Geography of Anguilla   (Outline) Geography of Antigua and Barbuda   (Outline) Geography of Aruba   (Outline) Geography of Bahamas   (Outline) Geography of Barbados   (Outline) Geography of Bermuda   (Outline) British Virgin Islands#Geography   (Outline) Cayman Islands#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Cuba   (Outline) Geography of Dominica   (Outline) Dominican Republic#Geography   (Outline) Geography of Grenada   (Outline) • Geography of Haiti   (Outline) • Geography of Jamaica   (Outline) • Geography of Montserrat   (Outline) • Netherlands Antilles#Geography   (Outline) • Geography of Puerto Rico   (Outline) • Geography of Saint Barthélemy   (Outline) • Geography of Saint Kitts and Nevis   (Outline) • Geography of Saint Lucia   (Outline) • Saint Martin#Geography   (Outline) • Geography of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines   (Outline) • Geography of Trinidad and Tobago   (Outline) • Turks and Caicos Islands#Geography   (Outline) • United States Virgin Islands#Geography   (Outline) • Geography of Oceania (includes the continent of Australia) • Australasia • Geography of Australia   (Outline) • Dependencies and territories of Australia • Geography of Christmas Island   (Outline) • Cocos (Keeling) Islands#Geography   (Outline) • Geography of Norfolk Island   (Outline) • Geography of New Zealand   (Outline) • Geography of Melanesia • • • • • Geography of Fiji   (Outline) Geography of Indonesia   (Outline) (Oceanian part only) Geography of New Caledonia   (Outline) (France) Geography of Papua New Guinea   (Outline) Geography of the Solomon Islands   (Outline) • Geography of Vanuatu   (Outline) • Geography of Micronesia 14 .

Outline of geography • Geography of Federated States of Micronesia   (Outline) • Geography of Guam   (Outline) (USA) • Geography of Kiribati   (Outline) • Geography of Marshall Islands   (Outline) • Geography of Nauru   (Outline) • Northern Mariana Islands#Geography and climate   (Outline) (USA) • Geography of Palau   (Outline) • Geography of Wake Island   (Outline) (USA) • Geography of Polynesia • • • • • • • • Geography of American Samoa   (Outline) (USA) Chatham Islands#Geography   (Outline) (NZ) Cook Islands#Geography   (Outline) (NZ) Easter Island#Location and physical geography   (Outline) (Chile) Geography of French Polynesia   (Outline) (France) Geography of Hawaii   (Outline) (USA) Loyalty Islands#Geography   (Outline) (France) Geography of Niue   (Outline) (NZ) • Pitcairn Islands#Geography   (Outline) (UK) • Geography of Samoa   (Outline) • Geography of Tokelau   (Outline) (NZ) • Geography of Tonga   (Outline) • Geography of Tuvalu   (Outline) • Geography of Wallis and Futuna   (Outline) (France) • Geography of South America   (Outline) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Geography of Argentina   (Outline) Geography of Bolivia   (Outline) Geography of Brazil   (Outline) Geography of Chile   (Outline) Geography of Colombia   (Outline) Geography of Ecuador   (Outline) Geography of the Falkland Islands   (Outline) Geography of French Guiana   (Outline) Geography of Guyana   (Outline) Geography of Paraguay   (Outline) Geography of Peru   (Outline) Geography of Suriname   (Outline) Geography of Uruguay   (Outline) Geography of Venezuela   (Outline) 15 .

Outline of geography 16 Other regions • • • • Atlantic World Bermuda Triangle Pacific Rim Pacific Ring of Fire History of geography Main articles: History of geography and Historical geography Topics pertaining to the geographical study of the World throughout history: By period • • • • Ancient roads Ancient Greek geography Age of discovery Major explorations after the Age of Discovery • Critical geography • Environmental determinism By region • Chinese geography • History of human geography in China By subject • Historical population of the world By field • History of human geography • History of cartography • History of longitude • • • • • Longitude Prize History of cultural geography History of economic geography History of health geography History of political geography • History of demography • History of physical geography • History of biogeography • History of climatology • History of meteorology • History of geodesy Reconstruction of Hecataeus' map of the World. created during ancient Greek times .

or above the surface of the earth at a given moment of time. and presents data that are linked to location(s). These points are usually on the surface of the Earth. or geographic properties. • Globe – a three-dimensional scale model of a spheroid celestial body such as a planet. manages. • Spatial analysis – a variety of statistical techniques used to study entities using their topological. stores. Combines elements of cartography. statistical analysis. Distinct from demography. which is the statistical study of human populations. • Demographics – the characteristics of a human population as used in government.Outline of geography 17 • History of geomorphology • History of hydrology • History of oceanography • History of landscape ecology • History of regional geography Elements of geography Topics common to the various branches of geography include: Tasks and tools of geography Main articles: Geosophy Philosophy of geography and • Exploration – the act of traveling and searching for resources or for information about the land or space itself. • Geocode (Geospatial Entity Object Code) – geospatial coordinate system for specifying the exact location of a geospatial point at. geometric. • Surveying – the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. regions. Necessary for creating maps. typically of the Earth or a region thereof. • Terrestrial globe – globe of the Earth. • Atlas – a collection of maps. and database technology. depicting the elements of that area such as objects. • Map projection – any method of representing the surface of a sphere or other shape on a plane. and themes. . below. star. and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. • Map – a visual representation of an area. or the demographic profiles used in such research. • Cartography – the study and practice of making maps. analyzes. The equal-area Mollweide projection • Geographic information system (GIS) – set of tools that captures. marketing or opinion research. or moon.

or region. and therefore may show up on a map. 2006 • Elevation – • Place • Aspects of a place or region • Climate – • Population – • Demographics – • Population density – • Overpopulation – • World population – • Sense of place – • Terrain – • Topography – • Tourist attraction – • Lists of places – Natural geographic features Natural geographic feature – an ecosystem or natural landform. Location and place • Location – • Absolute location – • Latitude – • Prime meridian – • Longitude – • Equator – • Tropic of Cancer – • Tropic of Capricorn – • Altitude – Population density per square kilometre by country. A geographic feature may be natural or man-made.Outline of geography 18 Types of geographic features Geographic feature – component of a planet that can be referred to as a location. Ecosystems Ecosystem – • Biodiversity hotspot • Ecozone – • Ecoprovince – • Ecoregion – • Ecodistrict – • Ecosection – • Ecosite – • Ecotope – • Ecoelement – . site. place. area.

United States. but most landforms are natural. • Mountain – • Mountain range – • Subcontinent – Natural body of water types • Natural bodies of water – • Bodies of sea water • Channel – • Firth – • Harbor – • Inlet – • Bay – • Bight – • Gulf – • Cove – • Creek (tidal) – • Estuary – • Fjord (fiord) – • Kettle – • Kill – • Lagoon – • Barachois – • Loch – • Arm of the sea – The volcano Mount St. and soil type. . Natural terrain feature types • Continent – • Island – • Mainland – The Ganges river delta in India and Bangladesh is one of the most fertile regions in the world. and are defined by their surface form and location in the landscape.Outline of geography 19 • Biome – • Bioregion – • Biotope – • Bioelement – Natural landforms Natural landform – terrain or body of water. slope. stratification. Landforms are categorized by traits such as elevation. Landforms are topographical elements. orientation. Some landforms are man-made. such as artificial islands. Helens in Washington. rock exposure.

Outline of geography • • • • • Mere – Ocean – Phytotelma – Salt marsh – Sea – • Types of sea: • Mediterranean sea – • Sound – • Sea components or extensions: • Sea loch – • Sea lough – • Strait – • Bodies of fresh water • Bayou – • Lake (list) – • Oxbow lake – • Subglacial lake – • Tarn – • Pool – • Pond – • Billabong – • Tide pool – • Vernal pool – • Puddle – • River (list) – • Parts of a river: • Rapid – • Source – • Waterfall (list) – • Roadstead – • Spring – • Boil • Stream – • • • • Beck – Brook – Burn – Creek – • Arroyo (creek) – • Wash – • Draw – • Run – • Wetland – • Freshwater marsh – • Slough (wetland) – 20 .

Historically. Will the world ever become so urbanized as to be called this? • Engineered construct – built feature of the landscape such as a highway. the Suez Canal. larger than a hamlet with the population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand (sometimes tens of thousands).[27] • Global city – city that is deemed to be an important node in the global economic system. Pennsylvania. rural settlement which is too small to be considered a village. for example. • Town – human settlement larger than a village but smaller than a city. it was then classified as a village. • Settlement – • Hamlet (place). or it may be abstract and exist only on maps (such as the Equator. One example of a hamlet is a small cluster of houses surrounding a mill. • Village – clustered human settlement or community. extending from Boston. but cannot be seen where it lies). Will Europe become the first one? • Ecumenopolis – theoretical "world city".C. • Megalopolis – chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. dam. sharing industry. The world does not have one yet. D. political and cultural center for a country or region. Some examples include Tokyo. airport. An example is the huge metropolitan area along the eastern seaboard of the U. • Metropolitan area – region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories. which has a defined location. Baltimore. The size a settlement must be in order to be called a "town" varies considerably in different parts of the world. while many British "small towns" would qualify as cities in the United States. • Financial centre • Primate city – the leading city in its country or region. Maryland and ending in Washington. • 1st-order towns – bare minimum of essential services. building. for instance being required to obtain articles of incorporation or a royal charter. It may be physical and exist in the real world (like a bridge or city). or reservoir. a city is distinguished from a town by attainment of designation according to law. and the Boeing Everett Factory. Philadelphia. In many regions. Globalization is largely created.. Interstate 5. bridge. and housing. See also construction engineering and infrastructure. facilitated and enacted in strategic geographic locales (including global cities) according to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system of finance and trade. Massachusetts through New York City. • Artificial geographic feature – physical man-made construct that is part of the landscape (and anthrosphere). disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy. when a hamlet became large enough to justify building a church. • Metropolis – very large city or urban area which is a significant economic. the Great Wall of China. such as bread and milk. railroad. so that. infrastructure. and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications. • 2nd-order towns • 3rd-order towns • 4th-order towns • City – relatively large and permanent settlement. 21 . • Urban hierarchy – ranks the structure of towns within an area. many American "small towns" seem to British people to be no more than villages.Outline of geography • Mangrove swamp – Man-made geographic features Man-made geographic feature – a thing that was made by humans that may be indicated on a map. • Eperopolis – theoretical "continent city".S.

usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river or the coast. Industrial region Marina – Orchard – Parking lot – Pier – Pipeline – Port – Railway – Ranch – Reservoir – Road – • • • • • • • • Highway – • Race track – • Street – Subsidence crater – Ski resort – Train station – Tree farm – Tunnel – Viaduct – Wharf – • • 22 . Aqueduct – artificial channel that is constructed to convey water from one location to another. or jettys. • Dike – barrier of stone or earth used to hold back water and prevent flooding. especially the growing of crops or the raising of livestock. Manmade harbor – harbor that has deliberately constructed breakwaters.Outline of geography • Artificial landforms • • • • • • • • • Artificial dwelling hill – • Artificial island – • Artificial reef – Airport – place where airplanes can take off and land. including one or more runways and one or more passenger terminals. sea walls. Bridge – structure built to span a valley.[28] Farm – place where agricultural activities take place. for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. or other physical obstacle such as a canyon. Causeway – Dam – structure placed across a flowing body of water to stop the flow. Canal – artificial waterway. • • • • • • • • • • • • Levee – artificial slope or wall to regulate water levels. or to prevent erosion of a coastal feature. Building – closed structure with walls and a roof. often connecting one body of water with another. body of water. usually to use the water for irrigation or to generate electricity. road. or which was constructed by dredging. Breakwater – construction designed to break the force of the sea to provide calm water for boats or ships.

Outline of geography 23 • Abstract geographic feature – does not exist physically in the real world. • Latitude line – . yet has a location by definition and may be displayed on maps. Examples of the types of country subdivisions: Provinces and territorial disputes of the People's Republic of China • Bailiwick – • Canton – • Commune – • County – • Department – • District – • • • • • • • • • Duchy – Emirate – Federal state – Parish – Prefecture – Province – Region – Rural district – Settlement – • Municipality – • City – • • • • • • • Borough – • Township – • Village – Shire – State – Subdistrict – Subprefecture – Voivodeship – Wilayat – • Cartographical feature – theoretical construct used specifically on maps that doesn't have any physical form apart from its location. • Geographical zone • Hardiness zone • Time zone • Political division – • Nation • Administrative division – • Special Economic Zone • Country subdivision – a designated territory created within a country for administrative or identification purposes.

1165) – who drew the Tabula Rogeriana. • Bernhardus Varenius (1622–1650) – Wrote his important work "General Geography" (1650) – first overview of the geography.[33] • Piri Reis (1465 – c.168) – who compiled Greek and Roman knowledge to produce the book Geographia.[29] He is considered the father of geodesy. showing her flight route human and wildlife ecologies. 1100 – c.[29][30] • Ptolemy (c. weather and climate patterns. . economics. • Gerardus Mercator (1512–1594) – an innovative cartographer and originator of the Mercator projection. and culture. the most accurate world map in pre-modern times.[31][32]Wikipedia:Verifiability • Ibn Sina (Avicenna. • Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī (973 – 1048 AD) – considered te father of geodesy.Outline of geography 24 • Equator – • Longitude line – • Prime Meridian) – • Geographical pole – • North pole – • South pole – Geographic features that include the natural and man-made • Waterway (list) – Geography awards Some awards and competitions in the field of geography: • Geography Cup – • Gold Medal – • Hubbard Medal – • National Geographic World Championship – • Victoria Medal – Persons influential in geography A geographer is a scientist who studies Earth's physical environment and human habitat.[citation needed] • Muhammad al-Idrisi (Dreses. Influential physical geographers • Eratosthenes (276 – 194 BC) – who made the first known reliable estimation of the Earth's size. 980–1037) – who formulated the law of superposition and concept of uniformitarianism in The Book of Healing. Geographers focus on the spatial relationships between these elements. Geographers are historically known for making maps. considered to be the founding father of physical geography. the subdiscipline of geography known as cartography. the foundation of modern geography. They Hubbard Medal awarded to Anne Morrow study the physical details of the environment and also its impact on Lindbergh.1554) – whose Piri Reis map is the oldest surviving world map to include the Americas and possibly Antarctica Alexander Von Humboldt.90 – c.

20th-century geographer who progressed quantitative geography and who helped bring the systems approach to geography. Published Kosmos and founded the study of biogeography. • Stefan Rahmstorf (born 1960) – professor of abrupt climate changes and author on theories of thermohaline dynamics. • Vasily Dokuchaev (1840–1903) – patriarch of Russian geography and founder of pedology. • Alexander Von Humboldt (1769–1859) – considered the father of modern geography. • Sir Nicholas Shackleton (1937–2006) – who demonstrated that oscillations in climate over the past few million years could be correlated with variations in the orbital and positional relationship between the Earth and the Sun. especially in fast ice flow. founder of Geomorphology and developer of the geographical cycle theory. • William Morris Davis (1850–1934) – father of American geography. • Hans Oeschger (1927–1998) – palaeoclimatologist and pioneer in ice core research. • J Harlen Bretz (1882–1981) – pioneer of research into the shaping of landscapes by catastrophic floods. • Willi Dansgaard (born 1922) – palaeoclimatologist and quaternary scientist. • Wladimir Peter Köppen (1846–1940) – developer of most important climate classification and founder of Paleoclimatology. Horton (1875–1945) – founder of modern hydrology and concepts such as infiltration capacity and overland flow. Richard Chorley. • Sir Ernest Shackleton (1874–1922) – Antarctic explorer during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. • Robert E. . • Walther Penck (1888–1923) – proponent of the cycle of erosion and the simultaneous occurrence of uplift and denudation.Outline of geography 25 • Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765) – father of Russian geography and founded the study of glaciology. • Richard Chorley (1927–2002) – a key contributor to the quantitative revolution and the use of systems theory in geography. co-identifier of Dansgaard-Orschger events. • Arnold Henry Guyot (1807–1884) – who noted the structure of glaciers and advanced the understanding of glacial motion. • Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913) – founder of modern biogeography and the Wallace line. • Louis Agassiz (1807–1873) – the author of a glacial theory which disputed the notion of a steady-cooling Earth. instrumental in the use of oxygen-isotope dating and co-identifier of Dansgaard-Oeschger events. most notably the Bretz (Missoula) floods.

one of the most important geographers in South America. global city-regions and the cultural economy. • Torsten Hägerstrand (1916–2004) – critic of the quantitative revolution and regional science. Sauer (1889–1975) – critic of environmental determinism and proponent of cultural ecology. invented the term Lebensraum • Paul Vidal de la Blache (1845–1918) – founder of the French School of geopolitics and possibilism. • Allen J. influenced by Edward Said and has contributed work on imagined geographies. • Cindi Katz (born 1954) – who writes on social reproduction and the production of space. Class of 1963 Professor of Geography and Development Studies. . everyday life and security. also noted for his work in critical geography and critique of global capitalism. • Waldo R. Berkeley • Nigel Thrift (born 1949) – developer of non-representational theory. planning and governance. also noted for his use of organic analogy in his works. David Harvey • Michael Watts.Outline of geography 26 Influential human geographers • Carl Ritter (1779–1859) – considered to be one of the founding fathers of modern geography and first chair in geography at the Humboldt University of Berlin. • Derek Gregory (born 1951) – famous for writing on the Israeli. • Yi-Fu Tuan (born 1930) A Chinese-American geographer. • Doreen Massey (born 1944) – key scholar in the space and places of globalization and its pluralities. known for his work on regional development. U. • Sir Halford John Mackinder (1861–1947) – author of The Geographical Pivot of History. • David Harvey (born 1935) – world's most cited academic geographer and winner of the Lauréat Prix International de Géographie Vautrin Lud. and UK actions in the Middle East after 9/11. Tobler (born 1930) – developer of the First law of geography. new industrial spaces. Known for recognizing inequality with marginalized groups including women and Māori using geography. agglomeration theory. along with the Geographical Association.S. noted figure in critical geography. winner of the Vautrin Lud Prize. Professor of geography at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. • Richard Hartshorne (1899–1992) – scholar of the history and philosophy of geography. co-founder of the London School of Economics. Scott (born 1938) – winner of Vautrin Lud Prize in 2003 and the Anders Retzius Gold medal 2009. University of California. • Friedrich Ratzel (1844–1904) – environmental determinist. • Carl O. Paul Vidal de la Blache • Evelyn Stokes (1936–2005). author of numerous books and papers on economic and urban geography. Sketch of Carl Ritter • Walter Christaller (1893–1969) – economic geographer and developer of the central place theory. along with coining the terms synekism and postmetropolis. place and nature. • Edward Soja (born 1941) – noted for his work on regional development. Writing on children's geographies. • Milton Santos (1926–2001) winner of the Vautrin Lud prize in 1994.

shtml#C) Retrieved on 2006-11-23. Glossary of linguistic terminology.. noaa. [1981] (1993). 2006. Readings in cultural geography. Oxford: Blackwell. P. html) Martiny JBH et al. Number 2. Course Syllabus Towson University (http:/ / pages. prn. pdx.W. The uses of geography • The three content areas of geography from the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress[36] (U. Smith. edu/ epc/ authors/ howe/ syllabi/ sexuality. J. Space and place 2. 2007. by M. J. Environment and society 6. (1974). Human-environment interaction – 4. pdf Fundamentals of Physical Geography. and R. In: S. 75-93. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. J. clas. 1 May 2000 . P. pdf) Nature: FEBRUARY 2006 | VOLUME 4 [8] Climate Prediction Center. html?phpsessid=43bac9979986e74e34d2496c52ebac62) [23] Sexuality and Space. Encyclopedia of Ecology. Cambridge. Oxford.Outline of geography • Gillian Rose (born 1962) – most famous for her critique: Feminism & Geography: The Limits of Geographical Knowledge (1993) – which was one of the first moves towards a development of feminist geography. buffalo. ingentaconnect. Landscape Ecology 21:1-4. On dialect: social and geographical perspectives. 215-46. Elsevier. 2008 http:/ / web. towson. cpc. 115-139(25) (http:/ / www. net/ fundamentals/ 1b. [15] Pei.[] under which the National Geography Standards they developed are organized:[][35] 1. Cambridge University Press. and sustainability science. Sage. Region – • The six "essential elements" identified by the Geography Education Standards Project. landscape ecology. 2. The Dictionary of Human Geography. Landscape ecology. The geography of languages. [17] Trudgill. [11] Wu. edu/ dherman/ sexspace/ sexhome. Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map (http:/ / alrlab. Mikesell. Spatial dynamics and connections References [2] [4] [6] [7] Bonnett. allacademic. M. E. physicalgeography. University at Buffalo (http:/ / wings. Alastair What is Geography? London. David M. [14] Delgado de Carvalho. In Wagner. New York: John Wiley. Linguistic geography and geographical linguistics. [18] Trudgill. 2nd Edition. Language in Society 3:2. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. (http:/ / www. M. Key Topics in Landscape Ecology. Human systems 5. Physical systems 4. Place – 3.. com/ content/ routledg/ rtxg/ 2000/ 00000002/ 00000002/ art00002) [21] Syllabus Poetics: Sexuality and Space in 17th . R.): 1. (1966). Tourism Geographies. Derek. com/ meta/ p_mla_apa_research_citation/ 0/ 1/ 4/ 9/ 2/ p14928_index. (1983). (1962). 252-3. Volume 2. Progress in Geography 7. sexuality and space by Pritchard A. Johnson. htm) 27 .S.J. [12] Wu. [16] Trudgill. C. ufl. movement – 5. Environment and society 3. Pidwirny. 227-52 [19] Withers. [20] Constructing tourism landscapes – gender. edu/ media/ HughesBiogeoNature. 2006 (http:/ / www. The World in spatial terms 2. Jorgensen (ed). Second edition.19th Century American Literature. & Morgan N. edu/ users/ morgans/ lecture_2. Location – a position or point that something occupies on the Earth's surface. (1975). Hobbs (Eds). [10] Wu. P. Charles W. gov/ products/ outreach/ glossary. html) [22] Space and Modern (Homo)sexuality in Tsai Ming Liang's Films by Lyn Van Swol (http:/ / www. J.J. Cross-disciplinarity. 2008. Gregory. P. pp. Geography educational frameworks Educational frameworks upon which primary and secondary school curricula for geography are based upon include: • Five themes of geography[34] – 1. Places and regions 3. Climate Glossary. Linguistic change and diffusion: description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect geography. New York: New York University Press.L.M.

Scott (1904) – History of the Moorish Empire. com/ books?id=kRp7R_WnAiEC& pg=PA4& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". and Valentine. The Creative Company. National Council for Geographic Education. parallels. 1984. Geography for Life: National Geography Standards. p.S. Nora Ariel Berger (2006). pp122-135 in Aitken.4. [33] S. p. (http:/ / www. Approaches to Human Geography. RAIN 60. Mowlana (2001). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-98895-3 [30] Jennifer Fandel (2006). Joint Committee on Geographic Education of the National Council for Geographic Education and the Association of American Geographers. 2006. com/ books?id=2xTJt3b3SHUC& pg=PA12& dq& hl=en#v=onepage& q=& f=false)". "Information in the Arab World". Cooperation South Journal 1." Plotting the globe: stories of meridians. London [27] Squires. [32] H. org/ publications/ frameworks/ gframework2010. nagb. 9-10. G.12. "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist". Urban Sprawl: Causes. ac. ISBN 1-58341-430-4 [31] Akbar S. Daniele Quercia. Paul. "Post-structuralist Theories". The Urban Institute Press (2002) [29] Avraham Ariel. [35] Richard G Boehm. and the international (http:/ / books. & Policy Responses. Sarah W Bednarz. Department of Education. Sage. pdf) National Assessment Governing Board. et al. p. Ed. S. vii: 28 . Ahmed (1984).. pp. p. G. P. U. pdf). 1994 [36] Geography Framework for the 2010 National Assessment of Educational Progress." The Metric System (http:/ / books. cam. 2006. cl. Consequences. 461-2: [34] Guidelines for Geographic Education—Elementary and Secondary Schools. ICDM 2010 [26] Harrison.Outline of geography [25] "Recommending Social Events from Mobile Phone Location Data" (http:/ / www. Roger M Downs. google. google. (eds). uk/ ~dq209/ publications/ recommending10quercia.

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