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Melanoma

Melanoma merupakan salah satu jenis dari kanker kulit yang menyerang sel-sel pigmen
melanosit, umumnya disebabkan karena terpaparnya kulit oleh radiasi sinar UV. supresor gen
p53 secara langsung dipengaruhi oleh radiasi sinar UV, sehingga biasanya supresor gen p53
ditemukan bermutasi pada kasus melanoma. Panjang gelombang utama yang paling sering
meningkatkan resiko terjadinya melanoma adalah UVB dengan panjang gelombang 290-320 nm.
The skin is the most exposed organ to environmental UV and to
its related effects.20 The p53 suppressor gene, which is often
found to be mutated in melanoma, is directly affected by UV
exposure.21 The primary wavelengths influencing melanoma
risk are most likely in the UVB (290-320 nm) range. However,
animal studies have also demonstrated a small effect on melanoma
development as the result of exposure to UVA wavelengths.
22,23 Persons

with type I and II skin types who are more

sensitive to the effects of exposure at these wavelengths are at
higher risk for the development of skin cancer.24

Tanda-tanda seseorang akan mengalami melanoma adalah munculnya noda noda pada kulit yang
semakin meluas. Noda yang muncul pada kulit seseorang yang terkena melanoma biasanya akan
bervariasi, seprti coklat, hitam, biru, merah, putih dan abu-abu. Bentuk noda yang muncul
memiliki bentuk yang kurang simetris, dan dapat menjadi bersisik. Noda noda yang sering
memberikan rasa sakit terus menerus ataupun berdarah dapat mengindikasikan bahwa noda
tersebut akan berubah menjadi melanoma.
Melanoma
Berdasarkan tes diagnostik, dapat diketahui penyebaran melanoma yang sudah terjadi.
Penyebaran melanoma digunakan dalam penetuan stadium dari melanoma. Pada stadium 1 dan 2,
melanoma belum bergerak dari situs primernya, pada stadium 1 dan 2 kanker masih terlokalisasi.
Pada stadium 3, melanoma sudah menyebar ke limfa nodus di dekat situs primer, dan Pada
stadium 4, melanoma telah menyebar ke berbagai area di tubuh.

a significant savings in health care cost can be realized if melanoma incidence could be lowered or if it could be detected in an earlier. Virotherapy Virotherapy The use of viruses for therapy was introduced by the field of gene therapy. Earlier detection and therapy also leads to decreased cost of therapy. attract the immune response. melanoma nodular. Fortunately. melanoma lentigo maigna. These non-replicating vectors may intend to reestablish wild-type copies of mutated tumor-suppressor genes. most of them with replication deficient viral vectors to avoid the risk of virus systemic dissemination.Melanoma dapat dikelompokkan berdasarkan ketebalannya. and gene-modified viruses engineered to achieve selective oncolysis.2 Coxsakievirus (A21) . Telah ada peningkatan secara stabil dalam penanganan melanoma dalam dekade terakhir. This therapeutic modality is called «oncolytic virotherapy» and is divided in two approaches: oncolytic wild viruses. Selama lima tahun terakhir. affect the metabolism of tumor cells. more easily treated phase.7 Therefore. mainly as vehicles for nucleic acid transfer. has not changed substantially during the past several decades. Jenis-jenis melanoma adalah melanoma superfisial. surgical excision. dan melanoma jenis langka. the improved 5-year survival rate can be primarily attributed to earlier detection.1 Virotherapy resurged in the late 90’s as an innovative alternative for oncolysis with a simple idea: to create new vectors with capacity to propagate in deregulated tumor cells and minimum adverse effects in healthy tissues (Figure 1). melanoma akral lentigo. or natural occurring viruses with preferential replication in human cancer cells. persebarannya. Hal ini dikarenakan penanganan utama dari melanoma kutaneus yaitu eksisi bedah. An estimated 90% of costs spent on melanoma therapy in the United States are related to those with advanced disease. there has been steady improvement in melanoma survival over decades with the 5-year survival for invasive melanoma increasing from 82% in 1979 to 92% in 2002. insiden melanoma dapat dikurangi dengan melakukan deteksi awal dan fase penyembuhan yang mudah. dan tampak luarnya.6 Because the primary treatment modality of cutaneous melanoma. Deteksi awal da terapi dapat meringankan pengeluaran pengobatan terapi. Clinical trials have demonstrated variable results with all these approaches. or sensitize the neoplastic tissues to standard therapies. diketahui bahwa proses penyembuhana akn menjadi lebih cepat. Oleh karena itu. Several modalities of gene therapy are aimed to treat cancer.