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An Introduction to Shear Strength

Chapter 12

CHAPTER 12
AN INTRODUCTION TO SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOILS
AND ROCK

12-1. A granular material is observed being dumped from a conveyor belt. It forms a conical pile
with about the same slope angle, 1.8 horizontal to 1 vertical. What is the angle of internal friction
of this material?
SOLUTION:
tan  

y
x

 1 
o
  tan1 
  29.0
 1.8 

12-4. A direct shear test was conducted on a fairly dense sample of Franklin Falls sand from
New Hampshire. The initial void ratio was 0.668. The shear box was 76 mm square, and initially
the height of the specimen was 11 mm. The tabulated data were collected during shear. Compute
the data needed and plot the usual curves for this type of test.
SOLUTION:
Assuming c = 0, the friction angle can be calculated from plot 3 as:
 306.44 
o
'=tan1 
  38.2
 389.54 

continued on next page.

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from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
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An Introduction to Shear Strength

Chapter 12

12-4 data table.

Shear Stress (kPa)

350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

3.5

4.0

Thickness Change (mm

Horz. Displacement (mm)
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
-0.02
-0.04
-0.06
0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Horz. Displacement (mm)

Shear Stress (kPa)

400

300

200

100

0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

Normal Stress (kPa)

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained
from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

recording.7 983  206. All rights reserved. Pearson Education. NJ 07458. NJ. Montana.8   continued on next page. The following data were observed during shear..887 mm.8 kPa sin    1f  3f   1f  3f   983  206. electronic. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.13) Volume  70 cm3 3f  206. Then make the calculations necessary to plot the axial stress versus axial strain and volumetric-strain-versus-axial-strain curves for this test. © 2011 Pearson Education. Initial void ratio was 0. mechanical. (11. calculate the average area of the specimen. Inc. . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means. Peck Dam.8  o   sin1    40.. what is ’? SOLUTION: Average H  66. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River. Inc. photocopying.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-5. First.605. Assuming c’ = 0. A conventional triaxial compression test was conducted on a sample of dense sand from Ft. The initial area of the test specimen was 10 cm2 and its initial height was 70 mm. storage in a retrieval system. Eq. Upper Saddle River. or likewise. 1f  983 kPa. assuming it is a right circular cylinder at all times during the test.

For information regarding permission(s).0 16.00 800.. Upper Saddle River.0 -5. Pearson Education.00 400. mechanical.00 200. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458. recording.0 2. electronic.000 0. or likewise.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-5 continued.0 4. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.00 0. Axial Stress (kPa 1200.0 Axial Strain (%) Volumetric Strain (%) 10.0 8. photocopying.0 14. NJ.0 12.000 -10. storage in a retrieval system.0 10.00 0.00 600.0 12..000 0.0 2.000 Axial Strain (%) 800 M-C failure envelope 600 Shear stress (kPa 400 200 0 206. or transmission in any form or by any means.00 1000.0 10. All rights reserved. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.0 16. .0 6.0 8.000 5. Inc.0 4.0 14.0 6.000 -15.8 983 -200 -400 -600 -800 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

The results of two CD triaxial tests at different confining pressures on a medium dense. the “50%” secant modulus. Inc. Plot on one set of axes the principal stress difference versus axial strain and volumetric strain [Eq. mechanical.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-6. or transmission in any form or by any means. storage in a retrieval system. .03 Re fer to plots on next page. SOLUTION: Test 1  325 kPa   19. or likewise. cohesionless sand are summarized in the table below. NJ 07458. 50% = continued on next page © 2011 Pearson Education.0171 Evaluate Esec at 50% of max For this test Esec  Et  19.. (12. NJ. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 600 kPa Et  Test 2  1500 kPa   375. and the strain at failure for each of these tests.4)] versus axial strain for both tests. Inc. electronic.006 kPa  0. The void ratios of both specimens were approximately the same at the start of the test. recording. For information regarding permission(s).004 Evaluate Esec at 50% of max Et  9140 4570  152. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education.. Esec  2 0. Upper Saddle River.000 kPa  0. Estimate the initial tangent modulus of deformation.333 kPa =4570 kPa. photocopying.

0 Test 2 at 3000 kPa 4. recording. or likewise.0 Test 1 at 100 kPa 6.0 8. Upper Saddle River.0 Axial Strain (%) Volumetric Strain (%) 8.0 12.0 -6.0 16. All rights reserved. NJ 07458.0 2.0 4.0 -2.0 2.0 2. or transmission in any form or by any means. photocopying.0 12. storage in a retrieval system.0 10.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-6 continued.0 Axial Strain (%) © 2011 Pearson Education.0 8. . For information regarding permission(s). Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.0 -4. NJ.0 16... This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Deviator Stress (kPa 10000 9000 Test 1 at 100 kPa 8000 Test 2 at 3000 kPa 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0. mechanical. Inc.0 14.0 14.0 6.0 4.0 10. electronic.0 6.0 0. Inc.0 0.

Inc. NJ 07458.140. (b) Ultimate: 441   o peak  sin1    43. or likewise.4  540  100  Test 2 (a) Peak:  1f  3f   9140. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5% strain: 9140   o peak  sin1    37. For information regarding permission(s)..1o   9800  3000  © 2011 Pearson Education.090  3000  1f  9140  3000  12. (b) at ultimate compressive strength. NJ. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 440   o peak  sin1    43.090. peak  sin1    37. (c) At 5. mechanical. SOLUTION: sin   Eq. For the two tests of Problem 12. 1f  6800  3000  9800. Upper Saddle River.  1f  3f   308.1  12.. determine the angle of internal friction of the sand at (a) peak compressive strength.5% axial strain. (11. and (c) at 5.13)  1f  3f   1f  3f  Test 1 (a) Peak:  1f  3f   441. Upper Saddle River. Inc.3  408  100  1f  441  100  541.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-7.  1f  3f   6800. electronic. 6800   peak  sin1   32.5 541 100    308   o 1f  308  100  408. storage in a retrieval system.0  12.140 3000   9090   o 1f  9090  3000  12. 1f  440  100  540. All rights reserved. Pearson Education. (b) Ultimate:  1f  3f   9090. . recording.6. (c) At 5. peak  sin1    37. or transmission in any form or by any means.5% strain:  1f  3f   440. photocopying.

At failure.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-8. 1f  1121  450  1571  1121  o peak  sin1    33. For information regarding permission(s). (1 – 3) is 1121 kPa.. electronic. Upper Saddle River. (11.) SOLUTION: Eq.13) sin   Peak: 3f  450.  1f  3f   1f  3f   1f  3f   1121. NJ 07458. Plot the Mohr diagram. A sand is hydrostatically consolidated in a triaxial test apparatus to 450 kPa and then sheared with the drainage valves open. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River. Inc. All rights reserved. NJ. Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. recording.. storage in a retrieval system.69 1571 450    800 600 Shear stress (kPa 400 200 450 0 1571 -200 0 -400 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education. mechanical. . or likewise. (This problem should be followed by the next one. Determine the major and minor principal stresses at failure and the angle of shearing resistance. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. photocopying.

72 3  C  R  563.8 is tested in a direct shear apparatus under a normal pressure of 390 kPa. mechanical. .33  312.33 875.72  C  563..69   a  468. NJ.48 tan 33. For information regarding permission(s). 260) and draw failure envelope assuming c = 0.69  468. NJ 07458. Pearson Education. storage in a retrieval system. Extend perpendicular line to x axis to locate circle center..81 1571 -200 0 -400 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Normal stress (kPa) 1400 1600 © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. or likewise. or transmission in any form or by any means. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Upper Saddle River.69  C R  R  312.33  312. Upper Saddle River.81 kPa 800 600 400 Shear stress (kPa (390.69  390  390 cos 33.48  250.  260   '  tan1    33.8 0 450 563. electronic.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-9.72 a 468. Plot the Mohr diagram. photocopying. Calculate radius and center using geometry. The specimen fails when a shear stress of 260 kPa is reached. The same sand as in Problem 12.8 kPa 1  C  R  563. Determine the major and minor principal stresses at failure and the angle of shearing resistance. recording. Inc. 260) 200 250. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved.48  875.33 cos 33. SOLUTION: Plot (390.

8 0 1571 Pole=(450.69  45   61. For information regarding permission(s). Pearson Education. the minor principal stress. NJ. NJ 07458. recording.85 measured ccw from the horizontal 2 2 800 600 400 Pole=(736. Upper Saddle River. or likewise.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-10. 1 acts on the horizontal plane   45  ' 33. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.9. Upper Saddle River. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means. 0) -200 0 -400 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.81 250. 260) 200 875.15  61.85 measured cw from horizontal The failure plane is horizontal. photocopying. and the failure plane of the tests in Problems 12.8 and 12. storage in a retrieval system.66. electronic.15 measured ccw from horizontal  736. Indicate the orientations of the major principal stress. 0) 3 acts on the vertical plane. Calculate radius and center using geometry.. Inc.66.. Extend perpendicular line to x axis to locate circle center.8  p1  180  90  28. 260) Shear stress (kPa (390. SOLUTION: Plot (390. (b) CD Triaxial Test Pole = (450. 260) 260   p3  tan1    28. .66  250. 260) and draw failure envelope assuming c = 0. All rights reserved. (a) Direct Shear Test Pole = (736. mechanical. Inc.

storage in a retrieval system.. the capacity of the transducer should be twice that required to shear the sand). photocopying. electronic. recording. If the soil to be tested is a dense sand with an angle of internal friction of 38°. Upper Saddle River.4 Fshear  2  546. For information regarding permission(s).An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-11. or likewise. SOLUTION:    tan  '   (350) tan 38  273.9 kPa © 2011 Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. . NJ 07458. Inc. All rights reserved. determine the size of the force transducer required to measure the shear force with a factor of safety of 2 (that is. NJ.62 cm in diameter. The size of the specimen is 7. Inc. mechanical. Upper Saddle River. or transmission in any form or by any means. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education. A granular soil is tested in direct shear under a normal stress of 350 kPa.

0 5.44 For loose sand. recording.5 3. .13.0 2.0 -1.0 1. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.44.5 5.0 1.11) for the definition of factor of safety. R  1. storage in a retrieval system.0 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.0 0. photocopying.47 kPa.93 -0. -1. NJ 07458. f  C  x R R f  (1.42 5. (11.735  3. 1. mechanical.47 -2.42  o (on the failure plane.0 -2.0 0.99 2.11) FS  ff 1. but not at failure)   sin1    24.47 kPa.5 -1.175.47 Shear stress (kPa 1.175  0.59 f  4. h = -1. 1  5. 1.753) sin(90  24. By means of Mohr circles. The stresses induced by a surface load on a loose horizontal sand layer were found to be v = 5.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-12.25 f 1. Inc. SOLUTION: Eq.. (11.8 5.0 2.5 0. 3  2.5 3.22.5 4.0 4. electronic.93 2.99   1. Upper Saddle River.8)  1.0 2. h = 3.13 kPa.44.5 3. Inc. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. determine if such a state of stress is safe.753.5 -3.2 kPa. or likewise. max  1. cos(90  )  . Upper Saddle River.99 (Eq.175  (1.93  2.13) sin    1f  3f   1f  3f  From the Mohr circle: C  4. assume ' = 30 ff  (3.0 0.5 2.44) tan 30  1.5 6. Use Eq.0 3.5 3. Pearson Education. v = 1.753) cos(90  24.5 1.93.59 5. or transmission in any form or by any means.. All rights reserved. 1.42     (C  x) sin(90  )  f .753  5.42. 11.59 3.8)  4. NJ.

f  C  x R R f  (1.47 Shear stress (kPa 1.5 2.8  5.42  o (on the failure plane. 1.5 3. -1.42   (C  x) sin(90  )  f . photocopying.42.59 f  4. recording. (11.5 -3.69 f 1.5 6. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.5 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.69   1.69 (Eq. mechanical.42 5.5 -1.69 2. All rights reserved. Inc.0 4.753.93  2.753) cos(90  24.13) sin    1f  3f   1f  3f  From the Mohr circle: C  4.0 -2. 11.0 1. electronic.13.12 act on a very dense gravelly sand.93..753) sin(90  24.22. storage in a retrieval system.5 5.5 3.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-13.0 0.0 5.44.8)  1.0 0. but not at failure)   sin1    24. Inc.5 2.11) FS  ff 2.0 -1.5 1. is such a state safe against failure? SOLUTION: Eq.175  0.175.93  2. NJ.753  5.47 -2. Upper Saddle River.175  (1. If the same stress conditions as in Problem 12. .735  3.0 3. assume ' = 38 ff  (3.5 4. Upper Saddle River.59 5.44 For very dense gravelly loose sand.0 2. 2. or transmission in any form or by any means.0 0. For information regarding permission(s).0 3.8)  4.93 -0.44) tan 38  2.44.5 3.0 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education. 3  2.0 2.. cos(90  )  . Pearson Education.0 1. NJ 07458. R  1. max  1. 1. 1  5. or likewise.59 3.

0 3. photocopying.52  The given state of stress is not in a state of failure.52 MPa oriented 22. Inc. All rights reserved. NJ.59 MPa. Upper Saddle River.0 -1. For these conditions.1° cw from horizontal 2. because ' for this material > 20.9° ccw from horizontal 3  1.0 0. 3  1.5 1.0 Normal stress (MPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.5 Shear stress (MPa 1.0 0.8. 1  3. For information regarding permission(s). or likewise.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-14.834. 0.95 MPa. 1  3.5 3.36..52  o   sin1  (on the failure plane. mechanical.19  1.53 0.13) sin    1f  3f   1f  3f  From the Mohr circle: C  2.5 4. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.0 1. Pearson Education.0 2. storage in a retrieval system.52. what are the magnitude and direction of the principal stresses? Is this a state of failure? SOLUTION: Eq. but not at failure)   20.5 Pole (2. max  0.77  3.5 -2.0 1.59) -1.77 MPa and 2.19 -0. electronic. (11. NJ 07458.. respectively.19 MPa oriented 67. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. recording.5 1. The effective normal stresses acting on the horizontal and vertical planes in a silty gravel soil are 1. Upper Saddle River. R  0.0 0.834  3.0 3. or transmission in any form or by any means. Inc.19  1. The shear stress on these planes is 0.19.95.5 2. .

electronic. SOLUTION: '  62  2  1  3 f  115 kPa   45   '  34 115  57. NJ.95)( 14.5  C  102.16) 1    tan2  45   3 2   30   1  (13.96 © 2011 Pearson Education.5  45. or likewise. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.88 psi 2    1f  3f   41.7)  13. photocopying.88   3. recording.92 psi 1f 41. Inc. SOLUTION: 1atm  14.5  160. Estimate the principal stress difference and the major principal stress ratio at failure.8  57. 11.7 psi  (0. A specimen of dense sand tested in a triaxial CD test failed along a well-defined failure plane at an angle of 62° with the horizontal.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-15. A dry loose sand is tested in a vacuum triaxial test in which the pore air pressure of the specimen is lowered below gage pressure to within about 95% of -1 atm. assume  '  30 (Eq. Find the effective confining pressure of the test if the principal stress difference at failure was 115 kPa.0 3f 13. All rights reserved. .96) tan2  45   41. or transmission in any form or by any means. Inc.(vacuum pressure) 3  13.8  57. Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.96 psi confining pressure 3 = (atm pressure) . NJ 07458.8 sin  '  C sin 34 1  C  R  102. mechanical. Upper Saddle River.3 kPa 12-16. For information regarding permission(s).96  27. storage in a retrieval system..3 R 3  C  R  102.88  13.96 psi For loose sand..5 2 R 57.

3 MPa (a) 1  3.0 MPa (b)  1  3   4. storage in a retrieval system. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For the conditions given in Problem 12.5 3.5 -2.17.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-17. 12.35 2.0 1.5 1.0 Normal stress (MPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.0 -1.. recording. Inc.7 MPa 12-18. Upper Saddle River.0 2.5 -1. .65. For information regarding permission(s).0 1.0  1. plot the Mohr circle. For the data shown in Fig. NJ.0 0. Pearson Education.3)  4. NJ 07458.0 3.5(a).5 Shear stress (MPa 1.5 1. SOLUTION: C  2.3  2.0 4. mechanical.5 4. All rights reserved.5 2. R  1.0 0. electronic. what is (a) the principal stress difference and (b) the principal stress ratio at an axial strain of 12% for an effective confining pressure of 1.30 0.1 3 1  (3.0 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.00 -0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.1)(1. or likewise.3 MPa? SOLUTION: Given :   12% and c  3  1. Inc.. Upper Saddle River. photocopying.

1 3 1  (4.0 4. All rights reserved. Inc.. electronic.55 2. Upper Saddle River.0 0.0  3.0 MPa. NJ 07458.6(a)..0 0.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-19.0 MPa (a) 1  4.0)  4. Do Problems 12.5 -1. . mechanical.5 4.5 -2. Inc. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5 3.1)(1.17 and 12.1  1.0 0.0 3.00 0.1 MPa Mohr Circle: C  2. R  1. Use c = 1.5 1. Pearson Education.0 -1. SOLUTION: Given :   12% and c  3  1. photocopying. storage in a retrieval system. or likewise. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River. recording. NJ.0 1.5 2. 12. or transmission in any form or by any means.0 2.0 Normal stress (MPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.1MPa (b)  1  3   4.55.0 1.5 1.10 -0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.18 for the data shown in Fig.5 Shear stress (MPa 1.

. SOLUTION: radius  max  594. For information regarding permission(s).  '3f  450 center  450  594  1044  '1f  450  2(594)  1638 kPa  1  3 f  1638  450  1188 Eq. A drained triaxial test is performed on a sand with ’3c=’3f = 450 kPa. or transmission in any form or by any means.. Upper Saddle River. mechanical. All rights reserved.68o   1638  450  © 2011 Pearson Education. electronic..An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-22. Upper Saddle River. (1 – 3)f. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Find ’1f. (11. photocopying. and ’. Inc. Pearson Education. NJ. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458.13) sin   kPa  1f  3f   1f  3f   1188    sin1   34. recording. Inc.. At failure. max = 594 kPa. or likewise.

An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-23. NJ 07458. or transmission in any form or by any means. Pearson Education. If the initial volume of the specimen was 62 cm3. . what change in volume would you expect during shear? SOLUTION: radius  max  594.45 MPa and   1.0% V  (62)(0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.64 3f 0. Upper Saddle River. mechanical. Inc. 12.22 is Sacramento River sand at a void ratio of 0..5% U sin g Fig. photocopying. For information regarding permission(s).62 cm3 (dilation) © 2011 Pearson Education. estimate   1.  vol  1.  '3f  450 center  450  594  1044  '1f  450  2(594)  1638 kPa  1  3 f  1638  450  1188  '1f  1.638 MPa.5%  vol  V Vo   Vol.45 MPa 1f 1. kPa  '3f  0.638   3. or likewise. 12. recording.45 From Fig.6a. NJ.01)  0. All rights reserved. for  '3f  0. Assume the sand of Problem 12. write to: Rights and Permissions Department..6.6b. electronic. Inc. strain. Upper Saddle River. storage in a retrieval system.

or likewise. mechanical. electronic.13) sin   kPa  1f  3f   1f  3f   1188    sin1   34.  1  3 f  750 center  450  594  1044  '1f  750  250  1000 Eq. A specimen of sand failed when (1 – 3) was 750 kPa. Upper Saddle River. If the total axial stress at failure is 2. photocopying. compute the angle of shearing resistance and the theoretical orientation of the failure plane with respect to the horizontal. recording. (11. (11. NJ 07458. . Upper Saddle River. Inc.68o   1638  450  12-25.04 MPa while the horizontal pressure remains constant. All rights reserved.. For information regarding permission(s).An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-24. If the hydrostatic consolidation stress was 250 kPa.9  1000 250   © 2011 Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means.  '3f  450 center  450  594  1044  '1f  450  2(594)  1638 kPa  1  3 f  1638  450  1188 Eq. compute the angle of shearing resistance of the sand. A silty sand is tested consolidated-drained in a triaxial cell where both principal stresses at the start of the test were 625 kPa. Pearson Education. Inc. NJ. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. SOLUTION: radius  max  594. storage in a retrieval system.13) sin    1f  3f   1f  3f  750   o   sin1    36. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. What else can you say about the sand? SOLUTION:  '3f  250.

recording. (11.8. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. Inc. Specimen A failed when the applied 1 was 180 kPa. then each specimen is loaded as shown.) SOLUTION: 1f  3. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. electronic.8. storage in a retrieval system. (11. or likewise. at what effective confining pressure will the specimen fail if the vertical stress is held constant? (This is a lateral extension test. 3f  '3f  1180 Eq. Pearson Education.68  4484  1180  The effective confining pressure  4484  1180  3304 kPa 12-27. Two CD triaxial tests are conducted on identical specimens of the same sand. NJ 07458. If such a specimen is hydrostatically consolidated to 1180 kPa in a triaxial test apparatus. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. Eq.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-26. NJ. mechanical.13) sin    1f  (1180)(3. and (b) determine ’ for the sand.8)  4484  1f  3f   1f  3f   4484  1180    sin1    35. Inc..9  230 80   © 2011 Pearson Education. photocopying. Both specimens are initially consolidated hydrostatically to 50 kPa. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River. Make the necessary calculations to (a) plot the Mohr circles at failure for both tests.13)  '3f  80 kPa sin    1f  3f   1f  3f   230  80  o   sin1    28. A specimen of sand at the field density is known to have a (1/3)max of 3. SOLUTION:  '1f  230 kPa. .

5 3. From Fig. SOLUTION: Princ.76. photocopying. mechanical. Is this reasonable? Why or why not? SOLUTION: This is not a reasonable value of ’. SOLUTION: ’ depends on relative density among a number of other items as described in Section 12..0 20 25 30 35 40 Friction angle (deg) 12-29.0 2. Pearson Education. for Dr from 50% to 75% ranges from about 0. (c’ = 0. Plot a graph of ’1/’3 versus ’. recording. respectively..15) Void ratio. stress ratio  '1 '    tan2  45    '3 2  5. or transmission in any form or by any means. NJ 07458.0 3. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.) Friction angle. © 2011 Pearson Education. electronic. 12.5 0. this value of ’ would be more applicable to a very dense gravel. e.85 to 0.5 1.0 1. 12-30. respectively. For information regarding permission(s). The angle of shearing resistance measured in the direct shear test was 47°. Inc. (see Fig. .An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-28. or likewise.5. Upper Saddle River.0 4. storage in a retrieval system. Upper Saddle River. for Dr from 50% to 75% ranges from about 32o to 36o.5 4. All rights reserved.0 0.5 2. Estimate the minimum and maximum void ratios. A subrounded to subangular sand has a D10 of about 0.1 mm and a uniformity coefficient of 3. NJ. Inc. 12. ’.15. Estimate the shear strength parameters of a fine (beach) sand (SP). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.

(a) ’ = 40 to 45 deg (Fig.9 Mg/m3. 12. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. mechanical. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. and (d) a poorly graded gravel with an in situ void ratio of 0. 12. recording.15) (c) ’ = 41 deg (Fig. storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458. or likewise.14) (d) ’ = 41 deg (Fig. For information regarding permission(s). All rights reserved. 12.. or transmission in any form or by any means.15) (b) ’ = 34 to 38 deg (Fig. SOLUTION: Estimate ranges of ’ values using Fig.70 Mg/m3. Estimate the ’ values for (a) a well-graded sandy gravel (GW) at a density of 1.5. (c) an SW material at 100% relative density. photocopying. (b) a poorly graded silty sand with a field density of 1. . electronic. Upper Saddle River. Inc.13). NJ.14) © 2011 Pearson Education. ’ = 28 deg (Fig.15. Inc. 12.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-31. 12.. Upper Saddle River. 12. Pearson Education.

. 1 120 576 696 44.13) sin    1f  3f   1f  3f  The failure envelope is curved over the large range of normal stress used in the tests. storage in a retrieval system. the tests should be considered on the aggregate over the normal stress ranges provided in the problem statement. electronic. All rights reserved. (c) 3–6 MPa.90 2 480 2240 2720 44. What angle of internal friction should be used in solving stability problems in which the range of normal stresses is (a) 0–500 kPa.08 6 3568 15228 18796 42. and (d) 0–6 MPa? SOLUTION: 3 1-3 1 ' (kPa) (kPa) (kPa) (deg) Test No. Inc. Eq. Upper Saddle River. mechanical. © 2011 Pearson Education.21 4 2256 8460 10716 40.13 provides the friction angle for each individual test. (b) 1000–1500 kPa. cohesionless sand are summarized in the table below. The results of a series of CD triaxial tests on a medium dense. however.71 5 3588 12240 15828 39.43 3 1196 4896 6092 42. photocopying. (11. Plot the strength circles and draw the Mohr failure envelope for this series of tests. Upper Saddle River. recording. (a) '  44 (b) '  43 (c) '  41 (d) '  42 Mohr circles shown on the next page. The void ratios for all the test specimens were approximately the same at the start of the test. 11. Inc. For information regarding permission(s). write to: Rights and Permissions Department. .. or likewise. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. or transmission in any form or by any means.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-32.92 Eq. NJ 07458. Pearson Education. NJ.

Inc. mechanical. . For information regarding permission(s). electronic. or likewise. Inc. Upper Saddle River. photocopying. Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved. storage in a retrieval system.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-32 continued. recording. Upper Saddle River. or transmission in any form or by any means. NJ.. NJ 07458. 5000 Shear stress (kPa) 3000 1000 -1000 -3000 -5000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Normal stress (kPa) 10000 Shear stress (kPa) 5000 0 -5000 -10000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 Normal stress (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.

Ko = 0. storage in a retrieval system.281 10 38 0.8) K o  1  sin  ' (a) ’ = 40 to 45 deg (Fig.1 for relative densities of 40% and 85%. .384 47 0. 5.0.426 4 33 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.331 8 35 0. Inc.412 40 0. All rights reserved. Pearson Education.398 5 36 0. SOLUTION: (Eq.. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.9.7. If the sands of Problem 12.. Upper Saddle River.455 37 0.357 6 34 0. NJ 07458. Ko = 0. and 10 in Table 12. (Loose. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-33. Estimate Ko for sands 1.269 © 2011 Pearson Education. Ko = 0. 12. 8. For information regarding permission(s).29 (b) ’ = 34 to 38 deg (Fig.531 35 0. for a discussion regarding the influence of preloading on Ko. 12. would your estimate of be any different? If so.34 (d) ’ = 41 deg or ’ = 28 deg.8) K o  1  sin  ' Sand No. NJ.34 or Ko = 0. Ko. 4. Refer to Eq.38 (c) ’ = 41 deg (Fig.44 to 0.15). Ko = 0.0. 6.53 12-34.0. 12.0. would it be higher or lower? Why? SOLUTION: Ko would be higher. 12-35.36 to 0.33 had been preloaded. recording. SOLUTION: (Eq. Section 12. Upper Saddle River. for the four soils of Problem 12-31. photocopying. Inc. Dr = 85%) ' Ko (deg) (deg) 1 28 0. Estimate the values of the coefficient of earth pressure at rest. 12. mechanical.15).14).441 42 0. electronic. Dr = 40%) ' Ko (Dense. or likewise. 12.426 46 0. 12.

.. NJ 07458. All rights reserved. If the unconfined compressive strength was 420 kPa.  '  32 (Eq.16) u f  B 1 1  1  3   (1)   (420)  140 3 3  420  2ur  2(140) sin 32  140 2ur sin 32  230. NJ.89  '3 2 2     '3  220.8   '1  '3   416. Draw elements similar to Fig.9 kPa hc  ur 217. estimate the height of capillary rise in this soil above the ground water table. Upper Saddle River. Previous drained triaxial tests on similar samples of the silt gave ’ = 32o.89)(220)  416. Upper Saddle River.2 mm  w (1000)(9. or transmission in any form or by any means. Pearson Education. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For information regarding permission(s). photocopying. or likewise. 12. .94 ur  217.9   0. the maximum principal stress ratio and the principal stress difference at failure.40. Inc. Inc. mechanical.81) © 2011 Pearson Education.0222 m  22.) SOLUTION:  '1f  230 kPa.  '1  (1. electronic. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. (Hint: Find the effective confining pressure acting on the specimen.13) sin   f  420. Estimate ’. SOLUTION:   54  45  ' 2   '  18  '1 18  '     tan2  45    tan2  45   1. 12.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-38. An unconfined compression test is performed on a dense silt. recording.8 kPa 12-39. The cell pressure during the test was 220 kPa. storage in a retrieval system. A CD axial compression triaxial test on a normally consolidated clay failed along a clearly defined failure plane of 54°.8  220  196.  '3f  80 kPa   '1f   '3f    '1f   '3f    '1f   '3f  sin  '    '1f   '3f   f  ur  uf  ur  uf  sin  '  f  ur  uf  ur  uf  f  2ur  2uf  sin  '  f Eq. (11.

0 6. Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s). f  76. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Inc. Determine the compressive strength.. Determine the sensitivity of the clay.5  3100 kPa.5 kPa 180 undisturbed state Deviator Stress (kPa 160 remolded state 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0. electronic. f (remolded)   24 kPa 2 2  (undisturbed) 76. the initial tangent modulus of deformation.0 Axial Strain (%) © 2011 Pearson Education.028 Remolded State compressive strength = 48 kPa Et  24 7  700 kPa.0 14.0 16.2 24 f (remolded) f (undisturbed)  undisturbed shear strength.0 18. recording. All rights reserved. E50   2732 kPa 0.0 12. Pearson Education. .0 20. or likewise. storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by any means. Inc.01 153 48  76.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-43. Upper Saddle River. Undisturbed State compressive strength = 153 kPa Et  31 79.01 0. NJ. photocopying. E50   571 kPa 0.5 Sensitivity  f   3. The results of unconfined compression tests on a sample of clay in both the undisturbed and remolded states are summarized below.0 8. NJ 07458.042 0.0 4.0 10. mechanical. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.0 2.5 kPa. What shear strength would you use? SOLUTION: Solutions obtained from the stress-strain plot shown below. and the secant modulus of deformation at 50% of the compressive strength for both the undisturbed and remolded specimens..

photocopying. and PI = 45. For the data shown in Fig. electronic. NJ. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. storage in a retrieval system.5. Pearson Education. SOLUTION: w  PL (Natural water content is needed to calculate LI) PI Figure 12.48 can be used to correlate S t to LI. PL = 43. All rights reserved. 8.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or transmission in any form or by any means. Typical values for the clay are LL = 88. Inc. 2. mechanical.. Upper Saddle River. recording. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458. (Eq.An Introduction to Shear Strength Chapter 12 12-45. . or likewise.40) LI  © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. For information regarding permission(s). estimate the unconfined compressive strength and the sensitivity of this soil.