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# Chapter 4

MATERIAL BALANCES AND APPLICATIONS

MATERIAL BALANCES AND APPLICATIONS

4.1. Introduction

Material balances are important first step when designing a new process or analyzing an
existing one. They are almost always prerequisite to all other calculations in the solution of
process engineering problems.
Material balances are nothing more than the application of the law of conservation of mass,
which states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed. Thus, you cannot, for example,
specify an input to a reactor of one ton of naphtha and an output of two tons of gasoline or
gases or anything else. One ton of total material input will only give one ton of total output,
i.e. total mass of input = total mass of output.
A material balance is an accounting for material. Thus, material balances are often compared
to the balancing of current accounts. They are used in industry to calculate mass flow rates of
different streams entering or leaving chemical or physical processes.

4.2. The General Balance Equation

Suppose propane is a component of both the input and output streams of a continuous process
unit shown below, these flow rates of the input and output are measured and found to be
different.

Process unit

qin (kg propane/h)

qout (kg propane/h)

If there are no leaks and the measurements are correct, then the other possibilities that can
account for this difference are that propane is either being generated, consumed, or
accumulated within the unit.
A balance (or inventory) on a material in a system (a single process unit, a collection of units,
or an entire process) may be written in the following general way:

1

Input
+
(enters
through
system
boundaries)

generation −
(produced
within
system
boundaries)

output

(leaves
through
system
boundaries)

consumption
(consumed
within
system)

=

accumulation
(buildup
within
system)

This general balance equation may be written for any material that enters or leaves any
process system; it can be applied to the total mass of this material or to any molecular or
atomic species involved in the process.
The general balance equation may be simplified according to the process at hand. For
example, by definition, the accumulation term for steady-state continuous process is zero.
Thus the above equation becomes:
Input + generation = output + consumption
For physical process, since there is no chemical reaction, the generation and consumption
terms will become zero, and the balance equation for steady-state physical process will be
simply reduced to:
Input = Output

4.3. Balances on Single and Multiple Physical Systems

4.3.1. Procedure for Material Balance Calculations
In material balance problems, you will usually be given a description of a process, the values
of several process variables, and a list of quantities to be determined. In order to be trained
on using a systematic procedure to solve material balance problems, you are advised to
follow the steps summarized below:
1. Draw and label the process flow chart (block diagram). When labeling, write the values of
known streams and assign symbols to unknown stream variables. Use the minimum
number possible of symbols.
2. Select a basis of calculation. This is usually the given stream amounts or flow rates, if no
given then assume an amount of a stream with known composition.

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3. Write material balance equations. Note in here the maximum number of independent
equations you can write for each system is equal the number of species in the input and
output streams of this system. Also note to first write balances that involve the fewest
unknown variables.
4. Solve the equations derived in step 3 for the unknown quantities to be determined.

Notes
i. Minimize the symbols assigned to unknown quantities by utilizing all the given process
specifications and using laws of physics.
ii. After doing calculations on certain basis, you may scale up or scale down (convert to new
basis) while keeping the process balanced. This is done by multiplying all streams (except
mass or mole fractions) by the scale factor which is equal to the ratio of the new stream
amount or flow rate to the old one. You can only scale between mass amount or flow rates
regardless of units used but not from mass to molar quantity or flow rate.
The examples below will illustrate the procedure of balances on physical processes:

EXAMPLE: Balance on a mixing unit
An aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide contains 20% NaOH by mass. It is desired to
produce an 8% NaOH solution by diluting a stream of the 20% solution with a stream of pure
water.
1. Calculate the ratios (g H2O/g feed solution) and (g product solution/g feed solution).
2. Determine the feed rates of 20% solution and diluting water needed to produce
2310 lbm/min of the 8% solution.

Solution
We could take a basis of 2310 lbm product/min, but for illustrative purposes and to have
neater numbers to work with let us choose a different basis and scale the final results.
Basis: 100 g Feed Solution

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) There are two unknowns . NaOH Balance (g NaOH )in = (g NaOH )out ⇓ (0.20)(100 g ) = 0.920 g H2O/g Q1 (g H2O) (Since the known stream amount is given in grams.080 g NaOH/g 0.080 Q2 ⇒ Q 2 = 250 g It is a good practice to write calculated variable values on the flowchart as soon as they are known for ease of use in later calculations. but the NaOH balance involves only one. at this point.Draw and label the flowchart. Total Mass Balance 100 g + Q1 = Q 2 ⇓Q ⇓ 2 = 250 g Q1 = 150 g H 2 O 4 .NaOH and H2O in the input and output streams. it is convenient to label all unknown amounts with this unit. The total mass balance and the water balance involve both unknowns.Q1 and Q2 .and since there are two substances .80 g H2O/g Q2 (g) 0.20 g NaOH/g 0. 250 would therefore be written in place of Q2 on the chart. 100 g 0. two balances may be written to solve for them. remembering that the amount of the product stream is now unknown.

24 lb m /min = 1386 m 2 min g Check: (924 + 1386) lbm/min = 2310 lbm/min 5 .24 m 250 g product g Feed Solution Flow Rate lb feed solution 100 g 9. 2310 lb m product/min lb /min = 9.The desired ratios can now be calculated: Q1 (g H 2 O) 100 g feed solution Q2 (g H 2 O) 100 g feed solution Q1 = 150 ⇒ Q2 = 250 ⇒ 1.5 g H 2O g feed solution 2.5 g product g feed solution The scale factor is obtained as the true flow rate of the product stream divided by the rate calculated on the assumed basis.24 lb m /min = 924 m g min Dilution Water Flow Rate lb H O 150 g 9.

05 lb-mole B/b-mole 1250 lb-moles/hr 0. Solution The scale factor is 1250 lbmoles / h lbmoles / h = 12. but their values remain the same.40 mixture (by moles) of A and B is separated into two fractions.5 mol A 37.40 mol B/mol 12.0 mol 0.5 lb .5) = 156 lb-moles A/h (37.60 lb-mol A/lb-mole 0.moles (as specified) = 1250 h mol Top product stream: (50.0)(12.95 mol A/mol 0. 50.5)(12.5 mol B It is desired to achieve the same separation with a continuous feed of 1250 lb-moles/h.5)(12. The flowchart for the scaled-up process is shown here. 625 lb-moles/hr 0.60 mol A/mol 0. Scale the flowchart accordingly.95 lb-mole A/b-mole 0. A flowchart of the process is shown here.5) = 625 lb-moles/h Bottom product stream: (12.5) = 469 lb-moles B/h The units of the mole fractions in the top product stream may be changed from mol/mol to lbmole/lb-mole.0 mol 0.EXAMPLE: Scale up of a separation process flowchart A 60 .5 mol 100 mol The masses of all streams in the batch process are converted to flow rates as follows: Feed: 100 mol 12.05 mol B/mol 100.40 lb-mol B/lb-mole 156 lb-moles A/hr 469 lb-moles B/hr 6 .moles/h lb .

but a benzene balance involves only one.EXAMPLE: Material balances on a distillation column A mixture containing 45% benzene (B) and 55% toluene (T) by mass is fed to a distillation column.05 kg T/kg 2000 kg/h 0.95 kg B/kg 0. and 8% of the benzene fed to the column leaves in the bottom stream.45)(2000) kg/h] ⇓ wB = 72 kg B/h (Write 72 in place of wB on the chart) Toluene and total mass balances each involve two unknowns.080 (B in feed) ⇓ wB (kg B/h) = 0.95 D + wB ⇓ wB = 72 kg B/h ⇓ D = 870 kg/h (Write it on the chart) 7 .) The latter relation is. D kg/h 0. An overhead stream of 95 wt% B is produced. Determine the overhead flow rate and the mass flow rates of benzene and toluene in the bottom stream Solution Basis : Given Feed Rate The labeled flowchart is as follows.080 [(0. Benzene Balance (0.and therefore three equations are needed. B in bottom stream = 0.45)(2000) kg h B = 0. We are entitled to write only two material balances since two species are involved in the process. D.55 kg T/kg Contains 8% of the B in the feed wB kg B/kg wT kg T/kg There are three unknowns on the chart . D and wT.D.45 kg B/kg 0. wB. The feed rate is 2000 kg/h. and wT . the third equation must therefore come from additional given information (the amount of benzene in the bottom stream.

600 kg A/kg 0.300 kg A/kg 0.x3 (kg B/kg) . Solution The systems about which balances might be taken are shown on the following representation of the flowchart.100 kg B/kg 100 kg/h 1 3 2 0.600 kg A/kg 0.700 kg B/kg Calculate the unknown flow rates and compositions of streams 1. Three streams whose flow rates and/or compositions are not known are labeled 1.500 kg A/kg 0. Each stream contains two components. 30 kg/h 0.500 kg B/kg Q2 (kg/h) Q1 (kg/h) x1 (kg A/kg) 1.500 kg A/kg 0.x1 (kg B/kg) x2 (kg A/kg) 1.900 kg A/kg 0.400 kg B/kg 40 kg/h 0.300 kg A/kg 0.500 kg B/kg 30 kg/h 0.700 kg B/kg 8 Q3 (kg/h) x3 (kg A/kg) 1.400 kg B/kg 40 kg/h 0.100 kg B/kg 100 kg/h 0. A and B.Total Mass Balance (A toluene balance could be used equally well) 2000 kg = D + w B + wT h D = 870 kg/h ⇓ wB = 72 kg/h ⇓ wT = 1060 kg T/h EXAMPLE: Two Unit Distillation Process A labeled flowchart of a continuous steady-state two-unit distillation process is shown below. 30 kg/h 0. 2. and 3. 2 and 3.x2 (kg B/kg) 30 kg/h 0. in different proportions.900 kg A/kg 0.

x2). Two of the interior boundaries surround the individual process units.300)(30) = (0. Basis: Given Flow Rates There are two unknowns in the streams that enter and leave the total process. we must write balances on a subsystem whose boundary intersects this stream. Of the three such boundaries shown in the flowchart. and since there are two independent components in these streams (A and B) we may write two balances. and the fourth boundary encloses a stream junction point. Q3 and x3. in the streams that intersect this boundary. Q2. Let us choose the boundary about unit 1 for the next set of balances. x1.600)(30) + (60)(x 3 ) ⇓ x 3 = 0. Overall Mass Balance (100 + 30) kg h = (40 + 30 ) kg + Q3 h ⇓ Q3 = 60 kg/h Overall Balance On A (0.The outer boundary encompasses the entire process. while the boundaries about the process units each intersect streams that contain two unknowns.0833 kg A/kg To determine the flow rate and composition of a connecting stream.900)(40) + (0. Total Mass Balance on Unit 1 100 kg / h = 40 kg + Q1 h ⇓ Q1 = 60 kg / h 9 . and up to two balances may be written. the middle one (about the stream junction) would not be a good one to use at this point since its input and output streams contain four unknown quantities (Q1.500)(100) + (0. There are two unknowns. Q1 and x1.

Then the stoichiometric equation will be 2SO2+O2→2SO3. For example.233 kg A/kg To find Q2 and x2. 10 . Limiting and Excess Reactants For reactive systems. Balances on Reactive Systems 4. Stoichiometry. A statement of the relative number of moles or molecules reacting to produce products is given by a chemical equation known as stoichiometric equation. Let us choose the first alternative.500)(100) = (0. generation and consumption terms should be considered in the general mole balance equation. Numbers that precede the formulas are known as stoichiometric coefficients.233 kg A/kg Q2 = 90 kg/h ⇓ x2 = 0.Balance on A in Unit 1 (0. Mass Balance About Mixing Point Q1 + 30 kg/h = Q2 ⇓ Q1 = 60 kg/h ⇓ Q2 = 90 kg/h Balance on A About Mixing Point Q1 x1 + (0.4.1. in addition to input and output of materials.4.300)(30) kg A/h = Q2 x 2 Q1 = 60 kg/h ⇓ x1 = 0.255 kg A/kg 4. we could write balances about either the stream mixing point or Unit 2. 2 moles of SO2 and one mole of O2 react to produce 2 moles of SO3.900)(40) + 60x1 x1 = 0. Theory of proportions in which chemical compounds react is called stoichiometry.

What is the stoichiometric ratio of SO2 to SO3? stoichiometric ratio of SO2 to SO3 = 2 mole of SO 2 reacted 2 mole of SO 3 produced = 1 If proportion of chemical species fed to a reactor is same as the stoichiometric ratio. In this example. SO2 is fed less than the stoichiometric proportion (or stoichiometric ratio). The chemical compound which is present less than its stoichiometric amount. Fractional and percentage excess are given by the following formulas. in both sides of equation. In a stoichiometric equation. respectively. 11 .EXAMPLE: 2SO2+O2→ 2SO3. Therefore. otherwise one or more species will be in excess of the other. EXAMPLE: Solution 2SO2+O2→ 2SO3. the number of atoms of S and O are 2 and 6. the number of atoms in both sides of the equation must be balanced. then chemical species combine in stoichiometric proportion. will disappear first. What is the stoichiometric coefficient of SO2? Solution The number that precede SO2 is 2. SO2 is the limiting reactant. Ratio of stoichiometric coefficients of two species is known as stoichiometric ratio. This reactant will be the limiting reactant and all the others will be excess reactants. Find the limiting reactant. stoichiometric coefficient of SO2 is 2. n − nS nS n − nS percentage excess = × 100 nS where n = number of moles fed fractional excess = ns = number of moles corresponding to stoichiometric amount EXAMPLE: 100 moles of SO2 and 100 moles O2 are fed to a reactor and they react according to 2SO2+O2→ 2SO3. The other reactant (O2) will be the excess reactant. excess reactant. fractional excess and percentage excess? Solution ratio of SO2 to O2 fed = 100/100 = 1 stoichiometric ratio of SO2/O2 = 2/1=2 Therefore.

Fractional Conversions. Only 100 moles of SO2 react according to 2SO2+O2→2SO3 Find fractional conversion. Chemical Equilibrium In many cases. fractional excess = = = 1.5=0.0 nS 50 percentage excess = n − nS × 100 = 100% nS 4.5 When a reaction is not complete. fractional conversion (f) = mole reacted mole fed to the reactor percentage conversion = f ×100 fraction unreacted = (1-f) EXAMPLE: 200 moles of SO2 and 100 moles O2 are fed to a reactor.n = number of moles of excess reactant (O2) fed = 100 ns = stoichiometric amount of O2 to react with 100 moles of the limiting reactant SO2 = 50 n − n S 100 − 50 Therefore. They are defined as follows. Therefore. Extent of Reaction.2. remaining amount in the reactor will be given by n i = n io + β i ζ 12 .5×100=50% fraction unreacted = (1-f)=1-0. percentage conversion and fraction unreacted? Solution fractional conversion of SO2 (f) = mole reacted =100/200=0.4. fractional and percentage conversions are used.5 mole fed to the reactor percentage conversion = f ×100=0. chemical reactions do not go to completion and only a fraction will be converted.

ni = 0+2×50=100 moles When the chemical reaction proceeds in one direction only. 13 . Only 50 moles of O2 react according to 2SO2+O2→2SO3 Find the moles remaining for all species? Solution ξ = 50. ξ = 50. Determine which reactant is limiting. and 78% air. taking 100 mol of feed as a basis. is given by K= yCyD . we call it irreversible. stoichiometric coefficient of a product = -νi . A fractional conversion of 30% of the limiting reactant is achieved. nio = 200. When forward reaction rate and reverse reaction rate becomes equal.e. 12% ammonia. The same equation is true if quantities (i. the percentage by which each of the other reactants is in excess.. βi = -νi = -2. βi = -νi = -1. n i = n io + β i ζ = 100-1×50=50 moles For O2. EXAMPLE: 200 moles of SO2 and 100 moles O2 are fed to a reactor. A(gas) + B(gas)<=> C(gas) + D (gas). ammonia. and oxygen. βi = +νi = +2.ξ = extent of reaction (mole reacted or produced/νi) i = compound i. and the molar flow rates of all product gas constituents for a 30% conversion of the limiting reactant. stoichiometric coefficient of a reactant = 0 . EXAMPLE: Reaction Stoichiometry Acrylonitrile is produced by the reaction of propylene. If the reaction proceeds in forward and backward directions then it is reversible. reaction is said to be in equilibrium. nio = 0. yA yB where y is the mole fraction of the components in the gas phase. For SO2. Equilibrium constant (K) for a gas phase reaction. ni = 200-2×50=100 moles For SO3. inert where. ξ = 50. moles) are replaced by flow rates (mole/hr). nio = 100. ni = remaining amount nio = amount initially put in the reactor βi = +νi. C3 H 6 + NH3 + 3 O 2 → C3H 3 N + 3 H 2 O 2 The feed contains 10 mole% propylene.

0/10.0 = 1.0 mol air 0.20  ⇒ NH 3 is in excess (NH 3 /C 3 H 6 )stoich = 1/1 = 1  (O 2 / C 3 H 6 )in = 16.210 mol O 2 = 16.Solution Basis : 100 mol Feed 100 mol n C 3 H 6 mol C3 H 6 0.0 mol O 2 1 mol C3H 6 = (% excess)NH 3 = (NH 3 )0 − (NH 3 ) stoich (NH 3 ) stoich × 100% = [(12 − 10 )/10] × 100% = 20% excess NH 3 14 . To determine the percentages by which ammonia and oxygen are in excess.4 mol mol air ⇓ (NH 3 /C 3 H 6 )in = 12.79 mol N2/mol air) n NH 3 mol NH3 n o 2 mol O 2 n N 2 mol N 2 n C 3 H 3 N mol C3H 3 N n H 2 O mol H 2O The feed to the reactor contains (C 3 H 6 )in = 10.5/1 = 1.4/10. propylene is the limiting reactant.5  Since propylene is fed in less than the stoichiometric proportion relative to the two other reactants.0 mol C3 H 6 1.780 mol air/mol (0.21 mol O2/mol air 0.64 ⇒ O 2 is in excess (O 2 / C 3 H 6 )stoich = 1.120 mol NH3/mol 0.0 = 1.100 mol C3H6/mol 0.0 mol C3 H 6 1 mol NH 3 = 10.0 mol (NH 3 )in = 12. we must first determine the stoichiometric amounts of these reactants corresponding to the amount of propylene in the feed (10 mol).0 mol (O 2 )in = 78. 10.0 mol NH 3 1 mol C3H 6 (NH3 )stoich = (O 2 )stoich 10.5 mol O 2 = 15.

0 mol NH 3 = 11.4 − 15.00 mol of H2O.0.0)/15. 2. and backsubstitute to calculate the mole fractions and any other desired quantity.4 − 1. At T = 1105 K (832°C).(% excess)O 2 = [(16.00 mol CO.0] × 100% = 9. The extent of reactions is therefore : ξ = 3.0 mol C3H6 But n C3 H 6 = 10.00. Then. solve for ξe.0 − ξ .6 mol N 2 = 9. and no CO2 or H2.5ξ n C3H 6 N = ξ n N2 = (N 2 ) 0 n H 2 O = 3ξ = 9. the mole fractions of the four reactive species satisfy the relation y CO 2 y H 2 y CO y H 2 O = K (T) where K (T) is the reaction equilibrium constant.9 mol O 2 = 3. Solution The strategy is to express all mole fractions in terms of a single variable (ξe. n NH 3 = 12.700(C3H6)in = 7. and the reaction mixture comes to equilibrium at 1105 K.0 − ξ n O2 = 16. the extent of reaction at equilibrium). Calculate the equilibrium composition and the fractional conversion of the limiting reactant.3% excess O 2 If the fractional conversion of C3H6 is 30% (C3H6)out = 0. Suppose the feed to a reactor contains 1. CO(g) + H2O(g) ⇔ CO2(g) + H2(g) proceeds to equilibrium at a temperature T(K).00 mol C 3 H 3 N = 61. K = 1.0 mol H 2 O EXAMPLE: Calculation of an Equilibrium Composition If the water-gas shift reaction. substitute in the equilibrium relation. 15 .

our objective is to produce a certain product (desired product).00 − ξe ) = 1.00 mol fed) = 0. Two quantities. y H 2 = 0.00 − ξ e (number of mols of CO present at equilibrium) n H 2O = 2. but there may be several unwanted reactions which will produce undesirable by products. 16 .333) mol reacted/(1. y CO 2 = 0. Multiple Reactions.00 − ξ e n CO 2 = ξ e n H 2 = 1ξ e n total = 3.00 y H2 = ξ e /3. At equilibrium.00 − 0. Yield and Selectivity In a chemical process.667 4. we must maximize the production of a desired product in the process. Therefore.00 This may be rewritten as a standard quadratic equation and solve to yield ξe = 0.00 − ξ e )/3. This quantity may in turn be substituted back into the expressions for yi(ξe) to yield y CO = 0.111.00 y CO 2 = ξ e /3.00 . n CO = 1.00 − ξ e )/3.222.00 − ξe )(2.00 Substitution of these expressions in the equilibrium relation (with K = 1.00 y H 2O = (2.667 = 0.00 from which y CO = (1.333 The fractional conversion of CO at equilibrium is therefore fCO = (1. are used for this purpose and they are defined as follows. y H 2O = 0.222 The limiting reactant in this case is CO (verify).4. yield and selectivity.0.n CO = 1.00) yields ξ e2 (1.3.444.667.

inert EXAMPLE: Consider the following pair of reactions. Calculate (1) percentage yield of B. the remaining amount or flow rate will be given by n i = n io + ∑ β ij ξ j j where i = compound i j = reaction j ξj = extent of reaction for the jth reaction βij = +νi. (2) the selectivity of B relative to C and (3) the extents of the reactions. Solution Percentage Yield moles of desired product (B) formed = 160 moles of desired product formed if there were no side reactions and the limiting reactant 2 moles of B produced reacts completely = 100 moles of A × = 200 moles 1 mole of A reacted yield (%) = 160/200*100 = 80% Selectivity moles of desired product (B) formed = 160 17 . 160 mol of B and 10 mol of C. stoichiometric coefficient of a reactant i in the jth reaction = 0. stoichiometric coefficient of a product i in the jth reaction = -νi.yield = moles of desired product formed moles of desired product formed if there were no side reactions and the limiting reactant reacts completely selectivity = moles of desired product formed moles of undesired product formed When we have multiple reactions. A → 2B (desired) A → C (undesired) 100 moles of A are fed to a batch reactor and the final product contains 10 mol of A.

for C. Calculate the molar composition of the product gas and the selectivity of ethylene to methane production. 10 = 100 − 80 − 10 = 10 EXAMPLE: Yield and Selectivity in a Dehydrogenation Reactor The reactions C2 H 6 → C2 H 4 + H 2 C 2 H 6 + H 2 → 2 CH 4 take place in a continuous reactor at steady state. The fractional conversion of ethane is 0. this gives this gives ξ1 = 80 ξ2 = 10. 10 = 100 − ξ 1 − ξ 2 . 10 = 0 + ξ 2 160 = 0 + 2ξ1 . n i = n io + β i1 ξ1 + β i 2 ξ 2 applying this equation for B.150 I The outlet component amounts in terms of extents of reaction are as follows: 18 .0 mole% ethane (C2H6) and the balance inerts (I). Solution Basis: 100 mol Feed 100 mol n 1 (mol C 2 H 6 ) n 2 (mol C 2 H 4 ) n 3 (mol H 2 ) n 4 (mol CH 4 ) n 5 (mol I) 0. check: for A.501.moles of undesired product (C) formed = 10 selectivity = moles of desired product formed = 160/10 = 16. moles of undesired product formed Extent of Reactions n i = n io + ∑ β ij ξ j j for two reaction system as above. The feed contains 85.850 C2H6 0. and the fractional yield of ethylene is 0.471.

2 + 15.000 − 0.ξ2 n2 (mol C2H4) = ξ1 n3 (mol H2) = ξ1 .6 mol.4 mol C 2 H 6 = 85.4.2 mol CH4) = 7.0 . one should take into account the amounts (moles) generated. 26.4 mol H 2 n 4 = 2 ξ 2 = 5. molecules are either generated (produced) or consumed.0 Ethane Conversion n1 = (1.0 mol C 2 H 4 = ξ1 Substituting 40.2 mol CH 4 n 5 = 15. fed and remaining in molecular balances.0) = 140.4 + 40.0 for ξ1 in (1) yield ξ2 = 2.0 − ξ1 − ξ 2 Ethylene Yield Maximum possible ethylene = n 2 = 0.501) mol C 2 H 6 unreacted 85.0 mol ⇓ 30.ξ2 n4 (mol CH4) = 2ξ2 n5 (mol I) = 15. Then n 3 = ξ1 − ξ 2 = 37.0 mol I n tot = (42.471 (85.0 + 37. consumed.4. 3.0 mol 1 mol C 2 H 6 ) = 40. Therefore.ξ1 . Atomic and Molecular Balances In a chemical process.7% CH 4 .7% H 2 .4 + 5.3% C 2 H 6 .7 mol C 2 H 4 mol CH 4 4. 10.7% I Selectivity = (40. 28.n1 (mol C2H6) = 85.6% C 2 H 4 .0 mol C 2 H 6 fed mol C 2 H 6 fed = 42. 19 .0 mol C2H4)/(5.0 mol C 2 H 4 ⇓ 85.0 mol C 2 H 6 fed 1 mol C 2 H 4 = 85.

Product gas shows 40 moles of hydrogen remaining.EXAMPLE: In a steady state process. Perform molecular balances for all species. input + generated (produced) = output + consumed (reacted) input = 0. Solution: 40 mol of H2 q1 mol of C2H6 q2 mol of C2H4 100 mol C2H6 Then. 100 moles ethane (C2H6) react to produce ethylene (C2H4) and hydrogen (H2) according to C2H6→C2H4 + H2.0 output = 40 consumed = 0 0 + generated (produced) = 40+ 0 ⇒ H2 (generated) = 40 moles. input + generated (produced) = output + consumed (reacted) input = 100 generated = 0 output = q1 100 + 0 = q1 + consumed ⇒ C2H6 (consumed) = 100-q1 H2 (generated) = 40 moles=C2H6 (consumed) = 100-q1 ⇒ q1 = 60 moles Molecular balance of C2H4 is as follows. Molecular balance of C2H6 is as follows. the molecular balance of H2 is as follows. input + generated (produced) = output + consumed (reacted) input = 0 output = q2 consumed = 0 0 + generated = q2 + 0 ⇒ C2H4 (generated) = q2 C2H4 (generated) = q2 = H2 (generated) = 40 moles 20 ⇒ q2 = 40 moles .

In this case. EXAMPLE: For the same problem as above.According to conservation principle. (2) atomic balances. (3) the extent of reaction. CH4 is the limiting reactant and O2 is in excess.200 CH4 0. the methane conversion of 90% tells us that 10% of the methane fed to the reactor emerges in the product. 60% O2. and a 90% conversion of the limiting reactant is achieved. EXAMPLE: Combustion of Methane Methane is burned with oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water. input = output.200 CO2 CH 4 + 2 O 2 → CO 2 + 2 H 2 O Since a 2:1 ratio of O2 to CH4 would be stoichiometric and the actual ratio is 3:1.600 O2 0. Solution Basis : 100 mol Feed 100 mol n CH 4 (mol CH 4 ) n O 2 (mol O 2 ) n CO 2 (mol CO 2 ) n H 2 O (mol H 2 O) 0. Calculate the molar composition of the product stream using (1) balances on molecular species. Therefore. or 21 . The feed contains 20 mole% CH4. Before the balances are written. you will get the same answer as above. and 20% CO2. the given process information should be used to determine the unknown variables or relations between them. in atomic balances there is no generation or consumption terms. atoms can neither be created (produced) nor destroyed (consumed). Simply. do atomic balances? Solution Atomic carbon balance: 100×2 = q1×2 + q2×2 Atomic hydrogen balance 100×6 = 40×2 + q1×6 + q2×4 Solving these two atomic balance equations.

) The mole fractions of the product gas components are thus: 0. the output quantities are 2 mol CH4.0 mol CH 4 fed) = 2.100 × (20. 0.36 mol H2O/mol 22 . We will proceed by each of the indicated methods.900 mol react = 18 mol CH 4 react mol fed CO2 Balance (input + generation = output) 18 mol CH 4 react 1 mol CO 2 produced 100 mol 0. it should come as no surprise that total moles in = total moles out. 24 mol O2. for a total of 100 mol. (Since 3 moles of products are produced for every 3 moles of reactants consumed. MolecularBalances CH 4 reacted = 20. 0. 0.38 mol CO2/mol.0 mol CH 4 fed 0. 38 mol CO2. 1.600 mol O 2 = n O2 + mol 1 mol CH 4 react n O2 ⇓ = (60 − 36) mol O 2 = 24 mol O 2 In summary.02 mol CH4/mol.200 mol CO 2 + = n CO 2 mol fed 1 mol CH 4 n CO 2 ⇓ = 38 mol CO 2 H 2 O Balance (generation = output) 18 mol CH 4 react 2 mol H 2 O produced = n H 2O 1 mol CH 4 react n H 2O ⇓ = 36 mol H 2 O O2 Balance (input = output + consumption) 18 mol CH 4 react 2 mol O 2 react 100 mol 0. and 36 mol H2O.n CH 4 = 0.24 mol O2/mol.0 mol CH 4 Now all that remains are the balances.

0 mol CH 4 n CO 2 H Balance 20 mol CH 4 2 mol CH 4 4 mol H 4 mol H = 1 mol CH 4 1 mol CH 4 n H 2 O mol H 2 O 2 mol H + 1 mol H 2 O ⇓ n H 2 O = 36 mol H 2 O O Balance 60 mol O 2 n O2 20 mol CO 2 2 mol O 2 mol O + 1 mol O 2 1 mol O 2 = (n O 2 mol O 2 ) (2) + (38 mol CO 2 ) (2) + (36 mol H 2 O)(1) ⇓ = 24 mol O 2 confirming the results obtained using molecular balances. Extent of Reaction As discussed earlier. 3.2. We should therefore write the C and H balances first. we may write 23 . and then the O balance to determine the remaining unknown variable. but a balance on atomic oxygen involves three unknowns. for all reactive species n out = n in + β i ξ For the species in this problem. All atomic balances have the form input = output. Atomic Balances Referring to the flowchart.0 mol CO 2 1 mol C 1 mol C + 1 mol CO 2 1 mol CH 4 n mol CO 2 1 mol C 2. and a balance on atomic hydrogen also involves one unknown ( n H 2 O ). (We will just determine the component amounts.) C Balance 20. we see that a balance on atomic carbon involves only one unknown ( n CO 2 ).0 mol CH 4 1 mol C CO 2 = + 1 mol CO 2 1 mol CH 4 ⇓ = 38 mol CO 2 20. calculation of the mole fractions then follows as in part 1.

0 − (2)(18.0 mol + ξ = 20.0 mol CO 2 = 0 + 2ξ = (2)(18.0) = 24. The Case of Recycle and Purge 4.1.0 = 38.0) = 36.0 mol − ξ ⇒ ξ = 18.(25 mol A/min) out × 100 = 75% (100 mol A/min) in 24 .reactant output from the process reactant input to the process single pass conversion = reactant input to the reactor .0 mol O 2 = 20.0 + 18.0 mol H 2 O again. the previous solutions are obtained. 4.reactant output from the reactor reactant input to the reactor EXAMPLE : Find the overall and single pass conversion of A ? 75 mol A/min 100 mol A/min Reactor 25 mol A/min Product Separator 75 mol B/min 75 mol B/min overall conversion of A = (75 mol A/min) in .0 mol − 2ξ = 60.5.(0 mol A/min) out × 100 = 100% (75 mol A/min) in single pass conversion of A = (100 mol A/min) in .0 mol = 60.5. Overall and Single Pass Conversion Two definitions of conversion are used in the analysis of chemical reactors with product separation and recycle of unconsumed reactants: overall conversion = reactant input to the process .n CH 4 n C2 n C2 n H 2O n CH 4 = 2 mol CH 4 = 20.

a portion of the recycle stream must be withdrawn as a purge stream.555% of the propane that leaves the reactor. To prevent this buildup. . Solution Basis : 100 mol Fresh Feed Fresh feed 100 mol C3H8 100 + Qr1 mol C3H8 Qr2 mol C3H6 Reactor P1 mol C3H8 Separation Unit P2 mol C3H6 P3 mol H2 Q1 mol C3H8 Q2 mol C3H6 Q2 mol H2 Qr1 mol C3H8 Qr2 mol C3H6 Note: In labeling the feed stream to the reactor. and the single-pass conversion.. The reaction products are separated into two streams: the first. EXAMPLE: Dehydrogenation of Propane Propane is dehydrogenated to from propylene in a catalytic reactor C3 H 8 → C3 H 6 + H 2 The process is to be designed for a 95% overall conversion of propane.4. Recycle and Purge A material such as an inert gas or impurities which enter with the feed will remain in the recycle stream. is recycled to the reactor. C3H6. the ratio (moles recycled)/(moles fresh feed). Calculate the composition of the product.2. etc. is taken off as product. Q1 + Q2 + Q3 . the quantities to be calculated are Mole Fractions of Product Stream Components: Recycle Ratio: Qr1 + Qr 2 100 25 Q1 .5. which contains the balance of the unreacted propane and 5% of the propylene in the product stream.. the second stream. which contains H2. we have implicitly used balances on propane and propylene about the stream junction. and 0. In terms of the labeled variables. This material will accumulate and the process will never reach steady state.

overall H2 balance yields Q3 = 95 mol H2 The analysis of the product is.95 100 mol C 3 H 8 Q1 = 5 mol C 3 H 8 Overall Propane Balance: input = output + consumption 100 mol C3H8 = 5 mol C3H8 + C (mol C3H8 reacted) ⇓ C = 95 mol C3H8 reacted Overall Propylene Balance: Q2 = output = generation 95 mol C3H8 reacted 1 mol C3H 6 formed 1 mol C3H8 reacted ⇓ Q2 = 95 mol C3H 6 Similarly. 5 mol C3H8 2. Q3.7% C3H 6 95 mol H 2 48.7% H 2 195 mol total We may now proceed to the analysis of the interior streams including the recycle stream. First. Qr1. Let us first examine the overall process. Overall conversion = 95% ⇒ ⇓ 100 mol C 3 H 8 − Q1 = 0. Qr2 and P1. 26 . Q2. we summarize the information given in the problem statement. therefore.Single-Pass Conversion: ( 100 + Qr 1 ) − P1 ( 100 + Qr 1 ) × 100% We must therefore calculate the values of Q1.6 % C3H8 95 mol C3H 6 ⇒ 48.

00555 P1 Qr 2 = 0.5 mole% inerts. so that input = output for all species. The feed is combined with a recycle stream containing the same species.25 mole% hydrogen. 74.) C3H8 Balance About Separation Unit P1 = Q1 + Qr1 ⇓ P1 = 900 mol C3H8 Q1 = 5 mol C3H8 Qr1 = 895 mol C3H8 We now have all the variable values we need.Q1 = 0. Calculate the overall conversion of nitrogen. 27 .00 (Qr1 + Qr 2 ) mol recycle 100 mol fresh feed Qr1 = 895 mol Qr 2 = 4.75 mol mol recycle mol fresh feed Single − pass conversion = (100 + Qr 1 ) − P1 × 100% (100 + Qr 1 ) Qr 1 = 895 mol C 3 H 8 ⇓ P1 = 900 mol C 3 H 8 9. The products pass through a condenser in which essentially all of the ammonia is removed. and the balance inerts (I). and the ratio (moles fresh feed/mole fed to the reactor).75 mole % nitrogen. write balances around the separation unit (which is nonreactive.75 mol C3H 6 Next. a purge stream must be taken off. to prevent buildup of the inerts in the system. the ratio (moles purge gas/mole of gas leaving the condenser). and the combined stream is fed to a reactor in which a 25% single-pass conversion of nitrogen is achieved. However. and the remaining gases are recycled. The recycle stream contains 12.05 Q2 Q1 = 5 mol C 3 H 8 ⇒ Q2 = 95 mol C 3 H 6 ⇒ P1 = 900 mol C3H8 Qr 2 = 4.55% EXAMPLE: Recycle and Purge in the Synthesis of Ammonia The fresh feed to an ammonia production process contains 24. The desired quantities are Re cycle ratio = ⇓ 9.

125 I x N2 0.0 mol N 2 28 . x ⇒ overall conversion of N2 n6.00) mol in effluent Overall N 2 balance = x 100% = 92.125 n7 ⇒ n7 = 8. H.0 mol NH 3 1 mol fed 1 mol N 2 ⇓ n 1 = 92.x H2 100 mol n1 (mol N2) n2 (mol H2) n3 (mol I) 0.875 . n4.2475)(2) = 8.0) = 69.125 I x N2 0.75 mol fed − (0.0 mol N 2 feed to reactor n 4 = (0.75 mol fed 25% Single Pass Conversion : n 1 mol N 2 fed 0.0 mol NH 3  ⇒ x = 0.00 (0.0100 I Strategy: Reactor n4 (mol N2) n5 (mol H2) n6 (mol NH3) n3 (mol I) Condenser n6 (mol NH3) Overall N. n3 Overall I balance: (0.0100)(100) = 0.00 ( x) (2) + n 6  n 6 = 46.219)(8.Solution Basis : 100 mol Fresh Feed. n7.25 mol react 2 mol NH 3 = 46.875 − x) (2) + 3n 6  24.7425 H2 0. I) n4 (mol N2) n5 (mol H2) 0. n2 balance around purge-recycle split point ⇒ n8 H2. I balances ⇒ n6.75)(92. x.219 mol N 2 /mol Overall H balance : (100)(0. N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 n8(mol recycled) 0.2475 N2 0.x H2 n7(mol purged) n3 (mol. I balances around recycle-fresh mixing point ⇒ n2.875 .9% 24.00 mol purge gas Overall N balance : (100)(0. 25% single pass conversion ⇒ n1. n4 n7.7425)(2) = 8.

and 0. 29 . none of the reactants or inerts.025 moles leaving condenser 8 + 307 100 moles fresh feed = 0. Calculate the molar flow rates of the fresh feed. a purge stream is withdrawn from the recycle.4 mol I moles purge 8 = = 0.875 . The feed thus contains 2 mol I (2% of 100 mol). The feed to the reactor contains 2% inerts.01) + (307)(0.219)n8 + (0.245 92 + 276 + 39.0 = (0.4 mol fed to reactor EXAMPLE: Recycle and Purge in the Synthesis of Methanol Methanol may be produced by the reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. they must be present in stoichiometric proportion throughout the process. Solution Basis: 100 mol Combined Feed to the Reactor As a general rule.5 mole% inerts (I). and 98 mol CO2 + H2. The reactor effluent passes to a condenser.5 mol are H2. which removes essentially all of the methanol and water formed. provided that its composition is known. the combined feed to the reactor is a convenient stream to use as a basis of calculation for recycle problems. To avoid build-up of the inerts in the system. The latter substances are recycled to the reactor. of which 24. CO 2 + 3 H 2 → CH 3OH + H 2O The fresh feed to the process contains hydrogen and carbon dioxide in stoichiometric proportion.N2 balance around purge-recycle split point: H2 balance around mixing point: 69.00) ⇓ n8 = 307 mol recycled (100)(0.125) = n3 ⇒ n3 = 39. (CO2/H2) = 1/3.219)(8.219) = n2 ⇓ n2 = 276 mol H2 I balance around mixing point: (100)(0. and the purge stream for methanol production rate of 1000 mol/h. that is. Since in this process the reactants are fed in stoichiometric proportion and they are never separated from each other.5 mol are CO2 (1/4 of 98) and 73. the total feed to the reactor. and the single-pass conversion is 60%.0.7425) + (307) (0.

5) = 14.5 mol CO2 75.) Then calculate n5.5) = 9. notice that we have built in facts that CO2 and H2 are always present in a 1:3 ratio and that the compositions of gaseous effluent from the condenser. from a total mole balance about the condenser. 2.7 mol H 2O 30 . the the all the the 1. referring to flowchart. and n6. H 2 O : output = generation n2 = 14.4 mol H 2 0. Calculate n0. and then x4 from a CO2 balance about the condenser.7 mol CO 2 react ⇓ Balances on CH 3OH. and purge streams by the factor (1000/n2). from balances on total moles and I about the recycle-fresh-feed mixing point. Calculate n4. from a mole balance about the recycle-purge split point. 4.400(24. Let us outline the solution. and the recycle stream are identical. Scale up the calculated flows of fresh feed.80 mol CO 2 3n1 = 29. the purge stream. easier the subsequent calculations become. combined reactor feed. two unknowns.005 mol I/mol Condenser Reactor 24. In particular.5 mol H2 2 mol I n1 mol CO2 3n1 mol H2 n2 mol CH3OH n3 mol H2O 2 mol I n2 mol CH3OH n3 mol H2O Take a moment to examine the chart labeling. from the feed to the reactor.n5 mol n5 mol x4 mol CO2 /mol 3x4 mol H2 /mol (1-4x4) mol I/mol x4 mol CO2 /mol 3x4 mol H2 /mol (1-4x4) mol I/mol n4 mol CO2 /mol x4 mol CO2 /mol 3x4 mol H2 /mol (1-4x4) mol I/mol n0 mol 100 mol 0.7 mol CH 3OH n3 = 14. 3.746 mol H2 /mol 0.600(24. (Two equations. and n3. The more of this sort of information you can incorporate in the chart labeling. n2. 60% Single-Pass Conversion n1 = 0. The results will be the flow rates in mol/h corresponding to a methanol production of 1000/h. Calculate n1.249 mol CO2 /mol 0. the single-pass conversion and reactor balances.

00500 n0 + n6 (1 − 4 x4 ) = 2 ⇓ x4 = 0.2 mol CO2 Balance About Condenser n1 = n4 x4 ⇓ x4 = (9.03 h − 1 .4 mol fresh feed n6 = 34.7 ⇒ 68.Mole Balance About Condenser 2 4 n1 + n2 + n3 = n2 + n3 + n4 ⇓ substitute for n1 n4 = 41.6 mol recycle Mole balance About Purge Takeoff n4 = n5 + n6 ⇓ n5 = 41.2) = 0.2 − 34.2379 mol CO 2 / mol Mole Balance About Mixing Point n0 + n6 =100 I Balance About Mixing Point 0.2379 0.6 = 6.80 / 41.6 mol purge The required scale factor is [(1000 mol / h ) / n2 mol] 31 n2 = 14.0484n6 = 2 Solving the above two equations simultaneously yields no = 65.00500n0 + 0.

NO.6. hydrogen will be oxidized to H2O. complete C3H8 +5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O incomplete C3H8 + 7/2O2 → 3CO + 4H2O 4. EXAMPLE: Suppose a stack gas contains equimolar amounts of CO2. CO. H2O. Find the composition on wet and dry basis? Solution Suppose we have n moles of each.0 × 68. carbon will be oxidized to CO2. Composition of a flue gas is given on a wet (including water ) or dry basis (excluding water).03 = 6803 mol/h fed to reactor 6. Wet and Dry Basis Product gas that leaves the combustion chamber is called stack or flue gas.1. S+O2 → SO2 Complete and incomplete combustion of C3H8 are given by the following chemical reactions. C + O2 → CO2 H2+½O2 → H2O C + ½O2 → CO. Complete and Partial Combustion Combustion is a rapid reaction of fuel with oxygen.The desired flow rates are therefore 65. then 32 . and sulfur will be oxidized to SO2. In a combustion reaction if CO is formed. then the reaction is incomplete and referred as incomplete combustion or partial combustion. During a complete combustion of a fuel. and SO2. N2 and H2O. Combustion Reactions and Their Material Balances 4.6 × 68.6.06 = 4450 mol fresh feed/h 100.03 = 449 mol/h purge 4.4 × 68.2. Combustion products are CO2.6.

118 mol dry gas 85 EXAMPLE: Dry Basis ⇒ Wet Basis An Orsat analysis (a technique for stack gas analysis) yields the following dry basis composition: N2 65% CO 2 14% CO O2 11% 10% A humidity measurement shows that the mole fraction of H2O in the stack gas is 0. 15% CO2.706 85 mol dry gas mol CO 2 15 = 0. total moles on dry basis EXAMPLE: A stack gas contains 60 mole% N2.33% total moles on wet basis moles of CO 2 × 100 = (n/2n)×100 = 50%. Calculate the stack gas composition on a wet basis. Solution Basis: 100 mol Wet Gas 60 mol N 2 15 mol CO 2 10 mol O 2 85 mol dry gas ⇓ 60 mol N 2 = 0. and the balance H2O.07. Calculate the molar composition of the gas on a dry basis. 10% O2.composition of CO2 on wet basis = composition of CO2 on dry basis = moles of CO 2 × 100 = (n/3n)×100 = 33.176 mol dry gas 85 mol O 2 10 = 0. 33 .

The difference between the amount of air initial fed and the theoretical air is known as excess air.110) = 11.6. 7..53 lb − moles H 2 O lb − moles H 2 O = 0.140) = 14. Air that contains the theoretical amount of oxygen is called theoretical air.3.0753 lb − mole H 2O = 7.650 lb − mole N 2 = 65. lb − moles wet gas 107.0 lb − mole CO 10. percentage excess air is defined as.93 lb − mole wet gas lb − mole wet gas ⇓ 0.0 lb − mole N 2 lb − mole dry gas (100)(0.Solution Basis: 100 lb-moles Dry Gas 0.100) = 107.07 lb − mole H 2O lb − mole dry gas ⇔ 0.00 lb − mole O 2 (100)(0.5 lb − mole wet gas The mole fractions of each stack gas component may now easily be calculated: y H 2O = 4. EXAMPLE: Theoretical and Excess Air One hundred mol per hour of butane (C4H10) and 5000 mol per hour of air are fed into a combustion reactor. % excess air = {[Air (fed) .Air (theoretical)]/Air (theoretical)}×100. 34 .93 lb − mole dry gas / lb − mole wet gas lb − mole dry gas 100 lb − mole dry gas 0.0 lb − mole CO 2 (100)(0. Calculate the percent excess air. .5 lb − moles wet gas Theoretical and Excess Air Theoretical oxygen is the amount needed for complete combustion of reactants to form CO2 and H2O.070 .53 lb − moles H 2O lb − mole wet gas 100 lb − mole dry gas 0.07 lb − mole H 2O / lb − mole wet gas lb − mole H 2O = 0. etc. Therefore.0753 0. Theoretical air does not depend on how much of a reactant is converted. .

6% excess air. Combustion Material Balances When doing material balances for combustion reactions.4. Suppose 15% excess of oxygen is fed. H2). inert N2 at both inlet and outlet b.76 mol air mol air = = 3094 h mol O 2 h = 650 (air ) th Hence % excess air = (air) fed − (air) th 5000 − 3094 × 100% = × 100% = 61. 13 O 2 → 4 CO 2 + 5 H 2O 2 100 mol C 4 H10 6.Solution First. calculate the theoretical air from the feed rate of fuel and the stoichiometric equation for complete combustion of butane.6.616 (air)th = 1.5 mol O 2 required (O 2 ) theoretical = h mol C 4 H10 C 4 H10 + mol O 2 h 650 mol O 2 4. combustion products CO2. 4.616 (3094) = 5000 mol/h. excess oxygen d. CO etc.15 × theoretical oxygen nitrogen fed = (79/21) × oxygen fed air fed = (100/21) × oxygen fed 35 . one should consider balances of the followings: a. oxygen fed = 1. unreacted fuel c. you could have calculated (air)fed = 1.6% (air) th 3094 If instead you had been given 61.

21   3. Known information about the composition of air has been used to label the incoming N2 79   stream  3. q1 would be omitted. Calculate the composition of the fuel gas and the ratio of water to dry fuel gas. 4. Solution Basis: 100 mol Ethane Fed q1 mol C 2 H 6 100 mol C2H6 q 2 mol O 2 q 3 mol N 2 50% excess air Q mol O2 3. Since excess air is supplied. 25% reacts to form CO and the balance to form CO2.76Q mol N2 q 4 mol CO q 5 mol CO 2 q 6 mol H 2 O 7 O 2 → 2 CO 2 + 3 H 2O 2 5 C2H 6 + O 2 → 2 CO + 3 H 2O 2 C2H 6 + Note: 1. If the ethane reacted completely.5)(350 ) = 525 mol O 2 fed (3. 2. of the ethane burned.76 = .EXAMPLE: Combustion of Ethane Ethane (C2H6) is burned with 50% excess air. Theoretical O2 100 mol C 2 H 6 3.50 mol O 2 = 350 mol 1 mol C 2 H 6 O2 Fed N2 Fed Q = (1. O2 must appear in the product stream. The percentage conversion of the ethane is 90%. subsequent calculations are easier if individual component amounts rather than a total amount and mole fractions are labeled.76)(525) = 1974 mol N2 fed 36 . Since no product stream mole fractions are known.

consumption ==> q1 = 100 .25 x 90 mol C 2 H 6 react to form CO 2 mol CO formed 1 mol C 2 H 6 reacted ⇓ q4 = 45 mol CO Atomic C Balance Input = Output C2H 6 100 mol C 2 H 6 CO CO 2 678 678 678 2 mol C = (q1 )(2 ) + (q4 )(1) + (q4 )(1) 1 mol C 2 H 6 ⇓ q1 = 10 q4 = 45 q5 = 135 mol CO 2 Atomic H Balance Input = Output 100 mol C 2 H 6 6 mol H 10 mol C 2 H 6 6 mol H = 1 mol C 2 H 6 1 mol C 2 H 6 + q 6 (mol H 2O) ⇓ q6 = 270 mol H 2O 37 2 mol H 1 mol H 2O .90)(100) = 90 mol C2H6 reacted C2H6 Balance Output = input .C2H6 Reacted (0.90 = 10 mol N2 Balance Input = output ==> 1974 mol N2 = q3 CO Balance Output = generation q4 = 0.

019 2396 mol dry gas mol y5 = 135 mol CO 2 mol CO 2 = 0. Summarizing: q1 = 10 mol C 2 H 6 q2 = 232 mol O 2 q3 = 1974 mol N 2 q4 = 45 mol CO q5 = 135 mol CO 2 2396 mol dry gas + q6 = 270 mol H 2O 2666 mol total Hence the flue gas composition on a dry basis is y1 = 10 mol C 2 H 6 mol C 2 H 6 = 0.0563 2396 mol dry gas mol 38 .0970 2396 mol dry gas mol y3 = 1974 mol N 2 mol N 2 = 0.00417 2396 mol dry gas mol y2 = 232 mol O 2 mol O 2 = 0.Atomic O Balance Input = Output 525 mol O 2 2 mol O 45 mol C O 1 mol O q ( mol O 2 ) 2 mol O = 2 + 1 mol O 2 1 mol O 2 1 mol CO + 135 mol CO 2 2 mol O 1 mol CO 2 + 270 mol H 2O 1 mol O 1 mol H 2O ⇓ q2 = 232 mol O 2 The analysis of the stack gas is now complete.824 2396 mol dry gas mol y4 = 45 mol CO mol CO = 0.

5% CO 6.130 mole H2O/mole wet gas Orsat analysis of flue gas: 1.9 mol H 2O 0. and speculate on what the gas might be. qH mol H qC mol C 100 mol dry gas   0.0% CO2 8. label it as though carbon and hydrogen were entering separately. Solution Basis: 100 mol Dry Flue Gas Since the composition of the fuel is unknown.130 mol H 2O = 14.2% O2 84.015 mol CO / mol     0.870 mol dry gas 39 .113 2396 mol dry flue gas mol dry flue gas EXAMPLE: Combustion of a Natural Gas A natural gas of an unknown composition is burned with air.and the mole ratio of water to dry flue gas is 270 mol H 2O mol H 2O = 0.060 mol CO 2 / mol   0.843 mol N 2 / mol  qO2 mol O2 3. Qw = 100 mol dry gas 0.082 mol O / mol  2    0. An analysis of the product gas yields the following results 0.76 qO2 mol N2 Qw mol H2O From the given mole fraction of water.3% N2 Calculate the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the gas.

C3H6.we may conclude in this case that the natural gas is essentially pure methane.97 qC 7.97)n. qH/qC ≈ 2.015 mol CO 1 mol C mol flue gas 1 mol CO C in CO 2 64 4744 8 + (100 )(0. a mixture of CH4 and C2H2.Atomic Carbon Balance qc = 100 mol flue gas 0. CH4 .5 mol C Atomic H Balance qH = Q w (mol H 2 O) 2 mol H = 2 × 14.9 = 29.97 . we could have gone no further than to write the fuel as (CH2)n: from the information given. there would have been no way to distinguish between C2H4.06 )(1) = 7. with perhaps trace amounts of other hydrocarbons. [If we had obtained. 40 . etc].8 mol H mol H = = 3. Since there is only one hydrocarbon for which the ratio of H to C is close to 3.5 mol C mol C The natural gas may therefore be written with the formula (CH3.8 mol H mol H 2 O from which qH 29. say.that is.

Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook.. Himmelblau. Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering. W. 3.. 1982. 2. John Wily & Sons. Felder. R. R. 2nd ed. Elementary Principles of Chemical Processes. KFUPM. M.References 1.. 1986. 4th ed. New Jersey. J. McGraw Hill. Al-Amer. M. 1998. D. Session 1 of a Short Course on “Introduction to Chemical Engineering for Non-Chemical Engineers”. 1984. H. 4. and Rousseau.. and Green. New York. R.. D. Dhahran. Prentice Hall. 41 . Perry. 6th ed...