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Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks

Chapter 13

CHAPTER 13
ADVANCED TOPICS IN SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOILS
AND ROCKS

13-1. Evaluate the and for the conditions shown in Fig. 13.6.

SOLUTION:
1  tan 
1  tan 
From drawing,   18
(Eq. 13.4) K 

1  tan18
 0.51 during sedimentation and sampling
1  tan18
K  1 for specimen in the lab

K

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from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks

Chapter 13

13-2. The initial stress conditions in a soil sample are v = 10 MPa and h = 5 MPa, draw stress
paths for v being held constant while (a) h increases to 10 MPa and (b)h decreases to 0.
SOLUTION:
Initial conditions : v  10 MPa and h  5 MPa
q

(Eq. 13.1)

 v  h
;
2

(Eq. 13.2)

p

 v  h
2

10.0
Part (a)

q (MPa)

8.0

Part (b)

6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0 10.0 12.0

p (MPa)

13-6. A soil sample is subjected to an initial equal-all-around hydrostatic state of stress of 50
kPa. Sketch the stress paths for the loading conditions when (a) h remains constant and v
increases to 100 kPa; (b) v is held constant while h increases to 100 kPa; (c) both h and v are
increased to 100 kPa; (d) v remains constant while h decreases to 10 kPa; and (e) v is
increased by 25 kPa at the same time that h is decreased by 25 kPa.
SOLUTION:
Initial conditions : v  h  50 kPa (hydrostatic)
(Eq. 13.1)

q

 v  h
;
2

(Eq. 13.2)

p

 v  h
2

50

Part (a)
Part (b)
Part (c)

30

q (kPa)

Part (d)
Part (e)

10
-10 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

-30

-50

p (kPa)

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained
from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks

Chapter 13

13-7. Given the same initial conditions as for Problem 13.6, draw the stress paths for loading
when (a) h = v/3 and (b) h = v/4.
SOLUTION:
Initial conditions : v  h  50 kPa (hydrostatic)
(Eq. 13.1)

q

 v  h
;
2

p

(Eq. 13.2)

 v  h
2

50
Part (a)
Part (b)

q (kPa)

30

10
-10 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

p (kPa)

13-8. A triaxial sample of loose sand is tested in lateral extension (LE) (see Fig. 13.7). The
sample is first consolidated nonhydrostatically, with 1 = 15 kPa and 3 = 10 kPa. The sample is
then failed in LE, and the angle of internal friction is 30°, c = 0. (a) Draw the Mohr circles for both
initial and “at failure” conditions. (b) What will be the major and minor principal stresses at failure?
SOLUTION:
For lateral extension: h (3 ) decreases, and v (1) remains constant
Initial conditions: 1  15, 3  10
Final conditions : 1  15,

3 

At failue : 1f  15 kPa, 3f

1

' 

tan2  45  
2

 5 kPa

15
30 

tan2  45 
2 

5

9
7

final
5

initial

Shear stress (kPa

3
1
-1 0

5
2

4

15

10
6

8

10

12

14

16

18

Normal stress (kPa)
-3

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained
from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks

Chapter 13

13-9. Another sample of the same sand tested in Problem 13.8 is tested in lateral compression
(LC). Complete parts (a) and (b) requested in Problem 13.8 for this test.
SOLUTION:
For lateral compression; h increases, and v remains constant.
Initial conditions: 1  15, 3  10
' 
30 


1f  3f tan2  45    (15) tan2  45 
 45
2
2 



At failue : 1f  45 kPa, 3f  15 kPa

Final conditions : 3f  15,

25
20

final

15

Shear stress (kPa

10

initial
5
10
0
0
-5

5

10

15
15

45
20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Normal stress (kPa)

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained
from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
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16)  '  34. storage in a retrieval system. Inc.17.13) sin  '  kPa   '1f   '3f    '1f   '3f   1188  o  '  sin1    34. u  3  A f  1f  3f   0  (0. (11. For information regarding permission(s).084)(3640  1000) U sin g data from problem 13-12. photocopying. A f  u  222 kPa © 2011 Pearson Education. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. . The test of Problem 12. Upper Saddle River. and the angle of the failure plane in the specimen.12 were conducted at an initial confining pressure of 1000 kPa.68    '1  (1000) tan2  45   3640 2     '1f   '3f   3640  1000  2640 kPa From Eq. recording. SOLUTION:  '3f  1000 kPa. 11. If the test of Problem 13.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-12. mechanical.68  45   62.68o  '1 '    tan2  45    '3 2  34. An undrained triaxial test is performed on a sand with ’3c=’3f = 450 kPa.68  1638  450   1188    sin1    31. SOLUTION: radius  max  594.28  1738  550    45  ' 34. max = 594 kPa. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic. Pearson Education. uf = 100 kPa.. Inc.. At failure.  '3f  450 center  450  594  1044  '1f  450  2(594)  1638 kPa 3f  450  100  550 kPa 1f  1638  100  1738 kPa  1  3 f    '1  '3 f  1188 Eq. estimate the principal stress difference and the induced pore water pressure at failure. NJ 07458. total. 12. (Eq. NJ. ’. Find (1 – 3)f.22 is conducted undrained..084 1188 Thus. or likewise. A f  uf  3f 1f  3f 100  0  0. Upper Saddle River.34 2 2 13-13. or transmission in any form or by any means.

or likewise.8  1  3 f    '1  '3 f  48  12  36 psi psi Or.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-14. storage in a retrieval system. mechanical. Upper Saddle River.13) sin  '    '1f   '3f     '1f or.  '1f  1630  500  2130  1  3 f    '1  '3 f  2130  500  1630   '1f   '3f  Eq. A silty sand is tested consolidated-drained in a triaxial cell where both principal stresses at the start of the test were 500 kPa.1 2 2 (b) From Problem 11. All rights reserved. ’3 = 26. electronic. Upper Saddle River. The silty sand of Problem 11.0 psi  1  3 f    '1  '3 f  73. Inc. photocopying.3   45   45   64..6  46. . write to: Rights and Permissions Department. What was the principal stress difference at failure? SOLUTION: (a)  '3f  500.0 psi. NJ.63 MPa while the horizontal pressure remains constant. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.. (11.4  26.4 psi. Pearson Education.3  2130  500  ' 38. If the total axial stress at failure is 1. Inc. For information regarding permission(s). ’3 = 12. compute the angle of shearing resistance and the theoretical orientation of the failure plane with respect to the horizontal. recording. using data from this problem. but the laboratory technician noticed that the pore pressure at failure was 290 kPa.  1  3 f    '1  '3 f  2130  500  1630 kPa © 2011 Pearson Education. with the following results at failure: Test 1: ’1 = 73. or transmission in any form or by any means. NJ 07458.29: Two consolidated–drained triaxial tests were performed on specimens of the same clay.29 was inadvertently tested consolidated-undrained.  '  2  tan1    '3f       45     1630  o  '  sin1    38.6 psi Test 2: ’1 = 48.

write to: Rights and Permissions Department.04o  '1 '    tan2  45   2  '3  32.14 were 1000 kPa instead of 500 kPa.13) sin    1f  3f   1f  3f  3260   o   sin1    35. u  3  A f  1f  3f   0  (0. Pearson Education.9 2     '1f   '3f   3259. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.3    '1  (1000) tan2  45   4260 kPa 2     '1f   '3f   4260  1000  3260 kPa Eq. (11.9  1000) U sin g data from problem 13-14.15 were sheared undrained and the induced pore pressure at failure were 200 kPa. recording. If the sample of Problem 13. estimate the principal stress difference at failure. NJ. photocopying.. estimate the pore pressure at failure.17. Upper Saddle River. Inc.257)(3259. 11.16)  '  38. What would be the angle of shearing resistance in terms of total stresses? SOLUTION:  '3f  1000 kPa. or likewise.16)  '  32. uf  200 kPa  '1 '    tan2  45    '3 2  38. NJ 07458. or transmission in any form or by any means. . A f  uf  3f 1f  3f 290  0  0. A f  u  580 kPa 13-16.04    '1  (1000) tan2  45   3259. (Eq. If the consolidation pressure in the CU test of Problem 13. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s). 12. SOLUTION:  '3f  1000 kPa.1 4260 200 1000 200      © 2011 Pearson Education.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-15. 11.257 1630  500 Thus. Inc. mechanical. storage in a retrieval system.3o ..9 kPa From Eq. electronic.9  1000  2259. (Eq.

or likewise.44.. for a medium-stiff clay: Eu  (40)(101. Upper Saddle River. NJ.43. Pearson Education. for PI = 85 to 125. recording. for OCR = 1. For information regarding permission(s). SOLUTION: The soil is overconsolidated: OCR   'p  'v  39  1. 13.20(b) are for a black fissured organic silty clay or clayey silt.3 kPa) Eu  4052 kPa to 8104 kPa From Fig. . All rights reserved. for PI = 85 to 125: Eu  425f From Fig. estimate the expected value or range of values of the undrained modulus. Inc. storage in a retrieval system. and OCR = 1.46.4 28 From Table 13. mechanical.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-19. or transmission in any form or by any means.4: Eu  120f to 300f © 2011 Pearson Education. electronic.3 kPa) to (80)(101. Inc. Upper Saddle River.3.4: Eu  420f to 820f From Fig. The data presented in Fig. photocopying. 13. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. NJ 07458. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 8. 13.. At a depth of 6 m.

3 kPa) to (80)(101. 13. 12.14. (b) effective angle of internal friction. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 8. for LI = 0. for PI = 15.27b : For PI  15. mechanical. for a medium-stiff clay: Eu  (40)(101.90c.46.44  (0. For information regarding permission(s). (c) ratio of f/’vo. or likewise. and (f) the undrained Young’s modulus.5 to 1. Estimate the following parameters for this soil: (a) coefficient of earth pressure at rest. photocopying. and OCR = 1. storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458. for PI =15: f  1.07:  'vo From Fig.24  0.44  0. 13.48 to 0. NJ. for OCR = 1.23 (e) (Eq. Inc. electronic.42 PI  'p  'v 100  450  1.55 : Sensitivity.15 Fig. Upper Saddle River. .65  'vo From Eq. SOLUTION: The soil is overconsolidated: OCR   (a) (Eq. 13. (d) activity. A ranges from about 0.1..23(b) at a depth of 20 m had an LL of 38 and a PL of 23. All rights reserved.  '  31 f  0. S t  1 (f ) From Table 13.3 kPa) Eu  4052 kPa to 8104 kPa From Fig. The medium gray silty clay of Fig.15)  0.3 (c) From Fig.43. for PI =15: f  0. 13. Activity. 12. 12. 12. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.87. PI  38  23  15 240   0. 13. 12.9: Eu  400f to 820f From Fig.13) LI    0.  '  34 Fig. for PI = 15: Eu  1200f From Fig.75 (b) Fig.3 for illite w  PL 0.0  'vo (for NC clay) (d) From Fig. or transmission in any form or by any means.13) K o  0. recording.50 Fig. the clay likely contains illite From Table 4.44. Inc. for PI =15 and LL = 38. Upper Saddle River.9.07 PI 0..42)(0. 13.9: Eu  600f to 1500f © 2011 Pearson Education.3. (e) sensitivity. Pearson Education.55 : K o  0. 12.86. 4.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-20.27a : For PI  15.

electronic.89)(220)  416.23   '1   1  (220) 1. recording. mechanical. Af.89  1  195. All rights reserved.  '1  (1. storage in a retrieval system.0  © 2011 Pearson Education. Pearson Education. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.8 kPa   '3   1  3 f   '3   '1  1. Inc. total and effective principal stress ratios. and f for this test.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-23. photocopying.43 1  3 195.. SOLUTION: From Problem 12. or likewise. Suppose an identical specimen of the same clay as in Problem 12. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.8 kPa Pr oblem 13.89 (same)  '3 1 416.8   '1  '3   416.8  85   1. NJ. Upper Saddle River. total.64  45   14. . Inc.8  220  196. or transmission in any form or by any means. Determine the principal stress difference. ’.8  '  18 and  f  54 (same)  1   2    tan  45   2   3  f   2  tan1       1f   2  tan1   3f       45    1. NJ 07458.38 was sheared undrained. and the induced pore pressure at failure was 85 kPa. Upper Saddle River.38 '  f  54  45    '  18 2  '1 '  18     tan2  45    tan2  45   1.64 3 220  85 Af  u  3 85  0   0. For information regarding permission(s).89  '3 2 2      '3  220..

Inc.1kPa 100 100 Shear stress (kPa 50 197.. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. storage in a retrieval system.92. What was the pore water pressure at failure? Was the specimen normally consolidated? Why? SOLUTION: From M-C plot. and the measured value of ff was 60 kPa. n  3  100 kPa thus: u  3   '3  100  62.92 kPa for the drained test For the undrained test. An undrained direct shear test was performed.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-24. . or transmission in any form or by any means. Pearson Education.08. photocopying. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. electronic. 0 0 0 50 100 130 150 200 250 300 Normal stress (kPa) -50 © 2011 Pearson Education. Another specimen of this clay was consolidated to an effective pressure of 100 kPa. or likewise. 0 62.  '3  62. recording. when plotted on a Mohr diagram. Upper Saddle River.92  37. mechanical. NJ.. Inc. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. For information regarding permission(s). NJ 07458. gave c’ = 10 kPa and tan ’ = 0. A series of drained direct shear tests were performed on a saturated clay.5. The results.

recording. For information regarding permission(s).. NJ. and then subjected to a direct shear test in which no drainage occurred.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-25. or likewise. Pearson Education. Inc. Inc. showed a shearing strength of 175 kPa. Upper Saddle River. mechanical.) SOLUTION: tan   ff ff  350   '  tan1    30. storage in a retrieval system. electronic.3 deg 150 Shear stress (kPa 100 50 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 -50 Normal stress (kPa) -100 © 2011 Pearson Education. The following information was obtained from laboratory tests on specimens from a completely saturated sample of clay: (a) The sample had in the past been precompressed to at least 200 kPa. NJ 07458. Sketch the Mohr envelopes which you would expect to obtain from a series of undrained and drained tests on this clay. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.3  600  Effective: 30. (After Taylor. 1948. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. . (c) A specimen which was first consolidated to 600 kPa. Compute ’ and T for the undrained case. photocopying. All rights reserved.3 deg 300 250 200 Total: 16. Upper Saddle River. showed a shearing strength of 350 kPa. with complete drainage allowed.3  600   175    tan1    16. or transmission in any form or by any means. (b) A specimen tested in direct shear under a normal stress of 600 kPa.

determined from consolidation tests. For information regarding permission(s). 1: 3 = 200 kPa. (b) For the CU test. (c) Assuming that the single CU test for which data are given is representative for CU tests run at pressures well above the preconsolidation stress: (a) What is  in terms of total stresses above the effects of preconsolidation? (b) What is ’ determined by the CU test above the effects of preconsolidation? (After A. recording. NJ 07458. storage in a retrieval system. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. The effective consolidation pressure was 330 kPa and the specimen was loaded in axial compression. Eq. Pearson Education. Test No. 1 = 704 kPa.9  704 200   Continued on next page. c' = 0. 1 = 979 kPa Stress Difference (kPa) Strain (%) Pore Pressure (kPa) (a) Plot the Mohr circles at failure and determine ’ from the CD tests for the normally consolidated portion of the failure envelope. NJ. or likewise..Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-26. 2: 3 = 278 kPa.) SOLUTION: From the Mohr circles. Inc. (11. © 2011 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. The principal stresses at failure of two CD tests were Data from one CU test on the same clay are shown below. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River. Triaxial tests were performed on undisturbed samples from the same depth of organic clay whose preconsolidation load. Casagrande. plot curves of principal stress difference and pore pressure versus strain.13) sin  '    '1f   '3f    '1f   '3f   704  200  o  '  sin1    33. Inc. Test No. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. mechanical. . All rights reserved.. was in the range 90 to 160 kPa. electronic.

Inc. . Upper Saddle River.. For information regarding permission(s). Stress (kPa) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 20 15 20 Strain (%) Dev. mechanical. Upper Saddle River.. recording. electronic. Pearson Education. NJ. storage in a retrieval system. Inc. photocopying. 600 33. All rights reserved.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-26 continued.9 deg 400 Shear stress (kPa 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Normal stress (kPa) -200 Dev. or likewise. Stress (kPa) 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 Strain (%) © 2011 Pearson Education. NJ 07458. or transmission in any form or by any means. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.

Upper Saddle River. photocopying. or likewise.7 2 2  '  45  1f   17.. 1f  (1. storage in a retrieval system. The consolidation pressure was 100 kPa.4     tan2  45  T   tan2  45   1. recording. The specimen failed when the principal stress difference was 85 kPa and the induced pore water pressure was 67 kPa. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-27.1 2 2 ' 17. Pearson Education. uf  67 1f  85  100  185  '1f  185  67  118. An undrained triaxial compression test was performed on a saturated sample of normally consolidated clay.  1  3 f    '1  '3 f  85. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. or transmission in any form or by any means.4 185  100   ' 34. electronic.3  45   62. NJ.3  118  33  85   o T  sin1    17.85 3f 2 2     3f  250. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Eq. but at a consolidation pressure of 250 kPa. A companion undrained test was performed on an identical sample of the same clay. (11.5  250  212. mechanical.5  1  3 f  462. Inc. For information regarding permission(s).. .4  T  45   45   53. SOLUTION: Test #1:  'c  100  3 .5 kPa © 2011 Pearson Education. NJ 07458. What maximum principal stress difference would you expect at failure for this second test specimen? What are  and T? Predict the angle of the failure planes for the two undrained tests.85)(250)  462.13) sin  '   '3f  100  67  33   '1f   '3f    '1f   '3f   118  33  o  '  sin1    34. Inc.

1948. NJ. (After Taylor.6. T  15 26. T  0 Total stresses OC range: c T  10 kPa. Data are given below. no drainage was permitted. NJ 07458. Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. photocopying. Plot the Mohr failure envelopes for this soil. Inc. Inc. recording. storage in a retrieval system.6 deg (effective) 400 300 15 deg (total) Shear stress (kPa) 200 100 7 8 0 4 3 5 6 1 2 -100 -200 0 -300 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Normal stress (kPa) -400 © 2011 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. mechanical. All rights reserved. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River. In tests 5 through 8. Effective stresses: '  26.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-28.) SOLUTION: Estimate strength parameters from the Mohr Circle diagrams shown below. .. Triaxial compression tests were run on specimens from a large undisturbed block sample of clay. electronic.. Tests 1 through 4 were run so slowly that complete drainage may be assumed. Determine the Mohr–Coulomb strength parameters in terms of both total and effective stresses. For information regarding permission(s). or likewise. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. c '  10 kPa Total stresses NC range: c T  65 kPa.

 '1  1800 kPa   '1  '3 f   1  3 f  1250 kPa  '3f  1800  1250  550 u  3f   '3f  750  550  200 Af  u  3 200  0   0. NJ 07458. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic. SOLUTION:  'c  3f  750 kPa.27 550  '3 2200  672. Compute Skempton’s pore pressure coefficient A at failure. the principal stress difference was 1250 kPa.149  1527..2  227. or transmission in any form or by any means.29  '3  '1 1800   3. Upper Saddle River.  '3f    '1  '3 f u  3f   '3f  900  672.27   1  3 f  2200  672. A CU triaxial test is performed on a cohesive soil. Upper Saddle River. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.8  0  0. assume  ' and  '1  2200 kPa  '1 are the same as Problem 13. storage in a retrieval system. recording.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-29. At failure. if ’c = 900 kPa? SOLUTION”  'c  3f  900 kPa. Inc. For information regarding permission(s).2  1527.8 Af  u  3 227. NJ. Suppose another specimen of the soil in the preceding problem developed a major effective principal stress of 2200 kPa at failure.8 kPa thus. Inc. What would Skempton’s pore pressure coefficient A at failure be. or likewise. All rights reserved. .2 3. mechanical. Pearson Education.16 1250 1  3 13-30. photocopying.8 1  3 © 2011 Pearson Education.. The effective consolidation stress was 750 kPa. and the major effective principal stress was 1800 kPa.

1f  265  75  340 kPa  '3f  3f  u  75  5  80 kPa  '1f  1f  u  340  5  345 kPa Test Y (normally consolidated) :   '1  '3 f   1  3 f  620 kPa  'c  3f  750 kPa.. and c’ and ’ for the overconsolidated range of stresses.067  45   30.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-31. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. NJ. The preconsolidation stress for the clay was estimated from oedometer tests to be about 400 kPa. (c) Estimate ’ in the normally consolidated range.067    '   3  f 300   '1  '  2    tan  45   ' 2    3 f  '  2  tan1        '1f   2  tan1    '3f       45    3. . write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic. 1f  620  750  1370 kPa  '3f  3f  u  750  450  300 kPa  '1f  1f  u  1370  450  920 kPa (see plot below) (c) For the normally consolidated range (Test Y):   '1  920  3. Two samples of a slightly overconsolidated clay were tested in triaxial compression. For information regarding permission(s). recording.726 620 1  3 (b) Test X (overconsolidated) :   '1  '3 f   1  3 f  265 kPa  'c  3f  75 kPa. All rights reserved. mechanical..5  © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. Inc. or likewise. storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458. SOLUTION: (a) Test X : A f  Test Y : A f  u  3 5  0   0. and the following data at failure were obtained. (b) Plot the Mohr circles at failure for both total and effective stresses. or transmission in any form or by any means. photocopying. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. (a) Determine the Skempton pore pressure parameter A at failure for both tests.0189 265 1  3 u  3 450  0   0.

NJ. Upper Saddle River.. electronic.. or transmission in any form or by any means. For information regarding permission(s).Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-31 continued. photocopying. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved. storage in a retrieval system. recording. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. mechanical. 600 400 Shear stress (kPa 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Normal stress (kPa) -200 -400 -600 © 2011 Pearson Education. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River. . or likewise. Pearson Education. Inc. Inc.

(c) Af in the undrained specimen.. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Upper Saddle River. NJ. The other specimen was sheared undrained. One specimen was sheared drained. (11. and the principal stress difference at failure was 300 kPa. storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458. and (d) the theoretical angle of failure planes for both specimens. 3 1  '1  (100)(3)  300 kPa   '1   1     '3  (b) u  3   '3  150  100  50 kPa (c) A f   u  3 50  0   0. SOLUTION:  'c  150 kPa CD test:   '1f   '3f   300 kPa  '1  300  150  450 kPa Eq.13)   '1f   '3f    '1f   '3f  sin  '  300   o  '  sin1    30. Two identical specimens of soft saturated normally consolidated clay were consolidated to 150 kPa in a triaxial apparatus. photocopying. and the principal stress difference at failure was 200 kPa. Upper Saddle River. .6  350  150   '1 '  30     tan2  45    tan2  45   3. (b) uf in the undrained specimen. 3c  150 kPa   '1   1   '3   1  3 f   '3   '3   1  3 f 200  100 kPa.0  450  150  CU test:  1f  3f   200 kPa 1  200  150  350 kPa Eq. electronic.0  '3 2 2      1  3 f  200 kPa. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-32. mechanical. Determine (a) ’ and total. All rights reserved. (11.13) sin    1f  3f   1f  3f  200   o T  sin1    23. recording. or likewise. Inc.25 1  3 200 (d)  f  45  ' 30  45   60 2 2 © 2011 Pearson Education.. Pearson Education.

165  0   0.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-32 continued. For information regarding permission(s). electronic.0o 200 T = 23. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Inc. storage in a retrieval system. If drained tests on identical samples gave ’ = 22o. A clay sample is hydrostatically consolidated to 1. NJ.. Upper Saddle River.8347  0. Upper Saddle River. NJ 07458. 3c  1MPa  '   '3   1  3 f   '3   1  1  1  3 f 1   0. mechanical.0 MPa and then sheared undrained. Pearson Education. Inc. or likewise.6o Shear stress (kPa 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Normal stress (kPa) -100 13-33. 300 ’ = 30. The (1 – 3) at failure was also equal to 1 MPa. photocopying.198  1  1    '3  u  3   '3  1  0.198  '3 2 2     1  3 f  1MPa.1653 MPa  '3  Af  u  3 0.165 1  3 1. evaluate the pore pressure at failure in the undrained test and compute Skempton’s A parameter.0 © 2011 Pearson Education. recording. or transmission in any form or by any means. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. SOLUTION:  '1 '  22     tan2  45    tan2  45   2..8347 MPa   '1  2. .

Inc. Plot on one sheet.665 3.5 1198.014 3. NJ 07458.323 3.5 934 1225 1661 2269 2926 3460 3768 3772 3744 0 113 207. Pearson Education. For information regarding permission(s).569  '   4.174 4. photocopying. NJ.000 1. or transmission in any form or by any means. mechanical..s3 u s1 s3 s'1 s'3 p p' q = q' s'1/s'3 0 226 415 697 968 1470 2060 2820 3590 4160 4430 4310 4210 0 81 187 323 400 360 219 -9 -281 -530 -703 -767 -789 850 1076 1265 1547 1818 2320 2910 3670 4440 5010 5280 5160 5060 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 850 995 1078 1224 1418 1960 2691 3679 4721 5540 5983 5927 5849 850 769 663 527 450 490 631 859 1131 1380 1553 1617 1639 850 963 1057. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or likewise. recording. electronic. (b) Plot the stress paths on a p–q diagram. The following data were obtained from a CU test with pore pressures measured on an undisturbed specimen of sandy silt.28 (c)  1    '3 max  '  Yes.853 3.283 4.5 484 735 1030 1410 1795 2080 2215 2155 2105 1. The consolidation pressure was 850 kPa and the specimen was sheared in axial compression. (a) Plot curves of principal stress difference and pore pressures versus strain.) SOLUTION: s1 . Upper Saddle River. Inc. Upper Saddle River.000 4.151 4.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-34. .265 4..5 1334 1585 1880 2260 2645 2930 3065 3005 2955 850 882 870. (c) What is the maximum effective principal stress ratio developed in this test? Is it the same as the maximum obliquity for this specimen? (d) Is there any difference in ’ as determined when the principal stress difference or the principal effective stress ratio is a maximum? (After A.294 1.5 348. Casagrande. maximum obliquity is defined as:  1    '3 max  '  (d)  ' defined from  1  is from 0 to 3 greater than ' defined by   '1  '3 max .626 2. All rights reserved.5 875. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.   '3 max (see plots on next page) © 2011 Pearson Education. storage in a retrieval system.

0 10.0 12.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or transmission in any form or by any means..0 20.0 16. electronic.0 14. p' (kPa) © 2011 Pearson Education.0 12. Upper Saddle River. 5000 Deviator Stress (kPa 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0.0 Axial Strain (%) 4000 ESP TSP q = q' (kPa) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 p.0 14.0 2.0 8.0 -200. NJ.0 2.0 16. recording. For information regarding permission(s).0 -400.0 18. photocopying.0 8. All rights reserved. storage in a retrieval system.0 Axial Strain (%) Volumetric Strain (%) 600. NJ 07458. Inc. Pearson Education. .0 18. mechanical. Inc.0 10.0 4.0 400.0 200. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.0 6.0 -600.0 20.0 6.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-34 continued.0 4. or likewise. Upper Saddle River.0 0.0 -1000.0 -800.0 0.

82 u  58. recording.4   137.4 kPa.08  0. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.6  106.2 kPa © 2011 Pearson Education.3 kPa. Assume : fill  2.8—that is. NJ 07458.0 Mg m3  'v  82. SOLUTION: v  141.6  137.9 kPa. 12. photocopying.36. K o  0.6.9 kPa.A..Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-43. Pearson Education.8.8. and use the definition of stress increments in Appendix B.82  79.24  13. h  0 u  3  A  1  3   106. .8.24 kPa h  1  v  13.4 After sampling: v  0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.. from a depth of 6 m. estimate the effective vertical and horizontal stresses acting on the sample just before testing in the laboratory.3 kPa.58  'h   'v K o  (82.81)  39. electronic.) (After G.08 kPa 3 u  3  A  1  3   13.90. 6. h  47. A u  0. Leonards.30. storage in a retrieval system. estimate the change in pore pressure at point A of Fig. or likewise. mechanical.08  u  21 kPa 13-44.2  'h   'v  79. (Hint: Draw elements with stresses similar to Fig. u  58. If the clay is slightly overconsolidated.4 kPa .8  58. If the pore pressure parameter Au for unloading is 0. All rights reserved. Inc.4)(0.4  0.58)  47.  'v  82. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River.30  39. A soil sample is taken from the midpoint of the clay layer of Example 6. Ex. A  0.30 K o  1  sin  '  1  sin 25  0. NJ.3  106. Assume ’ for the clay is 25 deg. A 2-m-thick fill is constructed at the surface of the soil profile of Example 6. u  58.0)(9. B  1 v  (2 m)(2.) SOLUTION: Before sampling: v  141.3.90 141. Inc.

u  (10 m)(9.1  298.1 After sampling: v  0. and Ko is 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. mechanical. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic.7.7 kPa 2   © 2011 Pearson Education.1  348. Inc.1 kPa u  98.7  348. A normally consolidated clay has a ’ of 30o. (Hint: The first test is an axial compression test. Two identical specimens of this clay are consolidated to 200 kPa in a triaxial cell. or transmission in any form or by any means. Pearson Education.1kPa. Predict the maximum and minimum possible axial stresses in the specimens for a constant cell pressure.1  333. Upper Saddle River. recording. Upper Saddle River. A u  0. estimate the change in pore pressure in the sample when it is removed from the clay layer.  'h   'v K o  (250)(0. photocopying. SOLUTION: Before sampling:  'v  250 kPa. For information regarding permission(s).8)  200.7 h  200  98. If the pore pressure parameter due to sampling is 0. (Eq. The effective vertical overburden stress is 250 kPa. NJ.1  298.1  235 kPa  'h   'v  235 kPa 13-48.8. What effective stresses act on the specimen after extrusion from the sample tube? Assume the groundwater table is at the surface. storage in a retrieval system. 11.1  0. the second test is an axial extension test. h  0 u  3  A  1  3   298. A sample of normally consolidated clay is removed from -10 m below the ground surface.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-46.16)  '  30o  '1 '    tan2  45    '3 2  30    '1  (200) tan2  45   600 kPa 2   and 30    '1  (200) tan2  45   66. All rights reserved.  v  250  98. or likewise... Inc.) SOLUTION:  '3  200 kPa.1  333. .1kPa.81)(1)  98. NJ 07458.

.5 (measured from 1 as shown in plot) Sample C: =45..W. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. recording. Plot the Mohr circles at failure and determine ’ and c’. All rights reserved. or transmission in any form or by any means.5 2 2  25  32. q'  v   275 2 2 2 2  '   'h 0  0  '   'h 0  0 initial: p'  v   0. q'  v  0 2 2 2 2  '   'h 100  ( 450)  '   'h 100  ( 450) final: p'  v   175. For information regarding permission(s). q'  v  0 initial: p'  v 2 2 2 2  '   'h 460  2350  '   'h 460  2350 final: p'  v   1405. (After C. storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458. mechanical. q'  v   945 2 2 2 2 Sample A: initial: p'  Sample A: Sample B: Sample B: Sample C: Sample C: continued on next page © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.  '  25 and c '  390 kPa  25  45   57. The effective stresses at failure for three identical triaxial specimens of an overconsolidated clay are shown in Fig. 45  2 2 Plot effective stress paths on p'.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-49.49. Determine the theoretical angle of inclination of the failure planes in each test specimen.. Inc. or likewise.) SOLUTION: From plot. photocopying. P13. NJ. Upper Saddle River. Lovell. Also sketch the effective stress paths for the three tests. q'  v   615 final: p'  v 2 2 2 2  '   'h 460  460  '   'h 460  460   460. q'  v  0 2 2 2 2  '   'h 1230  0  '   'h 1230  0   615. q' diagram Samples A and B: =45+  'v   'h 100  100  '   'h 100  100   100. Upper Saddle River. electronic. and show these on a small sketch. Pearson Education.

5o Shear stress (kPa) 800 C c’ = 390 kPa 400 B  = 32.. Inc.5o 0 A -400 -800 -400 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 Normal stress (kPa) Sample A Sample B Sample C 1000 q' 500 0 -200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 -500 -1000 p' © 2011 Pearson Education. Pearson Education. mechanical. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River. . storage in a retrieval system. or likewise. recording. For information regarding permission(s).5o  = 57. ' = 25o 1200  = 57. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. photocopying.. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved. NJ. NJ 07458. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-49 continued. electronic.

All rights reserved. Inc. P13. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River. NJ. or   32.7 =32. The stresses at failure for the three specimens are as shown in Fig. (a) Plot the Mohr circles at failure. Upper Saddle River.W. storage in a retrieval system. Sketch the failed specimens. or likewise. electronic. For information regarding permission(s). Pearson Education. (After C..50. '  24.3 Shear stress (kPa) 5 =32. showing their failure planes. photocopying.5. or transmission in any form or by any means.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-50.7 0 0 AE 5 10 15 20 LC AC -5 Normal stress (kPa) -10 © 2011 Pearson Education.5  57.. recording. Three identical specimens (same e.25 from '1. c '  0   45  24. Inc. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.73 from '3 (as shown in diagram) 2 10 ' = 24. . and determine ’ and T (b) Determine the inclination of the predicted failure planes (from the Mohr failure hypothesis).) SOLUTION: Estimate strength parameters from the Mohr Circle diagrams shown below.5 =57. w) of a clay are normally consolidated and sheared consolidated-drained (CD) in both compression and extension. Lovell. mechanical. (c) Sketch the three stress paths.

. (a) Sketch the total and effective stress paths for each test.1 2 19 Undrained condition:   19. 28. Inc. Inc. electronic. Upper Saddle River. mechanical. recording. (c) Do you believe this clay is normally or overconsolidated? Why? SOLUTION: Estimate parameters from the Mohr Circle diagrams shown below. storage in a retrieval system. Pearson Education. and determine the Mohr–Coulomb strength parameters in terms of both total and effective stresses. For information regarding permission(s).1 Shear stress (kPa) 200 100 B (t) A (t) B (e) C (t) C (e) 0 A (e) -100 -200 0 -300 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Normal stress (kPa) -400 © 2011 Pearson Education.2 Drained condition: '  28. Test results are tabulated below. NJ.5 2 This clay is slightly overconsolidated as indicated by the y-intercept (c > 0). or likewise. c' = 20 kPa blue ==> effective stress red ==> total stress (drained) 300  = 19 deg. NJ 07458. A series of conventional triaxial compression tests were conducted on three identical specimens of a saturated clay soil..   45   54.2 deg. or transmission in any form or by any means. c = 28 kPa (undrained) ' = 59.  '  45   59.. photocopying. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. All rights reserved.5 400 ' = 28. c '  20 kPa. Upper Saddle River.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-51. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.2.  = 54. c  28 kPa. (b) Estimate the theoretical angle of the failure planes for each specimen.

electronic. c' = 40 kPa Shear stress (kPa) 200 (drained) 100 B (e) A (e) 0 B (t) C (e) C (t) A (t) -100 13. and that everything else was the same. A lateral extension test is to be performed on 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 an identical 0 specimen at the same consolidation pressure and with the same time of consolidation and time of -300 Normal stress (kPa) loading as in the axial compression test. NJ. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5 2 19 Undrained condition:   19. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved.5 2 This clay is slightly overconsolidated as indicated by the y-intercept (c > 0). storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458.5 ' = 15 deg.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-52. and then answer part (c). c = 28 kPa (undrained) ' = 52.26. 15 kPa. or transmission in any form or by any means. © 2011 Pearson Education.  = 54.. c  28 kPa. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Inc. 15 Drained condition: '  15. specimen B. Inc.5 400 blue ==> effective stress red ==> total stress 300  = 19 deg. The data for the test is given in Problem 13. Upper Saddle River.. or likewise.  '  45   52. .   45   54. mechanical. Now do parts (a) and (b) above. Assume that the induced pore pressures at failure for Problem 13. For information regarding permission(s). Pearson Education. Determine the curve of pore pressure versus (1) principal stress difference and (2) axial strain that you would predict theoretically for the lateral extension test. -80 kPa.51 were: specimen A.53 An axial compression CU test has been performed on an undisturbed specimen of 100% saturated organic -200 clay. SOLUTION: Estimate parameters from the Mohr Circle diagrams shown below. and specimen C. photocopying. -400 (a) Plot the total and effective stress paths. c '  40 kPa. -40 kPa. recording.

3 4.75 0 1.4 5.2 5.85 10 11. For information regarding permission(s).7) sin   tan  Af   '  sin1  tan15..3) u A 1 3 '1 '3 p' p q 0 1 0 3.5 10 10 10 12 10 8 10 9. recording.732 14.8 3.4 15.4 0. The cell pressure was held constant at 10 kPa.9 Continued on next page. mechanical.4   0.6 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 7 7 6 6 9.85 12.8 (Eq.9 0 0. or likewise.25 2.7 12.6 T  sin1  tan11.722 0. storage in a retrieval system. while the axial stress was increased to failure (axial compression test).7 15.759 15.673 0. Inc.8 2. Inc.8 10 12 5.9 4.1 8.6 2.5 5.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-54. (a) Plot the  and u versus axial strain curves. electronic.. Determine Af. 1964).9 2.94   16. .45 9. (b) Plot the total and effective stress paths for the AC test.5 12.85 2. Upper Saddle River.2 15.25 12. Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River.8 4.5 0 1. or transmission in any form or by any means.7 12.5 3. 13. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.8 8.76  5. NJ 07458.1 0.8 10 10 11 11 6 6 8.9  (%) (1 .75 2 4 6 8 4. photocopying. © 2011 Pearson Education.5 15.6 2. (c) What is ’ (Assume c’ = 0 for normally consolidated clay. The following data were obtained from a conventional triaxial compression test on a saturated (B = 1).7 5.543 10 13.) SOLUTION: u 4.6 12. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. normally consolidated simple clay (Ladd. All rights reserved.622 0.66   11.754 0. NJ.7 2.55 8.

Inc.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-54 continued.0 10. mechanical.0 12. NJ.0 Strain (%) ESP 6 q TSP 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 p. NJ 07458. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.0 0. Inc. delta sigma 6. electronic.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.0 4. Pearson Education.. storage in a retrieval system. or likewise.0 4.0 0.0 2. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River.0 Strain (%) delta u 6.0 6. Upper Saddle River. p' © 2011 Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means. . recording.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 6.0 0.0 8.0 0.0 8.0 10.0 4.0 12. photocopying. All rights reserved.0 4.

© 2011 Pearson Education.33 -0.985 1.77 1.885 1. While the vertical stress was maintained constant.115 -0.115 1. were obtained.71 2. or transmission in any form or by any means. or likewise.285 0.50 -0.67 1 1.605 2. storage in a retrieval system.14 1. Inc.28 2.51 2. (c) Can the Mohr–Coulomb strength parameters be determined? Why? (After C.07 +0.105 2.46 -0.05 2.68 1.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-55.05 1. Pearson Education.335 2.285 0.985 2.015 -0.00 Continued on next page.22 -0.W.165 LE Test q/'c 0 0.46 0.835 1 1.32 0. NJ. A conventional triaxial compression (AC) test was conducted on a saturated sample of overconsolidated clay.46 0.36 1. From your knowledge of stress paths and soil behavior.23 2.14 1.085 1. and the following data.57 0.115 0.05 -0.215 1.715 0.17 2.085 1.885 0.14 2..115 1.69 -2.81 -2. determine (a) the effective and total stress paths for both tests and (b) the pore pressure versus strain response of the LE test.885 0.35 8 10 12 14 16 2.76 2.46 1. NJ 07458. recording. .99 -2. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.90 -3. normalized with respect to the effective confining pressure.05 1.39 -1. the cell pressure was decreased until failure occurred at the same principal stress difference as the AC specimen (/’c = 2. mechanical. Upper Saddle River.62 -0.695 2. Upper Saddle River.. Lovell. For information regarding permission(s).56 -2.085 2.68 0.52 -0.5 1 2 4 6 0 0. electronic.285 1.33).14 -0.165 0 0.58 -0. Inc.05 -0.32 -2.41 1.165 1 0.92 1. All rights reserved. photocopying.985 1. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.97 0 +0.68 0.54 0. A lateral extension (LE) test was conducted on an identical specimen of the same clay.115 2.165 u'c 0 -0.10 2.085 -0.) SOLUTION: strain (%) 'c u'c p'/'c AC Test p/'c q/'c p/'c 0 0.03 -0.87 -1.

0 -1.5 0.. p'/s'c Strain (%) 0. recording.0 0. NJ 07458. NJ.5 3..0 0. All rights reserved. .5 0.0 1.0 p/s'c.0 © 2011 Pearson Education. AC TSP AC ESP LE TSP 1.0 16.0 2.0 6.0 -0.0 10. Upper Saddle River.5 -3.0 4. electronic.5 1. storage in a retrieval system.5 -1.0 -2.5 -2. Inc. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.0 0.0 LE Triaxial Test delta u/s'c -0. Pearson Education. or likewise. mechanical. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.0 12.5 2.5 q/s'c 1.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-55 continued. For information regarding permission(s).0 8.0 14. Inc. Upper Saddle River.0 2. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means.

storage in a retrieval system. and effective stresses (like the “initial conditions” shown above). © 2011 Pearson Education. photocopying. 13. Inc. mechanical.. or likewise.   0. Inc. A consolidated-undrained triaxial compression test was conducted on an undisturbed specimen of sensitive Swedish clay.56a.7) sin   tan   '  sin1  tan 24.2 T  sin1  tan18   19. (a) Find the stress conditions at failure and symbolically show the total. recording.56b. . All rights reserved. NJ. (b) Sketch the total and effective stress paths. uf  120 kPa. electronic. or transmission in any form or by any means. 12. Upper Saddle River. (c) Plot A versus . Upper Saddle River. P13. NJ 07458.6   27. Pearson Education. The initial conditions were as shown in Fig. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. What is Af? What are ’ and T? SOLUTION: From given plots. neutral.The stress-strain and pore pressure responses of the specimen are shown in Fig.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-56. P13. at failure:  1  3 f  270 kPa.75 % 1f  280  270  550 kPa (Eq.0 Total 550 u 280 120 = Effective 430 160 Continued on next page. For information regarding permission(s).18) A  u  3 1  3 (Eq.

Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-56 continued. Pearson Education. storage in a retrieval system.800 0.455 400 470 520 550 540 510 280 280 280 280 280 280 400 430 435 430 405 350 280 240 195 160 145 120 340 335 315 295 275 235 340 375 400 415 410 395 60 95 120 135 130 115 o 24.25 0.80 0.0 0. 60) 0 0 200 400 600 p. Upper Saddle River.0 0. photocopying.  (%) (1 .6 200 ESP 18.. Upper Saddle River.571 0.5 1. recording.5 0.5 120 190 240 270 260 230 0 70 120 150 140 110 0 40 85 120 135 160 0 0. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. . or likewise.964 1.3) u A 1 3 '1 '3 p' p q 0 0.0 1. p' 1.0o q TSP 100 (340..5 Af = 0. Inc.708 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.3) (1 .5 Strain (%) © 2011 Pearson Education.0 0. NJ. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. For information regarding permission(s). mechanical. Inc. NJ 07458. electronic.5 A 1.75 1 1.

6 0. . photocopying.0 40.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13. recording.0 -20. electronic. NJ 07458.0 0.0 0.0 Strain (%) © 2011 Pearson Education. storage in a retrieval system.0 delta u 100. or transmission in any form or by any means. Upper Saddle River. Upper Saddle River.0 20.57.00. Inc. scale uf  30 kPa u 30  1  0.5 0.56. predict the pore pressure versus strain response of the clay. or likewise. mechanical.0 80. Inc.. If an LE test were conducted on a sample of Swedish clay identical to that tested in Problem 13. For information regarding permission(s).80 h 150 A f LE  1  q p (LC) u (1 .4 0.0 AC LE 60. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.8 -40. NJ.3)  (%) 60 95 120 135 340 305 280 265 0 -30 -35 -30 120 190 240 270 0 0. What are uf and Af? What is T? SOLUTION: Construct LE-TSP path by assuming 1 constant. Pearson Education.75 400 300 200 ESP TSP (AC) q TSP (LC) 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 p. From diagram. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved..2 0.0 120.25 0. p' 140.

00 100..00 5.00 4. recording. For this special stress path test.00 0.60 352.88 -10.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-58.68 286. P13. .32 195 288 363 99 151 211 147. Pearson Education.32 4.21 until failure occurs. p' © 2011 Pearson Education.W.00 20.32 104.00 172.80 -6.00 0.81  1  3   0.8 276.72 80 92 0 8 2.8A  1 thus.00 200.00 281.00 34. Lovell. the cell pressure will be increased in such a way that 3 = 0.00 137.00 190. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.00 0.. After consolidation at ’vo. All rights reserved.32 48 68. The data shown in Fig. fill in the table below and plot the total and effective stress paths.40 38.  '  80 kPa  'c c  'c     3   1  100  1   100  plotted data   ' c   u  3  A  1  3    0.81 .58 are obtained from several CU tests on a saturated clay which has an OCR of 10 and a preconsolidation stress of 800 kPa. It is assumed that these results are valid for all compression stress paths on this clay.50 5.00 144.00 84. or transmission in any form or by any means.8 76 150 200 250 150 q 100 ESP TSP 50 0 0 50 100 300 350 400 p.2  0.00 120.50 0.00 80.96 152 212.20 -0.00 80. NJ 07458. Inc.00 7. mechanical.00 0. Upper Saddle River.  (%) (13) 1 3 1 3 u A '1 '3 p' p q 0.64 -0. photocopying.) SOLUTION: 1   'c  1 3   'c  3   'c  0.21  1  3   1  0. (After C. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For information regarding permission(s).21  0. Upper Saddle River. or likewise. NJ.08 80 95 80 79 80 86. storage in a retrieval system.28 0.10 0.00 24.00 200.2 219.50 96.60 152. You are going to run a special stress path test on this clay.30 -0. Inc.00 16. electronic.

9) A f  1f  116  200  316 u  0. A series of CU compression tests on a simple clay (Ladd. . that is. 2 2 2 2  '   '3 206. NJ 07458. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.4 2 2    3   '  sin1  1   23. Inc. Upper Saddle River. p’ and u (c) when the axial strain is 4% and (d) at failure. (Eq. electronic. photocopying. or likewise. (After C.58.W. Upper Saddle River.5)  58 f   1  3 f  2(58)  116 For  'c  3f  200. 13. if ’c = 400 kPa. (b) Find ’ and c’. For information regarding permission(s). determine qf. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ.6  90.58)(200)(0.945  v  u  (0.4  90.945)(116)  109.  'c f  (0.6  '1f  316  109. Inc. q. if ’c = 200 kPa. Pearson Education. c '  0  1  3  qf  © 2011 Pearson Education. -3 = 1. Lovell. and p’f. mechanical. All rights reserved. p f  1   258. A special lateral extension stress path test was conducted on this clay in which the decrease in lateral stress was exactly equal to the increase in axial stress.) SOLUTION: 1  1  3  2 At failure  2 f  0. 1964) provided the following test results: (a) In an axial compression test.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-59. storage in a retrieval system. determine 1. or transmission in any form or by any means. p..4 p 'f  1   148.6  206. For this case. recording. pf.4  '3f  200  109.4 1  3 316  200   3 316  200   58..

0 0.60 2.0 0. p'  1 .00 95.0 15.81 97.5 118. 1  3 . 2 2 q  q'  T  sin1  tan12. p' © 2011 Pearson Education.5 78.5 100.00 92.00 119.   '1    1   '3    3  '   '3 p 1 .  '3   '   '1   '3  1  .00 0.00 30.00 104.00 75.   '3  3   '3  u.2 deg 0.2 deg ESP 50.00 1.00 46.0 p.0 150.00 141.00 19. v sin   tan   '  sin1  tan 23.5 22.00 1.0 TSP q 14.00 57.81  (%) (13) '1/'3 u '3 3 '1 1 A p' p q 0.00 0.00 100.00 100. For information regarding permission(s).63 100.00 100. and plot the complete total and effective stress paths for both tests. 1964).00 130.00 52. mechanical. Upper Saddle River. SOLUTION: Assume 'c  100  1  3  ...5 126.00 149.00 100.0 23.30 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. NJ 07458. storage in a retrieval system.00 104.5 26.0 0.0 50.4 A f  0.22   14.00 12.00 0.0 28.00 0.00 2.7.77 0.00 120. 2 1   '1 u A ac  u .00 84.00 4. Inc. All rights reserved. Pearson Education. electronic.0 66.64 0. . Upper Saddle River.00 40. NJ. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.00 52.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-60. or likewise.0 100.00 149. Figure P13.0 115.50 29. recording.00 1.0 134.00 45.00 144.00 38.2   25.0 112. Make the appropriate calculations. Inc. photocopying.0 100.0 2. What are the Mohr–Coulomb strength parameters? Determine Af for each test.00 100. or transmission in any form or by any means.60 shows normalized data from an axial compression (AC) triaxial test and a lateral compression (LC) triaxial test on saturated simple clay (Ladd.

while the other was failed by axial extension (AE). recording. The normalized stress-strain and pore pressure strain data for both tests is shown in Fig.2)  12.   (0. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River.38 f   1  3 f  2(12.15  10.2.63.41.   (0.2)  12.0.85.57)  5.65)(31. SOLUTION: 1  1  3  2 Initial  on system  3A1:  'vc  30.4 For  'hc   '3f  20.5)(10. or likewise. (b) Determine ’ and T in both compression and extension. and effective stress paths for both tests. mechanical.41)(30.65)(30. total-uo.2)(31)  6. .63  10.4  20. Pearson Education.. electronic.  'vc f  (0.425 At failure for Test 3A1 f  0.5)(10. (c) Calculate the Skempton pore pressure parameter A at failure for both tests. Inc.75 u  0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.  'hc  (0. Upper Saddle River.29)(30.63  44.  '1f  24.76 For  'hc   '3f  19.57. sketch the total.1  '  sin1  tan    25.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-61. One specimen was loaded in axial compression (AC).0)  20. at max .2)  19.15 Initial  on system 3A1:  1  3   30.2 f   1  3 f  2( 6.  'hc  (0. Two specimens of a soft clay from the Skå-Edeby test field in Sweden were reconsolidated to their initial in situ effective stress conditions and then sheared to failure. All rights reserved.382)  24.15. P13. (a) On a p–q diagram. Inc.63 3A2 :  'vc  31. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. NJ.2.  '1f  12.285 3A2 :  1  3   31.39 u  0.62 (for test 3A1) v 44. For information regarding permission(s).61 (after Zimmie.05 (from plot)  'vc u  (0.76 At failure for Test 3A2 f  0.85)  5.15  7. at max .2  19.05)(31)  8.  'vc f  ( 0.2)  8.76  19. photocopying.2 From plots:  '  28   23    '  sin1  tan    32. Pertinent specimen data is given in the accompanying table.1 © 2011 Pearson Education. storage in a retrieval system.0  20.76   0.76 Af  u 8. or transmission in any form or by any means. 1973).4  30..29 (from plot)  'vc u  (0.

77 60.00 20.25 9.04 8. storage in a retrieval system.56 42.76 29.63 19.00 0. NJ.00 70.15 0.00 0..00 p.75 1.76 29. Upper Saddle River. . electronic.15 45.90 35.48 12.50 19.00 0.13 7.64 39.02 6.77 24. photocopying.38 44.3A1 10.00 0.00 30.63 0.88 29.33 0.00 30.3A1 20.26 40.64 59.38 0.TSP 0.90 34.13 39. mechanical.26 60.20 29.29 10.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-61 continued.00 0. recording. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.93 22. p' © 2011 Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means.15 8. Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.76 26.41 0.24 0.39 19.63 19.58 44.97 11.60 31. Upper Saddle River.90 55.00 0.27 14.00 40.39 24.  (%) 'vc u/s'vc (1 . Inc. All rights reserved.10 0.76 0. or likewise.95 24.63 19.00 q ESP .78 28.09 0.00 50. Inc.11 32.3) '1 '3 u A 1 3 p p' q p .50 0.25 0.20 0.74 53.63 22.. NJ 07458.67 27.63 19.17 0.76 49.01 5.00 (T-uo)SP .60 50.15 19.90 37.00 3.19 0.27 0. For information regarding permission(s).65 25.3A1 TSP .00 10.

7 and that the average value of the A parameter before failure is 0.  z  v  135 kPa (at center of clay layer) At the center of the clay layer: 'vo  (2)(1.23 531.83 171.55 343.2 79.81)  274.9 312.75 73.8 FS  ff 2000   9.5 302.8 v u '1 1 '3 3 p' p q p . assume Af = 0.81 'vo  268.00 98.30 408.7 587. Pearson Education.00 54. or likewise.98 470.1 550.1 624.78 134. Inc.0 476.5 401.6(0. For factor of safety estimate.03 716.60 673.9 (at center of clay layer.5 275.80 501.28 629. All rights reserved.. photocopying.0 Refer to tabulated values and plots. NJ 07458.30 159. Upper Saddle River. Assume that Ko at the site is 0.uo 0.5 349.60 318. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.7)  188.00 135. At full load. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.98 575.7 201. For the oil tank problem in Chapter 10 (Problem 10.1 67.16).68 u  Av  h .30 201.6   '1  '3  268. recording.33v ) for full tank: u  (0. For information regarding permission(s). Upper Saddle River. f   1  3   100.7)  (18)(0. electronic.00 50.5.1 675.81)  (10)(0. or transmission in any form or by any means. total-uo. and estimate the factor of safety against failure.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-63.00 0.9 85.00 36.50 268. which is not the most critical location) f 201.09 uo  (28)(1)(9. plot the complete total. assume cu = 2000 psf.5: for r = 45 m and z = 30 m. Make reasonable estimates of the strength parameters. p' © 2011 Pearson Education.48 201. storage in a retrieval system.2 100.80 184.03 257. Inc.5 75..4)(135)  45  99. mechanical. .60 368.7 276.00 100.9 92.u 100 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 p. NJ. and effective stress paths due to construction and filling of the tank for an element under the centerline of the tank and at the midpoint of the clay layer.3 300 ESP TSP q 200 TSP .9(2)  201.28 776. (assume h  0.4.94)  9. 10.60 543.60 403. SOLUTION: From Fig.5 239.

99 109.54 0. or likewise.56 53.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-64.15 14. .8? Plot a graph of factor of safety versus height of the embankment. For factor of safety estimate.81)  39.6 22.00 0. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.1 4.52 34. H H v u '1 1 '3 3 q  cu FS 0.6 49.0 0. Inc.32 99. recording.70 1.0 0. Pearson Education.40 18. All rights reserved.6 uo  (4)(1)(9.00 94..5 1.54 63.75 27.6 24.4 and 13.64 24. 13.61 24.99 0.84 78.40 70.66 20.1 45. K o  0.0 2.87 148.5 2.50 2.2 45.0 FS © 2011 Pearson Education.0 1.17 4. storage in a retrieval system.1 1.1 45.81 70. FS  ff f  c  7.8) see plot for distribution of FS vs.9 z  18. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.80 25.24 u  Av  h . (assume h  0.8 24.5 H 2. I  0.00 42.33v ) Refer to tabulated values and plots.99 18.81 46.35 50.00 18.  '  23 (from Ex.54H (at center of clay layer) At the center of the clay layer: 'vo  24  '3  K o 'v . NJ.00 12.0 1.35 74.5 1.0 45. electronic.1 45. or transmission in any form or by any means.55 95..88 1.6 31.   c ' v ' tan  '. mechanical.0 9. What is the maximum safe height of the embankment for Examples 13. For information regarding permission(s). SOLUTION: z  I v  I(2.5 0.00 1.91 31.67 51.45 0.72 140. Inc.8 12. NJ 07458. photocopying.51 15.1)(9.81)H.50 2.92 3. Upper Saddle River.0 0. Upper Saddle River.1 45.

280. Inc. NJ 07458. photocopying. Find Af. determine the corresponding u and v.64 deg © 2011 Pearson Education.q diagram. SOLUTION: A ae  1  Kf  u  v  'h  0. The strength ratio was -0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. recording.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-67.04  '  45  Plot k lines on p. electronic.28)    tan1    60. All rights reserved. storage in a retrieval system. NJ. A ae  1  u 45  1  0.64  1  ( 0. Inc. say q = 40.5 deg. Note.72  v 160 p. A CU extension test was performed on a normally consolidated specimen using axial extension. or transmission in any form or by any means. or likewise. Upper Saddle River. ’ = 26. For information regarding permission(s).28  'v tan   1 K 1 K   1  ( 0. Upper Saddle River. and the effective failure angle. mechanical.. p' 0 0 40 80 120 160 -40 q 31.. At some selected value of q. v decreases and h is constant in AE test. . Pearson Education.28)  '   '  37 2 sin  '  tan  '   '  tan1  sin 37   31.04 deg -80 -120 60.

Determine the Hvorslev shear strength parameters ’e.0 530.) SOLUTION: Tabulate data using given data and develop consolidation plot (e vs.0 600..0 330.77 Continued on next page.0 0.0 200.8)  0.45) 1  sin(3.0 200.0 400.0 400.8)  'e  3.41) sin'e  tan 3 tan(3. 3  3. '). write to: Rights and Permissions Department.50 0.0 200. 1976. Upper Saddle River.42) c'e   'e c 3 1  sin  'e  cos  'e   'e (0.42 0.0 100.0 240.0 200.6)  0. All rights reserved.935 400.0 400.0 300.855 0.0 100. then rebounded to obtain the OCRs shown below. 13. © 2011 Pearson Education. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.0 400.965 0. electronic.900 1200. The following data was obtained from CD direct shear tests on NC and OC specimens of a low plasticity clay.6 (Eq. For information regarding permission(s).0 100.0 700.0 1.070 0.42 'e c'e  0.0 0.61 0.0 200.0 400.6)  cos(3.0 200. Develop plot similar to Fig.0 330.0 800.0 230. Upper Saddle River. The OC specimens were originally consolidated to 600 kPa. storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by any means.50 0. From plot: c 3  0.8 (Eq. 13. Inc.42 'e  c'e 0.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-68. recording.0 300.45.0 165. photocopying. .0 115.42  'e  'e OCR 'c f ('1'3) ef '1 '3 'e ('1'3)/2'e '3/'e 1 1 200.00 1 3 6 2 600.0 330.84. 13.0 300.50 0. and the Hvorslev coefficient K (After Perloff and Baron.0 600.923 0. per Bishop and Henkel (1962).00 0. NJ. mechanical. Inc.48 0.00 1.. or likewise. Pearson Education.0 0. NJ 07458.0 200.42 'e   0.0623  1  tan 3 1  tan(3.50 1. ce.0 600.51 1.0 390.

20 0.050 e 1. or likewise.'3)/2'e 0. storage in a retrieval system. NJ 07458.850 0. mechanical.80 ('1 . Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s).Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 Problem 13-68 continued.00 0. .60 0.40 3 = 3. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Upper Saddle River.20 '3/'e 1.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.40 0. Pearson Education. All rights reserved. Inc.00 ' © 2011 Pearson Education.8 deg c3 = 0.100 1. Inc. or transmission in any form or by any means.80 1.800 100.950 0. 0.000 0.900 0.00 1. NJ. recording. electronic..45 NC OC 0.20 0. photocopying.60 0.00 0.

6% Gs 2. 13.75)(1)   100%  27.70 (b) CD test: '1f  400.70 © 2011 Pearson Education.93)  1  3 f  100 kPa e f  0. Inc.7)  (3)(18. Undisturbed piston samples of grey silty Chicago clay were obtained from a depth of -9 m as shown in the soil profile in Fig. Estimate the compressive strength of this specimen. or transmission in any form or by any means.93.81)  (3)(18. (b) A companion specimen of the same clay was also consolidated to 300 kPa. electronic. then it was sheared undrained (CU test). 13. P13. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. but then it was sheared drained (CD test).80 wf   eS (0. Unconfined compression (UCC) tests on adjacent specimens from that depth had an average unconfined compressive strength of about 100 kPa. (d) Estimate ’ and T for the two specimens.97. e f  0. .9  9. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 'vo  (3)(19. (a) An additional specimen was trimmed and consolidated hydrostatically in a triaxial cell to 300 kPa. (c) Estimate the water content at failure for both the CD and CU triaxial specimens. or likewise. NJ 07458. Upper Saddle River.70b.. For information regarding permission(s).75  1  3 f    '1  '3 f  160  wf  kPa eS (0. P13. NJ. SOLUTION: An approximate solution can be obtained using the Jurgenson-Rutledge hypothesis as described beginning on page 716. for laboratory testing.s 13. storage in a retrieval system. and the results of the consolidation test are shown in Fig.8% Gs 2. Inc. All rights reserved.81)  113. recording. Pearson Education. Estimate the compressive strength of this specimen.98 for examples of the process. photocopying.70a. Different types of strength tests as well as a consolidation test were conducted. Refer to Fig..9  9.64 'c  'vo  virgin compression range is valid for these conditions (a) CU test: From line approximately parallel to the compression curve (line B in Fig. Upper Saddle River. and 13.8)(1)   100%  29. mechanical.Advanced Topics in Shear Strength of Soils and Rocks Chapter 13 13-70.