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Law

Enforcement
Selection

Research Summaries
Michael G. Aamodt

Law Enforcement Selection: Research Summaries
Copyright © 2004 Michael G. Aamodt
All rights reserved
Police Executive Research Forum
Washington, D.C.
USA · 2004
ISBN: 1-878734-85-7

Introduction
Ten years ago, I began a quest to find the relevant research conducted on law enforcement
selection and then conduct a series of meta-analyses (quantitative reviews) to determine the validity
of methods used to select law enforcement personnel. Though the project took longer than
anticipated, it is now nearing completion. The outcome of the project is a set of three books, two of
which are completed and a third which should be ready within a year. The first book, Research in
Law Enforcement Selection, contains the results of the meta-analyses on the various methods used to
select law enforcement personnel and was published in July, 2004 by BrownWalker Press
(www.BrownWalker.com). This book, Law Enforcement Selection: Research Summaries, contains
summaries of the over 300 studies used to conduct the meta-analyses. A PDF version of this book
can be obtained without cost from my website (www.radford.edu/~mamodt/riles.htm) or from the
Police Executive Research Forum website (www.policeforum.org). The book in progress, Hiring
Law Enforcement Personnel, is an applied, non-technical guide to the best hiring practices.
This book provides a reference source for individuals interested in law enforcement
selection. It contains statistical summaries of over 300 theses, dissertations, journal articles, and
conference presentations that have investigated the validity of methods used to select law
enforcement personnel. These methods include education requirements, cognitive ability,
background variables (e.g., military experience), personality tests, assessment centers, and
interviews. The aim of the book is to include enough information about a study that the reader will
not need to consult the original source—an advantage when many of the original sources such as
theses and dissertations can be difficult to obtain. Each summary contains complete citation
information as well as information about the sample, the predictors and criteria used in the study,
and the essential findings of the study.
If I have done my job properly, summaries of all journal articles, theses, and dissertations
relevant to this topic from 1970–2003 are in this book. To find studies relevant to this project,
studies older than 1970 and more recent than June, 2003 were included when found but inclusion
outside of the years 1970-2003 would not be considered exhaustive. To find relevant studies, the
following sources were used:
ƒ Dissertation Abstracts Online was used to search for relevant dissertations. Interlibrary loan
was used to obtain most of the dissertations. When dissertations could not be loaned, they
were purchased from the University of Michigan dissertation service.
ƒ WorldCat was used to search for relevant master’s theses, dissertations, and books.
WorldCat is a listing of books contained in many libraries throughout the world and was the
single best source for finding relevant master’s theses.
ƒ PsycInfo, InfoTrac OneFile, ArticleFirst, ERIC, Periodicals Contents Index, Factiva, LexisNexis, and Criminal Justice Abstracts were used to search for relevant journal articles and
other periodicals.
ƒ Hand searches of the Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, Journal of Criminal
Justice, Journal of Police Science and Administration, Police Quarterly, and Public
Personnel Management.
ƒ Reference lists from journal articles, theses, and dissertations were used to identify other
relevant material.
Keywords used to search in electronic databases included combinations of occupational terms
(e.g., police, law enforcement, sheriff) with predictors (e.g., education, personality, MMPI, CPI,

cognitive ability, IQ, military), methods (e.g., validity, relationship, predicting), and criteria (e.g.,
academy, performance, grades, commendations, discipline)
The search for documents finally stopped when computer searches failed to yield new
sources and no new sources from reference lists appeared. To be included in this book, a study had
to be an empirical investigation of the validity of a selection method applied to a law enforcement
sample and had to include data. There were hundreds of articles on the topic of police selection that
did not include data and these were not summarized.
For many of the studies, the statistics reported in the article or dissertation were converted
from such statistics as chi-squares, t-tests, and F values into correlations (r) so that they would be
easier for the reader to interpret. The formulas listed in Wolf (1986, p. 35) were used to convert a
variety of statistics into correlations. When such conversions were made, they were noted in the
summary. Some dissertations included raw data and when necessary, these data were entered into
the computer and reanalyzed to provide relevant information.
My plan is to periodically update this book to include new research. If you know of a study
that I did not include, please feel free to email me or send me a copy of the study so that it can be
included in future editions. If you are the author of a study included in this book and do not want
that study included, let me know and it will be removed in future editions. My contact information
is:
Dr. Mike Aamodt
Department of Psychology
Radford University
Radford, VA 24142-6946
(540) 831-5513
maamodt@radford.edu
When citing this book, please use the following:
Aamodt, M. G. (2004). Law enforcement selection: Research summaries. Washington, D.C.: Police
Executive Research Forum.
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank my wife Bobbie and son Josh for their support in working on this 10year project. My guess is if they never hear the words “meta-analysis” or “police selection” again
they wouldn’t complain. I would like to also thank Bud Bennett and his interlibrary loan staff at
Radford University. Bud’s hard work and patience in getting other libraries to send dissertations,
theses, and articles is much appreciated and this project could not have been completed without his
help. Finally I would like to thank my colleagues in the Society for Police and Criminal Psychology
for their support and encouragement throughout this project and to Radford University for granting
me a one-semester sabbatical to finish the book.
References
Aamodt, M. G. (2004). Research in law enforcement selection. Boca Raton, FL:
BrownWalker Press. (ISBN 1-58112-428-7)
Wolf, F. M. (1986). Meta-analyses: Quantitative methods for research synthesis.
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

The Prediction of Use of Deadly Force by Police Officers in Simulated Field
Situations
Rebecca Leslie Aadland
California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Aadland, R. L. (1981). The prediction of use of deadly force by police officers in simulated field
situations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles.
Essential Finding:
ƒ Study compared officers who used deadly force (n=35), had received complaints about excessive force
(n=34), and who received commendations for using use-of-force restraint (n=35)
ƒ Younger and less experienced officers fired more shots during a shooting simulation
Subjects:
N
Dept.
Gender
Age
Tenure

104
Los Angeles Police Department
100% were men
M = 32.58
M = 8.55 years

Independent Variables
Self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale)
Locus of Control
Androgyny (Bem Sex Role Inventory)
Demographics
Occupational attitudes

Dependent Variables:
Shooting Performance

Findings
Variable
Prior shooting history
Age
Job experience
Military experience
Attitudes toward
Prosocial violence
Department’s shooting policy
Value of job to society
Importance of job to officer
Job’s effect on home life
Job satisfaction
Self-esteem (general)
Self-esteem (job specific)
Androgyny (Bem)
Locus of control

Reliability
Internal Test-Retest

.92

.85

.86
.70

.89
.72
1

Total Number
of Shots
- .15
- .21*
- .23*
- .05

Number of Out-ofPolicy Shots
.04
- .04
- .05
- .08

- .30*
.02
.17
- .05
- .04
.10
.07
- .05
.04
.01

- .21*
- .25*
.02
- .07
.04
.03
.08
.04
.01
- .04

Aadland (1981) continued

Commendation

Complaint

Shooting

Total Group

Variable

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

Mean

SD

Age
Job experience
Military experience (years)
Attitudes toward
Prosocial violence
Department’s shooting
policy
Value of job to society
Importance of job to officer
Job’s effect on home life
Job satisfaction
Self-esteem (general)
Self-esteem (job specific)
Androgyny (Bem)
Locus of control

32.71
7.89
2.80

5.43
4.11
3.17

33.00
8.91
3.51

4.27
3.43
3.71

32.00
8.85
2.15

3.71
3.70
2.31

32.58
8.55
2.83

4.51
3.75
3.14

2.43
5.71

1.46
2.42

2.40
6.03

1.26
2.38

2.53
5.38

1.52
2.34

2.45
5.71

1.41
2.37

1.60
13.06
9.31
5.43
35.94
2.40
21.71
6.77

0.98
2.90
2.34
2.63
2.90
1.35
12.24
3.99

1.91
14.54
9.14
6.20
35.71
2.26
19.89
7.49

1.01
2.65
3.10
2.39
3.20
1.24
14.5
3.74

1.62
12.71
9.74
5.15
36.24
2.18
18.32
6.50

1.21
3.32
2.67
2.58
2.72
0.94
15.48
3.77

1.71
13.44
9.39
5.60
35.96
2.28
19.99
6.92

1.07
3.04
2.70
2.55
2.93
1.19
14.06
3.82

2

______________________________________________________________________________

Relationship Between Education Level and Cadet Performance
in a Police Academy
Michael G. Aamodt
Radford University
William Flink
Central Shenandoah Regional Criminal Justice Training Academy
_____________________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Aamodt, M. G., & Flink, W. (2001). Relationship between educational level and cadet performance in a
police academy. Applied HRM Research, 6(1), 75-76.
Essential Findings:
• Education was significantly correlated with academy performance
Sample
N
Gender
Race

301 cadets attending a regional law enforcement academy serving approximately 50 small
to moderate law enforcement agencies in Virginia
89% were men, 11% were women
Approximately 95% were White

Predictor Information
The predictor in the study was the cadets’ level of education. Education was coded in three ways. The first was
the number of years of education. For example, a high school graduate would receive a code of 12, a person with an
associate’s degree a code of 14, and a person with a bachelor’s degree a code of 16. The second approach coded
education on the basis of degree type. The coding for this approach is as follows:
1 = GED
2 = High School Diploma
3 = Some college, but no college degree
4 = Associate’s degree
5 = Associate’s degree and current work toward a bachelor’s degree
6 = Bachelor’s degree
7 = Master’s degree
The third approach coded education based on the receipt of a college degree. Degree codes 1-3 were coded as 0 and
degree codes 4-7 were coded as 1.
Criterion Information
The criterion measure was the average of 20 tests taken during the 16 weeks the cadets were in the academy.
The internal reliability of the exams was .90. Because the average GPAs ranged from 88.3 to 95.5 across the 10 academy
classes (overall average was 92.3), cadet grades in each class were standardized by subtracting the cadet’s average from
the class average and dividing by the class standard deviation.

3

Findings
Correlations with Academy Performance
Predictor
Education
Years of school
Education level
College degree (0=no, 1=yes)
Criminal justice major (0=no, 1=yes)
Sex (1=male, 2=female)

Raw Academy GPA

Standardized Academy GPA

.20*
.17*
.15*
- .05
- .04

.34*
.32*
.31*
- .04
.03

Mean GPA by Education Level
Education level
GED
High school diploma
Some college
Associate’s degree
Associate’s degree +
Bachelor’s degree
Master’s degree

N
0
105
88
24
5
74
5

Raw GPA

Standardized GPA

91.61a
92.22ab
92.78ab
93.67ab
93.06b
94.26ab

- .37a
- .07b
.38c
.58c
.38c
.78c

Note: Means in a column are significantly different if they do not share the same superscript

4

__________________________________________________________________ Personality Differences Between Police and Fire Applicants Michael G.51 18.63 18.03 20.98 1.51 0. G.07 .15 -3.14 17.11 12.57 50.79 -2.03 13.85 11.02 .77 54.21 -2.62 52. W.49 .03 53. M.88 58.001 . & Kimbrough.69 16.26 .00 50.81 58.14 46.74 50. Aamodt & Wilson W.07 .23 1.02 50.33 12.92 10.60 .05 11.23 2. Essential Findings: • Police and fire applicants had different personality patterns Subjects: N Dept 91 police applicants and 35 fire fighter applicants Fayetteville.07 54.37 53. W.87 15.40 .78 -2.37 53.69 .41 -1. 1(1).13 .13 -0.70 51.98 17.29 -0. Personality differences between police and fire applicants.01 5 . Kimbrough Radford University & University of Arkansas __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Aamodt.90 .63 53.48 51.99 . Arkansas Police and Fire Departments Independent Variables Job (police or fire) Dependent Variables: MMPI Scores TEI Scores Findings: Test/Scale MMPI L F K Hypochondriasis (Hs) Depression (D) Hysteria (Hy) Psychopathic deviate (Pd) Masculinity-Femininity (Mf) Paranoia (Pa) Psychasthenia (Pt) Schizophrenia (Sc) Hypomania (Ma) Social introversion (Si) Trait Evaluation Index Social orientation Compliance Benevolence Elation Personal adequacy Adaptability Sincerity Masculinity Femininity Mean Test Scores Police Fire t P< 52.89 0. (1985).02 .46 -1..02 .68 58.03 .89 55.001 .56 14.82 .003 .70 -1.15 12. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.79 50.22 51. 10-13.34 53.54 0.25 -0.13 .33 .50 2.19 11.82 1.29 10.85 54.94 1.25 57.01 2.87 -3.005 .45 2.34 50.98 23.22 .12 47.

16 .60* .7% were women White=98.30 . Civil service interview 2.15 (range 20-59) Independent Variables Civil Service Commission Interview Police Department Interview MMPI (pass/fail) Nationally validated police test (Police Career Index) Locally validated police selection battery Cognitive ability (Wonderlic Personnel Test) Findings Correlations among the seven battery components Predictor Mean 1. Arkansas Police Department 90.00 . Physical agility test (0=fail..09 .19 .10 83.22 .13 . W. Development of a police selection battery: A ten year follow-up..00 . Albuquerque.28 .00 .. Essential Findings: • There was little relationship among various predictors of police performance • Applicants who failed the MMPI scored as well as other applicants on all other tests and interviews Subjects: N Dept Gender Race Age 221 police applicants Fayetteville.18 .09 . 1=pass) 21. (1990). & Kimbrough.. M.05 . W. New Mexico. Aamodt & Wilson W. MMPI (0=fail. African American=1.38 (1) 21. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Police and Criminal Psychology.15 .15 . Cognitive ability (Wonderlic) 6.10 6 (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) .3% were men.07 .4% M = 26. Nationally validated police test 4.05 .00 .62* .__________________________________________________________________ Development of a Police Selection Battery: A Ten-Year Follow-Up Michael G.10 . G. 9.38 88. Locally validated police test 5. 1=pass) 7.6%. Kimbrough Radford University & University of Arkansas __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Aamodt. Police department interview 3..

02 .26* Pt 52.01 .15 .20* Hy 54..01 .11 .27* ..02 .09 ..06 .09 .19 .01 .54 .07 .31* .14 ..03 .45 .07 .Aamodt and Kimbrough (1990) continued Correlations between MMPI scales and the seven components of the testing battery MMPI Scale Mean n=173 (1) n=173 (2) n = 84 (3) n=87 (4) n=73 (5) n=173 (6) n = 35 (7) n=173 L 53.10 ...39* ...53* .19* Pa 52.46* .12 .17 .04 ..06 .16 .01 .10 .06 .17 .12 ..22 ..30* .65 .12 .51* .16 .08 .17* .97 .43* .15 .39* .21* .07 .04 .10 ..79 .27* Mf 54.11 Si 46.15 .21* .24* .25* .03 .19* Pd 56.07 .16 .08 .25* .28 .13 .07 .28* .33* Ma 56.13 .06 ..33* .21 .12 .07 F 49..08 .00 .11 ...04 .07 .49 ..20 .38* .02 7 .02 Hs 49..86 ..13 .18* Sc 52.13 .28* D 50.06 .29 .09 .23* .21* K 59...01 ...02 ..13 .08 ...16 ..07 ..06 .09 .

A study of police candidate selection. Paper presented at the 77th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association.__________________________________________________________________ A Study of Police Candidate Selection Aurelius A.47* .6% 14 weeks Independent Variables Civil Service Exam Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Findings Civil Service Test Academy Grades Instructor Rankings Otis Test of Mental Ability Civil Service Test (.9%.62* Academy Grades . A.5%. A. Abbatiello Chicago Civil Service Commission __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Abbatiello. (1969). >12th grade = 23.35* . D. Essential Finding: • Significant correlations between cognitive ability and academy performance Subjects: N Dept. Gender Education Academy length 274 Chicago Police Department 100% % were men < HS diploma=23.25* .35* .25* . Washington.92) .C. HS diploma = 52.47* 8 Instructor Ratings .

07 .. Relationship between the Performance Perspectives Inventory’s Conscientiousness scale and job performance of corporate security guards.08 .13 .11 Thoroughness ..31* Stability .11 Diligence . African American = 77%.01 . & Morrison. A & M Psychometrics.16 .05 .______________________________________________________________________________ Relationship between the Performance Perspectives Inventory's Conscientiousness Scale and Job Performance of Corporate Security Guards Joseph D.80 .12 . Unknown = 1% M = 42 Independent Variable Personality (Performance Perspectives Inventory) Dependent Variable Supervisor ratings of performance Findings Reliability Variable Demographic Variable Performance Alpha Test-retest Education Sex Race Age . D.79 .37** .83 .07 Openness . J.02 .04 .M. (2003).86 .79 ..26 .32* .73 .R. Jr.78 .81 .05 .05 .23 .18 ..89 .07 ..89 .19 .92 .78 .05 Organization . Research. Essential Findings ƒ Conscientiousness was significantly correlated with performance of security guards Sample N Dept Sex Race Age 55 corporate security guards A security company in the southeastern United States 66% were men and 34% were women White = 18%.20 .05 .35* .28* .21 ..88 .35* .33* -.84 .72 .09 .30* .14 .21 . Abraham & John D.26 . J.00 .07 Achievement focus .29* Agreeableness .02 ..28* . Applied H..17 ..16 Initiative . Hispanic = 4%. LLC ______________________________________________________________________________ Citation Abraham.22 .01 .08 .08 .88 .26 . 45-48.85 ... 8(1).17 Extraversion .90 . Morrison. D.17 ..27 -.90 n/a n/a .30* .87 .75 .09 .03 ..13 Overall Job Performance PPI Scale Conscientiousness 9 .

03 ..15 10 .. Gender Race Age Tenure Education 112 Medium sized police department in Florida (324 full-time personnel) 79% were men.28 .25 Task performance (non stress) ..15 .12 ...7 Independent Variables Education (number of years) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: Performance Dimension Work attitude Education . African American = 15. (1988).19 Gender (1=m.26 Years on Force .38 .23 .07 .13 Self-initiated activity ..06 ..08 .29 ...15 .A.. Florida State University..11 Control of conflict .04 .28 .07 .25 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.2 years M = 14.___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Effect of Professionalism on Police Job Performance: An Empirical Assessment Owusu-Ansah Agyapong Florida State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Agyapong.7% M = 33..03 .08 . O.38 Relationship with citizens .37 .3 %.05 .15 ..15 Age .. Essential Finding: Education was negatively correlated with most measures of performance Subjects: N Dept. 2=f) .02 .19 ..05 Task performance (stress) . 2=NW) .09 .07 Race (1=W...07 .22 . The effect of professionalism on police job performance: An empirical assessment....04 . 21% were women White = 84..20 .7 M = 7.22 Problem solving .07 Citizen Commendations ..17 .

J. other=1. African American=15%.5 7 11.5 14 23.4% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Type of complaint Findings: Complaint type Discrimination Ethics Use of force Insubordination Property Substance abuse Traffic Verbal Weapons Other No College Degree N % 15 6.3%.667 11 .1 63 26.3%.3 4 6. An analysis of the relationship between higher education and complaints initiated against police officers. college degree=19.3 4 6.6 35 15. Michigan State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Allen.71. some college=19. Allen.5% HS=27.4 36 15. (1996). ma=1.4 43 18. 8% were women White=83.4 7 3.9 6 2. p < .6 1 1.9 2 3. Unpublished master's thesis.8 8 3.0 2 3. J.__________________________________________________________________ An Analysis of the Relationship Between Higher Education and Complaints Initiated Against Police Officers Joel J.5%.8%. Michigan State University. Jr.0 College Degree N % 7 11.6 Chi-square (9) = 6.6 3 4.0 9 3. Essential Findings: • Education not related to the type of complaints filed Subjects: N Gender Race Education 295 internal affairs investigations 92% were men.4 12 5.9 17 27.

0 12 Total (n=3.6 4.0 2.9 5. Ethnicity.2 5.2 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.6 5. Age.6 5.4 5.0 3.7 4.4 5.5 3. 29% were White Mean = 25 (range = 18 .3 4. California School of Professional Psychology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.1 4.6 4.3 3.5 5.__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship Between Gender.0 4.6 5.4 4.2 6.0 .4 4.2 4.3 5.5 3.7 3.3 4.3 5. and Personality Traits Among Police Officers Dolly A.1 3.0 3.4 3. age.5 4. Allison California School of Professional Psychology __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Allison.5 5. D.0 3. A.1 4.3 3.1 3. Essential Finding: • No substantial gender differences. The relationship between gender.761) 4.5 4.2 5.2 3.2 3.4 5.2 4.5 5.7 5.59) Independent Variables Race and Gender Dependent Variables: Personality (16-PF) Findings: Mean Stanine Scores 16PF Scale Outgoing Bright Emotionally stable Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Tender-minded Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Q1: Experimenting Q2: Self-sufficient Q3: Controlled Q4: Tense White Women (n=129) Men (n=834) 4.3 5.6 3.5 3. ethnicity.1 3.2 3.257 applicants to a large southeastern police department 79.8 5.2 3.7 4.1% were men.1 4.0 3.6 3. and personality traits among police officers.1 3.7 3.3 5.6 6.2 5.3 4.2 6.257) 4.2 6.7 4.3 5. (1991).9 African American Women (n=553) Men (n=1.6 3.8 5.1 6.3 4. some racial and age differences Subjects: N Gender/Race Age 3.1 5.2 4.4 4.4 4.

.56* .. Maxwell University of Minnesota.18 .04 .33* . 2=female) Age Overall performance (1) Handling Conflict (2) Wrestling (3) Lifting and carrying (4) Pushing & pulling (5) General physical fitness (6) Endurance (7) Running (8) Climbing (9) Crawling and balancing (10) (1) _____ .77* .09 .87* .23* . & Scott E.57* .38* .04 (2) _____ .. Nutting.31* .34* .33* .26* .25* .51* ..24* .28* ..51* .35* .73* (10) ____ ..02 .25* .21* .53* ..11 .51* .06 .. Minnesota Police Department 83.37* .20* ..37* .51* ..16 . Journal of Applied Psychology. & Maxwell.40* . Minneapolis Civil Service.18 .12 ..43* .03 .43* .02 ..70* .70* .24* .51* .24* .88* (6) ____ .47* . Landon. S.48* .19* ..12 .43* .47* .34* .09 .32* .17* .50* .41* .20* . SD = 8.20* .43* .18 .29* .02 .4.14 .56* .44* ..38* ..01 .72* .38* ..14 .80* _____________________________________________________________________________ 13 .40* . D.24* .32* . Arvey.16 .19* . M.43* .....34* . E.52* . Steven M. Development of physical ability tests for police officers: A construct validation approach.85* (5) ____ .12 . Essential Findings: • Physical agility demonstrated significant construct and criterion validity Subjects: N Gender Age 115 officers in the Minneapolis.21* .36* .22* .17 .64* ..18 .37* .14 .42* ..59* . 996-1009.26* ...11 . Timothy E. R.. T...53* .23* .49* .11 .32* .44* .40* ..12 .09 .60* .__________________________________________________________________ Development of Physical Ability Tests for Police Officers: A Construct Validation Approach Richard D.43* .24* . Nutting.17 .38* .24* .52* .10 . 16.31* .52* .10 .03 .24* .31* .09 .54* (7) _____ .5% were men.14 . (1992)..13 .56* . 77(6).71* .23* .52* .10 .12 .40* .22* .05 .17 .18 .03 .07 .04 .67* .53* .. & University of Notre Dame __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Arvey.36* .31* .29* .71* (8) _____ .5% were women M = 35.40* .50* . E..11 .33* .67* (9) _____ .34* .50* .06 .72* .18 .47* .31* (3) _____ ..43* .46* . Landon.17 .8 Independent Variables Physical agility Dependent Variables: Overall performance rating Supervisor rating of "control of conflict" Supervisor ratings on specific physical abilities Findings: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Grip strength Dummy wrestling Dummy drag 100-yard dash Obstacle course Sit-ups Bench dips 1-mile run Lean body weight Body fat composition Gender (1=male.20* ..33* .61* .38* .21* .45* (4) _____ . S..10 ..

Gender 95 Los Angeles County Sheriffs Department 100% were men Independent Variables Cognitive ability MMPI Kuder Vocational Preference Record Notes • • Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Article only presented data on the best predictors F values were converted to correlations (r) for the table below Findings: Predictor Criterion Rank Status Cognitive ability . Homa M.25* . (1973). R. Snibbe. Azen. Montgomery University of Southern California & Los Angeles Department of Personnel __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Azen.. P. A longitudinal predictive study of success and performance of law enforcement officers.20* Supervisor Ratings MMPI – Ma . & Montgomery. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability positively related to career advancement • MMPI and Kuder Interest Survey related to other aspects of performance Subjects: N Dept. H. 57(2). & Hugh R.24* 14 . Snibbe..20 .26* MMPI – Hy . 190-192.31* MMPI – D Kuder Mechanical Interest Auto Accidents .. H. S. M.___________________________________________________________________________________________ A Longitudinal Predictive Study of Success and Performance of Law Enforcement Officers Stanley P. Journal of Applied Psychology.

.Pt EPPS Introception Scale . J. & Earle.27* MMPI – Mf Correlations with Field Training Ratings Authoritarian Training Nonauthoritarian Training 42 26 . (1974). 1(2). H. S. American Journal of Community Psychology. R. H. Essential Findings: • Academy peer ratings related to FTO ratings • MMPI Pt scale related to FTO ratings • MMPI Mf scale related to tenure Subjects: N Dept..40* 15 . A longitudinal predictive study of success and performance of law enforcement officers. Hugh Montgomery. Homa Snibbe.. Howard Earle __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Azen. Gender 100 Los Angeles County Sheriffs Department 100% were men Independent Variables MMPI Edwards Personal Preference Schedule Notes • • Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Article only presented data on the best predictors F values were converted to correlations (r) for the table below Findings Tenure N 100 Previous military experience . P.27* Academy peer rankings .. Montgomery.__________________________________________________________________ Predictors of Resignation and Performance of Law Enforcement Officers Stanley Azen. Fabricatore..36* .73* . Joseph Fabricatore. 79-86.22* MMPI ... Snibbe. M. H.

34 7 . Furcon.19 ..13 . Complaints 6. Tenure 4.02 .64 3 . Baehr. D.01 Note: Correlations above the diagonal are for Group 1 (n=175) and correlations below the diagonal are for Group 2 (n=192) 16 .23 .21 . E. E...06 . Froemel University of Chicago __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Baehr. E. all of which were highly significant. Furcon.11 .03 .02 . Paired comparison rating 2.. R.09 . Ernest C. J. J... Unfortunately.10 .07 ..07 . Saunders.04 .23 . C.48 ..48 . Washington.18 . E. Arrests made 8..16 . Professional Psychology. John E.. Essential Findings: • A battery of tests predicted police performance across a variety of criteria Subjects: N Dept Gender Race 367 police officers Chicago Police Department 100% were men 69% were White. D.20 4 .10 .. (1968).22 . M.29 .34 .. & Froemel.27 .42 . 46-57.__________________________________________________________________ Psychological Assessment of Patrolman Qualifications in Relation to Field Performance Melany E.08 ..11 .12 . the report listed the multiple R for each criterion..C. M.27 . Winter..: Law Enforcement Assistance Administration Baehr.01 .04 . (1971). Instead.. E.08 .08 .07 . & Furcon.17 . Disciplinary actions 7. The prediction of performance for Black and White police patrolmen.04 . Performance appraisal 3.28 .66 ..24 .01 5 .09 8 .23 . 31% were African American Independent Variables Dependent Variables Cognitive ability Supervisor ratings – paired comparisons Motivation (Personal History Index) Supervisor ratings – performance appraisal scale Vocational interest (Work Interest Index) Tenure Creativity (Cree Test. Awards 5. Temperament Comparator) Disciplinary actions Number of arrests made Times absent Findings • This study correlated a variety of test scores with performance.19 . E.23 .14 . the publication did not provide the correlations between the individual test scores and performance. Psychological assessment of patrolman qualifications in relation to field performance.05 . Times absent .06 2 . AC Test of Creative Ability) Awards Social insight (Test of Social Insight) Complaints Temperament (EPPS.05 .12 6 .33 .36 . C. • The table below shows the correlations among the eight criteria 1 1. Froemel..08 ..

15* 8. D.53 2.85* 8.08 48 45 59 52 53 55 58 53 53 50 52 55 46 48 46 60 50 51 55 58 53 50 52 53 58 45 48 50 56 39 51 54 48 57 51 38 40 53 47 17 t value Correlation 0.67 . United States International University. (1977). Essential Findings • Successful recruits scored higher on K. E.27* 0.81 . 1 = yes) Findings Note: There appear to be problems with the failed-academy scores on the scales that include a k correction Veteran Officers Sample Characteristics N Age MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Academy Performance Passed Academy Failed Academy 50 50 23. CA) 100% were men 12 weeks (510 hours) Independent Variables MMPI Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) Dependent Variables Passed Academy (0=no.50* 2.07 .74 3.74 . Sc. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Trait Differences Between Successful and Non-Successful Police Recruits at a Typical Police Academy and Veteran Police Officers David Earl Balch United States International University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Balch.33 .63 .22 .12* 1.05 .01 .13 0.98 13.32* 2. Personality trait differences between successful and non-successful police recruits at a typical police academy and veteran police officers.23 . Pt..13 . Hs.33 .10 . Pd.96* 0..85* 10. and Ma scales of MMPI and consistency and achievement scales of the EPPS and lower on F and Mf scales than did recruits who failed the academy Subjects N Department Gender Academy length 50 veteran officers (5-10 years experience) and 100 cadets Rio Hondo Police Academy (Whittier.21 .14 50 25.

33 18.43 16.38 13.37 0.46 0.02 .37* .32 19.Balch (1977) continued Veteran Officers Sample Characteristics N EPPS Scale Consistency Achievement Deference Order Exhibition Autonomy Affiliation Intraception Succorance Dominance Abasement Nurturance Change Endurance Heterosexuality Aggression Academy Performance Passed Academy Failed Academy 50 50 50 12.59 10.90* 0.01 .80 12.80 13.06 12..06 .10 .13 .60 0...00 .93 15.17 1.62 0.34 14.66 12.89 15.86 14.40 12.59 1.04 .06 .41 11.64 12.50 12.01 0.06 .36 10.18 0..20 16.11 22.22* .36 16.02 ..18 15..16 15.25 11.62 12.96 0.46 10.15 16.05 0.98 14.03 .43 13.13 11.68 9.59 14.05 .11 10.50 15.35 0.16 18.77 8.34 17.21* 3.10 ..28 1.50 12.60 15.25 12.48 11.05 15.57 14.14 .55 10.39 16.66 17.64 11.56 18 t value Correlation 2.25 0.11 .

Manuele F. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.28* Maladaptive coping Self-appraisal of competence .30* .36* Education .12 .18 . (1987). & Manuele. & Fordham University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Band. Band & Caroline A. R.45 (range 22-43) Independent Variables Self-esteem (Tennessee Self-Concept Scale) Self-coping efficacy (Self-Coping Inventory) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings Test Performance Ratings Supervisor 1 Supervisor 2 Self-esteem (SE) . Stress and police officer performance: An examination of effective coping behavior.29* Active .19 Flexible .__________________________________________________________________ Stress and Police Officer Performance: An Examination of Effective Coping Behavior Stephen R.25* .32* . C. 5% were Hispanic M = 31.I. Essential Findings: • Self-coping efficacy was significantly correlated with patrol performance Subjects: N Dept Gender Race Age 60 uniformed police officers Urban police department 100% were men 95% were White..19 . 30-42.25 . S.B..38* .. A..23 . 3(3).02 .55* Self-coping efficacy ..50* .01 .41* .52* Productive .15 19 Self-Rating Maladaptive Coping ..

but small..__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship of Personality Styles to Police Job Performance Doreen E. Essential Finding: • Several scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-I) were related at significant..12* .09* . levels to the number of complaints received Subjects: N Gender/Race Experience 365 metropolitan police officers in a southeastern city 88..19* .1% were White Mean tenure = 11.10* .15 68.43 51.47 28. California School of Professional Psychology..14* .18* . The relationship of personality styles to police job performance.32) Independent Variables Personality (MCMI-I) Dependent Variables: Number of complaints Findings MCMI Scale Mean Schizoid Avoidant Dependent Histrionic Narcissistic Antisocial Compulsive Passive aggressive Schizotypal Borderline Paranoid Anxiety Somatoform Hypomanic Dysthymic Alcohol abuse Drug abuse Psychotic thinking Psychotic depression Psychotic delusion 31.61 .00 54.66 37.24 65.82 27..39 60.96 years (range 2. Unpublished doctoral dissertation..10* .04 34. Banks California School of Professional Psychology __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Banks.33 30.79 42.29..20 62.14* .91 51.41 37.79 51.15* .18* .21 63.10* .17* . 58.15* . E. (1988).09 52. D.76 Total Complaints Correlations with Complaints Internal External Complaints Complaints .11* .88 40.64 36...5% were men..09* ..14* .11* ...09* 20 .

4%.8 20.16* 1.4 28. C.3 59.6 .39 0. Essential Findings: • Study tracked the careers for 15 years of 188 police officers who graduated the academy in 1979.6 72. 1.69 3.83 0.30 5.2 M = 13.1 57. 1+) Problems Sustained complaints (0. awards and commendations.04 .9 . 1+) Good Performance Measures Medals awarded (0.2 63.05 . 3=bachelor’s degree) Dependent Variables Use of force.2 84..8 46.9 90.13 ..__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship Between Education and Police Work Performance Carmine R. absenteeism Findings Accidents (0. 1+) Absenteeism Line of duty injuries (0..6 75.2 90. discipline problems. 1+) Total % with zero HS College BS 54.0 85.2 93.4 77.3 84.08 . 2+) Use of Force Measures Use of force incidents (0.11 .84 4. Sample N Gender Age Education 188 police academy graduates 85.01 6.5 years.7 31.6 91.82 4.6 82. 1+) Use of hands/fists incidents (0.78 1.11 .1 56.1 88..6% were men and 73.7 37.1 41.60 Note: Tabular data from the thesis were entered into SAS to compute the correlations for this chart 21 Correlation with Education r Chi-Square .2 46..8 59.01 .02 5. The relationship between education and police work performance.2 .9 80.6 62. 1+) Moderate discipline actions (0.5%.2 30.95 71.9% Independent Variable Education (1=HS.7 68. Results showed few differences between officers with college degrees and officers without college degrees.9 97. 1+) Use of spray incidents (0.1 89.2 86. Baratta University of Baltimore __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Baratta.18* . 1+) Ribbons awarded (0.6 73.4 31. University of Baltimore.4 71.12 68.01 0.01 4.6 88.5 44.6 46.67 45.9 80. 1+) Non-line of duty sick leave (0.2 44.2 75.34 7. 1+) Use of baton incidents (0. HS=41. BS=23..3 92.8 87. some college=36.0 77.3 82.4 42. Unpublished master’s thesis.8 36. 1+) Severe discipline actions (0. (1998).9 .04 0.8 55.4% were white M = 24.8 .03 .6 44.9 26.3 95.2 35..02 2. R. 1+) Light discipline actions (0. 1+) Use of gun incidents (0.9 85.47 28.... 1+) Commendation letters (0.0 44.8 94. 2=some college.9 46.07 .

94 3. Essential Findings: • Education.30* .18 M = 14.92) . and Educational Level Christine Barbas Boston University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Barbas.9%. Cognitive ability 96.94.57 .63 Note: The raw data for the study are contained in Appendix B of the dissertation 22 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.52* .7%. Boston University. A Study to Predict the Performance of Cadets in a Police Academy Using a Modified CLOZE Reading Test.4% M = 28. Reading Education .40 10. a Civil Service Aptitude Test. African American=9.35* 79.69* 3.3% were men. Education 14. C. a Civil Service Aptitude Test. Range = 10-17 16 weeks M = 91. Final academy grade 91. and Educational Level.47 Variable Mean SD 1. (1992).33* .47 Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Education (years) Final grade in the academy Reading (specially developed reading test) Cognitive Ability (locally developed Civil Service Exam) Findings Reading Cognitive Ability Academy Grades 1.41 (.49 4. 12.__________________________________________________________________ A Study to Predict the Performance of Cadets in a Police Academy Using a Modified CLOZE Reading Test. and cognitive ability were significantly related to the final grade in the police academy Subjects: N Gender Race Age Education Academy length Academy GPA 50 87. Asian=1. reading. SD = 3.09 years.04 3.7% were women White=88.09 2.

... C..06 Dealing with the Public .16 . 22(2)..08 ...18 . Essential Finding: • Significant negative correlations between MMPI L.06 .03 .11* . Predictive validation of the MMPI for small-town police officers who fail.. 127-132.. and Ma scales and patrol performance Subjects: N Dept. Pd.__________________________________________________________________ Predictive Validation of the MMPI for Small-Town Officers Who Fail Curt R.11* .09* . Race Gender 600 Various small town departments in Vermont 100% were white 89% were men.15* .02 . (1991)..04 .01 . R.05 .05 .01 ..06 ...02 .09* ..05 .11* .10 ..06 Job Knowledge . Professional Psychology: Research and Practice..03 . Bartol Castleton State College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Bartol.03 .10* ..18* 23 Judgment .02 .04 Responsiveness to Supervision . 11% were women Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Mean Overall Performance ..04 .

. Essential Finding: • Below-average cops had higher Mf scores than average and above average cops.83 28.00 52.41 .. Race Gender Age 102 Various small town departments in Vermont (small < 40.22 46.88 55.33 18.44 54.50 13.76 55.60 58.52 3.92 58.88 19.__________________________________________________________________ Psychological Characteristics of Small-Town Police Officers Curt R.85 52. (1982).20 25.00 20.60 51.88 49.000.13 55.56 51.72 2.33 42 T-Score Raw 24 24 Correlation T-Score 102 46..72 18.33 3.11 16.78 Total Below Average T Score Raw 50.50 21.66 56.64 50.74 21.00 20.34 45.33 48.11 .22 23.4 (range 20-38) Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: MMPI Scale Sample size L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Above Average Raw Patrol Performance Average T Score Raw 48. R.64 12.52 36 3.00 17.00 59.00 54.99 53.000) 100% were white 100% were men Mean = 23.99 56.17 20. Bartol Casteleton State College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Bartol.72 3.28 52.42 21.10 49.13 46.09 .00 24.27 .29 .67 24.94 9.33 15.71 21.90 56.15 .22 52.00 57..44 56.22 60.84 55.40 63.05 11.36 63.32 57.38 19.44 53.57 24.16 3..05 ..80 24.95 17.47 .24 .95 20.63 21.00 53...00 54. C.84 57.46 . 58-63.03 .66 19.70 22.05 9.03 .72 9.78 4.00 27.11 17.5 23. most were < 5.33 60 .80 11.76 57.71 53.33 24.15 49. Subjects: N Dept.33 10.61 17.78 17. Psychological characteristics of small-town police officers.42 24.63 56.05 .10 54. 10(1). Journal of Police Science and Administration.00 52.88 50.05 2..67 24.33 57.71 25.50 46.40 56.96 16.34 54.66 65.66 53.

Bergen. C.00 Ma .08 Hy . Knoras Casteleton State College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Bartol. Volckens.000.000) 100% were White 50% were women.. George T.__________________________________________________________________ Women in Small-Town Policing Curt R. 19(3). 50% were men (men were a matched sample) Mean = 33 Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: MMPI Scale Correlation with Patrol Performance L . Criminal Justice and Behavior. R. Bartol.03 Pd . most were < 5.24* Hs . M.19 F .. Race Gender Age 60 Various small town departments in Vermont (small < 40. Women in small-town policing.00 K . G. Julie S.. & Knoras. & Kathleen M.05 Pa . T. S.. Essential Finding: • K Scale of the MMPI significantly predicted performance of female police officers Subjects: N Dept.03 D . (1992).02 Pt Sc .. Bergen. 240-259. J..13 25 .18 . Volckens. K.02 Si .

07 57.06 .94 48.25 58.36 60.000 3.26 55. Race Gender Military service 44 police officers Various small town departments in Vermont (small < 40.54 .01 2.8% were women 18% had military experience Independent Variables Dependent Variables: MMPI CPI Findings Entire Department MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Pre-test N=96 Mean 51.03 Pre-Post Comparison Sample Pre-Test N=44 Mean 51.67 53.33 53.63 42.13 56.14 48.000) White=70%. Officers Who Left df = 88 t r 2..16 .69 .97 52. 6.79 .02 2.1.34 55.77 . (1991).30* .82 58.14 55.03 .0. The changing cop: A longitudinal study of psychological testing within law enforcement.01 26 Officers Who Left Pre-Test N=46 Mean 55.52 48.67 Post-Test N=44 Mean 48.000.25 54.84 .31 52.91 50.23* 0.59 .0.0.79 .80 54.24 61.21 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.2% were men.__________________________________________________________________ The Changing Cop: A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Testing Within Law Enforcement Alan W.37* 1. Benner Saybrook Institute __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Benner.29* 0. W.41 54.45 .10 .50 .16 1.43 57.003 4.13 49.81 56.28* 1.96 .58 2.87 54.04 0. < .92 57. most were < 5.91 50.33 54. Other=1% 93.11 . Hispanic=7%.93 .43 58.04 3.21 51.2.77 54.91 50.51 .34 .54 46.24 . Essential Finding: • Officer’s scores on several MMPI and CPI scales changed after 12 years • Several MMPI and CPI scales differentiated officers who remained after 12 years from those who left (mostly due to discipline or performance problems) Subjects: N Dept.57 45..65 50.15 56.36 .02 Pre-Post N=44 t-value p.60 57.26 51.08 .50 58.05 .0. Saybrook Institute (now called the Saybrook Graduate School in San Francisco).59 53.51 52.97 .56 .19 .68 3.82 .002 2. Asian=9%.43 57.30 51.34 .84 60.80 53.41 .29* 2.06 2.19 .93 2.06 2. A.82 58. African American=13%.19 1.09 .73 Sample v.49 48.25 56.

15 .29 .04 1.1.22 .19 60.28 .22 53.13 52.17 1.1.00 Post-Test N=43 Mean 54.44 51.04 0.20 .11 60.62 .88 .07 .2.0.30 57.17 .08 2.13 45.36 52.20 58.62 52.13 .24 58.19 2.87 .39 48.61 59.38 55.0. Officers Who Left df = 84 t r 0.76 .21 .75 48.38 .27 45.27* 1.31* 2.00 51.56 55.57 53.73 .57 53.70 47.86 59.70 56.96 .09 .55 52.43 51.43 46.47 53.19 1.42 .91 50.38 53.41 .00 .71 Sample v.60 .22 50.2.96 55.99 .67 0.98 52.89 56.91 54.02 1.07 44.0.18 55.3.75 .10 58.14 .21 Pre-Post Comparison Sample Pre-Test N=43 Mean 56.21 .82 54.39 52.95 58.31 51.83 47.43 .84 .64 56.56 .04 .76 .01 56.55 55.56 48.24 57.29* 2.32 .1.73 56.86 ..96 50.10 .12 .35 55.17 1.24* 0.26 ..16 47.000 .1.02 57.0.62 .57 .83 52.80 .19 0.2.26 53.83 1.78 57.27 .71 .0.11 .21* .16 .25 .29 50.12 54.1.41 .12 1.40 51.87 54.08 50.2.73 .09 0.Benner (1991) continued Entire Department CPI Scale Do Cs Sy Sp Sa Wb Re So Sc To Gi Cm Ac Ai Ie Py Fx Fe Pre-test N=93 Mean 56.1.50 .84 .39 49.24 0.58 50.04 .07 1.87 .32 . < .34 53.32 55.62 27 Officers Who Left Pre-Test N=43 Mean 55.34 57.83 55.01 49.95 53.77 Pre-Post N=43 t-value p.

Value similarity with department 5.69* .04 . how can education and major be correlated? Findings: (1) 1..20 (3) .22* . Beverly Hills.04 .24* .. Criminal justice major 4..34* 28 (4) .. Bennett University of Michigan __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Bennett.12 .13 . R. Charles (Ed) Quantitative Studies in Criminology. The zero-order correlation between education and SES in Table 1 was a -. CA: Sage. Education 3.__________________________________________________________________ The Effects of Education on Police Values and Performance: A Multivariate Analysis of an Explanatory Model Richard R... Essential Findings: • Education was negatively related to performance Subjects: N Dept.07 (5) (6) . Socioeconomic status (2) . 103 Four medium sized southern municipal departments (range 329-1000 sworn personnel) Independent Variables Education Value similarity (Rokeach Value Survey) Notes • • Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (field training) The article included a path-analytic model The coding in the model may have been wrong. In Wellford.22 (which doesn't make sense) but was shown as positive in Table 4. (1978). The effects of education on police values and performance: A multivariate analysis of an explanatory model.. R.14 . Could the same be true of the educational variable? Also.. Field training performance 2.20 .. Reference group affiliation 6.

06 ..05 .19* .29* . & Raymond M. multicollinearity and the MMPI's use in a police officer selection setting.23 .09 . Bernstein.10 .11 MMPI Factor II III IV .05 . I. L. Schoenfeld.. K. Pt..07 .01 .01 . & Costello. and disciplinary days were dichotomized Findings: Criterion Academy score Sick days Disciplinary days Disciplinary actions Citizen complaints Grounded complaints Auto accidents-chargeable Auto accidents-unavoidable Injuries I .13 .18* .15 . M.15 .02 .__________________________________________________________________ Truncated Component Regression. R. Multivariate Behavioral Research.13 ... Ma(-) Factor III (introversion): Si Factor IV: Pa.. Hs.17 .17 .06 .04 . K(-) Factor V: F-K All criteria except for academy score..22* . Truncated component regression. 17..02 . Pd. Lawrence S.17 .03 29 V . Multicollinearity and the MMPI's Use in a Police Officer Selection Setting Ira H.12 . H.00 .06 .25* . Ma Factor II (bipolar): Hy. 99-116. sick days.05 .02 ... MF.09 . S. Schoenfeld.02 .15 ....04 . Pa...18* .. Sc.07 ..04 .33* ..08 .. (1982).13 .06 .19* . L(-). Essential Finding: • MMPI dimensions were significantly correlated with performance Subjects: N 91 Independent Variables MMPI Notes • • Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Academy Performance Factor analysis revealed five MMPI factors Factor I (general pathology): Hs.32* . Costello University of Texas at Arlington and University of Texas at San Antonio __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Bernstein..

07 .18 .. The prediction of police academy performance and on-the-job performance from police recruit screening measures.27* .15 . White 81. Marquette University Essential Findings: • Civil service exam highly correlated with most ratings • Physical agility test negatively correlated with most ratings Subjects: N Race 51 (of 532 applicants. 51 entered academy) Black= 19.09 ...48* ..07 ..05 .05 .26* .37 .02 .39* .39* .05 .22 .90) Physical Agility Test Dependent Variables: Field Training Performance Year 1 Patrol Performance Findings Academy Field Training Ratings Appearance Attitude Ability to learn Self-confidence Willingness to work Job knowledge Work quality Work quantity Reliability Eagerness to lean Median Rating Patrol Performance Ratings Aggressiveness & initiative Ability Conduct Judgment Temperament Appearance Physical condition Reliability Median Rating Civil Service Exam Physical Agility Oral Interview .18 ...23 ..29* ..16 .15 .17 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.6% of cadets and 10..19 .16 .42* ..23 .39* .30 .13 .33* .35* ..13 30 .29* .10 .4% and 89. (1975).7% of applicants.33* .09 .46* .02 ..31* . F.13 .30* ..07 .17 .17 .26* .17 ..35* .31* .45* .15 .36* .11 ..46* .39* .01 .3% respectively Independent Variables Civil Service Exam (α = ...40* .28* .30* .17 .23 .__________________________________________________________________ The Prediction of Police Academy Performance and On-the-Job Performance From Police Recruit Screening Measures Francis David Bertram Marquette University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Bertram. D.

(1985).15 (5) . P.30 ..25 31 .03 .17 (8) (9) . & John A. Scogin. Commendations 5.. 7..04 .32* ..11 .32 .01 . J.02 (4) . Supervisor rating of interpersonal ability 9.__________________________________________________________________ Parameters in the Prediction of Police Officer Performance Larry Beutler. Supervisor rating of technical proficiency Gender (1=male..27* .15 . Gaines University of Arizona College of Medicine __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Beutler. L. Forrest Scogin.27 .24 . Essential Finding: • Significant correlations between MMPI scales and patrol performance Subjects: N Gender Age 65 officers from two college police departments and one urban police department 92.28* .13 ...23 .28 .04 . F. & Gaines. Patricia Kirkish. 2=female) Eysenck lie scale Shipley IQ Bender Gestalt MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si (2) (3) . 324-335..22 . A.02 .18 .06 ... Continuing education 4.39* .8% were women M = 27 Independent Variables MMPI Findings: Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (1) 1. Alan Storm. Force reprimands 3. Kirkish. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.17 ..05 . Referrals for counseling 8.23 . Vehicle reprimands 2.12 . Parameters in the prediction of police officer performance.20 (7) .05 . Grievances 6. Suspensions 7. 16(2)..26* . Storm... A.2% were men.01 (6) .

21 51.91 52. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.64 at the beginning of the interval Independent Variables Time interval Dependent Variables MMPI Score Findings Start of Career Sample Size MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Pa Pt Sc Ma Si MAC 25 48.50 Tenure Still employed At 4 years 11 50. Nussbaum. D.64 62. 503-507.52 58.73 64. L. Meredith University of Arizona College of Medicine __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Beutler.00 61..29 52.36 56. Paul D.76 25.55 57.52 Personality Scores Significant 2 Years Later Difference? 25 49.14 49.76 45.52 51. & Meredith.14 47.82 52.80 50.36 49.88 55.00 53.E.64 58.16 No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes 32 4 Years Later 11 Quit Prior To 4 years 14 51. Essential Finding: • Significant correlations between MMPI scales and patrol performance Subjects: N Department Gender Race Age 25 officers who took the MMPI at the beginning and end of a 2-year interval University of Arizona campus police 100% were men 100% were white M=32.20 44.76 50.60 51.48 22.73 54. 19(5).93 49. E.27 61.00 58.45 51.18 57.91 42.00 52.50 21. & Keith E.91 51. Changing personality patterns of police officers.14 56.76 60.50 56.82 62.20 59.73 60.09 46.91 59.12 50.72 59.88 52. Nussbaum.82 .50 49. P.27 27.27 54.. Beutler. K.71 53.91 55.40 50.00 54.36 58.55 60.28 59.55 42.80 52.__________________________________________________________________ Changing Personality Patterns of Police Officers Larry E.91 23.18 49.36 58. (1988).60 50.

89 6. 2-9.71 3.61 14.17* .” New Zealand Journal of Psychology.41 15.19* .76 13.12 4..02 .. J.45 4.05 15.15 4.05 .07 .43 19.30 23.42 17. (2000). Personality testing and police selection: Utility of the “Big Five.34 74.82 SD 41.07 ..01 33 .65 Correlation with Performance .19 20.12 ..81 19.35 4.97 10. 29(1).39 18.24* .71 123.3%.10 . SD = 4.20 4..30 3.92 Dependent Variable Academy performance M = 83.89 15. 34% were women 82% were white M = 28 Independent Variable Personality (NEO PR-R) Cognitive ability (P1/Pq Higher Test) KR20 = .16 3.16* .94 16. Summary and Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability significantly predicted performance in the academy • Many of the “Big 5” personality factors were related to academy performance • Cognitive ability (11%) and conscientiousness (6%) together accounted for 17% of the variance in academy performance Subjects N Dept Gender Race Age 284 Royal New Zealand Police College 66% were men.07 ...43 8.10 .2% Academy Length = 26 weeks Findings Academy Performance Cognitive Ability Neuroticism Anxiety Angry hostility Depression Self-consciousness Impulsiveness Vulnerability Extraversion Warmth Gregariousness Assertiveness Activity Excitement seeking Positive emotions Openness Fantasy Aesthetics Mean 832..11 .31 5.74 4.61 22.84 1.56 11.89 4.74 111.17* .42 4.33* .16* .73 4.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Testing and Police Selection: Utility of the “Big Five” Jonathan Black New Zealand Police Headquarters __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Black.53 15.02 .43 3.

81 3.Feelings Actions Ideas Values Agreeableness Trust Straightforwardness Altruism Compliance Modesty Tender-mindedness Conscientiousness Competence Order Dutifulness Achievement striving Self-discipline Deliberation 21.05 22.20* .21* .05 .07 .86 4.50 4.09 4.11 .20 124.59 18.49 3.45 18.17 17.18* .24 .06 .02 .58 19.32 4.05 .29 22.93 4.24* .26 3.59 125.48 20.27* .42 20.00 20.06 .47 18.14* 34 .06 .14 20.92 3.98 3.84 23.12 3.66 3.25 3.80 4.01 .60 3.50 18.23* .73 24.22* .62 3.67 21.41 14.16 18.25* .

The MMPI good cop/bad cop profile in identifying dysfunctional law enforcement personnel. & Len Brady Manatee County Sheriff's Office __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Blau. 9(1). Blau. (1993). 2-4. and Ma scales and T scores less than 70 on all other scales indicate "good cop") • Results indicated the good cop/bad cop profile to be useful (r = . John T. H. Pd. Super. H. L.76) Subjects: N Dept Age 30 Manatee County (Florida) Sheriff's Office Range 20-45 years Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance: supervisors chose top and bottom 15 officers Findings: Actual Performance Best Worst MMPI Rating Total No apparent problems (no scales > 60) 9 0 9 Borderline (1-3 scales > 60) 6 6 12 Serious problems (all 4 scales > 50 or any scale > 70) 0 9 9 TOTAL 15 15 30 35 . Hs. Super. & Brady. J. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. Summary and Essential Findings: • Article tested the validity of the good cop/bad cop MMPI profile (T scores less than 60 on Hy. T.__________________________________________________________________ The MMPI Good Cop/Bad Cop Profile in Identifying Dysfunctional Law Enforcement Personnel T.. T..

24 .50 .29 ...02 .20 ..24 .23 .03 ..23 .....17 K Hs .06 . H.14 .....23 .20 . (1982)..10 .07 .32 .43 .48 ....17 . J.12 .09 Pd .07 .09 ..32 ...05 .01 .04 .26 .23 ..07 .43 .10 .16 ..11 ..16 ..64 . Unpublished master’s thesis.....00 ..29 ..25 ... University of Central Florida Essential Findings • Some significant correlations between the MMPI and supervisor weekly ratings during the probationary period Subjects N 45 applicants to a medium police department in Florida 27 newly hired police recruits who completed the academy Academy length 12 weeks Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Group 1: Successfully completed field training Group 2: Supervisor ratings during field training Findings Performance Measure Mean t-score Pass-fail status (n=45) Ratings (n=27) Appearance Knowledge Driving under stress Report writing Performance Dimensions Performance under stress Relationships & attitude General Knowledge Report writing Field performance L 54 ..09 ...31 ... The prediction of police officer performance utilizing the MMPI.21 .__________________________________________________________________ The Prediction of Police Officer Performance Utilizing the MMPI Janet H.13 MMPI Scales Paranoia Depression 52 52 .24 .19 .03 .11 .17 .08 .. Blunt University of Central Florida __________________________________________________________________ Citation Blunt..07 .43 .27 .38 ..15 ...04 .05 36 Ma 57 .14 ..

& John Kohls California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Boehm. 50(10).38) 37 .38) Subjects: N Academy length 219 600 hours (15 weeks) Independent Variables Cognitive ability: Civil Service Exam tapping reading and writing Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Findings Test Category +1 Standard deviation Mean . Police Chief. 28-31. Honey.. R.__________________________________________________________________ Predicting Success in Academy Training: The POST Reading and Writing Test Battery Norman C. N. C. Predicting success in academy training: The POST reading and writing test battery.3 standard deviations Number in top50% of class 26 58 30 5 1 Number in bottom 50% of class 7 32 31 20 9 Note: Data from Table 2 in the article were entered into the computer to compute a correlation coefficient (r = .. J. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability positively related to academy performance (r = . & Kohls. Boehm.1 standard deviation . (1983). Richard Honey.2 standard deviations .

02 .. CA: Defense Personnel Security Research Center.20 .04 . O. Timm BDM Federal Corporation & PERSEREC __________________________________________________________________ Citation Boes.01 .12 .....02 .. (1997).05 .05 . CPI.01 ..09 ..04 .07 ..09* .09 . IPI..04 ..09 .09 .. Callie J.07 ...31* .06 .02 N = 43 .04 .05 N = 194 ..09 .01 ..03 .11 .06 . Chandler.. 1=non violator) MMPI MMPI Scale L F K Hypochrondriasis Depression Hysteria Psychopathic deviate Masculinity-Femininity Paranoia Psychasthenia Schizophrenia Hypomania Social introversion MMPI-R MMPI-2 Developmental Hold Out Full Sample Full Full N = 395 .15 ...00 .04 .. Police integrity: Use of personality measures to identify corruption-prone officers.08 .02 .11 .06 .. Education Cross Validation Sample 292 94% were men M = 30 White=50% Dependent Variables Integrity violations Findings: Correlations with Violator Status (0=violator.... J..11 .06 ..____________________________________________________ Police Integrity: Use of Personality Measures to Identify Corruption-Prone Officers Jennifer O’Connor Boes.11 38 . Chandler.10* . IPI.03 N = 182 .02 .01 ..04 .. J.02 .02 . Monterey.05 with violations (0 = no..00 . Essential Findings • Investigated relationship between personality and integrity violations across a national sample using developmental and hold out samples • No consistent correlations involving the MMPI. H.01 N = 589 . or 16-Pf • Education correlated . C....01 .. CPI 16-PF.05 .32* .01 .06 ...03 .04 .13 . 1 = yes) Subjects N Gender Age Race Developmental Sample 586 91% were men M = 31 White=55% Independent Variables MMPI..24 .08 .05 ..17 ...03 . W.05 ..12 ...02 . & Timm.02 .. & Howard W.07 .

24 ..Boes.11 .19 ..11 ..03 .33* .07 .07* .04 .05 ..12* ... & Timm (1997) continued MMPI MMPI Scale Welsh’s A Welsh’s R Physical malfunctioning Brooding Psychopathic Deviate Pure Non-overlapping Obvious Subtle Authority Problems Paranoia (Obvious) Alcoholism stress Threatened assault Depression Suicidal ideation Obvious Wiggins depression Substance abuse Problematic anger Bizarre sensory exp Imperturbability Mental confusion Sexual concern Somatic symptoms Poor morals Ego inflation Lie purified Inhibition of aggression MMPI-R MMPI-2 Developmental Hold Out Full Sample Full Full N = 395 .10* N = 182 .01 ..17* .08 .16 .01 .02 .11* ..11 .03 .02 .42* .02 .08 ...02 .04 .34* n/a .06 .12* .11 .10* .02 ..13 N = 43 .09 ...19* .06 .02 .03 .19* .07 ..39* ..04 .04 .21* .06 ..03 .08 .22* ....25 ....05 ..26 n/a .01 .17 ...16* .01 ...05 .02 .04 ..04 ..04 ..07 ......32 39 .11* .18* .01 .02 .05 .08 .02 .04 .16 .02 .00 .35* ..03 ...05 .10 ..11* .41* ..03 ..02 .03 ..03 .03 ..01 ..11 .....31 ...18* ..05 . Chandler.11* ..02 .12* .04 .04 ..10 N = 194 .13 .17* ...27 ..04 .01 .08 .07 ..04 .01 .09* .07 .17* ..06 ..24 .04 ......08 .04 n/a .12* .02 .01 .07 ..17* .16 ...21* ..03 ..34* .12 N = 589 ..05 .00 .25* .07 .

03 .05 .05 .08 ..11 .05 ..7 120 46.04 .05 .03 ..20* ..18 .10 .8% 40 49.3 66 48.13 .04 ..09 .03 ...5 2 1 0 N 28 257 418 136 3 1 1 D score .. & Timm (1997) continued CPI .3 137 53.00 .23 ..05 ..02 .11 ...08 ..14 .06 .04 .09 . Chandler.02 .02 . Violators N % 18 64.28* .04 ...00 ..01 .08 .06 .16 .03 .08 ..22* ..D.11 ..06 .7 70 51.22* ...02 .02 Law enforcement Narcissism Optimism Awareness Baucom Femininity .10 .10 .09 .13 .11 .02 ..15* .01 .00 .04 .08 .04 .04 .02 .00 ...08 ..I CPI Scale Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Well-being Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Good impression Communality Ach via conformity Ach via independence Intellectual efficiency Psych mindedness Flexibility Femininity Independence Empathy CPI ..11 .00 .09 .16 .05 .07 .02 .Boes..03 .06 .10 .09 .12 .01 .21* .14 .34* .09 .5 1 0 1 Non-Violators N % 10 35...06 .15 .09 ..04 ..06 .08 .7 212 50.06 .13 .09 .14 ..13* Education Level GED High school diploma Some college Bachelor’s degree Some graduate Master’s degree Ph...19 .00 .03 .2 Developmental Hold out Full Developmental Hold out Full N = 87 N = 49 N = 136 N = 146 N = 78 N = 224 .02 .23* .01 .07 ..14 .3 206 49.2% ...02 .05 ..20 ..05 TOTAL 429 415 844 r = .05 .16 .02 .15 .12 .18 ..17 ..04 .02 .02 .02 .19* .14 .27 .03 .04 .14 .08 .14 .14 .11 .13 .05 ..03 .05 ..01 .10 ...04 .12 .04 .06 .12 .01 ..13 .05 50.18 .

14 .10 .06 ..03 .15 ...06 ...01 ...17 .19 .06 .00 ..20 .00 ..20 .06 .09 .03 .Boes.11 .07 ..09 .13 .08 .03 ... & Timm (1997) continued 16-PF Scale A B C E F G H I L M N O Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 FG FB ADJ TP Warm Abstract Stable Dominant Enthusiastic Conscientious Bold Tender minded Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehension Experimenting Self-sufficiency Lax to socially precise Relaxed to Tense Fake good Fake bad Adjustment Tough poise Developmental N=64 .26* ..03 .20 .10 ...09 ..08 .01 . Chandler.01 .22 ..04 ..03 .17 IPI Scale AL DG TL JD AA GD SA AS HP RT UE FC US LA LO Alcohol use Drug use Trouble with the law Job difficulties Absence abuse Guardedness Substance abuse Antisocial attitudes Hyperactivity Rigid type Unusual experiences Family conflicts Undue suspiciousness Lack of assertiveness Loner 41 .04 ....10 .04 ...11 .08 .09 ...11 .12 ..10 ...05 .14 .10 .24 Hold out N=33 .08 ..02 .....00 ...03 ...15 .10 ....02 .07 .23* .24 .04 .08 .04 ..03 .22 .26 ..11 .05 .04 ..24 .28 .02 .29 .02 .03 .06 ..15 .07 .08 .22 Full Sample N=97 .20 .12 .22 .05 ...07 .17 .13 ..11 ..09 .07 .08 ...06 ......09 .02 .22 ..17 .07 ..03 .02 .12 .28 .04 .32 ..11 .08 ..12 .01 .

Hispanic = 1.13 62.48. marginally suitable. (1991) The MMPI and IPI as predictors of suitability of law enforcement applicants.32 44.17 48.22 44.86 63.60 56.86 52.98 55.__________________________________________________________________ The MMPI and IPI as Predictors of Suitability of Law Enforcement Applicants Randy Borum Florida Institute of Technology __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Borum. Asian=.19 56.65 56. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.85 56.37 54.1% were women White=88.86 50.79 55.8%.84 55.91 42 .02 59.24 58.55 57.8% Subjects: N Gender Race Age 354 applicants for law enforcement positions in Michigan 83.28 65.63 59. Other=.95 43.27 54.6% M = 26.18 54.83 56.08 50.62 56.1%. Florida Institute of Technology.93 49.82 51.63 53.02% and agreement between IPI recommendation and clinical recommendation was 67.49 53.06 52.35 50.1%. Essential Findings: • Study looked at the differences in MMPI and IPI scores of law enforcement applicants considered by psychologists to be suitable. SD = 5.09 56. R.59 54. 16.13.00 61. and unsuitable for police work • Agreement between MMPI recommendation and clinician recommendation was 61.98 64.45 51.3%. Range = 19 to 46 Independent Variables Psychological suitability Dependent Variables: MMPI & IPI scores Findings MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Psychologist’s Judgment of Suitability Suitable (n=206) Marginal (n=91) Unsuitable (n=57) 53.9% were men.56 54. African American=9.

81 50.75 46.9% 7.75 43.92 49.51 45.7% 21.55 44.80 48.8% 7.90 43.6% 43 Correct Classification Rate 61.37 45.14 45.23 48.81 48.Borum (1991) continued IPI Scale Gd Al Dg Dv Jd Tl Aa Sa As Hp Rt Ta Ic Tp An Ph Ob De Lo Ue La Id Us Fc Sc Sp Psychologist’s Judgment of Suitability Suitable (n=206) Marginal (n=91) Unsuitable (n=57) 44.64 50.06 48.22 42.81 47.8% .4% 12.95 45.83 52.69 49.9% 61.43 57.30 45.6% 8.20 45.48 49.02% 67.1% 92.77 47.02 47.08 45.41 44.2% 63.5% 30.43 46.68 45.42 47.41 46.7% 52.65 43.23 54.53 47.37 51.2% 3.37 43.2% 5.93 44.77 46.31 45.83 45.69 48.77 48.33 50.32 47.23 42.8% 1.33 MMPI Predicted Suitable Marginal Unsuitable IPI Predicted Suitable Marginal Unsuitable Psychologist’s Judgment Suitable Marginal Unsuitable 93.90 46.28 54.85 51.18 48.07 47.17 51.8% 2.42 47.79 42.44 46.60 45.52 47.49 46.80 45.02 46.07 44.34 48.82 48.30 54.95 51.97 49.18 47.86 45.7% 80.00 45.40 51.17 46.8% 38.97 45.1% 15.17 44.15 47.04 47.79 44.66 52.63 43.

00 .13 .1%.5%..2%. The impact of higher education on police officer work habits.07 .1%.04 .06 .07). (2003).26 0.__________________________________________________________________ The Impact of Higher Education on Police Officer Work Habits Matthew D.44 M = 12.13 .03 Commendations .05 . Hispanic=3.25 0. Gender Race Age Tenure Education 452 St.22 Accidents .11 .01 . Black=7.. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.18 Correlations with Criteria Education . Bostrom Hamline University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Bostrom.18 0. Paul (MN) Police Department 81.40 0.44 12.05 Absenteeism ..01) Subjects: N Dept.03 . Native American=1. M.37 1.07 . discipline problems (r = ....05) and absenteeism (r = . Bachelors = 28..14 .01 ..3% M = 39. Graduate degree = 4.09 Note: Correlations were obtained by entering tabular data from the dissertation into Excel 44 .03). commendations (r = .5%.07 Discipline . D.16 . Essential Finding: ƒ Very little relationship between education and accidents (r = .10 .7%. 1=minority) Age Tenure 14..59 5. Associates = 49.15 39.9% were men.18% were women White=85.4% Independent Variable Education Dependent Variable (3-year period) Vehicle accidents Discipline Commendations Absenteeism (number of hours missed) Findings Variable Mean Education Accidents Discipline Commendations Days absent Sex (0=male.2%.. Asian=2.. 1.. Hamline University.18 years HS = 15. 1=female) Race (0=white.14 .25 .

271 .87 114.53 Means by Race Race N White African American Hispanic/Latino Asian Native American Accidents Discipline Commendations Sick Leave Hours M SD M SD M SD M SD 385 .403 .65 111.46 93.16 116.Bostrom (2003) Continued Means by Education Level Education Level N High school Accidents Discipline Commendations Sick Leave Hours M SD M SD M SD M SD 74 .81 118.293 .43 45 .530 .625 1.75 144.313 .000 0.99 116.58 119.58 1.13 173.30 35 16 10 6 .09 103.543 0.91 69.26 1.408 2.297 .375 .00 2.487 0.188 .333 0.211 .247 0.567 1.75 99.54 1.343 .403 .44 127.702 .25 Associate’s Bachelor’s Master’s 222 129 19 .43 2.701 0.65 1.408 0.67 109.671 1.457 1.76 1.53 123.55 1.244 .167 0.95 85.167 .535 1.211 .624 1.57 1.700 .697 .31 1.405 .00 1.59 87.527 .419 .38 Total 444 .108 .591 .252 .70 0.57 1.38 1.68 98.38 77.497 .400 .89 125.64 1.

43 58. 94 road deputies) Brevard County (FL) Sheriff's Department 100% were men White=90%.76 49. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.22 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 46 .46 54.93 51. Personality and demographic characteristics of road deputies and correctional officers.53 50.23 50.26 53.81 44.93 58.18 53.53 53. African American=8.38 57.82 50.95 58.7%.65 50.26 58. D.95 55. (1984).25 55.__________________________________________________________________ Personality and Demographic Characteristics of Road Deputies and Correctional Officers Duncan N.84 51.08 50.69 54. Hispanic=1.10 51.56 54. Essential Findings: • Police and fire applicants had different personality patterns Subjects: N Dept Gender Race Age 159 (65 correctional officers. Jr.79 54. Florida Institute of Technology __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Bowen.38 52. Bowen.84 53.87 60.84 54.97 57.57 59.34 53.53 46.66 53.16 61.88 58.3% M = 28 Independent Variables Position Dependent Variables: MMPI Scores Findings (mean T-Scores): ______________________________________________________________________________________ MMPI Scale _______________________ L F K Hypochondriasis Depression Hysteria Psychopathic deviate Masculinity Paranoia Psychasthenia Schizophrenia Hypomania Social introversion Successful Applicants ______________________ Rejected Applicants _______________________ Corrections Officers (n=39) _________ Corrections Officers (n=26) _________ Road Deputies (n=32) _______ 56.56 53.37 51.50 49. N.88 51.03 55.00 49.09 60.54 45.34 Road Deputies (n=62) ________ 57.80 60.92 54.34 51.65 49.83 50. Florida Institute of Technology.40 61.22 49.

intelligence=6.15 . Essential Findings: • MMPI did not predict performance of offices in specialized units (e. tactical anti-crime=22. N.1% were women White=46%. Georgia State University. organized crime=9) Large metropolitan police department 85. T. African American=54% M =34..26 .08 . 1=yes) Education Age Years of police experience Height Note: Correlation with Supervisor Rankings . (1988).14 .13 .9% were men.4 Independent Variables MMPI CAQ Dependent Variables: Supervisor's forced distribution (rankings) Findings: Variable MMPI Scale Hs Pt Sc CAQ Scales E I D6 Demographics Race (1=white. SWAT. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.06 .__________________________________________________________________ Psychological Screening for High-Risk Police Specialization Trudy Nan Boyce Georgia State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Boyce. 2=Black) Sex (1=male. Psychological screening for high-risk police specialization.17 .. Narcotics) Subjects: N Dept Gender Race Age Education 71 (SWAT=12.16 Univariate F's from the tables in the dissertation were converted to the r's in the above table 47 . 2=female) Military experience (0=no.13 . narcotics=18. 14.14 . vice=4.3 M = 15.09 .g.10 .14 .

53 Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Personality (MMPI) Supervisor ratings of performance Hiring status (lateral hire or new hire) Findings ¾ Annual ratings of performance were averaged over the tenure of the officer as 21 of the officers had only one annual rating and 6 of the officers had 6 or 7 annual ratings ¾ Raw scores were converted into T scores and k-corrections added MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Es MAC O-H Performance Scale Hiring status (0=new.51 10.__________________________________________________________________ Improving the Prediction of Police Officer Performance from Screening Information Charles M.00 69.67 15. 13.49 0. 225. 166.95.38 . called the “Performance Scale.19 15.11 57. 386. Essential Findings: • The author found that the combination of 11 of the 556 MMPI items significantly predicted supervisor ratings (items 134. 340. United States International University.18 13.40 40.56 47. 263. (1990).36 57.52 1.61 Subjects: N Gender Race Age Education 67 officers in the Irvine.34 22.76 22.42 48 .40 57.84 54.7.91 17.00 52.54 52.48 58.” was . CA Police Department 86.28 . SD = 1.24 21. M. C..60 69.75 57. SD = 5. 1=lateral) Mean Raw Score 5. 422.32 51.30 16.14 M = 13.37 3.4% were women White=91%.6% were men.67 Mean T Score 54.64 Correlation with Performance (r) . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.42 9. Bozza United States International University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Bozza. 216.25 24. 554) • The reliability of the scale. 414. minority=9% M = 26. Improving the prediction of police officer performance from screening information. 439.

09 .0 5.1 6. 15.08 .4 4. (1991).9% were men.2 4.08 .08 .8 6. other=3.14 .04 .6%..3 5.7 Independent Variables CAQ Hilson Personal Profile Dependent Variables: Performance (paired comparison supervisor ratings) Findings: ______________________________________________________________________ Mean _______ 16-PF Outgoing Bright Calm Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Tender-minded Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Experimenting Self-directed Disciplined Tense Correlation with Performance _________________________ R ______ .13 . Essential Finding: • Neither the CAQ nor the Hilson Personal Profile predicted performance of narcotics detectives and officers Subjects: N Dept. Hispanic=1.03 .01 .05 . Bradford Miami University of Ohio __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Bradford. A.1%. Psychological screening for narcotics officers and detectives.02 .09 .7 6.__________________________________________________________________ Psychological Screening for Narcotics Officers and Detectives Adrienne C.9 5.9 4. Miami University of Ohio.9 6.2 6.04 .3 5.1% were women White=44..13 . Gender Race Age 93 (68 narcotics detectives and 25 narcotics officers) Large southeastern metropolitan police department 84.12 ..1%..3 4.33 5. African American=51.03 49 ...2% M = 34...7 4.6 .1 4. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. C.

9 4..23 .10 .30 ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 50 ..0 4.11 .0 4.10 .4 47.15 .11 .2 43.3 4.7 54.04 ...7 57.3 52.02 .8 48....3 47.02 56.08 .10 .02 .9 .Bradford (continued) Mean _______ CAQ Hypochondriasis Suicidal depression Agitation Anxious depression Low energy depression Guilt and resentment Socially introverted Paranoia Psychopathic deviate Schizophrenia Psychasthenia Psychological inadequacy Hilson Personal Profile CA AH SQ EX PO SE CO SW FE DR PST GO AX Hilson Career Satisfaction Index DN SY DA IS DH EA AG DS RC DJ Correlation with Performance _________________________ R ______ .5 57..9 48.14 .07 .9 52.5 3.08 .7 52.02 ..02 .01 .06 ..06 ..9 6.1 51.7 46.05 .15 59..39 4.5 55.04 .11 .08 .6 49.12 ..45 .2 59.1 .07 ..03 ..8 .1 47.4 54.04 .7 48.4 4..7 5.08 .3 5..08 .14 .8 50.5 3.7 48.04 .16 .3 4.09 .

__________________________________________________________________
Hypervigilance and Cynicism in Police Officers
JoAnne Brewster
James Madison University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Brewster, J. (1996). Hypervigilance and cynicism in police officers. Journal of Police and Criminal
Psychology, 10(4), 7-9.
Essential Findings:
• Significant relationship between cynicism and stress
• No significant relationships between hypervigilance and stress
Subjects:
N
Dept
Gender
Age

39
Small rural police department (45 personnel)
87% were men, 13% were women
M = 36.2 (range 22-28)

Independent Variables
WAIS-R Picture Completion Subscale
MMPI-2 Paranoia and Cynicism scales

Dependent Variables:
Stress (Police Stress Questionnaire)

Findings:
Correlations with Self-Reported Stress
MMPI-2
Paranoia
Cynicism
WAIS-R
Picture completion
Full-Scale IQ
Verbal IQ
Performance IQ
Police Stress Questionnaire
Inherent (I)
External (E)
Personal (P)
Agency (A)
Total (T)

Mean

Inherent

External

Personal

Agency

Total

48.24
55.53

.21

.47*

.40*

.44*

.47*

9.59
99.41
100.28
98.62

51

______________________________________________________________________________

Relationship Between IQ and First-year Overall Performance as a Police
Officer
JoAnne Brewster & Michael Stoloff
James Madison University
______________________________________________________________________________
Citation
Brewster, J., & Stoloff, M. (2003). Relationship between IQ and first-year performance as a police officer.
Applied H.R.M. Research, 8(1), 49-50.
Essential Findings
ƒ IQ correlated significantly with supervisor ratings of performance after one year on the job (r = .38)
Sample
N
Department
Gender
Race
Age
Education

71 new police officers
Two small police departments in Virginia
85% were men, 15% were women
93% Caucasian, 6% African American, 1% Hispanic
M = 26.3, SD = 4.4
M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.5

Independent Variable
Cognitive Ability (WAIS)

Dependent Variable
Supervisor ratings of performance after one year
(3-point scale: 3=exceptional, 2=average,
1=much improvement needed)

Findings
ƒ

Thirty-eight percent of the 71 officers were placed in the Exceptional category by their supervisors,
56% were rated as Average, and 6% were placed in the Much Improvement Needed category.

Correlations between IQ and performance ratings
Test Scores
IQ Scale
Full Scale
Verbal
Performance
Demographic
Years of education
Sex (1=male,

Reliability from Manual

M

SD

Low

High

Test-retest

Internal

106.3
107.0
104.2

10.7
10.8
11.2

84
87
76

128
133
128

.96
.96
.91

.98
.97
.94

Correlation with
overall
performance rating
.38*
.43*
.19
.00
- .02

2=female)

52

__________________________________________________________________
Using the Good Cop/Bad Cop Profile with the MMPI-2
JoAnne Brewster & Michael Stoloff
James Madison University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Brewster, J., & Stoloff, M. L. (1999). Using the good cop/bad cop profile with the MMPI-2. Journal of
Police and Criminal Psychology, 14(2), 29-34.
Essential Findings:
• Tested the validity of a scoring system for the MMPI, called the Good Cop/Bad Cop Profile. With this
system, candidates with T scores greater than 60 on the Hs, Hy, PD, and MA scales or greater than 65 on
any of the four scales would be predicted to have “serious problems.” Candidates with a T score of greater
than 60 on one to three of the scales would be considered borderline.
• In this study, the Good Cop/Bad Cop Profile significantly predicted police performance (r = .44 when data
are entered into SAS, r = .54 when Chi-Square is converted into r)
Subjects:
N
Dept
Gender
Race
Age
Average tenure

39
Small rural police department (45 personnel)
87% were men, 13% were women
92% were white
M = 36.2 (range 22-28)
M = 11.5 years, Range = 2 to 28 years

Independent Variables
MMPI-2

Dependent Variables:
Supervisor ratings of performance

Findings
MMPI-2 Prediction
No apparent problems
Borderline
Serious possible problems
TOTAL

Supervisor Performance Rating
No apparent problems
Borderline
Serious Problems
12
1
1
7
1
0
6
6
5
25
8
6
X2 (4) = 11.21, p < .024

53

Total
14
8
17
39

__________________________________________________________________
Evaluating the Use of the Assessment Center Process for Entry-Level Police
Officer Selection in a Medium Sized Police Agency
Max Bromley
University of South Florida
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Bromley, M. (1996). Evaluating the use of the assessment center process for entry-level police officer
selection in a medium sized police agency. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 10(4), 33-40.
Essential Findings:
• Assessment center ratings not related to probationary performance
• Assessment center ratings significantly related to performance after one year
Subjects:
N
Dept
Gender
Race
Age
Education

94
Ocala (FL) Police Department (198 personnel)
85% were men, 15% were women
White=80%, African American=19%, Hispanic=1%
M = 35 (range 22-53)
hs=85%, aas=3.8%, ba=11.3%

Independent Variables
Assessment Center Scores

Dependent Variables:
Job Performance (after 1 year)

Findings:
Assessment Center Dimension
Decisiveness
Stress tolerance
Interpersonal relationships
Judgment
Perception
Writing skills
Organizing
Oral communication
Adaptability

Correlations with Performance
After One-Year of Service
r
R
.23*
.24*
.24
.27
.31
.34

54

__________________________________________________________________
Acceptable vs. Marginal Police Officers' Psychological Ratings:
A Longitudinal Comparison of Job Performance
Gwendolyn V. Brown
Florida International University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Brown, G. V. (1996). Acceptable vs. marginal police officers' psychological ratings: A longitudinal
comparison of job performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida International University.
Essential Findings:
• No significant performance differences between applicants rated psychologically acceptable and those rated
psychologically marginal.
Subjects:
N
Dept
Gender/Race

233 officers hired between 1987 and 1990
Large department in Florida
82.0% were men, White=18.9%, Black=31.8%, Hispanic=49.4%

Independent Variables
Psychological evaluation

Dependent Variables:
Academy & patrol performance

(MMPI, CPI, Otis-Lennon Ability, Rorschach,
Background questionnaire, clinical interview)

Findings:
__________________________________________________________________________________________

Academy Performance
Academy G.P.A.
Supervisor's rating
Field Training
Average ratings
Final ratings
Probationary Ratings
Average ratings
Final ratings
Annual Evaluations
Year 1
Year 2
Year 3
Year 4

Acceptable
__________

Marginal
__________

n
___

Mean
_____

SD
____

Mean
_____

SD
____

F
___

r
____

221
221

88.35
5.53

2.70
.65

87.62
5.49

3.28
.73

.59*
.11*

.05
.02

219
219

3.08
3.14

.23
.41

3.06
3.10

.24
.55

.04
.05

203
203

3.32
3.47

.31
.44

3.28
3.37

.23
.38

.07
.12

188
188
188
188

3.68
3.76
3.84
3.94

.50
.47
.47
.54

3.65
3.71
3.84
3.88

.44
.50
.53
.55

.03
.05
.00
.11

55

Brown (1996) - page 2

n
___

Acceptable
__________

Marginal
__________

Mean
_____

Mean
_____

SD
____

SD
____

t
____

r
____

Objective Measures
Commendations
199
21.26 12.82 18.52 12.17 1.45
.10
Awards
199
.53
1.31
.45
1.65
.34
.02
Reprimands
199
1.78
1.81
1.74
1.83
.14
.01
Sick hours
199
207.09 148.30 194.40 117.86
.65
.05
Citizen complaints
199
3.53
3.60
3.81
4.05 - .46 - .03
_______________________________________________________________________________
* The F and r values have been adjusted for the covariates of race, sex, education, and age

Percent employed during the 5th year
Yes
Resigned
Terminated
Total

Acceptable
84.0
4.9
11.1
69.5

Marginal
85.9
1.4
12.7
30.5

Total
84.5
3.9
11.6

N
197
9
27
233

56

__________________________________________________________________
Police Brutality, Authoritarianism, and Locus of Control
William R. Burwell
Illinois Institute of Technology
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Burwell, W. R. (1983). Police brutality, authoritarianism, and locus of control. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, Illinois Institute of Technology.
Essential Findings:
• College-educated police officers had an higher external locus of control than lesser educated officers
• Authoritarian (F Scale) scores did not differ on the basis of education or amount of police experience
Subjects:
N
Dept

124
Chicago (IL) Police Department

Independent Variables
Education
Police experience

Dependent Variables:
Authoritarianism
Locus of control

Findings:
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Education
___________________________________

Police Experience
___________________________________________

No
College
______

College
______

Locus of Control

9.39

11.43

.61

10.46

10.36

.00

Authoritarianism

4.10

3.83

- .39

3.86

4.07

- .30

Effect size (d)
___________

< 15 years
_________

> 15 years
_________

effect size (d)
___________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Note: High scores on the locus of control scale indicate an external locus

57

__________________________________________________________________
Effect of College Education on Police Behavior:
Analysis of Complaints and Commendations
Stephen E. Buttolph
East Tennessee State University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation
Buttolph, S. E. (1999). Effect of college education on police behavior: Analysis of complaints and
commendations. Unpublished master’s thesis, East Tennessee State University
Essential Findings
• No relationship between education and complaints or commendations
Sample
N
Sex
Race
Age
Experience
Education

116 officers in a southeast police department in a city of 40,000
91.4% were men, 8.6% were women
96.4% were White
M = 36.4 (range 21 – 65)
M = 10.7 years (range 1-32 years)
HS=33.6%, < 2 years college=12.1%, > 2 years=24.1%, bachelor’s=30.2%

Independent Variables
Education (no B.A. vs B.A. or higher)

Dependent Variables:
Complaints (0, 1+)
Commendations (0, 1+)

Findings

1. Age
2. Education
3. Experience
4. Sex (1=m, 2=f)
5. Race
6. Rank
7. Citizen complaints
8. Department complaints
9. Total complaints
10. Citizen commendations
11. Department commendations

Educ

Exp

Sex

Race

Rank

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

- .23*

.90*
- .28*

- .02
- .07
- .11

.13
- .01
.14
.05

.59*
.00
.59*
- .09
.09

- .11
- .01
- .06
.05
- .19*
- .03

.01
- .02
- .07
.01
- .32*
- .05
.29*

- .07
- .09
.00
.07
- .26*
- .02
.66*
.84*

.02
- .13
.02
.01
.05
.06
.13
.02
.07

.11
.05
.12
- .02
.06
.03
- .09
.06
.02
- .01

Codes: Gender (1=male, 2 = female)
Race (1=Black, 2=white, 3=other)
Education (0 = no degree, 1 = bachelor’s degree)

58

20% recommended with reservations. Essential Findings • Study provided MMPI-2 means for 100 police applicants • 60% were recommended for hire.97 45.09 14.78 years White = 88%.46 48.95 9.22 8. African American = 10%.15 2.56 39. A.40 7. Relationships between MMPI-2 validity scales and NEO PI-R experimental validity scales in police candidates. Caldwell-Andrews University of Kentucky __________________________________________________________________ Citation Caldwell-Andrews.82 7.12 16.20 8.64 8.52 8.71 47.16 6.12 44.50 7.__________________________________________________________________ Relationships Between MMPI-2 Validity Scales and NEO PI-R Experimental Validity Scales in Police Candidates Alison A.60 44. (1994) 166 Officers with 8 years experience Mean SD 50.27 48.05 11. Range 21 to 40 M = 14.22 49.23 49.15 5.37 8. A.32 4.17 46.04 47.24 7.98 50.29 18.38 9.36 49.13 35.10 48.54 50.48 59 Hargrave et al.57 9.39 8.61 2. Hispanic = 2% Findings MMPI Scale Validity & Clinical Scales L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Faking Good Scales Edwards Social Desirability Positive mental health Superlative scale Test-taking defensiveness Positive malingering Other deception Caldwell-Andrews 100 Applicants Mean SD 57.17 5.21 3.88 47.45 47.45 56. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.10 5.34 28.31 .42 8.41 46. 15% were women M = 26.13 7.20 39. (2000).09 2.32 50.73 6.12 7. University of Kentucky.12 51.77 10.09 46.23 6.55 44. and 20% not recommended Subjects N Gender Age Education Race 100 police applicants in Kentucky 85% were men.66 62.86 4.81 6.25 6.

44 .9 50.65 43.30 .61 43.50 54.15 .3 Correlations with Fake-Good Scales MMPI-2 Fake-Good Scales L K Edwards social desirability scale Positive mental health Superlative scale Test-taking defensiveness Positive malingering Other deception Wiggins’ social desirability scale Correlation with NEO PPM .2 50.63 56.20 7.34 .16 .38 49.26 .42 45.65 63.08 7.41 7.40 60 .90 57.90 Schinka (1997) N = 200 Mean SD 8.Caldwell-Andrews (2000) continued NEO Scale Big 5 Dimension Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Validity Scale Positive presentation management Negative presentation management Inconsistency Caldwell-Andrews 100 Applicants Mean SD 37.43 .42 .34 8.

.46* ..2% were women White=60. Sample 2: M = 104.6%.8% were men..01 . Texas Police Department 87.14* .29* .13* 61 . Hispanic=17.10* .32* .19* . 2=nonwhite) Sex (1=male. African American=21.98 960 hours (24 weeks) Independent Variables Education (college hours) Reading Comprehension Test (α = . Texas A&M University.___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Relationship of Reading Comprehension and Educational Achievement Levels to Academy and Field Training Performance of Police Cadets Earl Emil Campa Texas A&M University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Campa. The relationship of reading comprehension and educational achievement levels to academy and field training performance of police cadets...23* .82 Academy Average Firearms Average Driver Average . E.45* .20* . Asian=1.0 %.18* . 2=female) Age Academy academic average Academy driver average Sample 2 Reading comprehension College hours Race (1=white. Gender: Race Education Academy 561 cadets in Sample 1 (HS/GED required) and 260 cadets in Sample 2 (Required to have 60 college hours) Houston.98 FTO Performance . SD=4. 12.. 2=nonwhite) Sex (1=male..31* .15* ..3% Sample 1: M = 24.33* .14* ..35* 88.63.35* .16* .94 104.45* .19* 82. (1993).14* .63 21.36* .18 Sample 2: M=88.. E.20* .43* .50 24. 2=female) Age Academy academic average Academy driver average 17.88) Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Sample 1: M=82.15* Defensive Tactics . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.33* . Essential Finding: • Reading comprehension was significantly related to academy and FTO performance • Education was significantly related to academy performance Subjects: N Dept..01..45* .28* .51* .33* .. SD=7..71 FTO Performance Findings: Mean Sample 1 Reading comprehension College hours Race (1=white.82.2%...

45 48.45 50. & Raza. (1987).80 44. Carpenter & Susan M. 10-17. Mf. N. Subjects N Sex Age 257 applicants to departments in a Southwest state 92.2% were men. 7. B.23 47.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Characteristics of Police Applicants: Comparisons across Subgroups and with Other Populations Bruce N.0. and Ma scales and that applicants to small departments scored higher on Hs and applicants to large departments scored lower on Ma. S.90 48. Essential Findings This article compared MMPI means of men and women applicants and applicants to small.30 62 .70 58. and large police departments. The results indicated that women scored higher on the Pd.95 52..95 55.60 58. Range = 19-60 Independent Variable Sex Dependent Variable MMPI Scores Results: MMPI Means MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Men (n=237) 53. medium.71 54.55 44.60 44.43 Women (n=20) 53. Personality characteristics of police applicants: Comparisons across subgroups and with other populations.80 55.35 47.49 50. M.43 47.8% were women M = 30. 15(1).26 48. Raza University of Tulsa __________________________________________________________________ Citation Carpenter.80 55.52 44.72 48.75 49.95 45.31 49. Journal of Police Science and Administration.53 53.

Performance rating (1) . Physical force allegations 7.05 . Exonerated cases 5....27 .5% Findings: Performance Measure 1. 63(1). R.35 . SD = 15.26 .22 .00 (9) . SD = 14.07 (8) .64 .04 .07 . Commendations and awards 6.16 .21 ..55 .21 .01 . Use of force reports 4.7% were men..26 ..47 . E.06 .71 .05 .71 .3.06 .14 .3.19 .03 .04 .66 .00 Correlations for minorities (n=147) are above the diagonal and correlations for whites (n=795) are below the diagonal 63 ..25 .. Cascio & Enzo R. Journal of Applied Psychology. (1978)..18 .30 .13 . Injuries 8.18 .40 .F.47 .47 ..72 .3% were women White = 83.16 . Essential Finding: • Study looked at the relationship among objective and subjective performance criteria • Minority officers (M = 64.08 (7) . Sex Race 952 Dade County (FL) Public Safety Department 95. & Valenzi.35 .03 .07 (5) . W..03 .27 .00 ..31 .33 .81 .51 .15 .61 .16 .12 (6) .06 (3) . Internal reviews 3. Relations among criteria of police performance.04 (4) .05 .21 .25 . Subjects: N Dept.57 .__________________________________________________________________ Relations among Criteria of Police Performance Wayne F.0).39 . Valenzi Florida International University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Cascio.35 .49 ..69 ..44 .46 .. Personnel complaints 2.. Times sick per year 9.25 ....06 (2) . 22-28.21 .39 .16 .02 . 4..5) received lower supervisor ratings (d = .20) than white officers (M = 67.21 .

24 ..06 .20 .15 .. W..19 .23 .24 ..01 ..12 .05 .__________________________________________________________________ Formal Education and Police Officer Performance Wayne F.19 ..02 .23 .12 .08 ..11 ..17 .19 .15 64 ..12 ....15 .17 ...12 .F....15 .. 5(1).4%...14 .11 .01 ..12 .13 .17 .01 .06 ....40 ..8%..20 .. (1977)..03 .13 .... African American=6.08 ..15 .13 ..13 .13 ... Journal of Police Science and Administration.27 .. some college=36%.06 .15 ...20 .14 .10 ......9% High School=48%. 89-96.07 .09 . Hispanic=5...12 .10 ..09 ...17 . bachelor’s degree=16% Independent Variables Education Cognitive ability (correlates ...15 . Race Education: 940 Dade County (FL) Public Safety Department White=87.28 ..37 with education) Dependent Variables: Police Patrol Performance Findings Correlations with Education White (n=825) Overall performance Injuries Number of injuries Injuries by assault Accidents Number of preventable accidents Number of disciplinary actions Number of exonerated cases Use of Force Number of use of force reports Number of physical force allegations Disciplinary Investigations Number of internal reviews Number of legal investigations Number of cases not sustained Number of unfounded cases Complaints Number of discourtesy allegations Number of personnel complaints Number of false arrest allegations Number of sick times per year Commendations and awards Officer Race Black Hispanic (N=60) (N=55) Total (N=940) Cognitive ability .08 .13 ..09 ...08 .. Cascio Florida International University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Cascio.06 .11 .19 .18 ..05 ... Essential Finding: Education was positively related to performance Subjects: N Dept..04 . Formal education and police officer performance.04 .

28 51. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Pd.48 48.40 54.94 52.98 19. Hispanic=1.84 16.__________________________________________________________________ Urban Police Applicant MMPI Score Differences Due to Employment Classification and Gender Dale Cauthen Oklahoma State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Cauthen.08 49.30 22.28 58. and Hs than did applicants failing the department interview process.06 55.24 48.90 51.58 45.22 11.73 16.99 45.54 23.5% M = 14.69 50.82 24.28 48.72 54.75 20.20 52.24 8.52 53.02 57.91 20.9% were women M = 26 White=73.12 10.17 23.1% were men. D.5%.000) city in the southwest 68.56 20.63 20. African American=20.27 51.56 57.47 61.28 55.96 48. Essential Findings: • Discriminant analysis indicated that applicants passing the interview process scored differently on L.65 60.65 54.32 53.9 years Independent Variables Passed or failed department interview Dependent Variables: MMPI Scores Findings: Mean raw scores MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Passed Interview Process Raw T Score Failed Interview Process Raw T Score Total (n=157) (n=157) (n=314) 4. 31.64 53. (1987).30 18.58 45.44 22.84 17.49 53.98 20. Oklahoma State University.87 5. Subjects: N Gender: Age: Race Education: 479 police applicants in a large (400.64 52. Pa.94 61.28 54.97 8.56 19.78 Note: Raw scores were converted to T scores using the MMPI tables 65 .67 49.52 56. Native American=2.08 50. Urban police applicant MMPI score differences due to employment classification and gender.0%.54 2.76 18.39 50.02 23.36 48.80 51.9%.61 48.72 2.26 53.

07 .58 5.32 87.09 72 . B. Do scores on pre-employment psychological evaluations correlate with final academy scores? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Police and Criminal Psychology. Essential Findings: • Study examined the relationship between academy and probationary performance and scores on a preemployment clinical evaluation that used an IQ test. & Westfried. Texas.97 . Gender: Age: Race Academy 92 state police troopers New Mexico State Police 91% were men. S. Hispanic=32%. and first year job performance ratings with a state police agency. FL.67 2. Native American=5% 16 weeks Independent Variables Clinical evaluation Dependent Variables: Probationary Performance (1-4 scale) Academy Performance Findings Variable Clinical evaluation Academy performance Probationary performance Descriptive Statistics Mean SD 2. (2001). E. Orlando. Cave. (2002)..12 Academy Performance N r 92 . Linkage between pre-employment evaluations. S.18 66 Probationary Performance N r 72 . & Westfried. Subjects: N Dept. Inwald Personality Inventory.. E.20 with academy grades and . Personality Assessment Inventory. and a personal interview. 9% were women M = 27 (range 20-48) White=56%.__________________________________________________________________ Relationship Between Pre-employment Psychological Evaluations and Academy and Probationary Performance Susan B.97 . Austin. • The clinical evaluation correlated . B. academy performance. Cave & Eric Westfried New Mexico State Police __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Cave. Black=6%. background questionnaire. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Police and Criminal Psychology.09 with probationary performance.

H.. Associate’s=15.91 SD Performance 8.52* . Native American=2.__________________________________________________________________ A Study of the Relationship Between Critical Thinking Levels and Job Performance of Police Officers in a Medium Size Police Department in North Carolina Darl H.33* .01 Critical thinking . (1994). Asian=2...14 . some college=39. Hispanic=1.. Gender: Age: Race Education: Academy 189 patrol officers Medium size department in the south (size=250) 83.52 85 .15* .09 Academy score .1%. 1=yes) Critical thinking Age Length of service Gender (1=male.6% were men.5 weeks) Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Education Patrol Performance Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Test (α = . 2=nonwhite) Academy score Patrol performance rating 51.01 . D. BA=21.15* .16* .5%.17* . MA=2.2%.04 . 2=female) Race (1=white.03 Note: Performance ratings were made several years after the officers had been on the job 67 .7%..76) Academy Performance Findings: Mean Education level Criminal justice major (0=no.20* .00 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.4% were women M = 34.10 . Black=23.6% HS=18.23* .1%..5%.07 .01 .8%. North Carolina State University.1% 500 hours (12. Champion North Carolina State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Champion. Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to police performance • No relationship between critical thinking (Watson Glaser) and police performance Subjects: N Dept. 16.8%. A Study of the Relationship Between Critical Thinking Levels and Job Performance of Police Officers in a Medium Size Police Department in North Carolina.20* .61* .8 (range 22-59) White=69..03 .

30% were women 90% were African American M = 33.29 50.99 40. and extraverted than a normative sample. Roosevelt University (Chicago. IL). Personality style of Chicago police officers: A “big five” study. Subjects N Dept Sex Race Age 35 police officers Chicago Police Department 70% were men.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Style of Chicago Police Officers: A “Big Five” Personality Study Aaron D.5 3.6 2. Essential Finding Male officers are less neurotic and open than a normative sample.31 53. neurotic. range = 25-52 Independent Variable Sex Dependent Variable Personality (NEO-PI-R) Findings: Means Scale Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Men Mean SD 42.8 3.27.1 4. Chatman Roosevelt University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Chatman.1 4.2 4.77 52.6 4.67 51.32 Women Mean SD 46.23 68 .6 2. SD = 4.0 3. A. Unpublished master’s thesis. Female officers are less agreeable. D.67 47.1 5.63 38. (2001).91 52.

15 .83 37. Asian=1%. Essential Finding: • Low K and High Ma scores on the MMPI-2 were related to occupational stress Subjects: N Department Gender Race Age 102 new police officers Ontario.31 46.9% were men..09 47. Hispanic=1%.__________________________________________________________________ An Exploration of Stress in Police Officers: A Study of the Predictive Value of Pre-Employment Psychological Measures in the Development of Stress Reactions in a Sample of Ontario Police Officers Jacqueline Ann Cimbura University of Toronto __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Cimbura.34* .50 46.46 47. Canada 55.09 .00 42.07 .30* .08 . Other=1% M = 27.67 51. African American=2%. Unpublished master's thesis.10 .52 Occupational Stress Psychological Strain ... (1999).73 57.05 . 44..7. SD = 3.. Range = 22-40 Independent Variables Personality (MMPI-2) Dependent Variables Stress (Occupational Roles Questionnaire) Stress (Psychological Strain Questionnaire) Findings: Correlations MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si R (Repression) A (Anxiety) Mean 61. An exploration of stress in police officers: A study of the predictive value of preemployment psychological measures in the development of stress reactions in a sample of Ontario police officers. A.09 .29 43.88 42. University of Toronto.07 46.08 69 .13 .1% were women White=94%..38* .81 50. J.

University of Cincinnati. University of Cincinnati __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Clopton. Gender: 55 (27 recruited in 1964 and 28 in 1965) Cincinnati.04 .07 ..03 1965 Recruit Group (n=28) Supervisor Objective Academy Ratings Activity Score .. cognitive ability..18 . Rorschach.21 . 100% were men Independent Variables Cognitive ability (AGCT) Dependent Variables: Supervisor Ratings of Patrol Performance (year 5) Objective activity data (year 5) Academy performance (22-week academy) Findings: 1964 Recruit Group (n=27) Supervisor Objective Academy ratings activity Score Variable Performance Measure Academy score Objective activity Selection Method Cognitive ability Clues test Foot patrol test Oral interview Clinical judgment MMPI police officer scale Note: Note: .14 . situational interview.43* . Unpublished master's thesis.02 .13 .22 .18 .20 .26 .38* .26 .26 .04 .__________________________________________________________________ Comparison of Ratings and Field Performance Data in Validating Predictions of Patrolman Performance: A Five-Year Follow-up Study Willard Clopton. and foot patrol test scores MMPI Police Officer Scale was developed by Mills but never published 70 .44* .14 .25 .22 ..19 .51* . clues test.D.19 .32 ..06 .. Comparison of ratings and field performance data in validating predictions of patrolman performance: A five-year follow-up study.14 . Jr.01 . (1971).03 .52* .16 ...22 . Ohio P.08 .46* .04 .13 .33 .22 .78* .. Essential Finding: • Cognitive ability predicted performance in the academy and the academy predicted on-the-job performance Subjects: N Dept.28 .69* ..00 Clinical judgment took into consideration MMPI... W.

S. Departmental charges 3. MA: Lexington Books. Lexington.2 %..29 .13 (4) (5) (6) .16 . Chaiken Rand Institute __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Cohen.14 ...41 .08 (2) (3) . some college=21%.20 71 . Career advancement (1) .7%. A.3 for African American officers Independent Variables Background variables Dependent Variables: Performance problems Findings: Education Academy score Field training score IQ (Otis) Civil Service Exam score Employment disciplinary record Age Traffic summonses Military discipline Arrest history Court appearances Background rating Criteria 1..=0..82 .20 .07 .6%. Essential Findings: • Education and cognitive ability negatively related to problem behaviors • Preemployment problem behaviors were correlated with problem behaviors as an officer Subjects: N Dept. black=6.7%.37 .A.37 ...68 .0% M=104.08 . J.11 ..14 .4 for white officers and 102.10 . Harassment 5. Civilian complaints 2. (1973).28 ..2%. Race Education: IQ 1.78 .55% <HS=4. M. BA=1. Hispanic=1.56 . Substantiated complaints 6.13 (7) (8) . Times sick 4.23 .09 . GED=25%.10 .608 male officers New York City Police Department White=92. & Chaiken. Total complaints 7.. HS=47.11 . Awards 8. Police Background Characteristics and Performance..12 ..14 .18 . B.__________________________________________________________________ Police Background Characteristics and Performance Bernard Cohen & Jan M.

some college=34.__________________________________________________________________ Personality and Demographic Characteristics as Predictors of Burnout in Female Police Officers Susan Barnett Colegrove California School of Professional Psychology.05 . Asian=2.55 50..3% Independent Variables State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger) Internal-External Locus of Control (Rotter) Dependent Variables: Burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory) Findings Predictor Age Years Married Number of children Income Education level Time employed Self-acceptance State anxiety Trait anxiety External locus of control Means Sample Norms 30. graduate degree=13. Native American=1.9.12 .39 38.02 .18 8. S.0%..7%. Personality and demographic characteristics as predictors of burnout in female police officers.31* .5% HS=3.01 ..53* .00 39.12 34.11 .28* . Other=1.1%.08 .02 .86 33.. Hispanic=4.05 ..1%.5%.7%.11 ...58 56.04 .01 . college degree=47. Black=8. (1983).46* .01 . Berkeley Essential Finding: • Higher scores in anxiety and external locus of control were related to burnout for a group of 194 women in law enforcement occupations Subjects: N Age Race Education 194 female officers in a variety of police departments M = 30.87 2.75 0.01 . California School of Professional Psychology.6%.1%. Berkeley __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Colegrove..B.. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.34* 72 .42 Burnout Factor Emotional Exhaustion Personal Accomplishment .25* .22 8. Range = 18 to 55 White=82.07 .

Cope Florida Institute of Technology __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Cope. asked to resign) police officers 12 departments in Tennessee Independent Variables Personality (16-PF) Dependent Variables: Police Patrol Performance Findings: 16 P.0.94 5.14 5..42* .07 .02 6.47 1.0. Personality characteristics of successful vesus unsuccessful police officers. J.72* .86 4.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Characteristics of Successful Versus Unsuccessful Police Officers James R..40 6.96 5.91 1.1.34 4.16 ..24* .82 5.14 .86 5.05 . (1981). Unpublished doctoral dissertation...0..01 .27* .. terminated.1.30 6.71 .06 4.96 5.14 .0. R.06 ..32 6. Scale Outgoing Bright Calm Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Tender-minded Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Q1: Experimenting Q2: Self-sufficient Q3: Controlled Q4: Tense Mean Stanine Score Successful Officer Unsuccessful Officer 4.05 .17 .51 .76 .0. Essential Finding: Successful officers were brighter and less imaginative than unsuccessful officers.09 .58 5.F.24 6.62 5.41 .44 4.2.86 8.78 6.68 4.90 5.10 .92 5.33 0.05 ..10 .63 0.50 6.96 6. Florida Institute of Technology.91 .. Subjects: N Department 100 (50 successful.06 6.82 6.18 4.39 2.44 5.09 .64 .30 5.42 4. 50 unsuccessful.13 .98 6.1.00 1.54 1.46 73 t r .

and field training scores to predict success in a Colorado police department.99* . Range = 12 to 17 years Independent Variables Years of Education Dependent Variables: Academy Performance FTO Performance (40 days) Patrol Performance (after 2 years) Findings: Correlations Variable (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 1..46* . Academy.03 .09 .22 .00. Field training score 4.07 ..26 Note: The training score is the Academy Score + FTO Score Note: The correlations with gender and previous police experience were obtained by entering the raw data from Appendix II into the computer 74 . Education 2. Months of previous police experience . Copley Colorado State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Copley. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.__________________________________________________________________ Using Education. H.12 . and Field Training Scores to Predict Success in a Colorado Police Department Waldo H.00 . Academy score 3. academy..46* ..01 . SD = 2.51. 2=female) 7.09 .50* . 11. Supervisor’s rating 5.9% were men.48* . Using education.01 . W. Training score 6. FTO. Colorado State University. Gender (1=male.1% were women M = 33.. Gender: Prior police experience Academy length Academy average Education 36 Medium sized police department in Colorado 88.14 M = 14. (1987).37 . and patrol performance Subjects: N Dept. Essential Finding: • Significant correlation between education and academy performance • Significant correlations among academy.49* . SD = 1.4 months 13 weeks M = 95.30 .58.40* .

Black=7.0%.65 .67 Number of items 29 21 . 14.40 .23 .37 . The psychological suitability of police officer candidates. (1988). Native American=. Asian=3. Hispanic=13.4%.42 .5% were women M = 21 White=75. Gender: Age Race 172 Two police departments and two sheriff’s offices 85.20 .5%.6% Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Negative performance indicators Findings High Cost Behavior R2 Turnover Involuntary termination Citizen Complaints Total Physical abuse Verbal abuse Miscellaneous Internal affairs investigations Disciplinary Actions Number Days fined Worker’s Compensation Claims Number filed Days lost Sick leave use Aggregate measure of high cost behavior . Essential Finding: • Used discriminant analysis to find MMPI items that predicted performance on 13 measures of patrol performance • Each of the 13 criteria was significantly related to clusters of MMPI items Subjects: N Dept.6%.25 .26 11 15 15 17 10 .30 .M. The Fielding Institute.23 . Corey The Fielding Institute __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Corey D.61 11 17 17 29 75 .35 14 15 .__________________________________________________________________ The Psychological Suitability of Police Officer Candidates David M. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.5% were men.

.09 ..6% were men . The "Big Five" personality factors in the IPI and MMPI: Predictors of police performance..29* .69% were white Independent Variables MMPI Inwald Personality Inventory Cognitive ability Dependent Variables: Academy Performance (22-week academy) Field Training Performance Validity Findings: Civil service exam MMPI Neuroticism (Hy.17* .16* ...04 ... Doherty.12 .16 ..17* ..24* .. Validation of the IPI and MMPI as predictors of police performance.36* . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for IndustrialOrganizational Psychology. R. Cortina.. Schmitt. N. M. Kaufman.. Mary Doherty.. (1992)... G.15* .09 ..36* 76 . Personnel Psychology. Neal Schmitt..40* Turnove r ..32* . J.19* ..00 . M..19* .17* .29* .21* ..14* . G. L. 45...11 ..30* .11 .41* .15* .07 .21* . L.01 . Schmitt. Essential Finding: • MMPI and IPI were significantly related to performance after being placed into “Big 5” categories Subjects: N Dept.23* ..13 Field training .20 .01 .. Pt) Extroversion (Si) Openness to experience (Mf) Agreeableness (Pa) Conscientiousness (Pd..18* .40* .09 ..30* . D. G. Doherty.21 . Mac) IPI Neuroticism Extroversion Openness to experience Agreeableness Conscientiousness Criteria Academy grades Peer ratings Overall academy rating Turnover Field training performance Academy grades ..06 . G. M.19* .17* ..11 .28* ...18* .19* .05 .22* .27* ... & Richard Smith Michigan State University & Michigan State Police __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Cortina.. & Smith.62* Peer ratings .17* .. R.23* .09 . 119-140.15* .27* .17* ....19* .. J..19* . Gary Kaufman..07 .01 ...17* .. & Smith. (1991). N.04 .34* .__________________________________________________________________ Validation of the IPI and MMPI as Predictors of Police Performance Jose M.32* Academy rating .04 . M. Cortina. Gender/Race 314 Michigan State Police recruits 72.. Kaufman...

M.22 with the number of days suspended • Optimal cutoff score for the index was 192 Subjects N Dept.__________________________________________________________________ Validation of a Preemployment MMPI Index Correlated with Disciplinary Suspension Days of Police Officers Raymond M. S. Validation of a preemployment MMPI index correlated with disciplinary suspension days of police officers. 299-306. Psychology. 107 police officers (96 non-problem officers. & Schneider.. 2. Independent Variables MMPI Husemann Index Findings ƒ ƒ ƒ Dependent Variables: Days of disciplinary suspension Problem officers were defined as the 10% of officers with the highest number of days suspended Husemann Index correlated .22 with number of days suspended Accuracy rate was 81% using the cutoff score of 192 Husemann Index Score Problem Officers Non-problem Officers < 192 6 82 192+ 5 14 77 . (1996). Costello & Sandra L. • The index correlated . Schneider University of Texas at San Antonio __________________________________________________________________ Citation Costello. L. Summary and Essential Findings • The purpose of the study was to determine if a measure of aggression (the Husemann Index – a combination of MMPI scales F + Pd + Ma) would predict the number of days that police officers were suspended. 11 problem officers) City in the southwestern U. R. Crime & Law.S.

p < . L. Schoenfeld University of Texas at San Antonio __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Costello. 200 San Antonio (TX) Police Department Independent Variables MMPI F-K index Dependent Variables: Days of disciplinary suspension Findings: Days of Disciplinary Suspension F-K difference in T scores 0-9 9-100 Score lower than -17 13 7 Score higher than -16 164 16 Chi-square = 15.__________________________________________________________________ Applicants' Fraud in Law Enforcement Raymond M. Psychological Reports. Costello. S. Summary and Essential Findings: • Police officers with F-K scores less than -16 (in T score differences) had more disciplinary problems than officers with scores higher than -15 (r = . Schneider. 73(1). & Lawrence S. S. R.25). Schneider. M. L. Subjects: N Dept. & Schoenfeld. 179-183..24. Applicants' fraud in law enforcement. (1993). Sandra L.001 78 .

518-522.__________________________________________________________________ Time-Related Effects on MMPI Profiles of Police Academy Recruits Raymond M.119 San Antonio (TX) Police Department Independent Variables Age.0 Hs 48. Time-related effects on MMPI profiles of police academy recruits. 37(3). (1981).5 Si 48. 1.5 F 51. and K Subjects: N Dept. Cohort Dependent Variables: MMPI Scores Notes: ƒ The means in the table below were taken from a graph and might be a few decimal points off Findings MMPI Scale Mean L 51. Ma.. Journal of Clinical Psychology. M.0 Mf 53.0 Ma 57. & Schoenfeld. L. R.0 Sc 51. S.0 Pa 50. Schoenfeld University of Texas at San Antonio __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Costello. Costello & Lawrence S.5 Pt 51.0 79 . Summary and Essential Findings: • This study looked at the systematic changes in MMPI scores across applicant testings • Scores were relatively stable • Applicants scored highest on Pd.0 Hy 54.0 K 56.0 Pd 57.5 D 52.

R.57 41. t(67) = 2. S..48 0.41. Sandra Schneider.28 Subjects N Dept.30 11. M. (1982). • The MMPI Goldberg Index (L + Pa + Sc – Hy – Pt) was used to determine psychological fitness.00 1.38 0.39 0.43 0.32 11. Schoenfeld. exceptional) Findings Officer Performance Category Unacceptable Intermediate Exceptional Performance Measures Disciplinary actions Days suspended Citizen complaints Commendations MMPI Goldberg Index Mean Standard deviation Goldberg Score > 60 < 60 Total 1.28 48. Summary and Essential Findings • Compared MMPI scores of officers rated unacceptable (23 of 424 officers) with those of 46 exceptional officers (no disciplinary problems and several citizen commendations) and 92 typical police officers matched for length of service.00 0. Lawrence Schoenfeld.. L.22 0.41 12. 38(1). S.26 12. Journal of Clinical Psychology.__________________________________________________________________ Police Applicant Screening: An Analogue Study Raymond Costello.01 Officer Performance Category Unacceptable Intermediate Exceptional 6 13 1 17 79 45 23 92 46 80 Total 20 141 161 .87 0. J. L..00 0. The cutoff for this index is 60 (a high score is considered a sign of psychosis) • Unacceptable officers had higher Goldberg scores than exceptional officers.15 44. 161 officers San Antonio (TX) Police Department Independent Variables MMPI Goldberg Index Dependent Variables Performance (acceptable v. & Kobos.9 2. & Joseph Kobos University of Texas at San Antonio __________________________________________________________________ Citation Costello. 216-221. Schneider. Police applicant screening: An analogue study. r = .

Jr.32* Pd 48.35 . The effects of tenure on police officer personality.79* 47.09 49.11 3..98 Pa 43. minimum = 5 years Independent Variables Tenure (prehire v.81 D 45.78 46.18 Si 41. SD = 3.91 52.63 48.03 47. and Gary G.26 1.90* 45. (2000).78 -0.47 52.52 49.52 51.48 48.26 2.21 47.5.37 50.05 50.83 47.53 3. scores on the F and depression scales of the MMPI increased and scores on the L scale decreased for officers in both a mid-size and small police department Subjects N Tenure 23 veteran officers from a mid-sized department and 19 veteran officers from a small police department in Texas M = 10.65 46.35 51.58* Ma 47. & Ford. 15(1). Ford Stephen F.42* K 60.10* 44.16 1.21 2.05 52.74 50.79 41. 1-9 Summary and Essential Findings • After at least five years on the job.26 49.32 49.35 2.96 2.5.74 -1.95 49.87 55.05 1.94* 44.30 1.79 .58 1.61 46.__________________________________________________________________ The Effects of Tenure on Police Officer Personality Harold D.26 39.26 52.45* 53.29 Pt 47.00 51.42 -1. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.08 46.83 57.52 Sc 46. Cottle.74 1. posthire) Dependent Variables MMPI & MMPI-2 scores Findings MMPI Scale Mid-Sized Department (n=23) Small Department (n=19) Prehire 5+ Years Later t-test Pre-hire 5+ Years Later t-test L 56.63 81 .21 1. D.11 51.96 2.79 0.2. G. Austin State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Cottle.36 47.82 Mf 47.84 2.64 48.78 1.67* 41. H.43 1.87 1.76* F 42.13 2.24* Hy 48.89 1.83 Hs 46. G.11 49.2.26 49.

(1991). L. Subjects: N Gender 133 police officers and 66 firefighters 100% were men Independent Variables Age. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Few changes in scores or profiles were observed. Essential Findings: • This study looked at cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in MMPI scores. Cohort Dependent Variables: MMPI Scores Notes: • The means in the table below were taken from a graph and might be a few decimal points off Findings: _______________________________________________________________________________ MMPI Scale __________ Police _____ Sample size 111 Fire _____ Psychological Classification ______________________ 51 L 50 54 Normal 107 48% F 46 46 Intermediate 25% K 59 61 Neurotic 10 Hs 48 49 Characterological 24 D 49 50 Psychotic 15 Hy 57 56 Indeterminate 4 Pd 56 56 Unclassifiable 3 Mf 59 54 Elevated 27% Pa 52 51 Neurotic 18 Pt 53 51 Characterological 26 Sc 53 51 Psychotic 13 Ma 59 58 Indeterminate 4 Si 44 43 __________________________________________________________________________________ 82 .__________________________________________________________________ MMPI Performance Related to Length of Service for Public Safety Employees Laura Barrington Cowan Purdue University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Cowan. MMPI performance related to length of service for public safety employees. B. Purdue University.

Cowan (1991) continued Group/Classification Police (n = 244) Normal Neurotic Character disorder Psychotic Firefighter (n = 260) Normal Neurotic Character disorder Psychotic 0-6 % 62 4 29 6 51 9 25 16 Years of Service 7-13 14-19 20+ % % % 51 41 52 13 17 19 23 26 10 14 16 19 45 19 21 15 29 26 30 16 31 35 27 8 Group/Classification 0-6 % 27 32 25 16 Police Changed from elevated to normal Stayed normal Changed from normal to elevated Stayed elevated Fire Changed from elevated to normal Stayed normal Changed from normal to elevated Stayed elevated 13 43 28 15 83 Total % 50 13 24 13 39 21 26 15 Years of Service 7-13 % 20 38 21 21 20 40 10 30 14+ % 13 25 38 25 Total % 23 34 24 19 14 43 25 18 .

07 .15* Determine cause of conflict .10 Confrontational arrests made (d) .15* Unsympathetic . SUNY .01 .05 Skill in determining cause of event .12* Felony arrests made (b) .Albany __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Culley.07 . A.11 .05 Driving ability . J.20* Select to give information .11* Take lead in handling .06 ..00 .. 16% were women Dependent Variables: Police Patrol Performance Findings ____________________________________________________________________________________ Height Gender (b) (c) (d) ______ _____ ___ ___ ___ Activity Levels Moving violations issued (a) . Culley SUNY . (1987).02 Listening skill .09 Personal .11* Indecisive ..18* . Essential Finding: Height was correlated with several ratings of performance but not with objective measures.12* Ability to resolve without arrest .04 Skill in describing situations .05 .08 ..03 Supportive .27* . Subjects: N Gender Independent Variables Height 302 NYPD officers 84% were men.12* Semantic Differential Checklist Hardhearted .__________________________________________________________________ Height Standards and Policing: Rationale or Rationalization? John A.03 Friendly ..03 Performance Rating Size-up and defuse situation .12* Influence peers .Albany.05 ____________________________________________________________________________________ 84 .03 Challenging . Height standards and policing: Rationale or rationalization? Unpublished doctoral dissertation.12* Skill in describing situations .37* Misdemeanor arrests made (c) .

6%.33* . J. Sam Houston State University. Associate’s degree=18. (2002).57.29* . and educational level on commendations. Years in the military 2. < 60 hours of college =12.2% were women White=89. Essential Finding ƒ Education was positively related to commendations and promotions Subjects: N Department Sex Race Age Education 489 police officers Police department for a large city (pop 260. prior military service.18* .04 .8%..36* . Commendations in the military 3.000) in the eastern U. SD = 9.8%.89* . College hours 4.13 .. African American=8.15 (5) .9% Independent Variables Education Military service Dependent Variables: Commendations Findings: Correlations Commendations Military Service 1.53* 85 (1) (2) (3) (4) .4% Bachelor’s degree = 43. Hispanic = 1%.64* . Years of police experience 5.36* . and Educational Level on Commendations Jeffrey D. MA/JD = 2.8% were men..__________________________________________________________________ An Investigation of Police Officer Background and Performance: An Analytical Study of the Effect of Age. Asian=1% M = 30. D.3%.S. Time in Service.04 . 9. Age Police Promotions Promotions . Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Dailey Sam Houston State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Dailey. time in service. An investigation of police officer background and performance: An analytical study of the effect of age. Prior Military Service. 90.5%.01 HS=21.

90 53.000 New York City Police Officers (n = 571 for validity coefficients) 100% were men M = 25.02 . 1 = yes) 10.03 .03 ....02 ..02 ..01 .__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship of Personality Variables to Suitability for Police Work Robert Edmund Daley Florida Institute of Technology __________________________________________________________________ Citation Daley.01 .08 .04 .05 ..03 .06 .06 .03 . E.21 ....06 . Number of absences due to job related injury P2..06 ..2% 86 Other Absence .10 .01 .01 .02 ...07 . Serious disciplinary infraction (0=no.04 ..45 .03 ....02 .20 52.02 ..03 .01 ... The relationship of personality variables to suitability for police work Unpublished doctoral dissertation.19 ...5% 1.04 .06 .39 .05 .01 .06 ..04 .59 Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Police Patrol Performance Findings Mean Incidents Days Incidents Days Serious Discipline? Fired? MMPI Scale Job Related Absence L F K 1 Hs – Hypochondriasis 2 D – Depression 3 Hy – Hysteria 4 Pd – Psychopathic deviate 5 Mf – Masculinity/femininity 6 Pa – Paranoia 7 Pt – Psychasthenia 8 Sc – Schizophrenia 9 Ma – Hypomania 0 Si – Social Introversion Cognitive Ability Otis IQ Test Army Beta Education Performance Measures 57.35 52.01 104 107 12.06 ..02 .04 .02 P1.01 ..05 .. Florida Institute of Technology.. R.01 .11.07 .06 . Fired (0=no.02 .08 .02 .11 . Days lost due to job related injury P3.03 .49 44...01 .05 ..05 .04 .04 ..03 ..01 .05 .02 .01 .01 .09 ..01 .33 50.78 48..02 ...06 .05 . Range = 21.36 M = 12..01 ..01 .17 ..02 ...01 .01 .05 .08 .07 ... (1978).57 50.02 ..00 46.01 .44 54.09 ....02 .03 .01 ..04 . Days lost due to other illness or injury P5.04 ..02 .00 .02 .03 .01 .00 . Essential Finding • MMPI not related to absenteeism or discipline problems Subjects: N Sex Age Education 1.01 ..08 .43 56.09 .02 .13 ..05 . 1=yes) P6..02 ..10 .01 57..51 60.01 .10 .04 .01 -.04 .45 ...04 .10 .04 .. Number of absences due to other illness/injury P4...01 ..00 ...05 ..05 ..

Education: 890 Eight police departments in Missouri High school or some college=70%. BA=30% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Notes • Means but not standard deviations were given in the published article and the thesis. E. 7071. Unpublished educational specialist thesis. Central Missouri State University. D.5 22. Essential Findings: • College educated officers missed significantly fewer days of work Subjects: N Dept. D. Daniel Missouri Department of Public Safety __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Daniel. Findings: No Bachelor’s degree Bachelor’s degree N 267 623 Average number of hours absent 52. The effect of a college degree on police employee attendance. (1980). E._________________________________________________________________ The Effect of a College Degree on Police Absenteeism Edward D. The Police Chief. (1982). Daniel. The effect of a college degree on police absenteeism. 49(9).11 87 .

10 .48 . Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.70 53. D.37 53.5% were women 100% were Hispanic M = 25.05 . Dantzker & Diamantina Freeberg University of Texas Pan American & University of Texas Brownsville __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Dantzker.78 . M. An exploratory examination of pre-employment psychological testing of police officer candidates with a Hispanic surname.83 7.04 88 .07 .62 53.46 years Independent Variable MMPI Dependent Variable Passed psychological evaluation Findings Exam Status MMPI Scale Pass Fail Total F value P< L 56.66 1.5% were men.75 D 51.57 . and Sc scale than did applicants who passed the exam Subjects N Dept Sex Race Age Education 319 Hispanic police candidates Police department in Texas 91.87 56. L.45 58.30 51.29 .68 . range = 18 to 44 years M = 13.82 12. PA..__________________________________________________________________ An Exploratory Examination of Pre-employment Psychological Testing of Police Officer Candidates with a Hispanic Surname Mark L.8% of Hispanic applicants passed a psychological exam using the MMPI. and a psychological interview • Applicants who failed the psychological exam had higher scores on the Pd. 8.22 49. 18(1). Guildford Zimmerman Temperament Survey.71 51.22 59.18 K 58. 3844.17 58. & Freeberg.82 Pd 53.008 Pa 47.88 53. (2003).88 4.43. Essential Findings • 92.61 47.001 Sc 49.

_________________________________________________________________ The Predictive Validity of a Police Officer Selection Program Neil Bingham Davidson Portland State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Davidson.20** . SD=2. B. 2 years=16%.597 Passed ______ 1. (1975).13 .9. OR police department 100% were men M=23. The predictive validity of a police officer selection program. 1 year college=29%. N.27** .8 GED=7%. Unpublished master’s thesis.15 89 Written Cross-Validation (n=68) Interview Psych Performance . Portland State University. Bachelor’s=4% Selection Information Written exam Physical agility test Oral interview Medical exam Psychological exam Appointed to department Reliability _________ .74 .74) Interview Psychological evaluation Took _____ 2.09 .12 .15 .464 968 426 426 254 549 250 250 Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (after 3 years) Findings Written Cognitive ability Interview Psychological Performance Evaluation Validation Group (n=137) Interview Psych Performance . HS=38%.00 .60 Independent Variables Cognitive ability (IPMA test: α = . Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability predicted performance in the cross-validation group Subjects: N Sex Age Education 205 officers with at least 3 years tenure with the Portland.29* .13 .06 .21* . 3 years=6%.

Other=0.00 .987 police officers (7. Inc. 1=female) Age 100. 1=yes) Number of traffic citations Sex (0=male.01 . D.29 .53 . 8(2). D.05* .09) and education (r = .23 .M.3% were men.10* .R.987 1. & Rostow.4%. Davis & Cary D.15 ..987 1. Applied H.15 30.987 1.987 1.02 . Hispanic = 0. 77-80..18 . Range = 5 to 21 Independent Variables Cognitive ability (Shipley) Education (years) Military experience (0=no.987 90 Correlation with being fired for cause .987 1. SD = 1.95.43.49 13.7% were women White = 75.. Research. 1=yes) Findings Predictor Mean N Cognitive ability Education Military experience (0=no. (2003). 1=yes) Arrest record (0=no.18 861 1.8% had been fired for cause) A variety of law enforcement agencies in the Southeast 85..10) were negatively related to being terminated for cause Sample N Dept Sex Race Age Education 1. R.987 1.34 .01 .8%. Rostow Matrix. __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Davis. 14.4%. Asian=0. C.09* .__________________________________________________________________ Relationship between Cognitive Ability and Background Variables and Disciplinary Problems in Law Enforcement Robert D. African American = 22..9%..987 1.34. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability (r = .02 ..18. 1=yes) Bad credit (0=no. SD = 8. 1=yes) Background problems Dependent Variables Fired for cause (0=no. Range = 17 to 77 M = 13..6% M = 30. 1=yes) Fired from previous job (0=no.04 . Relationship between cognitive ability and background variables and disciplinary problems in law enforcement.

04 . Traffic citations received 8. Age 3.01 .09 .09 .01 .15 . Education 4.. Bad credit? 5. Arrest record? 7. Previous military experience 9.12 . Cognitive ability (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) .08 .14 .17 .04 ..05 .07 ..35 ..05 Note: N = 2.06 ..02 .14 .05 .Davis & Rostow (2003) continued Correlations among variables Predictor 1....03 .05 ...919 for all correlations except those involving cognitive ability (n=1. Fired from previous job? 6.07 ..627) 91 .02 .01 .11 .06 .... Sex 2.03 .12 .07 .01 .06 ..02 .06 ..11 ..18 .05 .

8 57.5% were men M = 28.8 9.91 5. Rostow.68 9. & Cowick. M.1 81% were white MMPI-2 215 93.8 10.0 7.4 Hea1 92 .91 49.0 48.69 8. __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Davis.8 74.08 6.5 43. D.0 61.0 69.8 51.46 State Police – MMPI-2 Pass Fail Mean SD Mean SD 59.6 41.8 6. R.2 7.4 44.4 49.0 17.8 56. 14(1).54 68.0 0.3 64.27 13.86 13.12 51.0 9.9 48.87 5.43 59. & Leah M. B..2 49.81 39.54 8..73 8. Cary D.7 48.6% were men M = 28.03 11.9 4.6 3.0 58.0 60.4 46. L. Cowick Matrix. Essential Findings: • A few scales on the MMPI differentiated candidates who passed the selection interview for those who didn’t and candidates who passed the academy from those who didn’t Subjects: Dept Candidates for positions with a municipal police department and the state police in Louisiana N Sex Age Race Test Municipal Police 1 Municipal Police 2 State Police 392 91. Rostow.4 7.6 56. D.18 6. Pinkston.0 8. C. (1999).6 68.8 3.46 52.8 48.6% were white MMPI 79 89.5 6.8 12.2 19. An investigation into the usefulness of the MMPI and MMPI-2 in municipal and state police candidate selection. J.00 9. Pinkston.08 5.93 7.6 14. James B.0 44. Davis.9% were men M = 29.5 55.3 80% were white MMPI-2 Findings L F Pd Pd1 Pd2 Mf3 Ma Ma1 Ma3 Sc2 Si6 Org Mac4 Hea3 Do Vrin Municipal Police – MMPI Pass Fail Mean SD Mean SD Municipal Police – MMPI-2 Pass Fail Mean Mean SD 50.4 6.1 48.0 46.2 25. 100-106. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. Inc.1 10.0 65.8 45.4 46.9 6.1 5.1 71.53 7.______________________________________________________________________________ An Investigation into the Usefulness of the MMPI and MMPI-2 in Municipal and State Police Candidate Selection Robert D.22 42.66 42..77 4.

5 45.8 43.7 46. State Trooper Academy Pass Academy Fail Academy MMPI-2 Scale Mean SD Mean SD SC4 43.7 46.03 2.1 DEP1 44.87 6.Davis et al (1999) cont.18 8.2 ASP2 49.65 7.58 4.0 MT 39.5 93 .17 3.52 5.26 9.

30* .24* .23* .03 .09 .90 420 .08 Paper-and-Pencil Tests General intelligence Language mastery Assessment Center Simulations score Peer ratings Enthusiasm Self-control Teamwork Future job success Academy Performance Final Score Academy dimensions Future job success Aggressiveness On-the-Job Performance Special supervisor eval Periodic peer evaluation 94 .09 .71) Assessment center ratings Dependent Variables Academy performance Supervisor and peer ratings of job performance Findings Academy Peer Ratings Sample Size Coefficient alpha On-the-Job Performance Final Academy Ratings Dimensions Mean Future Job Success Aggressiveness Special Supervisor Evaluation Periodic Peer Evaluation Periodic Supervisor Evaluation 413 .35* .14* .21* .14* .29* .22* ....09 .12* .19* ...01 .00 . 585 of whom passed the selection process Range = 22 to 28 Independent Variables Cognitive ability (test-retest = .26* .14* .03 . 827-849. Entry-level police candidate assessment center: An efficient tool or a hammer to kill a fly? Personnel Psychology.11* . S.01 .02 ... Essential Findings • Cognitive ability and assessment center scores predicted academy and on-the-job performance • Academy performance predicted on-the-job performance (measured 2-4 years after academy) Subjects N Age 712 applicants to the Israel police force.15* .12* ..92 ..12* . Kasten.19* .10* . & Fox.03 .91 494 .02 .15* . 55(4)..20* .19* . R.17* . & Shaul Fox Israeli Police and Bar-Ilan University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Dayan.28* .23* . (2002)..09 .19* .11* .25* .22* ... K.23* .51* .06 .08 .16* .21* .10* .21* .17* .14* .12* .11* .49* .95 496 496 413 .09* .33* .06 .35* .20* .93 423 .30* .__________________________________________________________________ Entry-Level Police Candidate Assessment Center: An Efficient Tool or a Hammer to Kill a Fly? Kobi Dayan. Ronen Kasten.11* .19* .11* .06 .13* .23* .18* .39* .08 .

. Unstressed 7. officers were told to take their time and be accurate.03 .07 .27 (. the stress condition.14 .12 . Stressed 5.67 43. The mental ability test was given twice.16 21. In the second testing.42 95 .17 .85 (.. Stress-unstress difference Numerical 6. Unstressed 4.01 .56) 48. Ball State University. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.01 14. Stress-unstress difference Performance Measures 9..04 .85 7.01 .07 .72) . The relationship between Eysenckian personality variables and ratings of job performance and promotion potential of a group of police officers. Promotion Potential 11.05 .07 .73 . subjects were timed and encouraged to work fast..9.._________________________________________________________________ The Relationship Between Eysenckian Personality Variables and Ratings of Job Performance and Promotion Potential of a Group of Police Officers David Dean Ball State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Dean..37 . • No significant relationship between personality and job performance Subjects: N Sex Age 33 officers with at least two years experience from a small police department 100% were men M = 32.13 .. Range=24 to 64 Independent Variables Personality (Eysenck Personality Inventory) Cognitive ability (Primary Mental Abilities Test) Dependent Variables Ratings of job performance Ratings of promotion potential Findings Correlations Personality Mean 1.22 . Essential Findings: • Officers were given a personality test and a mental ability test..33 . 30 days apart. Extraversion 2.22 ..88 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) . Performance Rating 10. In the first testing. (1974).06 .09 . Neuroticism Cognitive Ability Verbal 3. D.. Stressed 8..

17. 25(4).4 1.6 Probationary Period Did not Complete Successfully Completed 15 109 5 61 96 N 2 36 86 61 5 190 .1%.0 0.5% were white and 20. some college=45. G. (2002). range = 21 to 43 HS =20%.__________________________________________________________________ Raising the Age and Education Requirements for Police Officers: Will Too Many Women and Minority Candidates be Excluded? Lisa Kay Decker & Robert G. 789-802. This correlation was computed from the data provided in the article Subjects N Department Sex Race Age Education 190 officers over a five-year period (20 failed to complete the probationary period) Indianapolis.6% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables Completed probationary period Findings Degree GED High school diploma Some college Four-year degree Post-graduate Sample Size Education No four-year degree Four-year degree WM 0. 82.5 35. bachelor’s degree=32.0 20.9 45.11 for dichotomous nature of criterion and predictor) with successfully completing the probationary period.0 10 Total % 1. R..1 33. L.07 (corrected to .1% were men.1 2.0 30.14.3 48.5% were African American M = 27.6 127 Percentages Race and Sex BM WF 6. 4 year degree or higher) correlated .3 29 24 BF 0. Indiana P.0 24.0 17. Essential Findings • Increasing education requirements would reduce the pool of minority applicants but would eliminate 75% of the officers who failed to complete the probationary period • Raising the minimum age from 21 to 25 would do little to reduce the number of cadets failing to complete the probationary period • Education (< 4 year degree.0 60.D.3 50. Huckabee Indiana State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Decker. Raising the age and education requirements for police officers: Will too many women and minority candidates be excluded? Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management.0 10.5 42. & Huckabee.3 3.1 18. K.4 8.2 8.3%.9 0.9% were women 79.3 32. master’s degree=2.

V.15 364.07 .79 3.805 .219 .25 3.29 3.25 . Subjects: N Age Education Academy length 160 transit police officers hired in October.772 .01 .188 .174 . Range (21 – 33) No college = 36...50 1. (1984).00 .__________________________________________________________________ Education and the Police: A Study of the Relationship Between Higher Education and Police Officer Performance Vincent Del Castillo John Jay College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Del Castillo.025 .909 .20 0.423 . Unpublished master’s thesis.940 ..25 3. John Jay College.05 7.85 1. M = 24.07 0.02 3.03 ..60 20.14* .10 .00 0.991 .12 168. 1981. Essential Findings: • Better educated officers performed better in the academy and received significantly fewer sustained disciplinary charges during their 18-month probationary period.14 .50 302.50 7.15 .64 0.05 .08 .336 .19* .95 .46. Education and the police: A study of the relationship between higher education and police officer performance. This group was a sample from the 456 officers hired that year..50 3.02 ..249 .40 .36 .21* .4% 6 months Independent Variable Education Dependent Variables Academy performance Field training performance Findings Performance Measure Academy Performance Class standing (rank) Commendations Derogatory reports Class evaluation Patrol Performance Sustained disciplinary charges Suspension days Civilian complaints: Unnecessary force Civilian complaints: Improper action Commendations Probation evaluation Absenteeism Sick leave incidents Sick leave days Sick leave abuser Job-related injuries Activity Arrests Summonses Juvenile reports Correlation with Education CJ Major .03 .11 .64 6.07 .07 .25 ..21 116.60 .900 .00 .75 7.330 .6%.04 ..86 0.90 1.16* .050 97 Means Other Major P level . College = 63.11 .186 .888 .36 17.

3 62. Essential Findings: • Study provided MMPI-2 norms for new and veteran police officers • New and veteran MMPI-2 profiles did not differ Sample N Gender Race Age Experience 467 officers hired by 18 police departments in the St.1 43.4 61.3 46.7 51.9 40.3 48. P. 32(5).8 48. & Rosso.4 52.9 46.9%.0 52.6 50.6 52. MO area 92. T.8 40.1 46.1% were men. & Martin Rosso Florissant Psychological Services ______________________________________________________________________________ Citation: Detrick.9% were women White=91.0 .7 of a year Findings: Mean MMPI-2 Scores (k corrected) Sample Size MMPI-2 Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Men Veteran Men Recruit Men 198 232 61.0 48.8 51.3 63.1 47. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 in police officer selection: Normative data and relation to the Inwald Personality Inventory.7 49. 7.2 48.1 46.. Chibnall.2 48.6 Men averaged 2.7 45. Minority=8.5 40. J.0 40.6 41.3 49.1% M = 27.4 48.0 48.9 Women White Minority 34 3 60.7 43.7 45..9 years and women . (2001).6 98 67.3 41.7 64.0 48. 484-490.7 53.3 46.0 43.___________________________________________________ MMPI-2 in Police Officer Selection: Normative Data and Relation to the Inwald Personality Inventory Paul Detrick. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.7 45.3 44. Louis. Chibnall.0 41. M.6 47.7 58.2 47.0 47.7 49.7 64.9 48.1 61. John T.

08 ..19 .08 .04 .02 ......19 .11 ..00 ..13 .30 ..06 .22 ..21 .06 .09 Hy .19 ...04 .22 .20 .12 .45 .12 ..30 .07 Spouse/mate Conflicts .26 .25 .06 D ....06 ..04 .27 ..17 ...47 .02 .01 .40 .....01 .05 ..26 .01 .04 .42 .25 ......16 .15 .23 ..08 Rigid Type Type A Loner Type 99 .01 .21 .18 .02 .04 .23 ..01 ..08 .....04 ...21 .00 PA ...43 .33 .03 ..05 K .20 ..10 ..04 .10 .11 ..31 .21 .02 ..16 .09 .06 .14 Antisocial Attitudes ...17 .14 ...00 .17 ...09 Treatment Programs .14 .01 .12 .02 .05 Absence Abuse Substance Abuse ..00 .07 .10 .27 .17 .39 ...14 ..06 .15 .15 .04 ..09 ...18 ..17 .22 .17 ..09 .05 ..30 .06 .24 ..13 .08 ...29 .64 .16 .20 ...16 .14 .05 ...35 ....03 Anxiety ..01 .05 ..20 ..17 Family Conflicts Sexual concerns .18 .02 ..26 .02 ...06 .18 .03 .09 .02 ..17 .04 .05 .09 ...14 .21 .03 .08 ..05 .10 .05 ..10 .11 ..24 ..32 ..14 ...13 .14 ..05 .17 .48 .07 .31 .03 .01 .32 .15 .20 Depression .00 .12 HS .04 Ma .......06 .19 .00 .02 ..12 ..13 .22 .18 ..16 .02 ..27 ..04 .00 Guardedness Alcohol Job Difficulties .08 .11 .10 .02 .01 .57 .02 .25 .02 ..25 ...16 .05 .32 ..05 ....01 ..34 ..20 ...39 .15 .14 ...15 .20 .42 Unusual Experiences Lack of Assertiveness Interpersonal Difficulties Undue Suspiciousness .17 .06 ..31 .01 .56 ....07 ..15 ...01 .28 .19 Si .07 ..06 ..02 Sc ..20 ..14 ..05 ..13 .09 .17 .23 ..09 .27 .27 ....18 F .04 ..02 .11 Pt .02 .06 ...22 ..21 ..26 .01 .22 .26 .27 .11 .06 .01 ..03 .05 .09 ....11 .06 Pd .12 .15 .02 .20 .16 .07 MF .02 .27 ....16 .Detrick et al..10 .08 .01 .....26 .09 .09 ..03 .16 .05 .02 .05 .04 ..37 .02 ..31 ..19 .10 ..08 .09 .11 .27 .46 .28 ..16 Driving violations .15 .04 ..04 Trouble with the Law .03 .59 .22 Phobic Personality Obsessive Personality .18 .18 Hyperactivity Illness Concerns .29 ..26 ..03 .22 .16 ..02 .....03 .02 .24 .02 .14 .04 ... (continued) Correlations between the MMPI-2 and the Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI) IPI Scale Drugs L .17 ..01 ..30 .14 .03 .10 .10 .11 ....18 ..01 .05 .01 ..29 ..00 ..12 .04 ..02 ...22 .17 ..10 .29 ...11 .31 .60 .27 ...08 ...01 ...07 ...49 ..20 ..31 .15 .30 ..08 .31 .00 .06 .07 .09 .16 .05 .03 .02 .13 ..06 .05 .....

Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability was significantly correlated with academy performance • Education was significantly correlated with academy performance Sample N Gender Race Age Academy 163 officers in the Honolulu.3% were men.20 Veteran status .17 Drinking ..37* .13 . 6.10 Years of education .3 M = 26.03 Personal references .7% were women White=42...54) 26 weeks Findings Background Variable Academy Grades Turnover within 5 years High school grades ..25 Indebtedness .55* .11 Note: The validity of years education was computed by taking the t-value of 2. Asian-American=55. Other=2. G.5%. University of Hawaii.2%.____________________________________________________________________________________________ A Cross-Validated Comparison of Models for the Prediction of Academy Performance and Job Tenure of Police Officer Recruits Gary S.02 Credit rating .60 from Table 18 in the dissertation.03 Traffic citations . Dibb University of Hawaii _____________________________________________________________________________ Citation: Dibb. Honolulu. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 100 .18 Criminal record .20.96 (SD = 5.. and then converting it to an r of . HI Police Department who completed the academy in 1976 93.18 . S.. (1978) A cross-validated comparison of models for the prediction of academy performance and job tenure of police officer recruits.09 Cognitive ability .

14* .05 .03 .01 .01 . The utility of the oral interview board in selecting police academy admissions.44 . G.__________________________________________________________________ The Utility of the Oral Interview Board in Selecting Police Academy Admissions William G.44 .10 Rater Gender ..34 .07 .05 .06 . (1997)..03 . Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management. but who were not “sponsored” by a law enforcement agency • The oral board showed no adverse impact • The size of the board was not related to interview ratings • 96% of non-sponsored cadets passed the academy compared to 83% of sponsored cadets Subjects N 244 cadets in one of five academy classes in Florida Independent Variables Demographics Dependent Variables Oral Board Scores Findings Oral Board Ratings Appearance Self-confidence Self-expression Understanding Comprehension Background Overall Rating Median Interrater Reliability .03 .37 Recruit Race .. 2 = female) 101 Recruit Gender .09 ..10 ..09 ..07 .07 .13* .06 Note: Gender (1=male.27 .04 .09 .07 ...03 .02 .05 .00 Board Size .. Essential Findings • Oral boards were conducted for applicants wanting to attend the academy.13* . Doerner Florida State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Doerner.. 20(4).. 777-785.06 .46 . W.01 .38 .

15 .11 .00 .Berkeley . Essential Finding: • No relationship between B-PAD and scores on the California Psychological Inventory Subjects: N Gender/Race Age 55 (27 applicants.15 .. Interpersonal Effectiveness of Police Officers: A Comparison of the California Psychological Inventory and the Behavioral Police Assessment Device.18 . 28 incumbent officers) from a Northern California police department. California School of Professional Psychology .02 .__________________________________________________________________ Interpersonal Effectiveness of Police Officers: A Comparison of the California Psychological Inventory and the Behavioral Police Assessment Device Kelley S.7% men. (1989). 66.5% men.80) Findings: CPI Scale Do: Dominance Cs: Capacity for status Sy: Sociability Sp: Social presence Sa: Self-acceptance Wb: Well-being Re: Responsibility So: Socialization Sc: Self-control To: Tolerance Gi: Good impression Cm: Communality Ac: Achievement via conformance Ai: Achievement via independence Ie: Intellectual efficiency Py: Psych mindedness Fx: Flexibility Fe: Femininity B-PAD .03 .Berkeley __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Dolan.. 89.37) .16 .20 .83) Dependent Variables: B-PAD (Interrater = .Incumbents (85.04 .7% White) . rate-rerate = .71. Applicants (81.Incumbents (Mean = 28.02 .04 __________________________________________________________________ 102 .02 . S. Dolan California School of Professional Psychology . K..20 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.04 . range 24-45) Independent Variables CPI (test-retest = .16 .3% White) Applicants (Mean = 28.22 .11 .. range 21 .

03 .17 ..02 .06 . SD = 7.0 59. C.2 59.13 .13 .02 .7 58.7% were women M = 36.02 .Police Discretion in Traffic Law Enforcement Steven C.1 49.4 56.11 . CA).82 across years and .03 .9 54. Police discretion in traffic law enforcement.27 103 .04 .05 .1 56.5 57.03 .7 53.5 56.0 56.3 .85 Independent Variables Personality (CPI) Dependent Variables Traffic stop leniency Findings CPI Scale Mean Correlation with leniency ratio Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Well-being Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Good impression Communality Ach via conformance Ach via independence Intellectual efficiency Psychological mindedness Flexibility Femininity Police Effectiveness Scale Age 56.0 56. Essential Finding: • Study looked at the relationship between officer personality and traffic stop leniency (defined as the number of warnings issued divided by the total number of traffic stops) • Stability of officer leniency was . S. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.84 across shifts • Personality was not related to officer leniency Subjects: N Department Gender Age 52 police officers Three small police departments in Northern California 92..5 50..01 ...05 .12 .0 43. (1992)...02 . Dolezal Pacific Graduate School of Psychology __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Dolezal. 7.06 .6 51.11 ..3% were men.4 57.5 55.4 54. Pacific Graduate School of Psychology (Palo Alto.

87) Findings: Variable Correlation with Performance Education CPI Scale Do: Dominance Cs: Capacity for status Sy: Sociability Sp: Social presence Sa: Self-acceptance Wb: Well-being Re: Responsibility So: Socialization Sc: Self-control To: Tolerance Gi: Good impression Cm: Communality Ac: Achievement via conformance Ai: Achievement via independence Ie: Intellectual efficiency Py: Psych mindedness Fx: Flexibility Fe: Femininity . United States International University.0% Mean = 5 years (range > 1 . ma=4.12 104 ..24* .05 .8% .00 .7%.7%.18* .. Essential Finding: • Education and two CPI scales significantly correlated with performance ratings.03 . (1991).46) hs=40.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Characteristics and Demographic Variables as Predictors of Job Performance in Female Traffic Officers Kay R..09 .09 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.06 .. Black = 5.07 . R. K.12 . Personality characteristics and demographic variables as predictors of job performance in female traffic officers.7% 30.24* .5 (range 22 . White=75.16) Independent Variables Education CPI Dependent Variables: Ratings of Patrol Performance (alpha = . ba=27.10 .6%.12 .7%. Hispanic = 8. Asian = 8.00 . Subjects: N Gender/Race Age Education Experience 103 female traffic officers in a large western state 100% were women. aa=27...08 .10 . Dorner United States International University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Dorner.15 .10 .7%.

0 4.00 Education level N High school Performance Rating Mean Sd 41 56.5 6.15 .0 Master’s degree 4 63.Dorner (1991) .3 4.9 Bachelor’s degree 28 60.5 105 .2 v.5 Associate’s degree 28 58.4 5.page 2 Variable Correlation with Performance CPI Scale v.3 .1 v.02 .

. Gender: Race Education: 213 Memphis (TN) Police Department 74. AAS=40..9% HS=4. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.33 . 25.1 %. African American=39%. Higher education for police officers: An analysis of the relationships among higher education. some college=26.9% Independent Variables Education Dogmatism Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (probationary period) Findings: ____________________________________________________________________ Performance ____________ Education .12 Dogmatism Age Dogmatism _________ . R.. Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to performance • Education was negatively related to dogmatism Subjects: N Dept. BA=27..4% were women White=60.7%.5%. (1994). R. job performance.15 .2%.7%. University of Mississippi.14* .05 level or better Note: correlations with individual performance dimensions are available 106 .__________________________________________________________________ Higher Education for Police Officers Rose Rita Dorsey University of Mississippi __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Dorsey.27* . and cultural awareness.6% were men. belief systems. Hispanic=.07 Length of Service .05 ____________________________________________________________________ n=213 * r is significant at the . MA=0.

Screening of police applicants: A replication of a 5-item MMPI research index validity study. Gender Race Independent Variables MMPI 356 cadets New Orleans Police Department 85.1% were women 51. P..__________________________________________________________________ Screening of Police Applicants: A Replication of a 5-Item MMPI Research Index Validity Study Penelope Wasson Dralle & Rebecca M.11 Race (1=white. 2=black) .3% were white Dependent Variables: Hiring decisions Notes: • The five MMPI items in the scale were: .9% were men.14 Psychiatric recommendation .. Summary and Essential Findings: • This study looked at the validity of 5 MMPI items in predicting police performance. M. • The 5-item scale did not predict employment decisions • Blacks scored better on the index than did whites. R.. & Baybrook.13 Final employment status . Baybrook Louisiana State University & City of New Orleans __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Dralle.A large number of people are guilty of bad sexual conduct (F) Findings: _________________________________________________ Scale Score _________ Gender . 57..22* Police recommendation to hire ..I am an important person (F) . (1985).I seldom worry about my health (T) . 14. men and women scored equally Subjects: N Dept.1031-1034.What others think of me does not bother me (T) . Psychological Reports.09 _________________________________________________ 107 .I think I'd like the work of a building contractor (F) .. W.

90-95.03 . Louis Police Department 100% were men 22 weeks Independent Variables Cognitive ability Vocational interests (SVIB) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Academy Performance Findings: __________________________________________________________________________________________ Criterion ______________________________________________________ Academy Grade (n=72) _____ Academy Grade (n=57) ________ Supervisor Ratings (n=129) ________ Cognitive ability In-house test Army General Classification Test Writing sample Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Minnesota Paper Form Board .15 .01 .09 -.10 .06 .12 -.10 .39* . Journal of Applied Psychology. DuBois & Robert I.12 Marksmanship (n=129) ___________ Screening Board Rating . P.29* .29* . 34(1).30* .28* . Watson Washington University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: DuBois. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability positively related to academy grades • Mechanical comprehension related to academy performance and marksmanship Subjects: N Dept.01 .26* Vocational Interest (police interest) -. R.11 -.27* .54* .08 .23* . & Watson.50* . H.03 .50* . I.38* . Gender Academy length 129 St.06 __________________________________________________________________________________________ 108 ...__________________________________________________________________ The Selection of Patrolmen Philip H. (1950).04 . A longitudinal predictive study of success and performance of law enforcement officers.08 .

29. Essential Findings: • Education was negatively related to complaints (r = -.9%.588 High school or some college=96. J.06) Findings: _____________________________________________________ < B. ____ 1538 50 369 4 24 8 _____________________________________________________ 109 . F.69) and then an r (r = -.A. (1978). Duignan Pennsylvania State Police __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Duignan.A.1% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Notes • Data were reported for a Rand Institute study • Data in table were used to compute a chi-square (6.__________________________________________________________________ Education's Role in the Quest for Professionalism John F. Bachelor’s degree=3.06) Subjects: N Education: 1. The Police Chief. Education's role in the quest for professionalism. 45(8). ______ N # receiving complaints complaint percent B.

15 .41* -. J. 17.27* .11 FTO -3.32 -.07 55 .19 .26 5.12 55 59 .06 55 -.17 -.34* -.23 -.20* 52 .52 . D. Essential Finding: • Some significant correlations with performance for the CPI and MMPI Subjects: N Dept.19* 54 -.97 . (1983).21* 48 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.87* .46 -.41* . Gender: Independent Variables MMPI CPI 99 police recruits and 85 highway patrol recruits Oklahoma City PD and Oklahoma Highway Patrol 82.19 .__________________________________________________________________ MMPI and CPI as Predictors of Performance for a Municipal and a State Police Agency Joseph DeWayne Elam University of Oklahoma __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Elam.47* .23 .30* -.41 -.49* -.23* .08 -.48 .03 Mean Oklahoma Highway Patrol Academy P/F Academy GPA -.43 .29 .77 1.88* -.18 -.21* .8% were men. not correlation coefficients .57* -1.17 -.27* Note: The numbers in the table are beta-weights.36 .53 -3.22 .30* 57 .58* 59 .16 -.12 -. University of Oklahoma.15 -.86* 3.20 2.13 -.22 -. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and California Psychological Inventory as predictors of performance for a municipal and a state police agency.2% were women Dependent Variables: Academy Performance FTO Performance Findings: Mean MMPI L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si CPI Do Cs Sp Sa Fx Ac Gi Ie Ai Fe Oklahoma City Police Academy P/F Academy GPA -.41* 56 49 59 60 50 55 49 54 52 44 .87 48 .46* -1.36 -.17* FTO 1.23 -.47* 110 7.89 .47* .29 .

Ellison Montclair State College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Ellison.__________________________________________________________________ Development of a Comprehensive Selection Procedure for a Medium Sized Police Department Katherine W. Development of a comprehensive selection procedure for a medium-sized police department. (1986). Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability test (Civil Service Test) developed on the basis of a job analysis correlated highly with academy performance Subjects: N Department Hiring info 7 cadets attending police academy in New Jersey Montclair.: U.92 with academy grades for 7 cadets entering academy • Cognitive ability test correlated . Government Printing Office. & Goldstein. H. T. (Eds).S. K. D. Psychological services for law enforcement.89 with academy grades for 30 cadets from other jurisdictions 111 . 5 members) Findings • Cognitive ability test correlated . J. Washington. pp 23-27. A. situational. New Jersey Police Department (100 sworn officers) Applied = 496 Took test = 200 Interviewed = 34 Passed interview = 16 Final hired = 7 Independent Variable Dependent Variable Civil Service Exam Academy performance Panel interview (structured.C. In Reese. W.

Hispanic = 57%.__________________________________________________________________ Applying Keirsey’s Temperament Types to Identify Domestic Aggressors Among Law Enforcers Iris Margarita Escudero Temple University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Escudero.18 18 104 9 34 112 Chi-square . (1998).99 18.10 20. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 3 years college=17. Puerto Rico P.8%. Native American = 3% M = 30.35 17. I. 1 year college=19. (74% were men) White = 21.07.6%. The only significant variable was the number of personal problems reported by the officer.40 7.7%. HS = 3.6%.A.71 14.2% were men).89 3.2%.4%. Subjects: N Gender Race Age Education Independent Variable Use of domestic violence 115 military police officers and 50 members of the Puerto Rico Police Department Military police (92.64* .= 2.4% Dependent Variables Keirsey’s Temperament Sorter Family of Origin Questionnaire (measures family dynamics) Social Readjustment Rating Scale (measures stress) Personal Problems Checklist for Adults Findings Dependent Measure Keirsey Temperament Sorter Social Readjustment Personal Problems Family Dysfunction (Mean) Gender Age Years in service Children Group STJ Other Low stress High stress Low High Military Police Total Male Female Mean Mean Yes No Aggression Category Aggressor Non-aggressor 12 75 15 63 14 97 13 41 17 129 10 9 14.40 26 117 1 21 28.83 12. Essential Findings: • Personality and stress did not differentiate officers who committed domestic violence from those who did not.4%.44 9. AAS=56.99 13. Asian = . M.D. African American = 17. Temple University.41 30.71 GED=1. SD = 7. Applying Keirsey’s temperament types to identify domestic aggressors among law enforcers.0%. B.

conscientious. Greg J. Evans. Australian Federal Police. & Robb O. Coman.07 .7 32. (1992). B. The police personality: Type A behavior and trait anxiety.3 M = 12. aloof. J. responsible.. 429-441. Journal of Criminal Justice.__________________________________________________________________ The Police Personality: Type A Behavior and Trait Anxiety Barry J.001 State Trait Anxiety Scale Trait anxiety (raw score means) 35. 18.01 ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 113 . Stanley Monash University. tough minded.5% were men.5 35. & University of Melbourne __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Evans.28 2. J.7 4.5% were women M = 34. and authoritarian than junior officers Subjects: N Dept Gender Age Length of Service 271 Several Australian police agencies 81.74 2.14 .76 . independent. 20. R.. Summary and Essential Findings: • Article investigated changes in personality over time • Results indicated that senior officers were more competitive. cynical. O. G.59 .38 p< _____ . Coman.0 Independent Variables Length of service Dependent Variables: Type A Behavior State anxiety Findings: Mean test scores (in percentiles) ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Years Service ____________________ Test/Scale ________________________________________ Jenkins Activity Survey (percentile means) Type A Speed Job involvement Hard driving and competitive 1-5 _____ 6-11 _____ 12+ _____ 45 45 50 40 45 60 45 45 43 50 50 55 F _____ . & Stanley.00 8.

. S. Predicting performance of police officers using the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. S.02 . preventable accidents) Findings: (correlations) Variable Criteria 1..12* . Kearney Inc.26* . & Homa Snibbe A.27* 114 . Paired comparison ratings 2. Reprimands 5.. 63-69. Supervisor’s ratings 3... Overall performance score 16-PF Scores E: Dominance I: Tough-minded O: Self-assured G: Rule conscientiousness Criterion (1) (2) (3) (4) . Stanley Azen.28* .03 (5) .07 .T. Summary and Essential Findings: • Article tested the validity of the 16-PF (personality test) in predicting supervisor ratings. & Snibbe. (1978)... University of Southern California.. H.. Sarah Schoentgen.24* . American Journal of Community Psychology. and reprimands of Sheriff's Deputies • Results indicated small correlations between some 16-PF scales and performance Subjects: N Dept Age Race 333 Los Angeles County Sheriff's Office Range 20-39 years 100% were white Independent Variables Personality (16-PF) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (reprimands. Azen.08 . J. & UCLA __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Fabricatore. preventable accidents..17* .. Preventable accidents 4. Schoentgen. 6(1).11* ..__________________________________________________________________ Predicting Performance of Police Officers Using the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire Joseph Fabricatore.

.15 .71 .62 . Georgia Institute of Technology.83 . (1977).77 .55) • Cognitive ability not related to supervisor ratings of patrol performance (median r = .06 .12 .2%.10 . Essential Finding • Cognitive ability significantly correlated with academy performance (r = .8% Independent Variables Cognitive Ability (Otis-Lennon) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Academy Performance Findings: Correlation Coefficients Academy Average Cognitive Ability Academy Class Average Performance Ratings 1. African American=27.68 .2% were men.04 . police academy training scores.16 .15 .81 . and Supervisory Ratings of the Job Performance of Patrol Officers Richard L.00 .55 Supervisor Ratings of Job Performance (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) .82 .75 .09 .__________________________________________________________________ An Investigation of Police Performance Utilizing Mental Ability Selection Scores.70 .64 .12 .73 . Dependability 5. Communication .60 .64 115 . Gender Race 227 police officers from 16 consecutive academy classes Atlanta Police Department 87. Job knowledge 2. Judgment 3.71 .02 . Feehan Georgia Institute of Technology __________________________________________________________________ Citation Feehan. 12.79 .18 ..66 . and supervisory ratings of the job performance of patrol officers.73 . Attitude 7.00 .8% were women White=72.74 . L. Police Academy Training Scores.19 .71 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Demeanor 6. An investigation of police performance utilizing mental ability selection scores.87 . Initiative 4.72 .75 .82 .65 .08 .01 .04) Subjects N Dept. Relations with others 8.69 .66 .69 . R.77 .

Gender: Age: Race Education: Independent Variables Education 548 Austin (TX) Police Department 86% were men.1% who were unfavorable Subjects: N Dept.7%.05 Rank .1% of officers were favorable about community policing compared to 33.11* Age .7%.18* ________________________________________________________________ n=548 * r is significant at the .4%.6%.6%. BA=22. Police officers' receptivity to community policing. 14% were women M = 38. some college=35.8%. Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to positive attitudes toward community policing • 48. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.1% HS=27.4%. Ferrell East Texas State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Ferrell.07 Race .___________________________________________________________________________________________ Police Officers' Receptivity to Community Policing Nancy K. Asian=1. (1994).1 White= 71. Hispanic=13. K. Black=8.06 Gender .06 Years of service . N. AAS=8. Native American=1. East Texas State University.05 level or better Note: F values listed in the dissertation were converted to correlations 116 . MA=6% Dependent Variables: Attitude toward community policing Findings: ________________________________________________________________ Positive attitude toward community policing ___________________________________ Education .4%.

C. J. 43(8). J. Independent Variables Education Major 538 Baltimore Police Department Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Academy Performance Notes • No data were provided in the article or thesis. (1976). Variables were only listed as being significantly related or not significantly related • The conclusions in the article appear to be based on solid data and data analysis. Maryland James C. Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to performance • Criminal justice majors performed equally to other majors. Youngstown State University. A study of relationships between college education and police performance in Baltimore. social science majors outperformed business majors • Military service was negatively related to performance • IQ was positively related to performance Sample N Dept.__________________________________________________________________ A Study of Relationships Between College Education and Police Performance in Baltimore. Unpublished master’s thesis. The Police Chief. Findings 117 . 60-62. Maryland Police Department. A study of the relationship between college education and police performance in the Baltimore. (1974). Maryland. Finnigan. Finnigan Lakeland Community College __________________________________________________________________ Citation Finnigan. C.

(1986).3% were women White=88.58 (33% had Bachelor’s degrees) M = 3.__________________________________________________________________ The Prediction of Police Performance Using the MMPI and CPI Patricia R.18. P.04 50. CPI) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (6 months – 8 years) Findings (Beta Weights) MMPI Scale L F K HS D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Mean Test Score Average Sick Days 46. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. disciplinary actions. SD = 1. SD = 1.22 55.1% M = 14. Essential Finding • Responsibility scale of CPI was negatively related to sick days. MO area 86. Saint Louis University. and citizen complaints Subjects N Dept. 13.23 Questionable Sick Days Performance Measure Disciplinary Citizen Actions Complaints 56. R.43 49. FitzGerald Saint Louis University __________________________________________________________________ Citation FitzGerald.9%..7% were men. The prediction of police performance using the MMPI and CPI.85. Gender Race Education Tenure 90 police officers 6 departments in the St.10 118 Sustained Complaints Vehicle Accidents . African American=11.75 . range = 4 months to 8 years Independent Variables Personality (MMPI. Louis.11 years.

68 56.36 53.45 59.12 54.75 60.35 .30 .45 57..FitzGerald (continued) Performance Measure CPI Scale Dominance Capacity for status Well-being Responsibility Self-control Tolerance Good impression Communality Ach via conformance Ach via independence Intellectual efficiency Psych mindedness Mean Test Score 61.24 ..05 52.35 .23 Sustained Complaints Vehicle Accidents .75 55..35 .38 .23 Average Sick Days Questionable Sick Days Disciplinary Actions Citizen Complaints .74 55...21 119 ..98 56.30 ..70 55.

__________________________________________________________________
The Use of Regression Analysis in Police Patrolman Selection
J. T. Flynn & M. Peterson
University of Connecticut
__________________________________________________________________
Citation
Flynn, J. T., & Peterson, M. (1972). The use of regression analysis in police patrolman selection. Journal
of Criminal Law, 63(4), 564-569.
Essential Findings
• Cognitive ability, interview scores, and training & experience ratings were all positively correlated with
academy grades
• The R2 for the three variables was .57

Subjects
N
Dept.
Sex
Academy length

38
Police department in a medium-sized (200,000) northeast city
100% were men
6 months

Independent Variables
Cognitive ability (test-retest reliability = .32)
Training & experience rating
Oral interview

Dependent Variable
Academy Grades

Findings
Variable

Mean

Oral Evaluation

T&E Rating

Academy Grades

Cognitive ability

85.6

.12

.19

.30

.59

.35

Oral evaluation
Training & experience rating

.53

Academy grades

120

__________________________________________________________________
Police Officer Selection Validation Project: The Multijurisdictional
Police Officer Examination
J. Kevin Ford & Kurt Kraiger
Michigan State University & University of Colorado-Denver
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Ford, J. K., & Kraiger, K. (1993). Police officer selection validation project: The multijurisdictional
police officer examination. Journal of Business and Psychology, 7(4), 421-429.
Essential Findings:
• Cognitive ability was positively related to performance (r=.20) and negatively to problems (r=-.19)
• Cognitive ability was positively related to academy performance (r=.65)
Subjects:
N
Dept.
Academy length

913
Several law enforcement agencies
18 weeks

Independent Variables
Cognitive Ability: Multijurisdictional Police officer Examination
Test-retest reliability = .84, Internal reliability = .95, Alternate forms reliability = .76
Dependent Variables:
Performance Ratings (internal reliability = .94)
Complaints/problems (internal reliability = .64)
Academy Performance (internal reliability = .82)
Findings

Cognitive ability (1)
Academy performance (2)
Performance ratings (3)
Complaints/problems (4)
Tenure (5)
Race (6)
Note:

(1)
_____
.84*

(2)
_____
.65*
.82*

(3)
_____
.20*
.26*
.94*

(4)
_____
-.19*
-.13
-.20*

(5)
_____

(6)
_____

.02
.11
.54*

-.57*
-.34*
-.20*
.01

Sample sizes are 144 for all coefficients except for the cognitive ability/performance correlation which
is a combination of several studies from Table 2 in the article and is 913.

121

__________________________________________________________________
An Analysis of the Personality Characteristics of Undergraduate Criminal
Justice Majors and Their Field Counterparts
Brian E. Forschner
The Ohio State University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Forschner, B. E. (1981). An analysis of the personality characteristics of undergraduate criminal justice
majors and their field counterparts. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University.
Essential Finding:
Some personality differences between police officers, police cadets, and corrections officers
Subjects:
N
Dept.
Gender

100 (40 police officers, 44 police cadets, 23 corrections officers, 94 students)
Small departments in Ohio
Police - 95% men, Police cadets - 91% men, Corrections - 65% men, Students - 51% men

Independent Variables
Occupation

Dependent Variables:
Personality (16-PF)

Findings:
_______________________________________________________________________________
Mean Stanine Score
_________________________________________________________
16 P.F. Scale
_________________

Police Officers (n=40)

Corrections Officers (n=23)

Police Cadets (n =44)

______________

_____________

_____________

Outgoing
4.7
5.2
5.0
Bright
5.6
6.7
6.6
Calm
5.3
6.1
6.3
Dominant
6.7
6.5
6.3
Happy-go-lucky
5.8
6.0
6.7
Conscientious
6.0
5.1
5.7
Venturesome
5.8
5.4
6.0
Tender-minded
5.4
6.5
5.1
Suspicious
5.8
5.5
4.7
Imaginative
3.8
5.9
4.9
Shrewd
5.8
6.0
5.5
Apprehensive
5.6
4.5
5.0
Q1: Experimenting
5.0
5.6
5.1
Q2: Self-sufficient
6.2
6.3
5.5
Q3: Controlled
5.6
5.9
6.3
Q4: Tense
6.0
5.9
4.7
_______________________________________________________________________________

122

__________________________________________________________________
The Use of Biographical Information to Determine Skill Levels as Measured
in an Assessment Center
Mark Ryan Foster
University of Georgia
__________________________________________________________________
Citation
Foster, M. R. (1995). The use of biographical information to determine skill levels as measured in an
assessment center. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia.
Essential Findings
• Biodata items and similar assessment center ratings were uncorrelated
• Biodata scores and assessment center ratings were significantly related to job performance ratings for a
group of police supervisors
Subjects
N
Dept

339 officers who completed a promotional assessment center
Two medium-sized police departments and a state police agency in the South

Independent Variables
Biodata questionnaire
Assessment center (promotional)

Independent Variables
Supervisor ratings of performance

Findings
Correlations with Performance Ratings

Assessment Center Dimension
1. Perception
2. Decisiveness
3. Judgment
4. Oral communication
5. Written communication
6. Leadership
7. Organization & Planning
Overall
Biodata Dimension
1. Perception
2. Decisiveness
3. Judgment
4. Oral communication
5. Written communication
6. Leadership
7. Organization & Planning

(1)

(2)

(3)

.16
.19
.16
.29*
.32*
.26*
.19
.27*

.10
.17
.20
.20
.36*
.24*
.18
.26*

.19
.23*
.21*
.31*
.40*
.27*
.28*
.32*

- .03
- .03
.02
- .18
.09
- .05
.05

- .02
- .06
.04
- .10
.06
- .01
.12

- .02
- .05
.08
- .10
.07
- .05
.15

123

Performance Dimension
(4)
(5)
(6)
.20
.23*
.25*
.34*
.38*
.32*
.35*
.35*

.22*
.35*
.26*
.36*
.40*
.30*
.31*
.37*

- .03
.11
.01
.12
.07
- .02
- .10

.17
.05
.19
- .11
.19
.10
.11

.08
.19
.12
.27*
.33*
.20
.21*
.23*
.09
.08
.14
- .01
.09
.10
.08

(7)

Overall

.11
.23*
.10
.30*
.25*
.24*
.23*
.24*

.11
.24*
.18
.33*
.38*
.28*
.27*
.31*

.05
.12
.15
- .10
.11
.08
.28*

.04
.04
.11
- .10
.10
.03
.27*

Foster (1995) continued

Correlations with Biodata Dimensions

Biodata Dimension
1. Perception
2. Decisiveness
3. Judgment
4. Oral communication
5. Written communication
6. Leadership
7. Organizational & Planning

(1)

(2)

(.79)

.14*
(.64)

Biodata Dimension
(3)
(4)
(5)
.70*
.23*
(.82)

.68*
.10
.74*
(.80)

.48*
.10
.58*
.39*
(.69)

(6)

(7)

.40*
.21*
.61*
.38*
.55*
(.89)

.39*
.23*
.64*
.35*
.62*
.78*
(.87)

Note: Coefficient alphas are in the diagonal

Correlations with Assessment Center Dimensions
(1)
Assessment Center Dimension
1. Perception
2. Decisiveness
3. Judgment
4. Oral communication
5. Written communication
6. Leadership
7. Organizational & Planning
Biodata Dimension
1. Perception
2. Decisiveness
3. Judgment
4. Oral communication
5. Written communication
6. Leadership
7. Organizational & Planning

- .06
.08
- .02
- .06
.02
.02
- .03

(2)

Assessment Center Dimension
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

(7)

.74

.79
.81

.53
.75
.63

.42
.26
.41
.22

.75
.84
.69
.69
.27

.79
.80
.79
.69
.46
.80

.03
.11*
.08
- .03
.13*
.14*
.13*

- .03
.07
.00
- .09
.13*
.14*
.12*

.01
.13*
.07
- .04
.15*
.12*
.12*

- .14*
.04
.03
- .08
.22*
.17*
.13*

- .06
.12
- .02
- .09
.05
.09
.04

- .06
.11*
.02
- .08
.14*
.11*
.10

124

Overall

- .06
.11*
.03
- .07
.15*
.14*
.11

__________________________________________________________________
An Examination of Attitudinal Differences Between
Policewomen and Policemen
Louis W. Fry and Sue Greenfeld
Texas A&M University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Fry, L. W., & Greenfeld, S. (1980). An examination of attitudinal differences between policewomen and
policemen. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(1), 123-126.
Essential Findings:
• Male and female police officers did not significantly differ on job satisfaction, commitment, role conflict, or
role ambiguity
Subjects:
N
Dept
Gender

549 police officers
Large Midwestern police department
96.4% were men, 3.6% were women (529 men, 20 women)

Independent Variables
Gender

Dependent Variables:
Job satisfaction (Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire)
Organizational commitment
Role conflict and ambiguity
Job induced anxiety

Findings:
__________________________________________________________________________________
Mean Scores
______________________
Internal
Reliability
________

Men
_____

Women
_______

F
____

Effect size (d)
___________

Job satisfaction

.89

68.5

72.9

2.09

- .12

Organizational commitment

.89

67.3

69.7

.37

.00

Role conflict

.83

28.2

25.5

1.59

.11

Role ambiguity

.80

12.5

14.3

2.76

- .14

Work anxiety

.84

20.7

18.9

1.68

.11

125

__________________________________________________________________
Psychological Assessment of Military Federal Agents Using the MMPI-2
Ann P. Funk
Florida State University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation
Funk, A. P. (1997). Psychological assessment of military federal agents using the MMPI-2: A closer look at
employment selection and performance prediction. Unpublished master’s thesis, Florida State University.
Essential Findings
• MMPI-2 scales (HS, Hy, Pd, and Pa) were significantly correlated with problem behaviors and the K and
SC scales were positively correlated with performance ratings
Sample
N
Sex
Race
Age
Education

133 military special agents (116 “unscreened” and 17 “screened”)
89% were men, 11% were women
White = 84%, African American = 11%, Other = 5%
M = 29.6, Range = 23-39
M = 14.34 years

Independent Variables
MMPI-2

Dependent Variables
Performance ratings (alpha = .94)
Commendations/awards
Complaints/disciplinary actions

Findings
MMPI-2 Scale
L
F
K
Hs
D
Hy
Pd
Mf
Pa
Pt
Sc
Ma
Si
Mean of clinical scales
Es-K
Immaturity

Screened
Mean

Unscreened
Mean

Commendations &
Awards

Complaints &
Problems

Performance
Rating

56.94
40.41
58.00
46.00
44.00
45.88
47.65
42.35
42.29
43.77
42.47
49.35
42.00
44.58
1.94
35.12

59.25
41.25
61.32
47.83
44.44
47.91
49.62
42.46
45.86
46.04
46.19
48.23
41.54
46.01
- 0.78
35.20

- .01
- .03
.10
.15
.09
.11
.19
.02
.04
.09
.10
- .07
.03
.13
- .13
.02

.14
.07
.15
.24*
.11
.29*
.23
.03
.23*
.03
.07
- .09
.01
.20*
- .11
.10

- .12
- .11
.22*
.11
- .08
.06
.15
- .13
- .01
.18
.21*
.00
- .06
.05
- .12
- .06

Note: N = 102 for correlations

126

__________________________________________________________________
A Comparison of Police and Criminal Personality Characteristics as
Measured by the MMPI
Dale Ray Fuqua
Eastern Illinois University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation
Fuqua, D. R. (1975). A comparison of police and criminal personality characteristics as measured by the
MMPI. Unpublished master’s thesis, Eastern Illinois University.
Essential Finding
• Criminals scored significantly higher than police officers on the Ma and L scales of the MMPI
Subjects
N
Gender
Age
Education

Police
20
100% were men
M = 31.6
M = 12.25

Independent Variables
Police officer or criminal

Criminals
20
100% were women
M = 29.4
M = 11.6
Dependent Variables
MMPI Scores

Findings
MMPI Scale

Police

Criminal

t

L
F
K
Hs
D
Hy
Pd
Mf
Pa
Pt
Sc
Ma
Si

37.00
65.00
49.55
57.40
60.75
56.55
72.05
58.30
63.05
63.55
67.60
64.75
56.10

48.00
74.00
47.40
61.10
63.95
59.20
80.80
59.45
67.80
64.65
79.25
72.95
56.15

2.23*
1.71
0.96
0.91
0.63
0.76
1.85
0.49
1.16
0.28
1.83
2.11*
0.01

127

10..78 . Reliability and validity of the oral interview board in police promotions: A research note.47 . K.49 .42 .72 .36 . L. R. Gaines & Bruce R.82 . and captain 5 8 No No Findings Dimension Appearance Education and Training Work History Self-appraisal Motivation Critical thinking Presentation Potential for responsibility Total score Reliability Rater Board .84 128 .83 . & Lewis. B.82 . Essential Findings: • Study looked at the reliability and validity of a five-person oral-interview board for promotions in a state police force • There was much disagreement among raters Subjects: N Department 161 troopers applying for promotion State police Oral Board Information Purpose Number of members Number of dimensions Structured questions Structured answer key Promotion to sergeant.83 .47 . (1982). Journal of Criminal Justice. Lewis Eastern Kentucky University & Arizona State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Gaines.51 .51 . 403-419.49 .77 .____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Reliability and Validity of the Oral Interview Board in Police Promotions: A Research Note Larry K.84 .40 . lieutenant.

Texas.05 . (1983). Training Test Results. Essential Findings • Cognitive ability significantly predicted both academy and on-the-job performance Sample N Department 691 Four classes of cadets attending the air force security police academy in 1983 Independent Variables Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) Dependent Variables Academy grades Academy performance ratings On-the-job supervisor ratings Findings AFQT Academy Performance Final grades Performance training evaluations On-the-Job Performance Supervisor evaluations N r 691 . and subsequent job performance ratings of students of the security police academy. Correlation studies using entry scores. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. training test results. and Subsequent Job Performance Ratings of Students of the Security Police Academy.__________________________________________________________________ Correlation Studies Using Entry Scores. Texas Clara Rose Garber Brigham Young University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Garber. R. Lackland AFB.15* Performance Training Evaluations N 258 r . Lackland AFB.09* Final Grades N r 378 129 .. Brigham Young University. C.41* 474 .08* 378 .

12 ....18 .. Gardner University of Alabama __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Gardner.23 .14 .07 .8 M = 13..37 .24 . G.25 .__________________________________________________________________ The Predictive Validity of Psychological Testing in Law Enforcement Jennifer F. The predictive validity of peer assessment in law enforcement: A 6-year follow-up..23 . 33% were African American Independent Variables Cognitive Ability (Shipley Institute for Living) Education (number of years) MMPI Inwald Personality Inventory Dependent Variables: Supervisor Ratings Sick leave Grievances Commendations Reprimands Findings Mean _____ Years of Education Cognitive Ability Vocabulary Abstraction IQ Verbal/Abs Ratio MMPI L F K HS D Hy 13. J.24 .21 .13 .05 . 33% were women 67% were white.16 .....13 .06 . J..01 ..16 .7 Supervisor Ratings Sick Days Grievances Filed Commendations Reprimands Written ________ _____ _______ ___________ ________ . (1998).33 .22 . Essential Findings: • Education was significantly correlated with performance in an officer’s 6th year on the job • Peer rankings in the academy were correlated with 6-year retention (r = .36 .02 .07 .09 .03 .07 .01 .08 . Unpublished master’s thesis.28 .07 .26 .22 . R..25 . 473-478.13 .. Scogin.41* . & Varela...08 ..40) Subjects: N Department Age Education Sex Race 23 police officers in their sixth year on the job (graduated the academy in 1987) 12 police departments in Alabama M = 30.22 ....06 .07 . Vipperman. (1994). F.08 .23 . Behavioral Sciences and the Law...07 130 .06 .07 .27 . Gardner.7 years of education 67% were men.21 .27 . J. 16. The predictive validity of psychological testing in law enforcement.33 .21 .15 ....08 . F.21 ... University of Alabama.34 ..13 .00 .

.29 .23 .15 .10 .03 . 131 ....23 .01 ..15 .07 .11 ..14 .23 .51* ..06 ..02 .23 ..29 .14 . (1993) articles uses the same testing dataset but correlates test scores with ratings in the first year on the job.14 . The Scogin et al..01 .02 .49* .02 .01 .05 .Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Mm Oh Note: .04 The correlations in this table were obtained by inputting the raw data provided in the thesis into SAS....01 .33 .13 .20 .09 ..07 .25 .17 .23 .04 .28 .10 ..12 .13 ..23 .26 .01 .05 .21 .

bachelor’s) Dogmatism Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Notes: • The data from the tables in the dissertation were entered into the computer to obtain the correlation coefficients below.2% were women White=89%. Gender: Race Age Education 380 Dade County Department of Public Safety (FL) and Baltimore (MD) Police Department 95. Findings: _________________________________________________________________________________ Education ________ Supervisor ratings Criminal Justice Major (0=no.04 Dogmatism ___________ .02 _________________________________________________________________________________ 132 .. Hispanic=2% M = 29. The data from the two departments were standardized and combined.8% were men. 4.09 .6 (range 21-52) High school diploma=33%.01 Commendations . University of Nevada.06 Reprimands . 1=yes) ________________ ... Bachelor’s degree = 67% Independent Variables Education (HS vs. A study of the relationship of selected educational factors to police performance.___________________________________________________________________________________________ A Study of the Relationship of Selected Educational Factors to Police Performance David Geary University of Nevada. African American=9%.12* . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.09 .20* . D.07 Suspensions . Essential Finding: • Officers with a Bachelor’s degree had fewer suspensions and reprimands than officers with a high school education • Criminal justice majors performed the same as non-criminal justice majors Subjects: N Dept. Reno.. (1979). Reno __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Geary.

91 47.14 59.86 44.27 66.57 55.77 53.14 3.98 56.75 .09 50.64 66.03 .0.86 51.73 64.16 48.58 15.50 56..02 56.03 M = 15.41 62.03 0.37 55.73 50.11 .62 .18 59..00 .39 .86 54. M.91 60. Personality.95 63.1.51 63.98 47.06 0.45 58.80 . Bottom Comparison t value Correlation . University of Southern California.86 55.46 59.45 60.66 60.00 54.0.00 0.12 0.0.14 14. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.95 133 Top v.68 59.00 59.00 .26 .55 62.86 53.06 0.09 53. personality.75 58.50 55.95 45. Psychological.77 60.04 0.89 5.09 0.22 ..77 15.73 50. Essential Finding • CPI did not distinguish successful from unsuccessful hostage negotiators Subjects N Age Education 44 hostage negotiators and 59 officers not selected to be negotiators M = 36.12 0.14 60.71 59.63 67.14 58.70 51.23 . (1978).01 1.43 .27 57.18 56.90 4.07 48.49 .00 ..86 56.10 .91 4.24 0.57 .10 0.68 63.19 .65 .81 .54 52.64 43.07 .77 56.56 57.0.03 .45 56.42 42.32 48.73 60.23 Independent Variables CPI Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale Pd scale of the MMPI Dependent Variables Hostage negotiator performance Findings CPI Scale Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Well being Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Good impression Communality Ach via conformance Ach via independence Intellectual efficiency Psych mindedness Flexibility Femininity Taylor Manifest Anxiety MMPI Pd Scale Selection Status Rejected Selected 60.86 52.36 61.41 57.00 0.37 54.41 45. and biographical variables related to success as a hostage negotiator.01 0..41 48.09 ..14 56.61 59.12 .34 14.77 .05 53.05 59.64 42.95 60. and Biographical Variables Related to Success as a Hostage Negotiator Morris Gelbart University of Southern California __________________________________________________________________ Citation Gelbart.52 55.22 .05 Negotiator Performance Top Half Bottom Half 65.0.00 0.__________________________________________________________________ Psychological.40 .

89 58.47 58.40 52.03 .00 .17* . (1986).03 ..03 .14 54.36 55.09 . Essential Finding Subjects N Age 140 officers hired between 1979 and 1983 29. M.02 .48 54.54) Independent Variables Education CPI Dependent Variables: Ratings of Patrol Performance Findings: _____________________________________________________________ Variable _________________________ Mean _____ Performance ___________ Age Education CPI Interpersonal Class I Dominance (Do) Capacity for status (Sc) Sociability (Sy) Social presence (Sp) Self-acceptance Sense of well being (Wb) .09 55.01 .94 .06 134 .36 54.03 .00 56.03 . Florida Institute of Technology.14* .04 Intrapersonal Class II Responsibility Socialization Self-control (Sc) Tolerance Good impression (Gi) Communality 52.03 51. The California Personality Inventory test as a predictor of law enforcement officer job performance. X.__________________________________________________________________ The California Personality Inventory Test as a Predictor of Law Enforcement Officer Job Performance Michael F.51 51. F.01 . Geraghty Florida Institute of Technology __________________________________________________________________ Citation Geraghty.82 .16 56.0 (range 18 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.72 48.02 .

71 56.page 2 Variable _________________________ Mean _____ Performance ___________ Achievement Orientation Class III Achievement via conformance (Ac) Achievement via independence (Ai) Intellectual efficiency Interest Orientation Class IV Psychological mindedness (Py) Flexibility (Fx) Femininity (Fe) 54.238 135 .33 .10 .167 Education .08 .04 .08 Total profile score 53.08 .00 56.48 53.76 .81 46.56 48.23 52.04 .06 _________________________________________________________________ Multiple Regression Results Variable _______________ R ____ CPI Responsibility .29 50.Geraghty (1986) .07 .08 .

D. Validation demystified: Personnel selection techniques that work.. J. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Oklahoma. (1985). tolerance. V. Elam. (1983). 41-43. Gettys & Joseph D. & Elam. intellectual efficiency. and flexibility scales of the CPI were found to correlate significantly with patrol performance Pa scale of the MMPI significantly related to performance Regression of the five CPI and one MMPI scale resulted in an R of . Elam Oklahoma Department of Public Safety __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Gettys.__________________________________________________________________ Validation Demystified: Personnel Selection Techniques That Work Vesta S. J. Essential Finding: • • • Capacity for status.56 (p < . Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and California Psychological Inventory as predictors of performance for a municipal and a state police agency. The Police Chief. S. D.001) Subjects: N Dept Age 81 Municipal police department in Oklahoma Range 21-43 Independent Variables Dependent Variables: MMPI CPI Patrol Performance (6 month mark) Notes: • No statistical data provided in article Findings: 136 . self control. April.

Average test score 88.2%. Other=2% HS=11. African American=5.9%. Sacramento ________________________________________________________________________ Citation: Giannoni.9%. Giannoni California State University. J. some college=88. California State University. Sacramento.08 .________________________________________________________________________ Personnel Selection Procedures and Their Relationship with Academy Training and Field Performance of State Traffic Officers Robert J.12* Academy grades .77 (sd=3.43* .79) Independent Variables Cognitive ability (Civil Service Exam) Board Interview Dependent Variables Academy grades Field training ratings (4 month) Findings Academy grades (n = 354) ______________ Field Training Ratings (n = 309) __________________ Cognitive ability . Personnel selection procedures and their relationship with academy training and field performance of state traffic officers. (1979). Hispanic=6.1% M = 26 20 weeks. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability was significantly correlated with academy performance and field training performance • Board interview scores were significantly correlated with field training performance • Academy grades were significantly correlated with field training performance Sample N Gender Race Education Age Academy 354 cadets attending one of five California Highway Patrol academies from 1977-1978 90% were men. Unpublished master’s thesis.17* Board interview . 10% were women White=85.9%. R.30* 137 .

37 64.3%.63 66.95 47.05 .__________________________________________________________________ Personality Profiles of Police Officers: Differences in Those That Complete and Fail to Complete a Police Training Academy Michelle L.6% were women White = 63%.07 43.15 138 . Range = 21 to 49 HS=36. Hispanic=1%.2% failure rate) Independent Variables MMPI. 20. M.61 54.34 65.12 .34 46. Essential Findings • Some significant correlations between personality and academy graduation Subjects N Gender Race Age Education Academy length Graduation 291 cadets attending a police academy between 1993 and 1997 79.. BA=30% 12 weeks 56 of the 291 officers did not complete the academy (19.15 .06 .4% were men.95 0.15 0. African American=8%. Unpublished master’s thesis.91 52. L.29 49. University of North Carolina-Charlotte.5.30 50.34 54....1%.11 .82 59.39 .00 44. CPI.71 51. 5=worst) . Gonder University of North Carolina-Charlotte __________________________________________________________________ Citation Gonder.80 53. 2=F) Education level Mean MMPI Scores Completed Didn’t Academy Complete Academy 66.1=Y) Gender (1=M. IPI Dependent Variables: Academy graduation (0=no.02 . some college=22.97 t score 0.18 .82 60.09 55.16 .66 54. (1998).30 53.62 54.71 48. AAS=11.78 .84 51.17 . 1=yes) Clinician’s recommendation Findings MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Pd+Pt+Mf+Ma+Hs+H y Demographic Military (0=no.3%.00 49.11 54.17 54.0.65 Correlation with Academy Graduation Correlation with Clinician’s Recommendation (1=best.14 . the rest are unknown M = 27.16 . Personality profiles of police officers: Differences in those that complete and fail to complete a police training academy.70 53.42 51.04 .

02 54.17 .99 61.16 .62 57.31 0.05 .24 55.92 40.69 53.84 0..10 .81 54.94 43.14 54.93 47.95 52.29 .17 .70 56..54 44.96 65.CPI Scale Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Independence Empathy Responsibility Socialization Self-control Good impression Communality Well-being Tolerance Ach via conformance Ach via independence Intellectual efficiency Psych mindedness Flexibility Femininity IPI Scale Guardedness Alcohol Drugs Driving violations Job difficulties Trouble with the law Absence abuse Substance abuse Antisocial attitudes Hyperactivity Rigid type Type A Illness concerns Treatment programs Anxiety Phobic personality Obsessive personality Depression Loner type Unusual experiences Lack of assertiveness Interpersonal difficulty Undue suspiciousness Family conflicts Sexual concerns Spouse/mate conflicts Mean CPI Scores Completed Didn’t Academy Complete Academy 60.36 53.86 44.74 47.37 43.01 0.27 0.22 62.20 54.54 57.43 43.64 46.01 .27 59.02 0.24 52.73 43.08 .51 55.91 42.52 60.21 54.64 45.11 62.82 47.48 43.00 .0.91 60.57 60.18 .00 45.24 t score .13 .13 .76 45.71 46. 5=worst) .84 53.03 t score .12 .15 .17 .38 46.13 .21 51...52 56..63 57.71 45..48 45.74 .18 .97 49.67 45.35 42.83 48..45 44.06 .57 60.12 41.69 -1.93 55.38 45..16 .21 .58 43.03 .47 42.17 43..57 139 Correlation with Academy Graduation Correlation with Clinician’s Recommendation (1=best.28 .00 .80 56.01 Correlation with Academy Graduation Correlation with Clinician’s Recommendation (1=best.64 43.08 .45 60.02 .07 44.0.87 52.39 59.48 62.88 54.19 .93 44.47 44.1.04 0.80 55.11 .52 48..00 48.41 .07 43.15 .69 57.15 .79 59. 5=worst) .87 42.67 0.25 62.15 .41 .1.79 46.65 48.26 57.08 .50 Mean IPI Scores Completed Didn’t Academy Complete Academy 42.27 .94 56..18 44.40 44.33 45.20 ..0.54 62.57 44.95 61.59 50.96 44.02 6482 51.

65* Sample size Cognitive Ability + Work Sample 140 .56* .8 91. 243-253.51* . M.21 Work Sample . Kleiman University of Tennessee __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Gordon. Personnel Psychology. Gordon & Lawrence S.8 5. (1976). 29. The prediction of trainability using a work sample test and an aptitude test: A direct comparison.77* . & Kleiman. E. L.__________________________________________________________________ The Prediction of Trainability Using a Work Sample Test and an Aptitude Test: A Direct Comparison Michael E..1 5.15 .0 Cognitive Ability . Essential Finding ƒ Both cognitive ability and work samples were significantly related to academy performance Subjects N 101 cadets attending one of three police academies in a large Southeastern city Age M = 23.52* .89 Academy length 20 weeks Independent Variables Cognitive ability (Otis-Lennon) Work Sample Dependent Variables: Academy Grades Findings: Correlations with Academy Grades Academy Class 1974-3 1974-4 1975-1 1974 Combined 29 27 45 56 Academy Final Exam Mean SD 81.6 95. S.33 .8 3.72* .64* .

64. Essential Findings • Study provided MMPI means for 203 newly hired police cadets • 19.75 Findings MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si F–K Current Study N = 203 Cadets Mean 50 48 61 49 51 55 60 51 49 51 51 56 43 .51 141 . Stevens Institute of Technology.2% would not have been recommended based on their MMPI scores Subjects N Gender Age Education 203 cadets in an urban police department in New Jersey 100% were men M = 24.__________________________________________________________________ The Utility of the MMPI in Assessing the Personality Patterns of Urban Police Applicants Judah I. I. The utility of the MMPI in assessing the personality patterns of urban police applicants.01 M = 11.61. (1964) N =89 Cadets Mean 54 48 62 49 52 55 57 51 50 51 51 54 45 . Gottesman Stevens Institute of Technology __________________________________________________________________ Citation Gottesman. SD = .16. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (1974).16. SD = 3. J.28 Mills et al.

Predicting police officer effectiveness. C. F.42 Cognitive ability .17 Pt -.15 MMPI L -. 6.09 Sc -. M.39 F -. The Journal of Forensic Psychology.01 Pa .20 Academy score . C. (1974). Baker. 1=yes) . & Baker.00 Education -.05 D . 36 of the officers had been rated poor to marginal and 34 had been rated outstanding. Essential Finding: Academy score significantly related to performance Subjects: N Age Independent Variables Education Cognitive ability MMPI 70 patrol officers with at least three years of service. Baker Southern Methodist University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Gottlieb. M = 23.15 Prior military (0=no.10 Mf .13 Hs -.19 Si .__________________________________________________________________ Predicting Police Officer Effectiveness Michael C. C.16 Ma -.32 K . Southern Methodist University.07 Hy ..05 __________________________________________________ 142 .04 Pd -. F.89 Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: __________________________________________________ Variable Performance _________________________ ___________ Age . 35-46. Gottlieb & Charles F. Unpublished master's thesis. Predicting police officer effectiveness. (1974).

2 3.0 4. California Psychological Inventory manual.4 2.7 35.6 44.4 33.8 3.8 46.8 36.1 53.0 51.6 38.8 4.0 24.8 37.2 48.2 2.1 4.4 18.2 2.2 143 .8 52.7 2.1 4. H.2 5.1 51.3 38.4 40.0 48.4 22.3 4. G.7 3.2 28.5 5.6 53.2 22.1 7.7 16.8 18.1 4.6 22.0 48.0 49.4 5.6 9.9 5.8 7.2 42. CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.7 1.0 6.4 25.1 3.3 37.3 3.2 57.9 4.9 4.4 3.8 32. Berkeley __________________________________________________________________ Citation Gough.5 50.0 21. Essential Finding • Test manual provided means for police officers and corrections officers • The two groups differ on many scales Subjects N 88 police officers and 223 corrections officers Findings CPI Scale Do Cs Sy Sp Sa Wb Re So Sc To Gi Cm Ac Ai Ie Py Fx Fe Police Officers (n=88) Mean SD T Score 33.2 2.4 57.0 26.6 51.4 50.2 20.0 11.7 5.6 50.7 5.9 3.5 54.0 57.6 49.2 32.7 24.3 53.8 57.0 5.4 3.__________________________________________________________________ California Psychological Inventory Manual Harrison G.2 48.4 3.9 3.2 50.5 50.1 49.0 58.9 4.5 62. Gough University of California.4 56.9 51.0 26.8 60.6 Corrections Officers (n=223) Mean SD T Score 27.8 56.8 27. (1975).1 5.6 56. Palo Alto.2 15.6 2.3 56.9 48.8 30.8 13.0 48.6 32.8 20.

7 2.9 144 .4 13.8 22.2% were white.5 8.5 27.9 5.7 14.5 10.4 13.5 16.4 36.8 White Women (n=34) 8.1 11.3 14.3% were women 67.2 14. Gould Northern Arizona University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Gould.0 5.7 11. 32.7 14.1 18. Essential Finding • After 42 months on the job.4 13. and depressed than they were when they first started the job • 339 officers started the academy and 320 (94.6 28.5 53.9 33.9 5.7 20.8 17.6 4.0 6.0 .2 19.0 14. cynical.7% were men.2 10.7 21.6 14.1 14.9.__________________________________________________________________ A Longitudinal Approach to the Study of the Police Personality: Race/Gender Differences Larry A.8 14.9 52.0 7.4 7. 21.6 15.1 47.6 6.6 12.5 30.5 19. A.8 7.8 16.4%) were still on the job 42 months later Subjects N Gender Race 320 police officers 79.9 19.9 5.4 Black Men (n=74) 9. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.7 17.0 15.0 1. L.8 14.5 11.6 8.6 13.2 14. police officers became more suspicious. 15(2).4 14. A longitudinal approach to the study of the police personality: Race/Gender differences.9 13.2 12.3 Black Women (n=31) 9. angry.1 16.8 19.0 11. (2000).4 14.1 16.8% were African American Independent Variables Gender & Race Dependent Variables: Personality Scores Findings MMPI-2 Dimension Paranoia Baseline 42 months Percent change Anger Baseline 42 months Percent change Cynicism Baseline 42 months Percent change Depression Baseline 42 months Percent change Dominance Baseline 42 months Percent change Overcontrolled Hostility Baseline 42 months Percent change White Men (n=181) 10.0 7.9 35.8 24.4 12. 41-51.

45 54 6. Essential Finding • Men and women police cadets had similar MMPI-2 profiles Subjects N Gender Age Academy length 47 cadets attending a multi-jurisdictional police academy in the south 76.4% were women M = 30.56 52 19.__________________________________________________________________ Does the Stereotypical Personality Reported for the Male Police Officer Fit that of the Female Police Officer? Larry A.89 15.61 51 22.57 145 53 54 45 47 57 .33 58 5.67 53 27. & Funk.93 54 19. 13(1).38 14.86 4.80 47 21.12 56 13.90 45 7.78 52 12. A.89 57 26. (1998).45 35. S.00 51 13. L.45 43 10.13 48 14. 23. Does the stereotypical personality reported for the male police officer fit that of the female police officer? Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.. 25-39.19 46 5.06 52 19.87 57 12.44 52 14.20 62 10.75 14.86 34.6% were men. Gould & Steve Funk Northern Arizona University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Gould.09 53 19.56 46 18.44 47 15.38 30.20 50 31.35 53 45 47 83 57 Women (N = 11) Mean Raw Score Closest T Score 5.93 9 weeks Independent Variables Gender Dependent Variables: MMPI-2 Scores Findings MMPI-2 Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Content Scale OH GM GF Anger Cynicism Men (N = 36) Mean Raw Score Closest T Score 4.72 53 19.00 43 17.20 25.00 49 15.

and the General Female Population Larry A.94 48 18. Personality differences between women police recruits. Essential Finding • Men and women recruits differed significantly on the Ma scale of the MMPI-2 Subjects N Gender 104 patrol officers 82.66 50 18.75 4.54 4.14 Women (N = 18) Mean Raw Closest T Score Score 12.00 45 26. 1-8.67 50 21.7% were men.08 51 26.94 4.57 6.10 5.25 146 50 51 48 52 50 47 47 53 52 45 48 49 53 49 49 .94 5.63 55 9.13 7.25 6. Their Male Counterparts.3% were women Independent Variables Gender Dependent Variables: MMPI-2 Scores Findings MMPI-2 Scale Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Content Scale Anx Frs Obs Dep Hea Biz Ang Cyn Asp Tpa Lse Sod Family Wrk Trt Men (N = 86) Mean Raw Closest T Score Score 12.86 5.81 6. 14(1). A.50 5.06 38 22.54 44 9.22 7.68 11.17 47 24.22 51 26. (1999).25 7.06 7.50 5.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Differences Between Women Police Recruits. and the general female population.69 48 26.00 3.31 6.14 51 33.50 49 53 54 50 54 53 54 49 52 51 49 51 50 53 51 54 6.28 49 15.70 51 15.94 4.08 3.29 49 26. their male counterparts.31 1.63 44 20.34 50 6.58 6. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.84 8.22 5. Gould & Marie Volbrecht Northern Arizona University & University of South Dakota __________________________________________________________________ Citation Gould. L.96 8..75 7.86 6. & Volbrecht.72 48 22. 17.39 36 23. M.00 11.

60 .25. Essential Finding • Cadets with a extroverted personality did better in the academy than those with an introverted personality • Most common personality type was ISTJ followed by ESTJ Subjects N Gender Race Age Education Academy length 26 cadets attending the Louisiana State Police Academy in 1992 90% were men.__________________________________________________________________ A Descriptive Investigation of Demographic Variables among State Troopers and the Relationship between Personality Profiles and Class Rank in the Louisiana State Police Academy W. W.2.33 4. Range = 21 to 45 M = 15.40 2. Lloyd Grafton University of Southern Mississippi __________________________________________________________________ Citation Grafton.20 7.50 4. and the relationship between personality profiles and class rank in the Louisiana State Police Academy.20 74. 10% were women White=74%. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.57 4.16 147 Cognitive Ability Mean Standard Deviation 79. (1997).17 13. L.00 76.65 Education Mean Standard Deviation 16.55 20.0.17 13.97 20. SD = 2. A descriptive investigation of demographic variables among state troopers.05 6 weeks Independent Variables Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Dependent Variables Academic rank in the academy Findings • A few of the standard deviations were incorrectly reported in the dissertation Personality Type ESTJ ISTJ Other ESTP ESFP ISFJ ISTP INTP Frequency 7 11 8 2 1 1 3 1 Academy Class Rank Mean Standard Deviation 17.95 23.86 11. University of Southern Mississippi. SD = 5. African American=26% M = 22.35 79.00 14.

33 24.00 22.04 19. Los Angeles __________________________________________________________________ Citation Grayson.73 26.94 28.64 67.81.69 34.36 29.74 55.40 19.97 60.45 20.61 20.48 20. L. Summary and Essential Findings • Narcissism was not related to supervisor ratings or internal affairs complaints Subjects N Dept.39 22.06 . (1986). other=0.82 Correlations with Patrol Performance Supervisor Ratings Complaints .18 65.3%. Los Angeles.03 148 .60 34.68 50.25 19.92 23. African American=35.02 27.07 41.94 49. test-retest = .21 52.85) Dependent Variables Patrol performance Findings MCMI Scale Schizoid-Asocial Avoidant Dependent-Submissive Histrionic-Gregarious Narcissistic Antisocial-Aggressive Compulsive-Conforming Passive-Aggressive Schizotypal Borderline Paranoid Anxiety Somatoform Hypomanic Dysthymic Alcohol abuse Drug abuse Psychotic thinking Psychotic depression Psychotic delusions MCMI Scores Mean SD 32. J.83 19.03 23.91 15.44 20. California School of Professional Psychology.81 21.05 22. Median = 33.50 36.6% M = 32.11 15.35 61. Range = 3 to 29 years Independent Variables Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) Narcissism (KR-20 = .27 52.50 39. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Range = 21 to 57 M = 11 years.1%. Median = 6 years.08 19.9.___________________________________________________________________________________________ Narcissistic Personality Styles and their Effects on Job Functioning in Police Officers Linda Joyce Grayson California School of Professional Psychology.81 20. Narcissistic personality stules and their effects on job functioning in police officers.94 63. Gender Race Age Experience 332 Department in a large southeastern city 100% were men White=64.18 36.

The relationship between police officers' level of education and work performance.27* .17 5. Subjects: N Department Gender Race Education 65 police officers with at least two years experience Two Midwest police departments in towns with a population < 50.11 . Graziano Southern Illinois University at Carbondale __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Graziano. some college=12. 6.95 2.18 .8% were men.22 .22 5. Essential Findings: • Education significantly related to supervisor ratings of performance on some dimensions.00 4. 60 hours=20.94 5. AAS=23.46 5. BA=27.79 4.74 .41 5.20 .09 .35 5. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.79 4.4%.47 1.32 5.17 5.19 .__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship Between Police Officers' Level of Education and Work Performance Joseph R.9%.1%.89 4. Hispanic=1.20 .7% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Supervisor ratings Findings Performance Dimension _______________________ College Non-college _____ _________ df ____ t ____ r ____ Attendance & punctuality Personal appearance Report writing Traffic & criminal patrol Cooperation & teamwork Conducts thorough investigations Respect for departmental property Neighborhood safety surveillance Maintenance of skills and knowledge Performance under stress/emergencies Citizen relations Overall performance evaluation 5.57 5.02 5.21 4.05 5.1%.95 4. African American=15. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. (1995).09 5.04 4.24 4.62 1.29 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 63 .84 5.85 1.16 .0%.06 .41 5.03 .31 1.27* 1.59 .24 . J.5% HS=16.47 1.2% were women White=83.89 5.92 .81 1. R.3.000 93.95 149 .

Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability was significantly related to performance • Women (76..52* .8% (n=820).3%) Subjects: N Department Gender: Race 1. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test as a predictor of police recruit training success and the impact of basic reading skill levels over a six-year period. 164 did not) State of Florida 81. Florida Atlantic University.55* . J.7% (n=247) Independent Variables Cognitive ability Notes • Dependent Variables: Academy grades (16-week academy) Correlation for academy graduation was determined by converting the chi-square values found in the dissertation tables 6-8 Findings Cognitive Ability Scale Academy Grades Academy Graduation Nelson-Denny Vocabulary .20* Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension .__________________________________________________________________ The Nelson-Denny Reading Test as a Predictor of Police Recruit Training Success and the Impact of Basic Reading Skill Levels Over a Six-Year Period John T. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Hispanic=23.395 police recruits (1.3%) and Hispanics (89.8%) • Blacks (70. Greb.231 completed the academy.5% (n=328) black=17. T.4% were men. (1982).8%) completed the academy at a lower rate than did men (90.18* 150 . Jr.6% were women white=58. 18.50* .6%) completed the academy at a lower rate than did whites (93.17* Nelson-Denny Total . Florida Atlantic University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Greb.

Matt Riggs.03 .4 years (range = 21 to 59) M = 10. & Smith..11 .02 .18 ...15 .03 . 12-19.18* ..11 .33 . Bryant. M. Essential Finding • A short version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Scale (12 items) significantly correlated with citizen complaints and use of force • 25% of the sample had been in an officer-involved shooting Subjects N Age Tenure 252 law enforcement personnel from several California agencies M = 35. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. Validation of a short aggression inventory for law enforcement. B.25 .48 . Greenberg.23 .45* .03 .25* .07 . Fred B.07 .17* .16* .12 .37 151 .02 .18* . F. (2003). 18(2)..9 years (range = 3 months to 36 years) Independent Variables Aggression Dependent Variables: Citizen complaints Use of force Findings: (correlations) Variable Performance Measure Excessive force complaints Citizen complaints about discourtesy Discharged weapon during an incident Number of shooting incidents Number of years in law enforcement Somatic complaints Social desirability Aggression Factor Anger Hostility Physical aggression Verbal aggression Anger Hostility Aggression Factor Physical Aggression Verbal Aggression .05 . B.03 .05 . Riggs. Loyola University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Greenberg.. D.12 . B.23* .34* .08 . E.__________________________________________________________________ Validation of a Short Aggression Inventory for Law Enforcement Byron E. Smith Virginia Commonwealth University. & Bryan D.. Bryant.03 . Loma Linda University.29 .16* ..31* ..

1=yes) 55 .5% <hs=4. ma) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (probationary period) Findings: Variable N Performance Age 70 .47 Total college hours 70 .27 Education level now 70 . some.9%.__________________________________________________________________ A Study of Relationships Between Levels of College Education and Police Patrolmen's Performance Gerald R.5 %. (1980).24 Overall GPA 53 .01 Education level when joined the force 70 . R. Griffin __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Griffin. CA: Century Twenty One Publishing. ba=4. A study of relationships between levels of college education and police patrolmen's performance. Gender: Race Education: Age 70 Medium sized (n=100) Midwestern city police department 97% were men.06 152 Tenure . ba. ma=1.3%. Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to patrol performance Subjects: N Dept. African American=1..1%..25 Tenure 70 . 3% were women White=98..13 Criminal justice major (0=no. aas=2.5 (range=23-46) Independent Variables Education (none. hs=57.3%.4% M = 30. aa.34 . Saratoga. G..07 . some college=30%.

Asian=. hs or ged=50%..12* .5% Independent Variables MMPI IPI Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: (correlation coefficients) MMPI IPI MMPI + IPI Significant IPI Scales Critical items Guardedness Job difficulty Substance abuse Antisocial attitudes Hyperactivity Rigid type Unusual experiences Undue suspiciousness Family conflicts Police Performance .5% < hs = . L. predicted correctional officer performance Subjects: N Dept. ma=..12* Note: F values from dissertation Table 6 were converted into correlations (r) 153 .04 . ba=5%.. (1991)..12* .. African American =16%... unknown=.. Florida State University. Correlates of police and correctional officer performance. but not the MMPI.__________________________________________________________________ Correlates of Police and Correctional Officer Performance Tracy Lee Griffith Florida State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Griffith. Gender Race Education 216 road patrol officers and 374 correctional officers Agencies in Florida 92.07 ... Hispanic=2%..12* . T.14* . some college=44%..4% of correctional officers were men White=81%.07 Corrections Performance .13* . Unpublished doctoral dissertation...7%.11* .05 .5%.15* .05 . Essential Finding: • Neither the MMPI nor Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI) predicted police performance • The IPI.12* .6% of patrol officers and 85..06 .12* .

.__________________________________________________________________ Predictors of Police Assaults Richard F. R. 9(1).20* Height . Griffiths & Quannah P.. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. McDaniel Radford University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Griffiths. P.13* Military experience Police experience . weight) Dependent Variables: Number of times assaulted Findings: Background Variable Correlation with number of times assaulted Anger ..09 . & McDaniel.25* Education Age . Q. 5-9. (1993)..06 Weight . more than two years=31%... some college 49%. F. Essential Findings: • Trait anger was positively related to number of times assaulted as a police officer Subjects: N Department Age Police experience Education 227 police officers 11 small police departments in Southwest Virginia M = 35 (range 21-67) M = 11 years (range 1-34) HS=25%.14 154 . Predictors of police assaults. ma=5% Independent Variables Anger (Spielberger Trait Anger Scale) Education Physical size (height.06 .

Gender: Age: Reliability Range restriction 802 Calgary. unrestricted SD=14. Journal of Police Science and Administration.33 .19 . Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability was positively related to academy performance (r=.30 .57* _________________________________________________________________________ 155 .05.48* Bylaws and statutes 60 .55* Criminal law 60 .__________________________________________________________________ The Police Applicant Test: A Predictive Validity Study Gerald Gruber Public Service Commission of Canada __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Gruber.24* . performance ratings=.49* Firearms qualification score 42 .80.45 Independent Variables Cognitive ability (in house) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (after at least 2 years experience) Academy Performance Findings: _________________________________________________________________________ Correlation with Cognitive Ability ______________________________ n ____ Uncorrected __________ Corrected ________ 800 .8 Academy grades=. The police applicant test: A predictive validity study.31 . 121-129.86 Study SD = 8.09 Gender (male=1.42* Report writing 58 .60* Rules of evidence 60 .25 .19) Subjects: N Dept. G.44. female=2) Education 800 .05 . (1986). TestKR20=.50* Patrol performance 63 .02 Traffic laws and investigation 60 . Canada Police Service 89% were men. 11% were women M = 23. 14(2).22 .01 .11 Human relations 60 .24) • Cognitive ability was positively related to patrol performance (r=.25* Academy score 50 .

23* Writing skills test 156 Academy Grades N r 217 . R.32* 219 .. Central Washington University. Pre-academy placement in the Washington State Patrol: Factors associated with academy and job performance. (1988). Hamack Central Washington University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Hamack. writing skills.03 . Essential Findings • Education. and police experience (number of months spent with the Highway Patrol prior to entering the academy) were significantly related to academy performance Sample N 255 Washington State Highway Patrol cadets entering the academy 1982-1987 Academy length 17 weeks Independent Variables Pre-academy experience Writing skills Education Dependent Variables Academy grades (above/below median) Academy completion (yes/no) 1st year supervisor performance ratings Findings • Chi-square values from thesis tables were converted to correlation coefficients for some of the variables Predictor Months of pre-academy experience Age Education Academy Completion N r 249 . Unpublished master’s thesis.17* 251 ..36* Supervisor Ratings N r 87 . F.21* 157 .21* 255 .__________________________________________________________________ Pre-Academy Placement in the Washington State Patrol: Factors Associated with Academy and Job Performance Richard F.

81 .8 years.02 .. R.00 .76 .06 . L. & Heywood. Los Angeles __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hankey. Robert R.28* .16 .88 .15 . P..26 . away from people (A).09 .14 .83 . Hankey. Morman. SD = 3..50 ..13 . March-April. 10-13. Morman.89 .96 .82 .93) (.06 . K..23 . (1965).18 . the rankings seem to have been converted such that a positive correlation indicates that a high test score is associated with a high level of performance Personal Character ________ Supervisor Ranking _________ .6.93 157 Job Proficiency _________ .89 . R.76) .76) Findings For this study.05 .03 .23 .81 .29* .19 .10 .4 M = 31.18 Internal Reliability _________________ Criteria Supervisor Ranking Job Proficiency Rating Personal Character Rating Demographics Age Education Experience Adjective Check List Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Preferences Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) .04 . and against people (V) • Several scales were significantly related to performance of state traffic officers Subjects: N Gender Education Age Experience 45 traffic officers in California 100% % were men M = 13.4 Independent Variables TAV Dependent Variables: Rankings of Overall Job Performance (Interrater = . Police. O. SD = 1. Phyllis Kennedy.33* .16 .77 .88 .50 (.82) .36* .7.82) Job Proficiency Ratings (Interrater reliability = . SD = 5. Heywood California State College. & Harold L.77 (.15 .05 . Essential Finding • The article looked at the validity of a test battery developed on the basis of Karen Horney’s theory involving movement toward people (T).2 M = 4. Kennedy. R. H. TAV selection system and state traffic officer job performance.23 .__________________________________________________________________ TAV Selection System and State Traffic Officer Job Performance Richard O..

15 .83 .11 .86 .30* .85 ..Internal Reliability _________________ Proverbs and Sayings Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Judgments Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Job Proficiency _________ Personal Character ________ Supervisor Ranking _________ ...02 158 ..05 ..15 .88 .00 .86 .04 .06 .04 .03 ..02 .10 ..03 ..88 .15 .24 .19 ..03 .

__________________________________________________________________ Personality Correlates in a Role of Authority: The Police Richard O.05 ... AA=2.05 .02 ..00 ..08* .04 159 .04 .03 .. 1 yr=15.02 .08 ...23* .01 .08 (2) _____ (3) _____ (4) _____ (5) _____ . Personality correlates in a role of authority: The Police.1%.01 .03 .2%. CA Test of Mental Maturity) Education Dependent Variables Academy performance Patrol performance Findings: _________________________________________________________________________________________ (1) _____ Criteria Academy (1) peer ratings (2) instructor's ratings (3) overall class rank Patrol Performance (4) performance ratings (5) department commendations (6) citizen commendations (7) other commendations (8) disciplinary incidents (9) number of days suspended (10) reprimands Cognitive Ability Wonderlic .06 ...02 ..6%.28* ..05 .04 .04 .22* .18* ..06 .. (1968).14 .05 .01 ..02 .1%.13* ..02 .01 ...06 .. Unpublished doctoral dissertation..46* .01 .04 .47* .14* . Essential Findings: • No significant relationships between personality (Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey) and either academy or patrol performance • Cognitive ability and education were significantly related to academy performance Subjects: N Dept Gender Education Age Academy length 801 Los Angeles Police Department 100% were men GED=11.06 .03 .11* .04 .03 .09* .06 .20* .58* . 3+ yrs=5.06 .09* .07 .36* .29* ..1%.00 .06 .11* .06 .26* (6) _____ (7) _____ (8) _____ (9) _____ (10) _____ .03 . R.03 .04 ..02 ...03 . Hankey University of Southern California __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hankey. 2yrs=11.29* ..02 CTMM . O.9%.01 ..04 Education level .04 .00 ...02 . BA=1.03 .04 ..13* .12* .09* ..18* .03 . University of Southern California.96 (range 20-32) 26 weeks Independent Variables Personality (Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey) Cognitive ability (Wonderlic.9% M=23. HS=52.

05 .01 .02 .04 .07 ..06 .02 .01 .03 .05 .. 15% physical conditioning..08 .00 .08* .04 ..03 -.10* . (1) _____ (2) _____ (3) _____ (4) _____ (5) _____ (6) _____ (7) _____ (8) _____ (9) _____ (10) _____ .07 .00 .08 ...00 .05 ..02 .05 ..General activity R .04 ..01 .07 ..01 ..00 ..03 .13* .05 .02 .09* .03 ..03 .Sociability E ..04 ..00 .05 . 15% gunnery.00 .06 ..00 ...00 .06 ..10* .Friendliness T .03 .03 .Personal relations M .05 .Masculinity Demographics Age Military experience Previous police exp.07 .Ascendance S .05 ..12* .03 .04 .03 .03 ..Thoughtfulness P .01 ..06 .06 ...05 .03 ..07 .01 .03 .00 ..09* .01 .00 .00 ..02 ..01 .00 .. and 5% peer evaluation 160 .07 ..Restraint A ..05 .02 . 15% instructor evaluation.03 .01 .03 . 10% daily quizzes.....00 .01 .07 .03 .09* ...02 .05 .04 .02 .07 ..03 .04 .01 .01 ..10* .02 .08 .01 ....08 .02 ..06 .01 .00 __________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Overall class rank in the academy includes 40% written tests.01 .02 .05 .06 ..05 .06 .03 .03 ..09* .06 .Hankey (1968) continued Personality G .06 ..03 .05 .03 .08 .00 .02 .04 .Emotional stability O .04 .02 .10* ...01 .07 ..07 .07 .09* .01 .10* .Objectivity F .03 ..03 .06 .

Bachelor’s degree = 14% Independent Variables MMPI (n=72) CPI (n=74) Task • Notes • Dependent Variables: Clinician accuracy Two clinicians were given MMPI or CPI profiles of academy cadets and asked to independently look at the profiles and "predict" whether the person would be successful in the academy.6 161 . The numbers appearing in the article table for the CPI do not appear to be correct and were corrected for the table below Findings: Actual Failure N % MMPI (r = .5 9 36 45 12.8 HS diploma =60%.9 48. Journal of Police Science and Administration.5 24 50 74 32.27) Predicted failure Predicted success Total Actual Success N % N Total % 17 10 27 23.6 13. Using the MMPI and CPI to screen law enforcement applicants: A study of reliability and validity of clinician's decisions.9 37. G.9 36. E. 13(3).6 63.1 63.5 11 36 47 14.0 62. Subjects: N Gender Race Age Education 146 California Highway Patrol Academy Cadets 79% were men. Hargrave California Highway Patrol __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hargrave. 21% were women 63% were white M = 24. (1985).43 with success on the job.4 67. Associate’s degree = 26%.6 18.5 50. Essential Findings: • Two Clinicians' evaluations agreed 70% of the time with the MMPI and 84% of the time with the CPI • Clinician's evaluations using the MMPI were accurate 73% of the time compared to the baserate of 62.5% and clinicians' evaluations using the CPI were accurate 67% of the time • The correlation computed from the tabular data indicates that MMPI evaluations correlate . A similar correlation could not be computed for the CPI data. 221-224.__________________________________________________________________ Using the MMPI and CPI to Screen Law Enforcement Applicants: A Study of Reliability and Validity of Clinician's Decisions George E.43) Predicted failure Predicted success Total CPI (r = .9 13 14 27 17.5 26 46 72 36.

5 56.3 51.8 9.7 58.7 54.9 51.7 65.1 48.4 51.4 7. Essential Findings: • Clinician's ratings of acceptability based on the MMPI did not result adverse impact.8 59.7 49.8 9.8 50. G.5 7.3 10.0 61.1 52.1 51.3 5.9 51.3 60.7 8.8 High school = 62%.4 53.4 7.5 5.2 5.6 8.1 54. bachelor’s degree = 18% Independent Variables Race Dependent Variables: Clinician's MMPI ratings Findings: ______________________________________________________________________________ White (n=211) _____________ Mean SD _____ _____ L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si % evaluated acceptable 52. 3(1).5 72.2 8.5 58.4 Hispanic (n=35) _____________ Mean SD _____ _____ 56.8 9.2 9.7 54. (1987).4 9.7 7.4 7.5 8.1 8.8 54. Screening law enforcement cadets with the MMPI: An analysis of adverse impact.4 7.9 51.5 9.2 8.88% 8.2 55.1 54.3 55. and Hispanic=13% M = 25.5 54.3 8. 32% were women White=78%. associate’s = 19%.8 9.2 50.8 6. • Ratings from two clinicians were in agreement 87% of the time Subjects: N Dept.9 56.6 5.5 54. 14-19.__________________________________________________________________ Screening Law Enforcement Cadets with the MMPI: An Analysis of Adverse Impact George E.00% ______________________________________________________________________________ 162 .9 7.3 8. E.4 7.1 9.3 5.4 57.9 6.2 56.3 8. Hargrave California Highway Patrol __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hargrave. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.5 7.9 7.0 6.2 52.6 57. African American=9%.3 54. Gender Race Age Education 271 California Highway Patrol 68% were men.0 6.7 53.7 60.2 6.71% Black (n=25) _____________ Mean SD _____ _____ 55.0 49.6 74.

9 47.8 53.__________________________________________________________________ Use of the California Psychological Inventory in Law Enforcement Officer Selection George E.23 .1 55. G.30 ..2 55..07 .03 . (1989).1 51.1 54..5 50.. 267-277.6 51.11* .4 55. 8% other.07 . • Peer and instructor ratings correlated .08 .08 . 9% Black.9 47.09* 90 .09* ..9 51.2 55.0 47.7 49. Essential Finding: • Some significant correlations between CPI scales and instructor ratings of psychological suitability.08 .09* .2 48.9 52.06 . 70% were White. Journal of Personality Assessment (2).66 Subjects: N Gender/Race Age Education 579 police cadets from three agencies in California 81% were men.0 51.27 .6 50.5 49.3 47.8 47.6 51.8 54.0 52.1 48.7 49.4 53. 14% Hispanic.0 53.1 53..2 48. Hargrave & Deirdre Hiatt Occupational Psychological Services __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hargrave.1 54.00 .2 54.7 50.9 54. associate’s degree = 23%..06 .20 . D.14* .8 47..16 __________________________________________________________________________________________ 163 .03 . M = 25 High school = 59%.3 48. E.0 51.0 48. Use of the California Psychological Inventory in law enforcement officer selection..05 .9 54.7 50.08 .07 .10* ..16 .07 .02 .9 46.08 .12* .8 45.3 49. bachelor’s degree = 18% Independent Variables CPI Dependent Variables: Academy instructor ratings of psychological suitability Discipline problems Findings: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ CPI Scale problems) ______________________ Psychologically unsuitable Psychologically suitable r (suitability) r (discipline _____________________ ___________________ __________ _________________ sample size Dominance (Do) Capacity for status (Sc) Sociability (Sy) Social presence (Sp) Self-acceptance Sense of well being (Wb) Responsibility (Re) Socialization (So) Self-control (Sc) Tolerance (To) Good impression (Gi) Communality (Cm) Achievement via conformance (Ac) Achievement via independence (Ai) Intellectual efficiency Psych mindedness Flexibility Femininity Empathy (Em) Independence In) Management potential (Mp) Work orientation (Wo) Leadership Potential Index (LPI) Social Maturity Index (SMI) Police Effectiveness Index (PPE) 73 52.7 506 54.11* .5 49.2 55.6 55.02 . & Hiatt.2 579 .11* ..2 55.3 52.

18 Peer Evaluations __________ . African American=8%. Essential Findings: • Clinician ratings had low.24* Cm . other=8% M = 25.20 Composite __________ .__________________________________________________________________ Law Enforcement Selection with the Interview. Associate’s = 23%.. and CPI: A Study of Reliability and Validity George E.14 . 15(2).7 High school or GED = 64%.27* .20* F .20* Work orientation . D.. Gender Race Age Education Reliability 105 cadets California Highway Patrol 69% were men. but significant correlations with academy performance Subjects: N Dept.22* Leadership index . MMPI. Law enforcement selection with the interview.23* .17 .23* .23* . Journal of Police Science and Administration. and CPI: A study of reliability and validity.24* Le .11 . 31% were women White=78%.24* CPI Sp .25* MMPI L . Hargrave & Deirdre Hiatt California Highway Patrol __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hargrave.82 Independent Variables MMPI. 110-117.30* . G. E. MMPI. clinician's test interpretation ratings=. (1987).23* .22* ________________________________________________________________________________________ 164 . Bachelor’s degree or more = 13% clinicians interview ratings=.76. Hispanic=13%. & Hiatt. CPI Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Findings: ________________________________________________________________________________________ Academy Attrition _______ _ Clinician's interview ratings Clinician's test interpretations Combined clinician ratings Instructor Ratings _________ .

16(3).52* 6.17* . 9% African American M = 25 HS/GED = 77%.__________________________________________________________________ F+4+9+Cn: An MMPI Measure of Aggression in Law Enforcement Officers and Applicants George E. G. 19% Hispanic.74 6.. E.52 were matched nonaggressive applicants who had been in no fights 81% were men.. W. Gaffney Occupational Health Services __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hargrave.47 2. & Tim W. Hargrave. 72% were White. T. Hiatt. D. 268-273. BA+ = 7% Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Aggressiveness Findings: ________________________________________________________________________________ actual ________________________ predicted ________ F+4+9 (applicants) F+4+9 (cops) F+4+9+Cn (applicants) F+4+9+Cn (cops) aggressive ________ nonaggressive ___________ aggressive (score > 164) 29 21 nonaggressive 23 31 aggressive 7 3 nonaggressive 5 9 aggressive (score > 214) 31 18 nonaggressive (score < 215) 21 34 aggressive (score > 214) 8 2 nonaggressive (score < 215) 4 10 165 chi-square ________ 2. & Gaffney. Essential Findings: • Specialized combination of four MMPI scales significantly predicted aggressiveness in police officers Subjects N Gender/Race Age Education 104 state traffic officer applicants in California .52 were "aggressive" as they were in two or more fist fights in past 2 years . Deirdre Hiatt. Journal of Police Science and Administration. (1988). AA=16%. F+4+9+Cn: An MMPI measure of aggression in law enforcement officers and applicants.

6) 44.8) 213.4 (21.1) 59.58* __________________________________________________________________________ 166 .6 (16.1 (8.7) 52.7 (9.0) 45.Hargrave.1) 202.6 (4.7 (7.0 (8.93* 6.6 (9.0 (13.1) 48.6) 500 49. & Gaffney (1988) continued n ___ F ___ Pd(4) ____ Ma(9) _____ Cn _____ Highly aggressive officers 12 51.3) 56.0 (8.4) 57. Hiatt.6 (5.7 (4.6 (9.2) 59.1) 43.65* 2.3) 59. 1502) 3.3 (8.1) Highly aggressive applicants 52 52.8) Mildly aggressive applicants 882 50.8) 44.3) 219.5) 52.99* 11.6 (7.2 (9.3 (19.17* 3.7 (3.8) 56.5) 59.2) 58.5 (7.0 (6.0 (9.5 (9.0 (8.0 (7.1) 208.9) Nonaggressive applicant controls 52 49.6 (4.1 (16.7) 223.1 (19.8) 206.9) 60.7) 56.5) Nonaggressive applicants F+4+9+Cn ________ ANOVA (df=5.9 (9.1 (10.7) Nonaggressive officer controls 12 48.6 (7.6) 57.

1 49.00 .01 2.22* 2.23* 2.9 56.0 52. Essential Findings: • Traffic officers and sheriff's deputies had different personality profiles.10 167 57.09 .10 .99 .3 54.1 54. E.9 .09 1.3 52.3 52.3 52. A comparison of MMPI and CPI test profiles for traffic officers and deputy sheriffs.02 .0 52. Little to no relationship between personality and ratings of academy performance. Subjects: N Gender/Race Age Education 242 sheriff's deputies and 442 highway patrol officers in California 83% were men.15 .31 2.12 . Deirdre Hiatt. 250-258.9 53.5 47. & Tim W.1 49. Gaffney California Highway Patrol __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hargrave.08 .8 HS/GED = 57%.54 1.13 .14 .03 .34* 1.0 50.4 54.01 .05 .15 . & Gaffney.10 .7 56. D.4 53.48* 2.14 .13 .0 50.84* 1.9 50.6 57.05 . 13% Hispanic.14 . (1986).8 51..01 .10 .12 .49 .10 ..10 .4 51.3 53.07 .0 53.10 . 70% were White. BA+ = 19% Independent Variables CPI & MMPI Scores Dependent Variables: Academy instructor's ratings of emotional suitability Findings: ________________________________________________________________________________ Test __________________________ Traffic Officers ____________ Mean validity _____ _____ Sheriff's Deputies _____________ Mean validity _____ ______ N CPI Scale Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Well-being Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Good impression Communality Ach via conformance Ach via independence Intellectual effectiveness 336 121 54. 9% other Mean = 24.__________________________________________________________________ A Comparison of MMPI and CPI Test Profiles for Traffic Officers and Deputy Sheriffs George E. Hargrave.6 48.6 t between traffic and sheriff's scores ___________ df = 455 .1 50.91* 2. 8% Black.10 .06* .06 2. T.06 . Journal of Police Science and Administration. Hiatt. W..2 52. AA=24%.08 .06 .12 .5 53.1 55. G. 14(3).

.05 2..9 .13 59..6 .15 52.4 .93 F 52..05 40.05 1.07 46..08 Ma 58.2 .9 .4 .0 .76* Dominance (Do) 58.2 ...9 .33* K 58..2 .08 61.19 3..6 .16 51.2 .4 .02 3.04* Factor A 43.4 ..58 Leadership 54.21* Femininity 48.0 .41 MMPI Scales L 52.02 54.2 .00 2.1 .2 .14* Hy 54.00 3.04 2.04 61.10 46.0 .09 . Hiatt.06 1..6 .5 .2 .8 .17 4.04 56..15* Social maturity 50.13 55..3 .4 .06 .3 .Hargrave... & Gaffney (1986) continued Test __________________________ Traffic Officers ____________ Mean validity _____ _____ Sheriff's Deputies _____________ Mean validity _____ ______ t between traffic and sheriff's scores ___________ Psych mindedness 55..3 .03 2.18 2.01 40.2 .07 48.2 .19* Hs 50.3 .12 59.2 .4 .05 1.97 Ego strength (Es) 58.2 .04 .63 Caudality (Ca) 46.67* Managerial interests 49.9 .07 54.8 .14 55.03 1.4 ..2 ..9 .4 .02 49..2 .02 3..09 3.11 42.11 1.7 .13 51.54* Status (St) 58.98* Pt 54.74 Empathy 47.05 1.90* Dependency (Dy) 44.75 Pd 56.56 Responisbility (Re) 53.05 50.06 .05 55..01 1..7 .10 3.03 .37 Independence 49.4 .8 ..17 Si 49.3 .3 .04 43..13 46.7 .23* Pa 55.3 .14 ..2 .08 1.12 1.00 .99* Work orientation 54.8 .9 .09 55.03 53.0 ..58 Sc 54.8 ..11 ..06 .9 ..63 Mf 57.94* Control (Cn) 47.95 Prejudice (pr) 44.3 .0 .16 D 52.5 .69 Lower back pain (Lb) 54.05 1.04 52.4 .05 47.04 49.60* Factor R 50..10 2.3 .2 .7 .5 .12 1.34 Flexibility 50..5 .11 52.5 .3 ..1 .10 50.7 .61* Mac 50..01 58.04 49.05 54.11 2.15 ___________________________________________________________________________ 168 .9 ..02 52.

Essential Findings: • Women were rated lower on most measures of academy performance but not FTO performance Subjects: N Sex Race Age Education 596 cadets attending law enforcement academies throughout California 80. D. pp 35-42.3% were women 66. Norborg.A. Psychological services for law enforcement. A. & Goldstein..8% were white M = 24.7% were men. L. T. or higher=18% Independent Variable Sex Dependent Variable MMPI CPI Law Enforcement Academy Questionnaire Findings (Approximate mean scores taken from charts) MMPI (N=310) Scale Men Women L 51 52 F 51 52 K 60 60 Hs 52 48 D 53 50 Hy 55 52 Pd 56 59 Mf 58 54 Pa 55 53 Pt 55 52 Sc 55 54 Ma 58 58 Si 48 50 CPI (N=311) CPI Scale Mean Do 55 Cs 49 Sy 52 Sp 54 Sa 55 Wb 50 Re 46 So 50 Sc 52 To 50 Gi 52 Cm 51 Ac 54 Ai 54 Ie 50 Py 55 Fx 50 Fe 45 169 . J.C. G. Norborg. & Oldenburg. Washington. M. James M.S.: U. B. (Eds). (1986). E. Government Printing Office. 19. & Lynda Oldenburg California Highway Patrol __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hargrave. J.__________________________________________________________________ Differences in Entry Level Test and Criterion Data for Male and Female Police Officers George E. Differences in entry level test and criterion data for male and female police officers. In Reese. Associate’s degree=24%. H..9 High school diploma=58%. Hargrave.

31 .19 .01 .15 .70 .61 . & Oldenburg. (1986) continued Correlations among criteria Criterion Academy Performance 1...Hargrave. Class standing 2.10 . Peer ratings 3.27 .. Instructor ratings FTO Ratings Resigned from training Class Standing Peer Ratings Instructor Ratings FTO Ratings Sex . 2=female) 170 .22 Note: Sex coded (1=male. Norborg..55 .41 .

43* ..__________________________________________________________________ The Use of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire in the Selection of Police Officers: A Validation Study Rion Hart Florida State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hart.44* .29* -1..77* ______________________________________________________________________ 171 ..33% of women were successful....38* .36* ..36* .77* .70* .1% Subjects: N Dept.63* -1... Texas PD 89.54* .45* .64* .75* 2..73* 1.87* . Essential Finding: • Use of the CAQ resulted in a success rate of 76.66* . Unpublished doctoral dissertation. R.50* .04) Independent Variables CAQ Dependent Variables: Academy Performance (16-week academy) Findings (discriminant function coefficients for successful academy performance): ______________________________________________________________________ White men __________ 16-PF Warm Bright Emotional stability Dominance Impulsivity Conformity Boldness Sensitivity Suspiciousness Imagination Shrewdness Insecurity Radicalism Self-sufficiency Self-discipline Tension Extraversion Clinical Scales Hypochondriasis Suicidal depression Agitation Anxious depression Low energy depression Guilt and resentment Paranoia Psychopathic deviate Schizophrenia Psychological inadequacy Psychasthenia Black men __________ Hispanic men ____________ Women _______ .1.88* .93* .25* ..60* .4% compared to the baserate success of 78.43* . Florida State University.33* .49* .89* .80* .25* ..33* .42* .06* .39* . The use of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire in the selection of police officers: A validation study.35* -1.1.32* .2% were men (78.6% of men and 73.57* .76* .53* .27* .31* .57* ..17* ....80* ..11* .. r=-.22* . (1981).01* . Gender 415 Houston.

.73 ..17 . & James L.20 . Retaking ability tests in a selection setting: Implications for practice effects. 2=minority) . (2002).23) Findings: _____________________________________________________________________________________ 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____ 5 _____ 6 _____ 7 _____ 1.07 20 weeks Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Oral communication (role play exercise) Academy grades (M = 81. Hausknecht.23) Cognitive Ability (Civil Service Exam: vocabulary & reading) Job turnover (M = .13 . SD = 7.06.. Race (1=white... 3% were women 91% were white M = 32.02 6.19 . Trevor. & Farr. Trevor. Charlie O.24 .01 . SD = ...26 7.16 8.02 ... P. C. 97% were men.27 . Age 2.. training performance.S. and turnover. O..01 4.29 _____________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Age and gender were recoded to be consistent with other studies Correlations > . Tenure . 2=f) . Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability significantly related to academy performance • Oral presentation skills significantly related to academy performance • The validity of tests retaken by applicants was at the same level as applicants who took the test only once Subjects: N Dept Sex Race Age Academy length 1. Training Performance.08 are significant at the . Journal of Applied Psychology. Cognitive ability . Gender (1=m.__________________________________________________________________ Retaking Ability Tests in a Selection Setting: Implications for Practice Effects. Oral communication . 87(2). L.02 ...13 . 243-254.01 level 172 .13 ...06 ..04 .69.00 ... Farr Pennsylvania State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hausknecht.15 . Job turnover . Academy performance . and Turnover John P. J.17 5. J..14 .02 3.515 law enforcement cadets Large law enforcement agency in the eastern U.02 .17 .01 .22 .

1 56.__________________________________________________________________ Note on Concurrent Validation of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Law Enforcement J.9.4.1 43.3%.6 M = 14.1 59.6 42.3 54.8 45. Houston __________________________________________________________________ Citation Hays.6 55.0 51.0 39. Psychological Reports. Ray Hays University of Texas Medical School.2 44.2 44.9 42. R.1 59.7 .6 52.2 42.5 42. SD=5.6 58.2 White = 44.6 63.2 49.6 57.2 41. Pd.2% Findings Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si MMPI Mean 60. SD = 1.9 51.8 39. African American = 33.0 44.0 PAI Scale Inconsistency Negative impression Positive impression Infrequency Depression Somatic complaints Antisocial features Borderline features Paranoia Anxiety Schizophrenia Mania Anxiety related disorders Alcohol problem Drug problem Aggression Suicidal ideation Stress Nonsupport Treatment rejection Dominance Warmth 173 Mean 41. and Hispanic = 22.8 59. and Ma scales of the MMPI • Scores on the Personality Assessment inventory (PAI) were all in the normal range Subjects N Sex Age Education Race 9 applicants to the University of Texas campus police 89% were men.3 45. 81. (1997).4 44.7 45. 11% were women M = 28. 244-246. K.6 42.4%.1 54. J. Note on concurrent validation of the Personality Assessment Inventory in law enforcement. Essential Finding • Applicants for police positions had elevated scores on the L.9 53.1 52.1 48.

07 .10 .06 . California School of Professional Psychology.22* . 24..24 174 Academy GPA Supervisor Evaluation Effective Behavior .80 .28 .28* ..09 .. (1985).82 .11 .97 . Helrich California School of Professional Psychology.18 ... L.69 . 2-4 years college=34%.15 ..88 Physical & Psychological Health Physical Symptoms Academy Performance Psychological Symptoms Total Symptoms .21* . 1981) Coping Responses Scale Findings Reliability Stress Personality Hardiness Coping Support Hassles M-C SDS Demographics Age Education Regression R2 Internal reliability Alpha Test Retest .01 .01 .. San Diego.. Essential Findings • Education and low social-desirability significantly related to academy GPA • Stress resistant personalities had fewer physical and psychological symptoms Subjects N Gender Race Age Education 96 police academy cadets (San Diego PD and Los Angeles PD) 75...10 .79 .05 .11 . Over 4 years=19% Independent Variables Dependent Variables Hardiness Scale (Kobasa.36* .21* . African American=15%.32* . 1979) Physical & psychological symptoms Demographics Academy GPA (16 week academy) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Academy supervisor performance evaluation Supportive Relationship Index Hassles Scale (Kanner et al.01 .42* .06 . 1-2 years college=38%.69 .11 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.5% were men.12 ..02 . K.12 .56 .14 .10 .. Other=6% M = 25.24* .05 .25* ..27* . Hispanic=15%.21* .. Asian=2%.. Range = 19 to 37 HS/GED=9%. The use of hardiness and othe stress-resistance resources to predict symptoms and performance in police academy trainees..33* .05 .10 .17 ....30* ....27* .14 .25* ...89 ..__________________________________________________________________ The Use of Hardiness and Other Stress-Resistance Resources to Predict Symptoms and Performance in Police Academy Trainees Karen L..01 .5% were women White=62%.30 .73 . San Diego __________________________________________________________________ Citation Helrich.10 .28* ..

__________________________________________________________________
Criterion-Related Validity of Personality and Aptitude Scales
Norman D. Henderson
Oberline College
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Henderson, N. D. (1979). Criterion-related validity of personality and aptitude scales: A comparison of
validation results under voluntary and actual test conditions. In Charles D. Spielberger (Ed.). Police Selection and
Evaluation: Issues and Techniques. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Essential Findings:
• Cognitive ability significantly predicted supervisory ratings
Subjects:
N
Dept

385 (151 in sample A and 234 in sample B)
Cleveland, Ohio Police Department

Independent Variables
Personality (16-PF)
Cognitive Ability

Dependent Variables:
Supervisor ratings (Sample A was first year ratings)
Peer ratings (Sample A was first year ratings)

Findings:
________________________________________________________________________________________

Variable
_______________________

Supervisor Ratings
_______________________

Peer Ratings
_______________________

Sample A
_______

Sample A
_______

16-PF Scale
G Responsibility
H Social boldness
Q3 Self-control
Q4 Anxiety
e Assertiveness
COMPOSITE PERSONALITY

.03
.07
.12
.13
.08
.20*

Cognitive Ability
Cattell Culture Fair Intelligence Test
Verbal ability (SRA)
Numerical ability (SRA)
COMPOSITE ABILITY

.17
.08
.18
.22*

Sample B
________
.03
- .01
- .08
.00
.09
.10
.19*
.09
.24*
.31*

Sample B
________

.08
.05
.10
.20*
.12
.27*

.05
.08
.01
.07
.06
.12

.03
.06
.16
.17

.08
.03
.11
.13

____________________________________________________________________________________

175

__________________________________________________________________
The Temporal Stability of the National Police Officer Selection Test
Michael S. Henry & Fred M. Rafilson
Stanard and Associates & Illinois Institute of Technology
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Henry, M. S., & Rafilson, F. M. (1997). The temporal stability of the national Police Officer Selection
Test. Psychological Reports, 81, 1259-1265.
Essential Findings:
• The Police Officer Selection Test (POST) demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability
• 69.6% of applicants passed both times they took the test, 12.8% failed both times, 17.5% failed once and
passed once
Subjects:
N
Gender
Race

1,215 police officer candidates
91% were men, 9% were women
White = 87.2%, African American = 5.3%, Hispanic = 3.4%, Asian = 1.5%
American Indian = .6%, other/missing = 2.1%

Results

Time Interval
(months)
0-1
2-3
4-5
6-7
8-9
10-11
12-13
14-15
16-17
18-19
20-21
22-23
24-25
26-27
28-29
30-31
32+

Math
.71
.71
.66
.63
.67
.66
.84
.61
.60
.64
.74
.78
.83
.69
.44
.59
.74

Test-Retest Reliability Coefficients
Test Dimension
Total
Score
Reading Grammar Report
.57
.78
.52
.82
.78
.66
.54
.87
.59
.66
.41
.80
.54
.58
.53
.75
.63
.68
.12
.75
.61
.68
.60
.84
.61
.55
.42
.82
.54
.72
.65
.81
.57
.70
.28
.75
.35
.77
.35
.69
.68
.73
.68
.86
.35
.40
.51
.78
.65
.71
.58
.83
.31
.65
.27
.80
.74
.56
.73
.56
.43
.54
.58
.78
.43
.70
.67
.85

176

n
149
67
149
100
82
128
67
93
54
54
31
36
65
44
7
20
69

__________________________________________________________________
Police Entry Tests and their Predictability of Score in Police Academy and
Subsequent Job Performance
L. R. Hess
Marquette University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation
Hess, L. R. (1972). Police entry tests and their predictability of score in police academy and subsequent
job performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Marquette University.
Essential Findings
• Cognitive ability significantly correlated with academy performance
• No significant correlations between MMPI scales and academy and patrol performance
Sample
N
Dept
Reliability

122 (100% were men, 96% were white, mean age=27, mean education=12.4 years)
Cincinnati Police Department
AGCT (test-retest=.80, odd-even with Spearman correction=.97)

Independent Variables
MMPI
Cognitive ability (AGCT)
Oral interview

Dependent Variables
Patrol Performance
Academy Performance (22-week academy)

Notes:
• Clinical psychologist's ratings were made with knowledge of cognitive ability test. In comparing the
clinician's ratings to cognitive ability, cognitive ability was better able to predict academy performance.
Findings:
_____________________________________________________________________________
MMPI Scale
___________
Cognitive ability
Academy score
Oral interview
Clinical psychologist
MMPI
L
F
K
Hs
D
Hy
Pd
Mf
Pa
Pt
Sc
Ma
Si

Mean
_____

52
49
66
50.5
51.0
57.0
61.0
51.0
52.0
53.0
54.0
55.0
44.0

First year Other year
Supervisor Supervisor
Academy Ratings Ratings Commendations
_______ ________ ________ _____________
.38*
-.12
-.10
.03
.24*
.11
- .02
.14
.12
.05
.05
.31*
.10
.18
.05
-.18
-.08
-.04
-.12
-.12
-.04
.00
.18
.13
.03
.00
.07
.07

-.12
.00
-.05
.01
-.01
-.05
-.08
-.02
.04
.02
.00
.06
.00

.00
.00
-.04
.03
.00
-.08
-.03
-.14
-.13
-.14
-.11
.01
.06

- .06
.19
.06
.09
.07
.07
.21
- .08
.06
.13
.16
- .09
- .09

Discipline

Peer
Ratings

_______

_____

- .01
.01
- .11
- .06

.12
.12
- .01
.14

.16
- .05
.06
.05
.00
.07
.02
- .13
- .04
- .04
- .03
- .06
.02

- .09
- .19
- .05
- .02
.12
- .10
- .04
- .05
- .06
- .05
- .02
.00
.19

_____________________________________________________________________________
177

___________________________________________________________________________________________

A Follow-Up Study of the Prediction of Police Officer Performance on
Psychological Evaluation Variables
Thomas Heyer
Minnesota School of Professional Psychology
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Heyer, T. (1998). A follow-up study of the prediction of police officer performance on psychological
evaluation variables. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Minnesota School of Professional Psychology.
Essential Findings:
• Education was positively related to supervisor ratings
• A few scores on the clinical inventory correlated with performance ratings
Subjects:
N
Gender:
Age:
Race
Education:

75 police officers in Minnesota
86.6% were men, 13.4% were women
Range = 21 - 48
white= 82.6%, black=6.7%, Hispanic=1.3%, Asian=9.3%
All officers had at least 2 years of college

Independent Variables
MMPI-2
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS)
Locus of Control
Shipley Institute for Living Scale
Writing Sample
Interview

Education
MMPI-2 Scale
L
F
K
HS
D
Hy
Pd
Mf – male
Mf – female
Pa
Pt
Sc
Ma
Si

Mean

Supervisor
Rating
.20

53.93
42.89
64.12
47.45
41.76
49.75
55.48
41.00
60.71
49.13
47.31
48.63
48.77
37.91

.27*

Dependent Variables
Supervisor ratings of performance
Citizen complaints
Sick days
Vehicle accidents

Citizen
Complaints

Sick
Days

Vehicle
Accidents
- .19

Worker’s Compensation
Claims

.27*

.22*
.24*

.20*
- .21*
178

.20*

CPI Scale
Dominance
Capacity for status
Sociability
Social presence
Self-acceptance
Well being
Responsibility
Socialization
Self-control
Tolerance
Good impression
Communality
Ach via conformity
Ach via independence
Intellectual efficiency
Psych mindedness
Flexibility
Femininity

Mean
63.68
56.81
60.27
63.53
60.21
56.33
51.40
50.94
54.13
58.82
55.88
56.40
60.62
57.40
58.18
60.55
56.48
42.29

Supervisor
Rating

Citizen
Complaints

Sick
Days

Vehicle
Accidents

.25*
.24*
- .20

179

Worker’s Compensation
Claims

__________________________________________________________________
MMPI Profiles of Problem Peace Officers
Deirdre Hiatt & George E. Hargrave
Occupational Health Services
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Hiatt, D., & Hargrave, G. E. (1988). MMPI profiles of problem police officers. Journal of Personality
Assessment, 52(4), 722-731.
Essential Findings:
• Several MMPI scales predicted problem police performance
Subjects:
N
Gender
Education
Age

106 officers (53 problem, 53 nonproblem)
88.7% were men, 60.4% were White, 18.9% were Black, 13.2% were Hispanic
HS=17%, some college=73.6%, graduated from college=9.4%
Mean = 27.6 (problem), 26.3 (nonproblem)

Independent Variables
MMPI

Dependent Variables:
Patrol Performance

Findings:
________________________________________________________________________________
Patrol Performance
____________________________________
Nonproblem (n=53)
Problem (n=53)
______________ ______________
MMPI Scale
_____________

Mean
_____

Scale > 65
________

Mean
_____

Scale > 65
________

r
_____

L
53.3
3
50.5
3
.19*
F
48.1
0
50.7
1
- .30*
K
63.6
21
61.5
20
.15
Hs
49.9
0
50.5
3
- .05
D
50.5
1
51.2
3
- .04
Hy
56.1
0
56.7
8
- .05
Pd
57.8
8
58.6
9
- .05
Mf
55.8
5
59.4
16
- .23*
Pa
49.9
0
53.1
6
- .22*
Pt
51.3
1
52.4
5
- .08
Sc
52.8
3
54.9
5
- .14
Ma
55.4
6
59.3
17
- .23*
Si
43.3
0
44.7
1
- .11
TOTAL
48
95
_______________________________________________________________________________________
180

__________________________________________________________________
Predicting Job Performance Problems with Psychological Screening
Deirdre Hiatt & George E. Hargrave
Occupational Health Services and California Highway Patrol
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Hiatt, D., & Hargrave, G. E. (1988). Predicting job performance with psychological screening. Journal of
Police Science and Administration, 16, 122-125.
Essential Findings:
• Some significant correlations between personality and performance.
Subjects:
N

55 urban police officers - 15 of which had been determined to be psychologically
unsuitable for hire but were hired anyway.

Independent Variables
CPI
MMPI

Dependent Variables:
Patrol Performance

Findings:
___________________________________________________________________
Patrol Performance
__________________________
CPI Scale
_____________________
n
Dominance
Capacity for status
Sociability
Social presence
Self-acceptance
Well-being
Responsibility
Socialization
Self-control
Tolerance
Good impression
Communality
Achievement via conformance
Achievement via independence
Intellectual efficiency
Psychological mindedness
Flexibility
Femininity

Satisfactory
__________
31
55.9
52.2
54.4
56.7
53.1
54.2
51.7
54.4
56.7
54.7
58.4
52.2
60.2
57.8
54.0
58.3
50.0
50.3
181

Unsatisfactory
___________

r
______

24
59.6
53.1
53.4
55.0
54.3
53.8
49.6
52.0
54.0
51.7
59.5
55.3
57.8
51.9
49.1
56.3
46.0
46.7

- .17
- .05
.06
.08
- .03
.03
.12
.19
.17
.17
- .05
- .20
.17
.29*
.22
.10
.16
.23

Hiatt & Hargrave (1988) continued

Patrol Performance
__________________________
MMPI Scale
_____________________
n
L
F
K
Hs
D
Hy
Pd
Mf
Pa
Pt
Sc
Ma
Si

Satisfactory
__________
31
52.4
49.8
62.1
50.0
50.7
54.6
56.4
55.9
50.2
52.2
53.7
54.6
45.6

Unsatisfactory
___________
24
53.0
52.2
60.4
50.7
54.0
54.6
60.0
57.4
55.4
54.0
56.6
62.0
46.1

Psychologist's rating
Based on MMPI, CPI, FIRO-B,
incomplete sentences blank,
clinical interview
Psychologist's rating
Suitable
Unsuitable

r
______

- .03
- .20
.11
- .05
- .20
.00
- .19
- .08
- .31*
- .13
- .16
- .36*
- .04
.37*

Satisfactory
27
4

Unsatisfactory
13
11

chi-square (1) = 7.40, P < .001
____________________________________________________________

182

08 ..18* . T. Police Quarterly. BA = 24. (2001).22* .20* Race (1=white.14 .1 88..28* ..27 * . Minnesota clerical test 2.21* .8 . 318-342.78* . unknown = 2.85* . and police departments’ recruitment decisions.26 * .02 .5 83.07 .22* .77* .31* .29* 10.98* . 2=female) Age Education Previous police experience Military experience Previous drug use Previous criminal charge .26* Police Department’s decision .02 .80* . Ho.04 ...8% were women Race White=86.34 * .2 70.04 . 2=nonwhite) Gender (1=male. Polygraph test 90. AAS = 18. Nonwhite = 12.27* .03 .2%.11* .1 54..9 73.79* .29 * . Assessment of police officer recruiting and testing instruments.56 * .05 . Brief Intelligence Test) Agility Test Personality (CPI. Inwald Survey 5 6.42* .73* .28* . CPI 5.20* .78* ..9 90.24* . Wonderlic Personnel Test 3.4%. Psychologist’s recommendation 7.10* .96* .36* 9.06 .2%.3%.1 .35 * ..03 . Essential Findings: • Many of the variables used to test applicants were highly correlated Subjects: N 420 applicants Department Asheville.93* .07 .14 .16* . Panel oral interview 8. Inwald Survey 5) Medical Screen Psychological interview Polygraph Test Panel interview Results: Correlations Variable 1. (1999)..24* . 4(3).3%.76* .96* .84* ..17 .1% Variables Cognitive ability (Wonderlic..7% Education GED = 6. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. psychologists’ recommendations. T.__________________________________________________________________ Assessment of Police Officer Recruiting and Testing Instruments Taiping Ho Ball State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Ho.33* .. 29(3/4).04 .36 * .42* .24* .24 183 (7) (8) (9) (10) . MA = 0.02 . Medical exam/drug test 88..74* ..11 . NC police department Sex 81. unknown = 0.03 . 1-23. Brief Intelligence Test 4.86* .2% were men. 18.61 * .. The interrelationships of psychological testing.19 * .1 Variable (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) ..9 54. HS = 49.6%.9%. Agility Test % passing 80.27* .

68 6.29 4.49 6.69 5.59 6.17 4.70 5.41 5.487 Atlanta PD applicants.74 6.69 5.24 4.54 4.__________________________________________________________________ On the Structure of Personality and the Relationship of Personality to Fluid and Crystalized Intelligence in Adulthood Scott M.23 .96 6. 4.845 5.60 4.487 12.85 6.48 5.73 6.94 4.73 4.28 7.65 4.50 3. On the structure of personality and the relationship of personality to fluid and crystalized intelligence in adulthood.45 4.20 5.06 5.46 5.62 5.10 4. Hofer University of Southern California __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hofer.34 5.98 184 6.83 6.14 4.93 5.29 5. Subjects: N 10.08 4.42 6. M.39 5.02 4.11 5.97 5. (1994).34 6. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.97 6.13 5.09 8.14 5.84 6.70 4.49 5.22 7.427 598 5.65 5.845 applicants to other police departments throughout the country Independent Variables Dependent Variables: 16-PF CAQ Findings: __________________________________________________________________ _ Police Applicants Sample Size 16-PF Outgoing Bright Calm Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Tender-minded Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Q1: Experimenting Q2: Self-directed Q3: Disciplined Q4: Tense Convicted Felons Atlanta Other Departments _______ _______________ Men _____ Women _______ 10.61 4.10 6.12 6.93 4.49 5.22 4. Essential Finding: • Study provides extensive 16-PF norms for police and convicted felons.95 5.72 5.88 4.24 5.09 4.76 5. University of Southern California.38 6. S.

90 4.41 3.Hofer (continued) CAQ Hypochondriasis Suicidal depression Agitation Anxious depression Low energy depression Guilt and resentment Socially introverted Paranoia Psychopathic deviate Schizophrenia Psychasthenia Psychological inadequacy Police Applicants __________________________ Convicted Felons __________________ Atlanta ______ Men _____ 4.35 Other Departments _______________ 4.84 (5.12 5.01 6.16 4.72 4.39 5.49 4.28 4.92 3.07 3.88) ______________________________________________________________________ 185 .48 4.60 36.75 5.56 4.19) (6.75 4.56 Culture Fair Intelligence Test Women _______ 4.59 4.09 4.19 4.25 5.15 4.00 4.24 5.64 4.29 4.17 5.41 4.29 4.78 4.61 32.30 4.62 4.94 6.64 4.45 29.07 4.34 5.94 3.20 4.26 35.49 5.48 5.48 5.37) (5.91 6.64 5.13 4.27 4.10) (7.86 6.06 4.

03 Achievement via conformance ..47* Sp+.20* .14 .30* .04 .17* .33* Ai+.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Characteristics of Highly Rated Policemen Robert Hogan Johns Hopkins University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hogan. 24. Personnel Psychology.32* Intellectual efficiency . 679686.09 .16 .45* Communality .51* Psychological mindedness . Personality characteristics of highly rated policemen. Essential Findings: • Personality significantly correlated with performance Subjects: N Dept.42 (20.68*Sa+.07 . Gender/Age 141 academy cadets and 42 police officers with one year of experience Maryland State Police 100% were men .24 Self-control .93) Patrol Performance Findings: ___________________________________________________________ CPI Scale _____________________ Academy Ratings _______ Patrol Performance __________ Dominance ..27* Well-being .30* Socialization .36* Flexibility .04 .20 Social presence . (1971).Mean age = 23.6 (range 21-31) Independent Variables CPI Dependent Variables: Academy Performance (interrater reliability = .22* .16 .23* .11 .06 Empathy .19 Capacity for status .55* Achievement via independence .20* .02 Femininity .21 .68*Ie) ____________________________________________________________ 186 .53 Tolerance .28 Good impression .02 .13 Equation .12 ..01 .14 .07 Self-acceptance .03 .66) (internal = . R.37* Responsibility .13 Sociability .

. Essential Findings: • Successful officers were high in functional intelligence. Personological correlates of police effectiveness. Gender 116 Oakland (California) Police Department 100% were men Independent Variables CPI Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Patrol Performance Findings: • No correlation coefficients were provided so the table below indicates the directions of significant correlations _______________________________________________ Academy Grades _______ CPI Capacity for status + Achievement via independence + Intellectual efficiency + Tolerance Responsibility Psychological mindedness Leadership index r = . W. 91. The Journal of Psychology.__________________________________________________________________ Personological Correlates of Police Effectiveness Robert Hogan & William Kurtines Johns Hopkins University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hogan. (1975). & Kurtines. achievement motivation. and social poise Subjects: N Dept. 289-295. R.41 _______________________________________________ 187 .

01 . Georgia State University. 8 lieutenants.04 . Comparative analysis of selected predictors of police officer job performance.11 Leadership 38 . some college = 46. Bachelor’s degree = 10. 4.87 (n=31) Correlations with Assessment Center Dimensions Rating Source Assessment Center Dimension N Superior Peer Subordinate Problem Analysis 38 .08 Total Score 38 ..08 .79 ( n =97) Peer Ratings ..04 ...07 Perceptiveness 38 .15 Oral communication 38 .__________________________________________________________________ Comparative Analysis of Selected Predictors of Police Officer Job Performance Aprile Matthews Holland Georgia State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Holland. M.. 12 detectives) 95.66 (n= 33) .08 .04 .4%.03 .13 . (1980).68 (n=98) Subordinate Ratings .. 53 patrol officers...9% were men. Essential Findings: • Assessment center scores were not significantly related to supervisor.3% Gender Education Independent Variables Assessment center ratings Personal Values Questionnaire Miner Sentence Completion Scale Biodata Dependent Variables: Supervisor ratings (paired comparison) Peer ratings (paired comparison) Subordinate ratings (paired comparison) Findings Interrater Agreement Supervisor ratings Peer ratings Subordinate ratings Supervisor Ratings ..08 . peer.04 188 .14 Decision making 38 . 19 sergeants. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.50 (n=32) .11 Written communication 38 . or subordinate ratings of police performance Subjects: N 98 police members of a police department (6 chiefs and captains..1% were women HS diploma = 31.08 Quality of ideas 38 .. A.9%..02 Interpersonal relationships 38 .46 (n = 97) .

21 .02 .10 .13 .08 .01 ...04 ..13 .00 .07 .07 .05 ..17 ....21 .Holland (1980) continued Correlations with Minor Sentence Completion Scale Rating Source Dimension Superior Peer Subordinate (n=97) (n=97) (n=33) Authority figures Competitive games Competitive situations Assertive role Imposing wishes Standing out from the group Routine administrative functions Item Score .00 ..11 189 .10 ..12 .17 .05 ..03 .07 ..08 .05 ...

Heim.34 190 .69 56.17 60. psych screen) After 4 years Left Promoted In original position 409 359 89 (21.36 48. Holland. 32(4).38 46.29 51.81 52.61 60.56 50.34 48.73 55.89 56..81 55.15 48.41 53.19 53.8% selection ratio) 29 16 44 Findings MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Overall (N=359) 53.41 56.41 59.26 57.87 52.65 60.60 48.60 55. & Norman Holt California Department of Corrections __________________________________________________________________ Citation Holland.86 49. R.23 52. Pd.74 51.63 54.37 62. and Ma scales of the MMPI • Cluster analysis revealed 5 clusters of MMPI profiles Subjects N Sex 359 correctional officer applicants in California 100% were men Selection Information Applicants Survived cognitive ability screen Hired (survived interview.25 51.32 55.92 64.30 53.01 45.81 58.19 51.65 51.33 57.05 50.52 55.65 49.42 57.79 Cluster Type III Type I Type II Type IV Type IV (N=122) (N=27) (N = 57) (N=100) (N=53) 52.61 58. N.96 52. Richard B.34 43.24 45.71 51.82 59. Personality patterns among correctional officer applicants. (1976).55 72.65 57.72 59.09 46.77 56.26 55.46 54.46 49. R.41 55.82 68.95 44.31 52.21 49.75 62. Heim.13 51.02 46.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Patterns among Correctional Officer Applicants Terrill R.42 55. B. Journal of Clinical Psychology.89 65.65 57.57 64. & Holt.93 48.26 53.. T.65 41.63 48.26 48.23 55. 786-791.00 51.83 45.35 53.72 56. Essential Finding • Applicants for correctional officer positions have elevated scores on the K.

Journal of Criminal Law. J.08 51.65 58. Candidates (n=37) Raw T 2.77 23. MO officers who passed the sergeant's exam 100% were men Mean = 33. F.73 57.76 13.95 23.67 45.24 3.89 22.59 20.51 14.19 59. H.14 65.95 48.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Characteristics of Successful Police Sergeant Candidates James F.19 20.03 191 . (1971).92 51. 104-106.01 2.03 T 46.38 22. 62(1).38 23. and Si scales of the MMPI than average patrol officers Subjects: N Gender Age Police Experience 37 Kansas City. and Police Science.40 58.43 22. Hooke & Herbert H. Personality characteristics of successful police sergeant candidates.65 64..00 55.43 58.7 (range 4-20) Independent Variables Status (sergeant v patrol) Dependent Variables: MMPI Findings: MMPI Scores (raw scores were converted to T scores) MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Successful Sgt.20 8.38 11.94 17.24 18.96 51.44 50.43 Matched Patrolmen (n=37) Raw 3.22 25.89 55.16 19. Krauss University of Georgia __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hooke.59 51. Criminology.95 22.33 years (range 26-46) Mean = 8.72 53. & Krauss.54 54. Pa. H.00 19.14 58.65 7.97 49.59 58.36 19. Essential Findings: • Successful sergeant candidates scored lower on K.68 52.84 22.53 54.43 45.84 17.52 50.

.13 .06 ...5%.00 .34* ...17 62* Overall patrol performance (2) . K. Relationship of college education to police officer job performance.03 .2%.23* ..04 .08 Report Writing (6) Probationary evaluation (7) . associate’s=22.19* .21 .88 (range 22-42) High school diploma=37.10 .78 SD=5.22* ____________________________________________________________________________________________ n=122 * r is significant at the .3% 26 weeks Independent Variables Education Cognitive ability Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Academy Performance (M=82.05 .00 .04 .13 . Claremont Graduate School.07 ..03 .05 . Asian=5%.12 . 192 .. M.10 .07 .___________________________________________________________________________________________ Relationship of College Education to Police Officer Job Performance Michael Kent Hooper Claremont Graduate School __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hooper.01 . African American=10%. Hispanic=25% M=28..20* .04 (3) _____ (4) _____ (5) _____ ..10 .27* Complaints (4) .11 ..03 . Gender: Race: Age: Education: Academy length 129 Los Angeles (CA) Police Department 85% were men...07 ...11 .06 .04 ...19* (6) _____ .06 ..03 .06 .05 Sick time (5) . Unpublished doctoral dissertation..51* .14 .05 . (1988)...05 level or better Note: Raw data were included in dissertation and were entered into the computer to get above correlations. bachelor’s=40..15 .08 . Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability related to academy performance and FTO performance • No significant relationships for education Subjects: N Dept.41) Findings: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Cognitive CJ Education Ability Military Major ________ ________ ________ ______ Academy performance .05 .23* . 15% were women White=60%..08 .05 ..09 .00 Commendations (3) Age _____ (2) _____ .

(1976). Assessing the California Psychological Inventory for predicting police performance.__________________________________________________________________ Assessing the California Psychological Inventory for Predicting Police Performance Preston L. P.8 (range 21-31) Independent Variables CPI Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (taken after 2 years on the force) Findings: ____________________________________________________ CPI Scale ______________________ Performance Ratings ________________ Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Responsibility . Unpublished doctoral dissertation. L. Essential Findings: • Sense of well-being significantly related to patrol performance Subjects: N Dept. Horstman University of Oklahoma __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Horstman.41* Good impression Communality _________________________________________________ 193 . 80% were White M = 23.23 Ach via independence .28 Tolerance .24 Intellectual effectiveness Psych mindedness Flexibility Femininity Sense of well-being . Gender/Race Age 40 police officers Metropolitan police department in Oklahoma 87.29 Socialization Self-control .5% were men. University of Oklahoma.22 Ach via conformance .

26* .16 .66 54.19* ..05 .05 .04 .11 .11 ..10 .12 . Unpublished master's thesis.56 56.16 ..66 52.02 194 Commendations (n=98) Reprimands (n=98) . North Texas State University.16 .58 48..01 .00 .18* .27* ..26* .__________________________________________________________________ Validity of the California Psychological Inventory for Police Selection Guo Shwu-Jen Hwang North Texas State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Hwang....85 56.89 54.21* .03 .26* .00 .S.04 .25 54.79 56.06 .06 .12 .08 .10 . Age Gender: 206 Large metropolitan city in the Southwest M = 25.19 56.14 .14* .03 .10 .35* . Essential Findings: • Significant relationships between CPI scores and academy performance • Significant relationships between CPI scores and supervisor ratings Subjects: N Dept.00 .10 .06 .01 ..19* .10 .05 .13 57.00 .04 .15* .83 .02 .05 .93 57.70 57.90 (range 20-45) 100% were men Independent Variables CPI Dependent Variables Academy Grades Supervisor ratings Findings: CPI Scale Mean Academy (n=206) Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Achievement via conformity Achievement via independence Intellectual effectiveness Psych mindedness Flexibility Femininity Sense of well being Good impression Communality 59.53 46...13 .04 .11 . (1988).03 .04 ..22* ...67 55.07 .09 .03 .11 .05 .02 .02 . G.21* ...42* .82 59.02 .38 56..01 .08 .15 .49 56..06 .11 .. Validity of the California Psychological Inventory for Police Selection.....01 .02 .09 Supervisor Ratings (n=110) .13 .04 .35* .

0 143.__________________________________________________________________ Five-Year Follow-up of Department Terminations as Predicted by 16 Preemployment Psychological Indicators Robin E. MMPI.3 .0 7.0 60.3 68.0 62.0 129.2 PS/AS PS/AF 191.0 78.0 26.0 12. 73(4).6 74.0 7.0 12. PS=Predicted Success. the validity of the IPI and MMPI Subjects: N Dept.0 11.0 17.22 . missing info=2% Independent Variables IPI and MMPI Dependent Variables: Tenure/Termination Findings: Accurate Predictions PF/AF Baseline Clinical Evaluations IPI only MMPI only IPI & MMPI IPI.0 11.0 21.5 . 703-710.0 178.5 7.1 84. or the two together plus a clinical interview did not exceed the baseline accuracy rate • The addition of a clinical interview reduced. Race 219 (191 officers who remained on the job after five years and 28 who were terminated) Large urban police department White=38%. (1988). AS=Actual success 195 Correlation .0 147. Hispanic=22%. Journal of Applied Psychology.5 21. African American=38%. Critical items are those IPI items that clinical psychologists selected as being useful 2. PF=predicted failure.0 21. E.0 68.5 180.0 9.0 48.0 19. Five-year follow-up of department terminations as predicted by 16 preemployment psychological indicators.0 72.9 Notes 1.7 76.5 12.0 113.0 84. the two used together.5 178. thus a .5 10.03 .0 1. Data from the two clinicians were combined for this chart. The correlations were obtained by entering the chart data into SAS and computing the correlations 4.19 19. Inwald Hilson Research __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Inwald.9 83.27 .5 36.0 9. R. & clinical interview Statistical Evaluations (regression) IPI MMPI IPI & MMPI Statistical Evaluations Number of IPI items endorsed Number of critical IPI items endorsed Inaccurate Predictions PF/AS Overall Accuracy % 87. AF=actual failure.0 28.5 indicates disagreement among clinicians 3. rather than increased.0 44.0 130.19 16.25 .18 .0 61.0 16.5 155. Summary and Essential Findings: • Use of either the IPI or MMPI.

10 .07 . & Brockwell. (1991). and the two together was 77.11 . R.7%) Independent Variables MMPI IPI Dependent Variables Performance rating after 9-12 months on the job Findings (Data from Table 1 in the article were converted to correlation coefficients) MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Mac Correlation with Performance ..2% All three figures are worse than the base rate of 86.. 56(3).06 . Brockwell Hilson Research.9% Subjects N Sex 307 security personnel working for a federal government agency 305 were men (99.35 ..19 . Inwald & Albert L. Inc.20 ..... • Classification accuracy of the MMPI was 69.15 . was 74...16 . __________________________________________________________________ Citation Inwald. L. IPI..25 . 522-535.__________________________________________________________________ Predicting the Performance of Government Security Personnel with the IPI and MMPI Robin E. E.7%.3%.14 .. Journal of Personality Assessment.26 .3%) and 2 were women (0.23 . A. Essential Finding • Several scales of the MMPI and IPI were correlated with performance. Predicting the performance of government security personnel with the IPI and MMPI.28 196 .

11 -.29 Unsuccessful 23 7.22 -.27 -.Inwald & Brockwell (1991) IPI Scale Guardedness (GD) Alcohol (Al) Drugs (Dg) Driving violations (DV) Job difficulties (JD) Trouble with the law (TL) Absence abuse (AA) Substance abuse (SA) Antisocial attitudes (AS) Hyperactivity (HP) Rigid type (RT) Type A (TA) Illness concerns (IC) Treatment programs (TP) Anxiety (AN) Phobic personality (OB) Obsessive personality (OB) Depression (De) Loner (LO) Unusual experiences (UE) Lack of assertiveness (LA) Interpersonal difficulties (ID) Undue suspiciousness (US) Family concerns (FC) Sexual concerns (SC) Spouse conflicts (SP) Correlation with Performance .10 -.14 -.2 210 68.17 -.1 205 66.07 -.23 -.16 -.12 -.01 -.4 MMPI r = .30 -.5 53 17.8 57 18.08 -.5 214 69.24 -.6 Successful 22 7.9 Correlation Baserate Predicted Performance IPI r = .23 -.7 Note: The numbers in this table were compiled from Table 2 in the article and the correlations were computed by taking the frequencies from the table and entering them into Excel 197 .2 Successful 31 10.34 -.1 267 86.12 -.20 Actual Performance Unsuccessful Successful N % N % 40 13.9 62 20.01 Unsuccessful 9 2.25 -.06 -.05 -.16 -.15 -.18 Unsuccessful 18 5..3 Successful 17 5.07 -.19 -.8 IPI & MMPI r = .15 -.

29* .. Shusman Hilson Research. J.07 .38* 198 .39* .37* .12* .06 .33* . Gender Race Age Education 329 Urban police department 100% were men White=80%. R.35* .__________________________________________________________________ The IPI and MMPI as Predictors of Academy Performance for Police Recruits Robin E..09 .33* .33* . 1-11.37* . other=1% Independent Variables IPI MMPI Notes • Dependent Variables: Academy Performance F values were converted to correlations (r) for the individual MMPI scales in the table below Findings: Lateness MMPI L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Overall IPI IPI + MMPI Absences Injuries Derelictions Times on restricted duty Negative reports Positive reports .09 . E. (1984). some college=37%.28* .17* .31* .19* . __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Inwald. The IPI and MMPI as predictors of academy performance for police recruits.02 .26* .02 .07 Supervisor’s rating . college degree=17%.04 . E.21* .12* .34* . Essential Findings: • MMPI and IPI significantly predicted several academy criteria Subjects: N Dept. African American=12%.11 . 12(1). Inwald & Elizabeth J.18* .27* . Hispanic=8% M = 23(range 19-32) HS or GED=45%. Inc..29* .17* .18* .36* .27* . & Shusman.24* .10 . Journal of Police Science and Administration.29* .

E. college degree = 15% Independent Variables Personality (IPI. some college = 38%.. 17.3% were women Men White = 45%. J. Inwald & Elizabeth J.04 None 77% 81% 1 or more 23% 19% Tenure r = . African American = 75%.7% were men. 12(3). Shusman Hilson Research.15) and late • Men more likely than women to have disciplinary interviews (r=. 3. R. 339-347. & 4 were not in the original article but were computed by entering the frequency data from the tables into SAS Table 1: Gender Differences in Performance Measures Performance Measure Men Women Absenteeism r = . MMPI) Dependent Variables: Probationary Performance Findings • Note: The correlations in Tables 1.__________________________________________________________________ Personality and Performance Sex Differences of Law Enforcement Officer Recruits Robin E. __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Inwald. E.13 Fired 7% 4% Resigned 20% 9% With department after one year 73% 87% 199 . some college = 45%.04) and leave the job (r = . Personality and performance sex differences of law enforcement officer recruits. Journal of Police Science and Administration.15 1 or 2 absences 84% 67% 3 or more absences 16% 32% Lateness 1 or 2 times 84% 61% 3 or more times 16% 39% Disciplinary interviews r = . Hispanic = 20% Women White = 12%. & Shusman.13) • IPI was more accurate than MMPI but neither was more accurate than the base rate Subjects N Gender Race Age Education 905 corrections officers 82. (1984). Inc. African American = 35%... college degree = 10% Women HS or GED = 40%. Essential Findings • Women more likely than men to be absent (r = . Hispanic = 13% M=26 (range 19-33) for mean and M = 26 (range 20-35) for women Men HS or GED = 52%.

Inwald & Shusman (1984) continued

Correlation with success/failure Status
IPI Scale
Men (n=596)
Women (n=143)
Trouble with the law
- .17*
Antisocial attitudes
- .14*
Guardedness
- .04
Absence abuse
- .14*
.04
Treatment programs
.03
Illness concerns
- .04
Undue suspiciousness
- .08
Rigid type
- .13*
.08
Obsessive type
-.06
Lack of assertiveness
.18*
Anxiety
- .06
Phobias
.16
Alcohol abuse
.09
Loner
- .09
Note: Success was defined as being employed after one year and failure was
defined as being fired. Correlations were obtained by converting the F from
the article into a correlation coefficient

Men
IPI Only
Actual Performance
Success
Failure
Total

Predicted
Performance
Failure Success
147
398
34
17
181
415

% Accurate
Predictions

Base Rate of
Success

Correlation

Total
545
51
596

72%

91%

.24

MMPI Only
Actual Performance
Success
Failure
Total

207
34
241

338
17
355

545
51
596

62%

91%

.16

149
38
187

396
13
409

545
51
596

73%

91%

.28

IPI and MMPI
Actual Performance
Success
Failure
Total

200

Inwald & Shusman (1984) continued

Men
IPI Only
Actual Performance
Success
Failure
Total

Predicted
Performance
Failure Success
24
112
6
1
30
113

% Accurate
Predictions

Base Rate of
Success

Correlation

Total
136
7
143

83%

95%

.36

MMPI Only
Actual Performance
Success
Failure
Total

48
6
54

88
1
89

136
7
143

66%

95%

.22

11
7
18

125
0
125

136
7
143

92%

95%

.60

IPI and MMPI
Actual Performance
Success
Failure
Total

201

__________________________________________________________________
A Predictive Validity Study of Police Officer Selection
Edmund A. S. Jayaraj
Southern Connecticut State University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Jayaraj, E. A. S. (1984). A predictive validity study of police officer selection. Unpublished master’s thesis,
Southern Connecticut State University.
Essential Findings:
• Education and cognitive ability predicted performance in the academy
• The multiple R for education and cognitive ability was .65
• Education added incremental validity over cognitive ability
• Physical agility was not related to academy performance
Subjects:
N
29 police cadets for a department located in the Northeast
Education
HS=44.8%, some college= 17.2%, AAS=20.7%, BA=17.2%, MA=0%
Academy length 17 weeks
Independent Variables
Cognitive Ability
Education
Physical Agility
Related Experience

Dependent Variables:
Academy Performance

Findings:

1
____
1. Cognitive Ability
2. Physical Agility
3. Education1
4. Education2
5. Experience (0=no, 1=yes)
6. Academy Grades

2
_____
- .08

3
_____
.60
.01

4
_____
.60
.04
.98

5
_____
.19
- .34
.32
.23

6
_____
.55
- .20
.63
.60
.38

Note: This table was generated by entering the raw data from the thesis into SAS, and then generating the correlation
coefficients. Because the author had initially coded education as 1=HS, 2=AAS, 3=BA, 4=MA, and 5=other, we
recoded the data such that other was treated as missing data for the variable Education1 and other was treated as
some college and recoded as 1=Hs, 2=some college, 3=AAS, 4=BA, and 5=MA for Education2.

202

____________________________________________________________________________________________

Development and Validation of Trooper Physical Ability
and Cognitive Ability Tests
P.R. Jeanneret, J.R. Moore, B. R. Blakley, S. L. Koelzer, & O. Menkes
Jeanneret & Associates
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Jeanneret, P. R., Moore, J. R., Blakley, B. R., Koelzer, S. L., & Menkes, O. (1991). Development and
validation of trooper physical ability and cognitive ability tests: Final report submitted to the Texas Department of
Public Safety. Houston, TX: Jeanneret & Associates.
Essential Findings:
• Cognitive ability significantly predicted academy and overall on-the-job performance
Subjects:
N
Gender
Race

178 Texas Department of Public Safety troopers
90.4% were men, 9.6% were women
64% were white, 21% were black, 12% were Hispanic, and 3% were other

Findings:
Mean
Rating Dimensions
1. Written communication
2. Oral communication
3. Comprehension of
information
4. Overall job performance
Training (24-week academy)
5. Class average
6. Class standing
Licensure Test (7)
Cognitive Ability
Reading comprehension A
Reading comprehension B
Writing skills A
Writing skills B
SRA adaptability
Cognitive total score
Physical Ability Tests
Grip
Arm lift
Shoulder
Torso
Grip + Arm + Torso
Grip + Arm + Shoulder + Torso
Long jump (inches)
Sit-ups (1 minute)

VO2Max

Alpha

1

2

Performance Dimension
3
4
5

.68*

19.9
20.2
21.0
20.0

109.9
93.9
126.7
238.5
442.4
569.1
79.0
46.5
45.5

.66
.66
.62
.58

.70*
.70*

.55*
.61*
.72*

.38*
.22*
.27*
.23*

6

Licensure
Test

- .36*
- .26*
- .34*
- .30*

.14
.12
.17*
- .02

- .90*

.08
- .05

.34*
.33*
.21*
.23*
.33*
.36*

.30*
.25*
.18*
.20*
.22*
.26*

.30*
.35*
.18*
.16*
.22*
.28*

.20*
.17*
.09
.12
.16*
.18*

.58*
.61*
.55*
.61*
.66*
.76*

- .54*
- .59*
- .53*
- .57*
- .59*
- .70*

.09
.22*
.08
.10
.11
.16*

.04
.01
- .01
.00
.01
.01
- .09
- .08
- .15*

- .05
.01
- .05
.00
.01
- .02
- .02
.05
- .06

- .03
- .01
- .01
.01
.00
.00
- .07
.00
- .12

- .08
.06
.03
.10
.05
.05
.01
.02
- .06

.05
.08
.07
.04
.06
.06
.07
.18*
.03

.03
- .07
- .06
- .04
- .04
- .04
- .09
- .16*
- .03

.11
- .08
- .14
- .22*
- .12
- .13
- .05
.08
- .06

203

Jeanneret et al. (cont)
(1)
Rating Dimension
1. Strength
2. Endurance
3. Flexibility
4. Coordination
5. Overall physical ability
6. Overall job performance
Work Simulations
7. Defensive shove
8. Dummy drag
9. Scale transport
10. Pursuit
Physical Ability Tests
Grip
Arm life
Shoulder
Torso
Grip + Arm + Shoulder
G + A + S + Torso
Long jump
Sit-ups
VO2MAx

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

.62

.30

.38

.79

.23

.36

- .33

- .08

- .23

.56

.56

.72

.45

.15

- .29

- .05

- .23

.45

.50

.29

- .05

- .01

- .07

- .24

.60

.54

.09

- .08

.07

- .20

.40

.28

- .23

- .04

- .30

.14

.02

.04

- .09

- .42

- .01

- .26

.19

.34
- .09

.34

.12

- .06

.05

.18

- .08

.22

- .30

- .34

- .11

.55

.32

.07

.23

.47

.06

.50

- .43

- .10

- .31

.55

.26

- .01

.14

.37

.03

.54

- .38

- .09

- .27

.47

.15

- .04

.13

.29

.10

.44

- .30

- .05

- .24

.53

.21

- .03

.15

.35

.05

.46

- .38

- .15

- .26

.55

.23

- .02

.15

.36

.05

.50

- .39

- .14

- .27

.42

.26

.17

.10

.33

.01

.31

- .32

- .25

- .42

.12

.14

.26

.23

.24

.02

- .01

- .11

- .03

- .24

.33

.29

.41

.23

.39

- .06

.10

- .17

- .18

- .31

204

__________________________________________________________________
Police Officer Selection and Retention: A review of the Attributes of
Candidates and the Implications for Selection
David Lee Johnson
University of Louisville
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Johnson, D. L. (1997). Police officer selection and retention: A review of the attributes of candidates and
the implications for selection. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Louisville.
Essential Findings:
• Due to the way the analysis was conducted and reported, there are no real findings
Subjects:
N
Gender:
Race
Age
Education
Military service

344 applicants to the St. Cloud (MN) Police Department; 39 were hired
82.4% of those hired were men, 17.6% were women
White=50.3%, Minority=49.7%
M = 23 (range = 19 to 43)
<HS = 8%, HS = 9% 14 years = 42%, 16 years = 41%
14% had military service

Independent Variables
MMPI
Police Career Index
Oral Interview
Background Check

Dependent Variables
Hire status
FTO Performance

Findings
Employment Process

Number

Requested Application

599

Completed Application

344

Completed Civil Service Interview

73

Background investigation conducted

69

Hired

36

205

____________________________________________________________________________________________

Vocational Interests, Personality, and Effective Police Performance
John A. Johnson & Robert Hogan
The Johns Hopkins University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Johnson, J. A., & Hogan, R. (1981). Vocational interests, personality, and effective police performance.
Personnel Psychology, 34(1), 49-53.
Essential Findings:
• Vocational interests predicted some aspects of police performance
Subjects:
N
Gender
Race

50 police officers and 38 police cadets for a department located in a Baltimore suburb
76% of officers and 95% of cadets were men
94% of officers and 100% of cadets were white

Independent Variables
Vocational Interest (Holland Self-Directed Search)

Dependent Variables:
Patrol Performance
Academy Performance

Findings:
_____________________________________________________________________________
Correlations with Criteria
_________________________________________
Mean
_____

(1)
____

(2)
____

(3)
_____

(4)
_____

(5)
_____

Police Officers (n=50)
Realistic
32.3
- .17
.18
.14
.01
Investigative
23.5
.06
- .07
.15
.03
Artistic
19.0
- .29*
- .08
.34*
- .16
Social
32.7
- .11
.03
.30*
.23
Enterprising
27.9
.05
- .01
.17
.22
Conventional
22.4
.21
.15
- .08
- .05
Cadets (n=38)
Realistic
34.2
- .07
Investigative
27.4
- .17
Artistic
18.9
- .22
Social
32.4
- .05
Enterprising
27.2
.01
Conventional
22.4
.23
Criteria
Academy Grades (1)
84.0
.42*
- .58*
.03
Academy Ratings (2)
5.0
(.82)*
Patrol Performance (3)
6.5
(.92)* - .23*
.26*
Complaints (4)
0.5
.08
Letters of Appreciation (5)
2.7
_____________________________________________________________________________
206

____________________________________________________________________________________________

The Effects of Higher Education/Military Service on Achievement Levels of
Police Academy Cadets
Thomas A. Johnson
Texas Southern University
__________________________________________________________________
Citation:
Johnson, T. A. (1998). The effects of higher education/military service on achievement levels of police
academy cadets. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Southern University.
Essential Findings
• Education was related to academy performance, scores on the state licensing exam, and firearms
performance
Subjects
N
Gender
Race

273 cadets in the Houston, TX police academy
82% of the cadets were men, 18% were women
White=46%, African American=24%, Hispanic=23.5%, Asian=6%,
Pacific Islanders=.5%
Age
Range = 21 to 35 years
Academy length 960 hours (24 weeks)

Independent Variables
Education
Military service

Dependent Variables:
Academy Performance

Findings
To compute the correlations for the table below, standard deviations were obtained by dividing the total
sums of squares in the ANOVA table by the total degrees of freedom and then taking the square root. The difference
in group means was then divided by the standard deviation to create a d score. The d score was then converted into a
correlation coefficient.
The results are confounded in that the no college and <59 hours of college groups had military experience
but the >59 hours of college group did not.
Amount of College

Dependent Variable
State Licensing Exam score
Academy Average
Driving Skills Average
Firearms Average

Correlation

No college

< 59 college
hours

> 59 college
hours

SD

F ratio

From
overall
F

> 59 hours
compared to
no college

72.93
84.72
85.18
84.60

75.10
86.18
84.09
86.02

75.54
87.16
83.17
88.16

6.77
4.88
7.37
8.15

3.49*
5.99*
1.04
3.81*

.11
.15
- .06
.12

.19
.24
- .13
.21

207

(2003).85 .66 Report colleagues’ unethical activity 144.64 Leadership 113.36 . Educational Level.45 HS = 23. Gender Race Age Tenure Education 134 Dade County Police 68.66 .69 208 .61 Accept suggestions 113. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.11% were Hispanic M = 37.91 .71 Challenging situations 63. 31. and job performance.66 Report colleagues’ illegal activity 94.20 . associate’s degree = 22.16 . 28.71 Accept responsibility for personal mistakes 85. 45-56.63 Knowledge of federal laws 126.35 .73 Decision making in the absence of clear guidelines 63.58%.57 Manage extra work 70.17 . bachelor’s degree = 23.41%.04 % were African American. 23.2% were men.96% Independent Variables Education Race Dependent Variables: Self-ratings of performance Findings: Relationship between self-ratings and education after controlling for years of experience F value from Table 3 Equivalent Correlation Ability to take right action without any help from supervisor 61.8 M = 9.__________________________________________________________________ Race and Police Officers’ Perceptions of their Job Performance: An Analysis of the Relationship between Police Officers’ Race.58 Perform other than assigned area 81.80 .8% were white.25 .60 Deal with angry community member 75. education level. S.8% were women 48.59 .10 .45 . Essential Findings: • There were racial differences in self-rating of performance on 6 of the 40 dimensions • Education level was positively correlated to self-ratings of performance Subjects: N Dept. 18(1). 2+ years of college = 30.58 Work with deadlines 124.44 .69 Willingness to accept change 95. Race and police officers perceptions of their job performance: An analysis of the relationship between police officers’ race.04%. and Job Performance Suman Kakar Florida International University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Kakar.

45 2.72 .75 3.45 2.46 .49 .78 2.45 .67 .42 4.99 .33 .92 .98 3.36 3.96 3.49 3.99 .84 .25 34.46 .77 .67 .78 2.12 3.Problem solving Deal with stressful situations Knowledge of state laws Take advice from juniors Deal with wrong accusations 59.39 3.01 .95 1.83 .22 1.50 1.25 3.70 White (n = 106) SD Mean 3.54 .32 .12 2.65 .98 1.91 1.45 .50 2.37 .53 .31 2.52 2.93 1.62 1.04 3.32 3.10 4.18 2.45 .01 .88 2.69 3.79 3.33 3.35 3.44 .39 3.48 .22 4.48 .34 1.20 .22 1.79 .26 3.72 3.07 .22 1.00 2.26 3.19 1.89 4.73 .50 .50 .21 2.09 2.49 .45 .68 3.40 .76 .42 .52 3.90 .65 1.60 1.47 3.23 .59 Hispanic (n=61) Mean SD 3.63 1.26 3.83 .46 .47 2.14 3.23 1.36 2.12 .75 .16 2.64 .96 2.23 .54 3.89 .00 4.52 3.99 1.33 3.39 .23 .94 3.83 3.43 3.84 .58 .50 .12 2.99 .63 1.68 .45 1.25 2.79 .79 Black (n= 50) Mean SD Racial differences in self-ratings of performance Performance dimension Ability to take right action without any help from supervisor Manage extra work Deal with angry community members* Accept suggestions Willingness to accept change Report colleagues’ illegal activity Report colleagues’ unethical activity Decision making in the absence of clear guidelines Work with deadlines Challenging situations Job satisfaction Satisfaction with the department* Knowledge of federal laws Knowledge of state laws Knowledge of department regulations Accept responsibility for personal mistakes Leadership* Problem solving Collegiality Deal with stressful situations Police oneself Take advice from juniors Deal with wrong accusations Arrest report writing Ability to appear as a witness* Self-image Reprimands/suspensions Awards Community projects Decision making* Ability to handle emergency responses Ability to do extra work Ability to perform in other areas Use public contacts for departmental use Use public contacts for personal use Support from fellow officers* 3.02 1.58 .82 .46 .74 .97 .60 .05 .23 1.69 4.01 3.07 3.78 .35 .30 .22 3.70 .17 .52 3.04 .67 .65 .57 .38 .15 2.99 3.68 2.01 3.01 3.89 .82 1.01 3.77 .68 .77 .32 .76 .20 3.37 .28 66.31 2.05 3.99 .67 3.44 3.04 1.54 * indicates statistically significant racial differences in mean rating 209 .00 3.89 3.23 2.27 3.54 3.12 3.15 4.23 .36 .84 .42 .02 .34 1.19 2.42 .71 18.27 99.35 .68 3.62 4.72 .71 3.83 4.42 .97 .33 3.64 1.56 1.51 .12 3.98 .32 1.78 .96 2.30 3.29 2.30 .10 2.98 3.39 3.98 .62 2.70 2.80 .06 3.53 3.98 2.89 .55 3.67 1.

98 .50 2.45 3. Gender Race Age Tenure Education 110 Dade County Police 73.32 .57 .50 3. (1998).66 .88 .89 .77 .09 .23 1.83 4.72 1.16 2.38 4.05 1.68 2.05 1.12 3. Bachelor’s degree = 16.11 3. 19% were African American.19 1.53 .47 .38 .29 3.97 . some college = 52.51 .29 2.41 3.77 3.18 3.00 .88 4.35 2.29 3.29 3.22 3. 632-647.64 2.9%.38 2.4% were women 40% were white.50 .38 .81 .77 2.06 3.91 2.84 .83 4. 21(4).16 2.11 2.43 3.83 .42 3.43 .20 2.64 .65 .06 3.32 2.23 1.69 2. Essential Findings: • Education level was positively correlated to self-ratings of performance Subjects: N Dept.14 .00 3.33 4. Self-evaluations of police performance: An analysis of the relationship between police officers’ education level and job performance.66 1.47 1.77 .09 210 .63 1.03 .__________________________________________________________________ Self-Evaluations of Police Performance: An Analysis of the Relationship Between Police Officers’ Education Level and Job Performance Suman Kakar Florida International University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Kakar.99 .06 Bachelor’s (n = 18) SD Mean 4.60 Some College (n=58) Mean SD 3.79 4.00 2. 26.82 1.00 . Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management.49 .00 3.11 1.68 1.49 2.00 .41 HS = 30.39 3.7%.6% were men.65 .80 3.13 2. S.87 .17 3.79 .66 2.85 .79 2.47 .97 1.26 M = 9.86 .26 2.79 1.19 1.80 .46 .04 3.61 3.92 .41 3.55 . 41% were Hispanic M = 35.4% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Self-ratings of performance Findings: High School (n= 34) Mean SD Education differences in self-ratings of performance Performance dimension Ability to take right action without any help from supervisor* Manage extra work* Deal with angry community members* Accept suggestions Willingness to accept change* Report colleagues’ illegal activity* Report colleagues’ unethical activity* Decision making in the absence of clear guidelines* Work with deadlines* Challenging situations* Job satisfaction Satisfaction with the department Knowledge of federal laws* Knowledge of state laws* Knowledge of department regulations* Accept responsibility for personal mistakes* Leadership* Problem solving* 2.51 1.35 .

68 .67 1.53 .60 1.22 .87 2.91 .01 1.50 .39 2.75 .91 1.45 .76 3.70 .15 2.64 .47 1.01 1.Collegiality Deal with stressful situations* Police oneself* Take advice from juniors* Deal with wrong accusations* Arrest report writing* Ability to appear as a witness* Self-image Reprimands/suspensions Awards Community projects Decision making* Ability to handle emergency responses Ability to do extra work Ability to perform in other than trained area Use public contacts for departmental use Use public contacts for personal use Support from fellow officers* 1.49 .91 .68 .01 2.81 2.19 1.01 3.41 .77 1.68 .51 .51 .97 1.12 .22 3.38 .66 3.32 1.21 1.00 .00 2.13 2.45 3.00 .32 .02 3.30 .87 1.47 3.88 1.20 2.05 1.55 .57 .47 * indicates statistically significant differences in mean ratings 211 .30 .27 1.61 1.50 .68 .00 1.68 .64 2.25 1.18 3.23 .40 .83 4.54 .1 .86 2.09 2.53 .89 1.00 3.01 4.46 .02 1.11 1.42 .77 .36 1.39 3.20 2.90 .55 .19 1.23 3.58 .45 .70 3.50 .80 .47 .87 .03 3.19 1.08 2.36 2.49 1.98 .54 .51 2.21 .30 .86 .36 3.36 1.08 4.

American Journal of Police. L.=71%. Carter Eastern Kentucky University. & David L.__________________________________________________________________ Police Officer Higher Education.214 .. Kappeler.3... 16% were women 88% were white M = 37. Range = 22 – 66 M = 10. Central Missouri State University. Gender Race Age Tenure Education 120 Medium-sized police department in a Midwest college town 84% were men. 37-54. Michigan State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Kappeler. E. & Carter. D. Range = 1 to 30 B. Sapp. Sapp. (1992). Allen D. 11(2). V. Citizen Complaints. vs. Essential Findings: • Officers with four-year degrees had significantly fewer complaints than officers with no degree • Education was not related to rule violations Subjects: N Dept.. Police officer higher education. A.S.5. and departmental rule violations. citizen complaints. and Departmental Rule Violations Victor E. some college) Dependent Variables: Citizen Complaints Rule Violations Findings: Dependent Measure Number of Complaints <3 3+ Total N Rudeness Complaints None One or more Total Rule Violations None One or more Total None % 4-year degree % Total N 77 22 35 95 5 85 108 12 120 80 20 35 94 6 85 108 12 120 89 11 35 85 15 85 103 17 120 r .050 212 . Two years of college but no degree=29% Independent Variables Education (B.S. D.275 .

.30 Popular .26 Color: Movement .__________________________________________________________________ Rorschach Responses. S. Strong Blank scales...52* Total color . and Job Satisfaction Among Policemen Solis L.20 . and job satisfaction among policemen. Rorschach responses.03 . 249-254. Essential Findings: • Moderate correlation between interests and job satisfaction • Significant correlation between Rorschach rating and job satisfaction Subjects: N Dept.00 M .00 .29 .58* Fc .51* .35 ...10 W:M .60* W:M (M>W) .. Munroe evaluation) Dependent Variables: Job Satisfaction Findings: _________________________________________________________________________ Correlations with Criteria _____________________________________ Job Satisfaction ____________ Occupational Level _______________ Police Interests . Strong Blank Scales.74* Rorschach Munroe scores ..02 ..00 .00 .52* . Gender 25 New City Police Department 100% were men Independent Variables Vocational Interest (Strong Vocational Interest Blank) Rorschach (Klopfer scoring.29 Dd ...12 FC . (1950)..47* . L.03 .62* _________________________________________________________________________ 213 .25 F% .61* FM:M . Journal of Applied Psychology. Kates Michigan State College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Kates. 34.47* CF: FC .

33 M = 13.11 F 42.63 8 weeks Independent Variables Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI) MMPI-2 Dependent Variables: Probationary performance (3 months) Findings MMPI-2 Data (N=149) Correlations with Probationary Ratings (N=30) MMPI-2 Scale Mean Driving People Overall L 58.26 -.09 .97 .43 .14 .02 Pt 48.24 .26 Note: N=63 for Mf means 214 .04 .27 Hs 49. OR). SD = 6.08 .36 .25 .06 -. IPI did not predict probationary performance Subjects N Gender: Race: Age: Education: Academy length 149 police officers in Oregon 88% were men. Construct-related evidence of validity for the Inwald Personality Inventory and its usefulness for predicting police officer performance.14 Ma 48.97 . S.33 . Asian=2%.03 Pa 49.06 . (1999).18 .97 .48 -.87 -. SD = 1.23 -.34 .21 .10 Si 39.05 -.49 .35 .36 .12 -.46 D 44. B.34 Sc 48.21 . Essential Findings • Study reported means for the IPI and the MMPI-2 • In general.28 -.11 Mf 43.01 .30 . Hispanic=3%.22 .02 .20 -.11 Pd 52. African American=2%. 12% were women White=92%.74.__________________________________________________________________ Construct-Related Evidence of Validity for the Inwald Personality Inventory and its Usefulness for Predicting Police Officer Performance Brad S.30 K 62. Other=1% M = 29.16 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.06 .26 Hy 52. Kauder & Jay C.9.08 . Pacific University (Forest Grove.00 .43 . Thomas Pacific University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Kauder.21 .

52 .14 -.09 -.34 47.01 53.01 -.51 46.23 .01 -.31 .17 .22 .12 -.11 -.10 -.19 .07 46.06 46.14 .63 46.17 -.17 -.39 42.03 -.08 -.31 50.43 46.09 .05 .16 -.11 .03 -.32 .09 -.18 -.62 41.Kauder & Thomas (1999) continued IPI Data (N = 149) IPI Scale Guardedness Alcohol use Drug use Driving violations Job difficulties Trouble with the law Absence abuse Substance abuse Antisocial attitudes Hyperactivity Rigid type Type A Illness concerns Treatment programs Anxiety Phobic personality Obsessive personality Depression Loner Unusual experiences Lack of assertiveness Interpersonal difficulties Undue suspiciousness Family concerns Sexual concerns Spouse conflicts Acting out composite Mean 42.22 .05 43.61 45.35 .20 55.27 -.25 -.16 .14 .20 -.51 .28 .79 46.24 .06 44.19 54.06 -.36 -.05 Correlations with Probationary Ratings (N = 30) Driving People Overall -.95 53.07 .29 .19 -.11 .26 .34 46.18 -.13 44.04 -.07 .16 .42 46.22 -.10 -.16 -.20 -.11 -.97 58.64 44.01 -.21 .41 43.39 .18 -.72 46.02 .12 -.17 .07 -.23 -.10 .25 -.47 43.13 -.08 .15 -.11 -.40 .28 -.19 -.18 .02 .03 -.27 -.15 -.07 .24 .13 .02 -.18 .20 215 .44 46.

11 .00 -.08 -.11 .30 -.08 -.11 -.18 -.61 Pd -.07 .04 .24 -.39 -.16 .05 .11 .03 .04 .30 -.55 -.17 .01 -.17 Hy -.07 -.00 -.27 -.12 .15 .27 .10 -.13 -.32 .03 .11 .06 .20 .27 -.01 .01 -.28 -.67 -.24 -.23 .12 ..15 -.23 .32 -.01 -.22 .08 -.06 -..10 -.08 -.04 -.10 -.13 .01 -.37 -.09 .22 .50 -.07 -.03 Pa -.05 .40 Pt .16 .11 . 11 -.12 .18 .08 -.09 -.18 -.05 -.06 .14 -.04 -.29 -.04 -.43 -.46 -.06 .16 -.28 .10 -.18 -.02 .31 -.18 -.26 -.00 -.36 -.03 .08 -.23 .07 -.24 .27 .00 .07 -.29 .29 .10 -.10 Note: N for all correlations = 149.35 -.25 -.21 -.02 .28 -..15 .09 .16 -.15 .14 -.37 .05 -.07 -.20 -.27 -.17 .08 .00 .08 -.02 .16 -.47 .10 .31 -.11 .10 -.21 .32 .14 -.15 -.29 .14 .03 -.13 -.01 -.02 -.24 -.27 Mf -.04 .07 -.16 -. 216 Si -.30 -.40 -.03 -.10 .07 -.25 .01 .02 -.00 -.31 -.00 .34 .34 Ma -.14 .05 .68 Hs -.23 .17 -.17 -.08 -.02 .21 .25 .16 .26 .23 -.Kauder & Thomas (1999) continued Correlations between IPI and MMPI Scales MMPI Scale IPI Scale Guardedness Alcohol use Drug use Driving violations Job difficulties Trouble with the law Absence abuse Substance abuse Antisocial attitudes Hyperactivity Rigid type Type A Illness concerns Treatment programs Anxiety Phobic personality Obsessive personality Depression Loner Unusual experiences Lack of assertiveness Interpersonal difficulties Undue suspiciousness Family concerns Sexual concerns Spouse conflicts Acting out composite L .17 .10 -.06 -.13 -.35 -.10 -.00 -.15 -.01 .37 Sc .37 .30 .30 -.07 .20 .10 -.28 -.37 -.43 .13 .19 .29 .09 -.26 -.22 -.07 -.03 .25 .04 -.17 -.03 -.08 .31 -.07 .10 -.04 -.06 .15 -.38 .31 -.00 -.10 -.15 -.68 D .14 -.06 -.21 -.16 -.04 -.10 -.12 -.19 .02 -.57 .36 -.28 -.07 -.32 -.06 -.26 -.03 -.45 -.16 .10 -.26 -.37 .18 .09 -.04 .16 .10 -.30 -.09 . except N = 63 for the MMPI-2 Mf scale and N = 30 for the IPI Acting Out Composite.29 -.16 -.07 .54 -.05 -.30 -.04 -.02 -.12 .18 -.22 -.06 -.22 .12 -.06 -.04 -.63 .10 .01 -.23 .10 -.09 -.09 -.32 .17 .20 .28 -.04 .14 -.15 -.02 -.13 -.17 .08 -.09 .21 .05 .17 .25 .27 F -.00 -.42 -.69 -.28 .02 -.29 -.22 .17 .00 .22 -.01 -.02 -.12 -.08 .14 .05 .24 . 16 -.12 -.02 K .62 -.24 -.10 -.08 -.09 -.09 -.02 -.13 -.20 .07 -.52 -.11 .63 -.12 .05 .06 .10 .13 -.04 .23 .03 .16 .18 -.32 .18 -.30 .03 -.14 .18 -.15 -.16 ..02 -.09 -.08 .01 .17 -.32 .26 .18 -.25 -.15 -.01 -.43 .02 .58 -.18 .10 .

11 . 1=yes) Disciplined in military? Arrest record (0=no.10 . Predicting performance on the basis of social background characteristics: The case of the Philadelphia Police Department.8% white. University of Pennsylvania Essential Findings • Education related to performance and awards Subjects: N Dept.18 Note: Percentages in dissertation tables were converted to chi-squares and then to correlations 217 .11 . 1=white) Age when joining force Number of residences Married (0=no.. Gender: Race: Education: 198 police officers Philadelphia Police Department 100% were men 84. (1973).08 .11 .08 . 1=yes) Attitude Learning Ability .__________________________________________________________________ Predicting Performance on the Basis of Social Background Characteristics: The Case of the Philadelphia Police Department Oluyemi Kayode University of Pennsylvania __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Kayode.12 Work Habits Fitness . O.2% African American < high school = 31.00 .09 .14 .11 .7% Independent Variables Education Background Interview ratings Dependent Variables Probationary Performance Career advancement Job Performance Findings Correlations with Probationary Ratings Relationship with People Education Military service (0=no. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.. 15.09 .11 .03 .3%. 1=yes) Character investigation rating Interview Ratings Ability Attitude Race (0=black.10 ...08 .. high school or greater = 68.

05 .08 .12 .20 .15 .. 1=HS or more) Interview Ratings Ability Attitude Military Record Was in military Was disciplined in military Arrest record Rating by previous employer Reason for leaving previous employment Number of previous jobs Character rating Race (0=black..12 ..13 ..12 .07 .02 ..11 .17 .09 ..15 ..11 .11 ..03 .09 .12 Correlations with Performance Following the Probationary Period Education (0<HS.16 .12 .13 .04 .18 .12 ..12 .16 .Correlations with Probationary Performance and Later Performance Career Advancement Relationship with People Attitude Learning ability Work habits Overall fitness Awards Times Absent Discipline Charges Commendations Performance Rating Tenure .23 .08 .11 ..11 .13 .22 .08 .09 .11 218 .12 .11 . 1=white) Age when joining force Number of residences Marital status Career Advancement Awards ...15 .15 ..11 .11 .12 .15 Times Absent Discipline Charges Commendations .16 .12 .23 .12 .15 .04 Performance Rating Tenure .26 .18 .

07 (9) .05 .39* (4) .18 .03 .15 .19 . MA=6% Independent Variables Education: Degree Dependent Variables: Police Patrol Performance Findings 1.28* (8) .01 .09 . 61-100 hrs=16%.13 .__________________________________________________________________ Assessing the Effect of College Education on Police Job Performance Prahlad Ray Kedia University of Southern Mississippi __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Kedia...10 .00 219 (6) .01 . 1-60 hrs=20%.02 .04 .10 (5) .26* .07 . Gender: Race: Age: Education: 150 patrol officers and sheriffs Monroe (LA) PD and Quachita Parish (LA) Sheriff's Department 92% were men.20 .03 .05 . Absenteeism 5.31* ..10 (7) .. Military experience (2) ..29* . R. Complaints 6. Tenure in department 10. Education 2. Injuries 4.08 .. Commendations 3.. BA=33%. Improper use of firearms 8.12 .16 ..20 .44 (range 22-53) HS=17%. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.10 .06 . Age 9.80* (10) . 1% other M = 33.25* .. 101-130 hrs=4%. University of Southern Mississippi Essential Findings: No significant correlations involving education Subjects: N Dept.00 .10 . P.02 ....06 ... Performance ratings 7.17 (3) .40* . (1985).05 . 12% African American. 8% were women 87% white. Assessing the effect of college education on police job performance.

J. Keith Governors State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Keith.52 6.64 15.09 7.31 9.88 9.00 6.16 14. Personality characteristics of suburban police recruits and their compatibility with traditional police management theory.20 20. Subjects: N Gender 67 police officers from 9 small departments in northeast Illinois 100% were men Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Personality (16-PF) Findings: Mean Raw Scores 16-PF Scale Outgoing Bright Calm Dominant Happy-go-lucky Conscientious Venturesome Tender-minded Suspicious Imaginative Shrewd Apprehensive Q1: Experimenting Q2: Self-sufficient Q3: Controlled Q4: Tense Mean Raw Score 11. IL).43 11. B.20 5.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Characteristics of Suburban Police Recruits and their Compatibility with Traditional Police Management Theory James B. (1993).44 6. Governors State University (University Park.07 16.00 16.53 20. Unpublished master's thesis. Essential Finding: • Police officers significantly differed from the general population on 15 or the 16 16-PF scales.41 Equivalent Stanine Score 220 .49 8.

68* .57* .46* .61* . & Watson.33 .55* .6% Median = 25.4%. Hispanic=5.9% were women White= 50%.16 221 .24 Applicant Rating .29 . J.31 .54* . oral interview scores (r = .40* . Intelligence and the selection of police recruits. (1990).64* .62* .54* .52* ..3.38* .28 .62* .42* .23 . S. Gender: Race Age Education 36 cadets attending a police academy Midsize southeastern city 86. Essential Findings • Cognitive ability was related to academy performance (r = .28 .31 .27 .30 .34* .33* .28 .1% were men.52* . American Journal of Police.58* . Range = 21 to 37 HS = 36%.58* .58* .51* .30 .03 Oral Interview .53* .50* .62) • Average IQ was 97.28 . 39-64. 9(4).28 . African American=44. D.56* .61). 13. some college=39%.54).42* . BA=22% Independent Variables Cognitive ability (WAIS) Dependent Variables Academy test scores Selection interview scores Findings: Correlations WAIS Full scale IQ Verbal IQ Performance VCDQ Information Digit Span Vocabulary Arithmetic Comprehension Similarities Picture completion Picture arrangement Block design Object assembly Digit symbol Written Exam . and an overall rating of applicants prior to being hired ( r = . women had a higher IQ (M = 105) than men (M = 96) and whites had a higher IQ (M = 105) than African Americans (M = 89) Subjects N Dept.55* .42* .__________________________________________________________________ Intelligence and the Selection of Police Recruits Dennis Jay Kenney & Steuart Watson University of Nebraska-Omaha & University of Nebraska-Lincoln __________________________________________________________________ Citation Kenney.36* .55* .

Unpublished doctoral dissertation.76 53. African American=1.56 44.38 .38 41. Other=19. (1987).60 53. Occupational.59 49.49 52. J.. Reno..50 55. CA 100% were men White=66.07 46.26 51.34 52.1%.3%.44 .50 42.59 45.44 56.23 51.62 42.44 50.1% M = 36 Independent Variables Personality (Adjective Check List) Biographical data Dependent Variables Marital satisfaction Findings General Data # Adjectives checked # positive adjectives checked # negative adjectives checked Dimensions Communality Achievement Dominance Endurance Order Intraception Nurturance Affiliation Heterosexuality Exhibitionism Autonomy Aggression Change Succorance Abasement Deference ACL Means Group 1 (n=55) Group 2 (n=34) 49.06 53.86 44.45 .39 .67 54.2%.69 53. and personality variables as correlates of reported satisfaction in police marriages. Hispanic=11. and Personality Variables as Correlates of Reported Satisfaction in Police Marriages Jacqueline Cercek Kirkland University of Nevada.62 54.2%.02 50.74 51.32 51.50 53.94 48.18 222 Correlation with Marital Satisfaction Paired Group Unpaired Group . University of Nevada.02 48.94 51.29 . Demographic.34 52. occupational.60 52.21 53. Essential Findings • This study was included because it reported Adjective Check List means for a group of police officers Subjects N Gender: Race: Age: 89 police officers in San Jose. Reno __________________________________________________________________ Citation Kirkland.07 45..34 . C.24 50. Asian=2.94 49.34 ..__________________________________________________________________ Demographic.91 54.62 49.62 50.29 .

54 55.44 53.32 49. 223 .73 50.14 50.33 .73 .42 .41 53.56 56.69 49. The Unpaired group was one in which one of the spouses did not return the questionnaire.38 46.97 54.09 56.Counseling readiness Self-control Self-confidence Personal adjustment Ideal self Creative personality Military leadership Masculinity Femininity 44.36 46.27 Note: Paired group (Group 1) was one in which both spouses returned the marital satisfaction questionnaire.15 45.62 53.62 53.04 52.71 53.

Knoxville __________________________________________________________________ Citation Kleiman.81) MMPI Physical agility test Dependent Variables: Academy performance Physical fitness exam On-the-job supervisory ratings Findings Otis-Lennon Physical agility test Academy Performance 1.14 . 45% were African American. Ability and personality factors moderating the relationships of police academy training performance with measures of selection and job performance.__________________________________________________________________ Ability and Personality Factors Moderating the Relationships of Police Academy Training Performance with Measures of Selection and Job Performance Lawrence S. Physical fitness Supervisor Ratings Initiative Dependability Demeanor Attitude Composite Job knowledge Judgment Relations with others Communications Composite N IQ 211 145 .11 .08 224 . S.10 MMPI Scales Pd Pt Physical Fitness Exam .17 .16 .03 .07 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.70 . (1978).40 .02 . Essential Finding: • Cognitive ability highly correlated with academy performance (r = .3% 8 weeks for sessions 39-42.4%. Bachelor’s degree = 24..08 .02 .13 . Academic average 2. some college = 45.17 .09 .10 . L. Kleiman University of Tennessee.. 12 weeks for session 38 Independent Variables IQ (Otis-Lennon – M = 98.3%. University of Tennessee..10 Academy Average Fitness ..18 . 9% were women 54% were white.70) • Cognitive ability correlated with patrol performance (r = . 1% was other HS = 30..70 .12 . Knoxville.14) Subjects: N Gender Race Education Academy length 218 police officers who completed the academy over a 3-year period 89% were men.

38 .26 .61 .41 .05 .34 .22 .45 .42 .33 .48 .58 .23 .69 .29 .40 .35 .44 .54 .79 .35 .Kleiman (1978) Continued Comparison of Graphic Rating Scale Format and Behavioral Checklist Format Reliability Reliability Behavioral Checklist Job Knowledge Judgment Initiative Dependability Demeanor Attitude Relations with others Communication TOTAL Graphic Rating Scale JK Judge Init Depen Dem Attitude Relat Comm TOTAL .37 .24 .55 .35 .41 .23 .82 225 .38 .37 .38 .32 .45 .16 .46 .21 .54 .46 .58 .47 .21 .56 .18 .24 .11 .06 .17 .15 .29 .34 .59 .61 .08 .37 .09 .31 .34 .55 .12 .27 .39 .46 .60 .50 .60 .11 .08 .

7% were women 63% were white M = 27.57* ______________________________________________________________ 226 .14 MMPI Pd Scale .09 Patrol Performance .__________________________________________________________________ An Examination of the Relationship Between Police Training Academy Performance and Job Performance Lawrence S. S. Gordon University of Tennessee at Chattanooga __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Kleiman.16 .57) Findings: _______________________________________________________________ Cognitive ability Academy Performance __________ Patrol Performance __________ .14) Subjects: N Gender Race Age Academy length 132 officers in a large southern city 93% were men. Kleiman and Michael E. M.8 12 weeks Independent Variables IQ (Otis-Lennon) MMPI Pd Scale Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Patrol Performance (interrater reliability=. An examination of the relationship between police training academy performance and job performance..70* . 14(4). Essential Finding: • • Cognitive ability highly correlated with academy performance (r = . 293-299. (1986). L. Journal of Police Science and Administration.70) Cognitive ability correlated with patrol performance (r = . E.10 .. & Gordon..

Fuller Theological Seminary. (1983). Bachelor’s degree=20% M = 25. some college=69%. 14% were women White=72%.11 52.50 55. W.51 .74 1. Hispanic=17% High school diploma=11%.3.1. J.73 47.27 .40 1.82 51.1. Essential Findings • The MMPI scores of sheriff's deputies did not change after five years Sample N Dept Gender Race Education Age 150 Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department 86% were men.4.29 59.23 .1.34 55.3.03 50.95 1.45 61.46 57.01 52.79 60. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.42 52.50 40.73 49.04 . Police personality change as measured by the MMPI: A five-year longitudinal study.66 51.1.77 52.07 51.89 .34 .03 56.76 55.00 52.35* 38.05 55.39 61.47 2.98 .93 62.31 55.58 .10 .85 3.3 (range 20-35) Independent Variables Dependent Variables Personality (MMPI) change Findings Testing __________________________ Pre-hire ______ MMPI L F K Hypochondriasis Depression Hysteria Psychopathic deviate Masculinity Paranoia Psychasthenia Schizophrenia Hypomania Social introversion MMPI Research Scales A Es Do 5 years later __________ t ______ 50.__________________________________________________________________ Police Personality Change as Measured by the MMPI: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study John Warren Klopsch Fuller Theological Seminary __________________________________________________________________ Citation Klopsch.68 49.87 51.43 60.78* .75 53..31 227 .49 45. Black=7%.47 2.58 56.

Essential Findings • Cognitive ability predicted academy grades Sample N Dept Gender Age Academy length Academy GPA 40 officers with 22 months of tenure Albuquerque.23 .85* .27 228 Oral Board Ratings _________ . Knights University of New Mexico __________________________________________________________________ Citation Knights. When these data were entered into SAS to compute missing coefficients. Range = 73. New Mexico Police Department 95% were men. many of the coefficients reported in the dissertation did not agree with those from our analysis.42.12 .9 – 91. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.18 . (1976). both sets of correlations are listed below.38* .37* . SD = 4.30 . 5% were women Range 21-34 15 weeks (601 hours) M = 83. University of New Mexico.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Relationship Between the Selection Process and On-the-Job Performance of Albuquerque Police Officers Ronald M. The relationship between the selection process and on-the-job performance of Albuquerque police officers.91) Psych evaluation (MMPI) Oral interview score Dependent Variables Performance ratings after 22 months Academy grades Results The raw data were included in the dissertation on page 60.07 .44* Academy Grades ________ .22 . M. As a result.30 .12 .05 ..12 .69.81* .05 Psychological Evaluation ___________ .23 . Performance Ratings __________ Reanalyzed Results Cognitive Ability Psychological Evaluation Oral Board Ratings Performance Ratings Original Results Cognitive Ability Psychological Evaluation Oral Board Ratings Performance Ratings .3 Independent Variables Cognitive ability (KR-20 = . R.

Asian=2.10 46. Essential Finding: • Police applicants had elevated K and low Mf.64 38.07 47.91 45.90 53.97 50.18 46. A. 9.45 37.80 Pt 46. Black=4.00 F 39.50 K 62.80 D 42.36 35.60 _________________________________________________________________________________ 229 .00 64.___________________________________________________________________________________________ Police Officer Candidate MMPI-2 Performance: Gender.9%.37 46. ethnic. Hispanic=6%. and Normative Factors Alfred D.000 90.10 Sc 45.10 40.40 Si 38. Gender: Race: Independent Variables Ethnicity 84 applicants Four towns ranging in size from 15.21 44.00 Mf 39. 51(4).5% were men.36 40.10 40.000-60.4% Dependent Variables: MMPI-2 Scores (T-scores) Findings: _________________________________________________________________________________ Mean T-Scores ____________________________________________________________ MMPI-2 Scale _____________ White men (n=61) _______________ Minority men (n=11) _________________ White women (n=12) _________________ L 56.80 Hy 49.50 Pd 49. and F scores on the MMPI-2 Subjects: N Dept. D.38 47. Ethnic.45 60.8%.20 Pa 47.91 46.18 44.27 39.5% were women White=86.30 Ma 46.39 43. (1995).48 58.09 49.00 44.60 Hs 48. Si. Kornfeld Eastern Connecticut State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Kornfeld. Journal of Clinical Psychology.83 64.79 38. and normative factors. 536-540. Police officer candidate MMPI-2 performance: Gender.

35 .85 3.97 4.1 .29 .62 4.71 4.75 3.84 .02 3.63 .75 .27 4.79 2. MA=8% Independent Variables Education (Degree/No degree) Dependent Variables Self-ratings of performance Findings Department/Performance Dimension Howell Township Knowledge of rules Use of safety practices Ability to accept change MEDIAN CORRELATION Bucks County Utilize employee contacts Knowledge of the law Preparedness for court Quality of work assignments Problem solving ability Level of arrest analysis Confidence with supervisors Quality of written work Quality of oral presentations Self-image Arrest report quality Investigative report quality International relationships MEDIAN CORRELATION OVERALL MEDIAN CORRELATION Degreed Mean SD Not Degreed Mean SD t-value Correlation 4.30 4. American Journal of Police.21 . J.66 2.86 3.71 1.30 . BA=23%.1 .6% were men.80 .46 4.72 .77 .17 .83 .69 .83 .21 230 .87 3. (1996).71 .69 3.76 .00 3.34 4.30 3.63 . 85-95.66 2.13 3.65 .72 .79 .74 1.68 2.34 4.10 .67 .17 .16 4.88 . The performance of college-educated police: A study of self-rated police performance measures.30 4. Essential Finding: • Officers with college degrees rated themselves as being better performers than did officers without college degrees Subjects: N Gender: Race: Age Education 205 officers from 2 police departments 97.91 4.20 .34 4.23 2.35 2.94 4.19 .73 .00 3.4% were women white=98%.18 .26 . Krimmel Trenton State College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Krimmel.13 2.21 .73 3.___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Performance of College-Educated Police: A Study of Self-Rated Police Performance Measures John T.78 2. 15(1). T.42 3. 2.20 .28 .68 .18 4.20 .52 2.00 3.11 4.27 4.06 4.67 .12 2.24 .61 .23 2.87 3.64 .77 .83 .50 2.18 .16 .02 . AAS=24%.55 .10 4.65 .75 3. minority=2% M = 41 HS=45%.18 3.18 .67 2.21 .

15) (.12 . Essential Findings: • Interview scores (uncorrected) were not related to performance but interview scores corrected for direct restriction of range were related to performance Subjects: N Dept...11) ( .13 Corrected (. (1976).12 .21) (.09 .07) (.13) Personal stability Uncorrected .25 Corrected (.34)* ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 231 .. The validity of the interview in police officer selection. J.16) (.15 Corrected (.33)* (.. Ratings were made on 9 dimensions (3 factors) at the completion of the interview.17 . 193-198.15) (.06 .16) Interview factor Manifest motivation Uncorrected . Findings: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Correlation with Supervisor Rating ________________________________________________________ Professional Maturity ________ Technical Competence __________ Demeanor ________ Communication _____________ Overall interview recommendation Uncorrected ..22 .12 . 61(2). F. Landy Pennsylvania State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Landy.__________________________________________________________________ The Validity of the Interview in Police Officer Selection Frank J.25 .26)* (.22) (. Journal of Applied Psychology.12 .29)* (.17 .19) Communication Uncorrected .10 Corrected (.16) ( . Independent Variables Panel interview Notes • 57 Dade County (Florida) Public Safety Department Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance The interviews were conducted by a 3-person panel and were based on the results of a job analysis.16) ( .12 .19 .

10% were women 20% were men.534 .43 1.50 2.010* .85 6.586 .97 61.70 1.44 2. tough-minded.33 0.46 61.20 6.63 3.86 5.03 4.52 5.65 50.50 1.83 5.090 .05 4.89 53.80 1.95 5.55 6.69 5.91 6.62 6.10 2.22 2.83 1.78 5.00 35.49 0.58 5.62 5. Kingsville __________________________________________________________________ Citation Laskowski.95 4.003* .70 2.30 1.68 5.97 2.53 1.15 9.15 0.67 1.75 0.37 1.68 4.38 4.27 1.000* .19 5.697 .74 5.67 1.90 1.33 15.18 3.73 2.53 0.13 28.87 1.00 1.065 .60 1.60 2.83 6.86 2.82 2.68 5.07 0.70 1.15 6.000* .00 0. Kingsville.141 . L. Texas A&M University. (1998).29 232 F p< 26.66 6.30 29.79 3.00 1.93 1. Personality differences between law-enforcement officers and master’s level psychology students. private.007* .47 1.107 .20 27. TX Police Department Psychology graduate students Sex 90% were men.23 1.27 6.68 6.89 5.80 5.96 7.360 . Unpublished master’s thesis.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Differences Between Law-Enforcement Officers and Master’s Level Psychology Students Leah D. vigilant. Laskowski Texas A&M University.83 4.87 5.40 2.86 48.75 Graduate Students Mean SD 6.703 .50 47.43 1.16 0.17 16.30 0.793 .53 1.30 2.120 . Essential Finding • Police are less warm and sensitive and more dominant.947 .30 1.23 1.80 2.358 .93 1.31 6.021* .77 1. D.07 5. 80% were women Age Range = 24 – 55 Range = 23 – 50 Findings: Scores on the 16-PF 16-PF Scale Warmth Reasoning Emotional stability Dominance Liveliness Rule-consciousness Social boldness Sensitivity Vigilance Abstractness Privateness Apprehension Openness to change Self-reliance Perfectionism Tension Extraversion Anxiety Tough-mindedness Independence Self-control Impression management Infrequency Acquiescence Police Officers Mean SD 4.84 7.27 1.50 1.011* .13 1.254 .98 69.39 7.20 1.90 1.97 2.04 5.21 4.43 .000* .14 5.52 4.69 0.00 2.53 6.30 32.969 . and ruleconscious than are psychology graduate students Subjects Law Enforcement Sample Graduate Student Sample N 30 30 Dept Kingsville.03 5.00 1.516 .

Leake University of California.35 61 11.34 55 8.04 51 1.16 49 16.66 53 24. Davis __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Leake.30 4.41 3.54 55 22.77 28.99 11.02 54 3. and Organizational-selection Factors in a Variety of Law Enforcement Categories Sherrill A.44 20.49 4.20 50 18.14 50 2.93 18.02 21.63 51 4.09 19.57 3.11 65 2.83 Current Study (n=583) SD Nearest T Score 2.__________________________________________________________________ Personal Characteristics of Peace Officers: Modal Traits. self-selection.41 54 20.10 24.15 5.20 49 19.87 3. Personal characteristics of peace officers: Model traits.05 65 2.44 53 24. and organizational-selection factors in a variety of law enforcement categories.90 3. University of California at Davis. Summary and Essential Findings: • Dissertation looked at the average MMPI and CPI scores of peace officers Subjects: N Two samples of applicants: 583 for this study and 426 from Gottesman (1969) study Independent Variables CPI MMPI Dependent Variables: Findings MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Mean 4.62 60 23.61 59 20.02 2. (1988).27 51 3. unpublished doctoral dissertation.81 25. Self-selection.24 55 3.54 2.09 58 3. S.53 5.16 4.53 19.30 60 7.96 2.28 55 6. A.35 44 233 Gottesman (1969) Data (n=426) Mean SD Nearest T Score 4.08 22.11 2.89 53 3.34 54 3.96 45 .63 3.23 9.

.__________________________________________________________________ Characteristics of Successful Campus Police Officers Dennis W..19 ..05 . July. Journal of College Student Personnel.05 ..22 . Leitner & William E.09 .11 Commendations (2) .10 .45 ..21 .09 . Sedlacek Southern Illinois University & University of Maryland __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Leitner.04 .04 Ideal officer (5) ..19 . & Sedlacek.13 . D. (1976).21 .05 .77* Promotions (6) .. E. Summary and Essential Findings: • Article tested the validity of seven personality tests in predicting the performance of 52 campus police officers • Results indicated that regressions including all tests significantly predicted all criteria Subjects: N Gender Race Education 52 University of Maryland Campus Police officers 84% were men...19 .67* .3 years Independent Variables CPI Personal History Index Note: • Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance All tests were entered into two separate regression equations with only 26 subjects each. Thus the resulting analysis is suspect. W.11 Absenteeism (4) ..13 .09 .36 Supervisor rating (9) + + Authoritarianism (California F Scale) Negative racial attitudes + + + + + Good impression + + Drive + Interest in family activities + ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 234 .38 .46 Self-ratings (8) . In the article relationship directions rather than validity coefficients were provided..25 .17 . Findings: ___________________________________________________________________________________________ (1) ____ (2) ____ (3) ____ (4) ____ (5) ____ (6) ____ (7) ____ (8) ____ (9) _____ Criteria Tenure (1) . 304-308.01 .. W. 16% were women 84% were white M=13.01 .28 .01 .07 Reprimands (3) .41 Peer ratings (7) .07 ..11 . Characteristics of successful campus police officers.36 .

. Predictors of graduation from a police training academy. 44. Psychological Reports.04 Marital status .19) Subjects: N 260 Age M = 24. Essential Finding: • Education was positively related to academy graduation ( r = .19* Military experience .01 Race .3 Academy length 20 weeks Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Academy Graduation Findings: Variable Correlation with Academy Graduation Education .26* 235 .____________________________________________________________________________________________ Predictors of Graduation from a Police Training Academy David Lester Richard Stockton State College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Lester. (1979). D. 362.

.__________________________________________________________________ Graduation From a Police Training Academy: Demographic Correlates David Lester Richard Stockton State College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Lester.0 Independent Variables Race and gender Dependent Variables: Academy Graduation Notes: • Chi-squares were converted to correlations (r) • Percentages given in article don't seem right Findings: Race Percent graduating Chi-square from article Correlation (r) Sex White Nonwhite Men Women 84 65 100 84 9.84 . Essential Finding: • White cadets and male cadets were more likely to complete the academy than were nonwhite or female cadets Subjects: N 209 Age M = 23. Psychological Reports. (1985)..31* 236 .62 18.22* . 57. D. 542. Graduation from a police training academy: Demographic correlates.

01).19) Subjects N Gender Race Education 248 police officers in 8 departments in Northern California 100% were men White=87.4%. 228=3.0% 6.0%.0%. 1 year college=20. • Reliability of the scale was .8% 24. 228=3.6%. M. r = .__________________________________________________________________ Development of an MMPI Subscale as an Aid in Police Officer Selection Madeline Levine California School of Professional Psychology.3%.0% 21.19. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.0% 31.1% 10.7% 12.0% 10. Black=2. 3 years=6. Asian=19.31 (Alpha) Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Performance Level Success Failure 7. Berkeley __________________________________________________________________ Citation Levine.0% 22.00.0% 0. AAS=28.1% 24. Other=2.00. This equates to a correlation of . Development of an MMPI subscale as an aid in police officer selection. Berkeley.4%.6% 18.0% HS=19. (1979).8% 6. MA=1.6% Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Patrol performance Findings • Eight items from the MMPI significantly distinguished successful police officers from failures (t.0% 6. California School of Professional Psychology.1% BA=15. Essential Finding: • Eight items from the MMPI significantly distinguished successful police officers from failures (t. Hispanic=7. p < .0% MMPI Item Failure Group Response I think a great many people exaggerate their misfortunes to gain sympathy and help from others I think most people would lie to get ahead I do not blame a person for taking advantage of someone who lays himself open to it At parties I am more likely to sit by myself or with just one other person than to join in with the crowd I love to go to dances I used to like hopscotch Christ performed miracles such as changing water into wine I sometimes find it hard to stick up for my rights because I am so reserved 237 True True True True False False False True .01.3%.5%. p < .

265-276. Journal of Criminal Law.08% 16. R.014 14 law enforcement agencies in California 100% were men Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: Notes • Data from the published tables were entered into SAS to compute a correlation coefficient • Levy had three groups. Criminology.23. n = 1.87% 50.__________________________________________________________________ Predicting Police Failures Ruth J. Education < High school High school 1 year college 2 years college 3 years college 4 or more years No traffic violations No criminal conviction 2 or more marriages Left as failure Left as nonfailure Stayed employed 23. Levy San Jose (CA) City Health Department __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Levy.59% 44. J. (1967). and Police Science. Essential Findings: • • Education was positively related to performance (r = .30% 32.55% 66. Gender: 2.30.26% 17.25% 14.42% 57. and officers who stayed.16% 22. The performance variable was determined by comparing the failures v.55% 26.632) Subjects: N Dept.57% 23. 58(2).20% 12% 49% 32% 7% 53% 12% 20% 75% 11% 238 . n = 848) Education was negatively related to tenure (r = -.44% 53.27% 35.63% 13. non failures and the tenure by comparing the non-failures who left to the currents. failures who left.14% 20. non-failures who left.42% 19. Predicting police failures.17% 63.

0 6.3% of Sample 2 were men Sample 1: M = 25. Range = 19 – 59 Sample 1: White=37.0 3.5%.0%.8 6.9 7.4% Sample 2: White=38.1 5.9.4% Independent Variable Sample Dependent Variable 16-PF Scores Findings (Means) Variable IQ Crystallized Fluid 16-PF Second Order Scales Extroversion Anxiety Tough Poise Independence Control Sample 1 Sample 2 103. Journal of Clinical Psychology.2 104.2 7. Other=0. Hispanic=1. Range = 20 – 48 Sample 2: M = 26.3 7.2 110. Essential Findings • Study reported mean scores for a few of the 16-PF scales Subjects N Gender Age Race Two samples of 275 police candidates from several departments 85. 50(2).5%. Hispanic=2. Personality profiles of police candidates.5%.9 6. (1994). S.9 3.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Profiles of Police Candidates Maurice Lorr & Stephen Strack Catholic University of America and U. African American=59.5.1%.2 239 .S. M. & Strack. Other=0. 200-207. Department of Veteran’s Affairs __________________________________________________________________ Citation Lorr..8%. African American=60.1 6.7 110.8% of Sample 1 and 83.

BA=16% Independent Variables Education Gender Race Age Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Findings Education Sex (1=male. Madden University of Louisville __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Madden.24* Note: Age has been partialed from the correlations with performance (Madden Table 8) 240 . L. University of Louisville. 2=female) Race (1=white. some college=36%.06 Sex .33* ... The police and higher education: A study of the relationship between higher education and police officer performance. 21% were women White=84 %.__________________________________________________________________ The Police and Higher Education Barry L..10 .. (1990). 2=nonwhite) Age Performance .14 . African American=16% M = 26 HS=48%. Gender: Race Age Education: 102 Louisville (KY) Police Department 79% were men.16 Age .18* Race . B.. Essential Finding: Education was positively related to performance Subjects: N Dept.05 .55* . Unpublished master's thesis.

.. J.7 56.06 % with sustained disciplinary action 11. 40-42. cj) ___________ 9 16 21 % rated outstanding 44.__________________________________________________________________ Which College Major is Best for the Street Cop? John D.3 38.5 9.03 % receiving commendations 66. D.21 . police science=21 Independent Variables Education Major Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Notes • Data from tables were entered into the computer and reanalyzed to yield chi-squares and correlations • The N listed in the article was not consistent with the percentages in the tables.3 19.15* .4 62.1 8.0 . Major: 46 Los Angeles Police Department Business=9.10 241 .91 . liberal arts=16.1 6. Which college major is best for the street cop? The Police Chief.A.94 .2 12. 45(8). Findings: ____________________________________________________________________ Business Liberal Police ChiArts Science Square ______ _______ _______ ______ N r (not cj v. __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Madell.. Madell & Paul V. V. P.5 . Essential Findings: • Other than receiving fewer commendations.41 % involved in preventable traffic accidents 22. criminal justice majors performed equally to other majors Subjects: N Dept. (1978).9 . & Washburn.5 61. Washburn Los Angeles Police Department & Cal State L.

15 .16 .02 . some college=27.11 .10 .5% Independent Variables Background Information MMPI Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings MMPI Scale L F K HS D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Sick Days Accidents Citations & Suspensions Performance Rating Commendations Present Rank .03 .02 ... Unpublished doctoral dissertation..06 .09 .07 .15 .4 (range 21 – 33) GED=1.03 .10 ...02 ..10 .04 . Essential Finding • No consistent relationships between MMPI scores and on-the-job performance Sample N Dept.05 242 .05 .04 .09 .08 . K.14 .06 .. The predictive validity of on-the-job performance of policemen from recruitment selection information...05 .07 ...09 .01 .07 . (1970).13 .04 .18 .03 .03 .07 .__________________________________________________________________ The Predictive Validity of On-the-Job Performance of Policemen from Recruitment Selection Information Kay Mandel University of Utah __________________________________________________________________ Citation Mandel.08 .13 ..8%..09 .. University of Utah..13 .05 .02 ..12 ...01 ..06 .03 . Sex Age Education: 114 Salt Lake City Police Department 100% were men M = 24.12 .. 3-4 years of college=27.01 ..04 .21* .4%.05 .07 .09 ..01 ....10 .06 .06 .19 .04 .04 .03 .05 .06 ..07 .01 ...03 .02 ..06 .02 .09 ..02 .03 ..03 .03 .....17 .4%.03 .05 .15 .12 . hs=43.25* .

28 .17 ..15 .04 .02 ..52 Accidents ..15 Citations & Suspensions ..17 ..11 ..24 .11 ..16 .13 ..16 Performance Rating .02 .07 ....07 .07 .Mandel (1970) Page 2 Criterion Sick Days Average # of Sick Days Accidents Citations & Suspensions Performance Rating Commendations Present Rank .04 .28 Present Rank .13 ..24 .52 243 ..36 .07 Commendations .13 .13 .36 .28 .28 ..

S. Public Personnel Review.60 Independent Variables Cognitive ability MMPI Kuder Vocational Preference Record Notes • Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance No statistics or data were provided in the article Findings: 244 . H. Essential Findings: • Highly intelligent officers (97th percentile) were 92. 23.__________________________________________________________________ Validating the Selection of Deputy Sheriffs Stewart H. Validating the selection of deputy sheriffs. Reliability 547 Los Angeles County Sheriffs Department Interrater reliability of supervisor ratings was .5% likely to be highly successful compared to 71% of officers with lower intelligence scores • Officers scoring below 55 on the MMPI Hy scale were most likely to be successful • Officers scoring above 55 on the MMPI Ma scale and lower than 50 on the MMPI-D scale were most likely to be involved in automobile accidents • Officers scoring below 30 on the Kuder Mechanical Interest scale and higher than 50 on the Kuder social service scale were most likely to be involved in automobile accidents • No relationships between Kuder Preference Record and performance • Officers who scored high in the academy were most likely to succeed on the job Subjects: N Dept. Marsh __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Marsh. (1962). 41-44.

64 6. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.61 2.42 .08 .20 245 .07 12.79 .07 .06 .05 .43* ..52 .16 .. (1980).18 9.21 .35 .30 ..46 2. Using judgment and personality measures to predict effectiveness in policework: An exploratory validation study.61 4.29 ..01 .61 3..08 ..18 3. Ohio State University.36 .32 ..89 6. Essential Finding • A few significant correlations between personality scales and performance ratings • Situational judgment test correlated significantly with performance Sample N Sex/Race Age 18 officers from two small departments in Ohio (n=28 for means) 100% were white men Range 21 – 51 Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Video-based situational judgment test Patrol Performance California Psychological Inventory (CPI) MMPI Vocational Interest (Holland Vocational Preference Inventory) Findings Correlations with Vocational Interest (Holland Vocational Preference Inventory) VPI Scale Mean Performance Rating Overall Evaluation Realistic Investigative Social Conventional Enterprising Artistic Self-control Masculinity Status Infrequency Acquiescence 6..19 .06 .11 6.30 .__________________________________________________________________ Using Judgment and Personality Measures to Predict Effectiveness in Policework: An Exploratory Validation Study George Mass Ohio State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Mass. G.40* .12 .

01 .42 .14 41.56 55.83 47.61* .05 .30 .28 .71 57.11 ..82 .13 ..67 53.30 .30 .38 Overall Effectiveness .29 .28 MMPI Scale L F K 1 Hs – Hypochondriasis 2 D – Depression 3 Hy – Hysteria 4 Pd – Psychopathic deviate 5 Mf – Masculinity/femininity 6 Pa – Paranoia 7 Pt – Psychasthenia 8 Sc – Schizophrenia 9 Ma – Hypomania 0 Si – Social Introversion A R Es – Ego Strength Lb – Lower back pain Ca – Caudality Dy – Dependency Do – Dominance Re – Responsibility Pr – Prejudice St – Status Cn – Control Wb Mean 47.71 50.96 47.22 45.13 ..Correlations with CPI and Situational Judgment Test Mean Situational Judgment Test CPI Scale Dominance (Do) Capacity for status (Cs) Sociability (Sy) Social presence (Sp) Self-acceptance (Sa) Sense of well being (Wb) Responsibility (Re) Socialization (So) Self-control (Sc) Tolerance (To) Good impression (Gi) Communality (Cm) Achievement via conformity (Ac) Achievement via independence (Ai) Intellectual efficiency (Ie) Psychological mindedness (Py) Flexibility (Fx) Femininity (Fe) Performance Evaluation .35 .00 .39 .43* .82 47.32 .26 ....45* ..57 ..02 ..53* .21 .18 .18 50.33 .64 56.41* ..42 ..12 .34 .22 .10 .13 .78 58.16 .28 ..29 56.29 43.29 .09 ..25 .44* 54.03 .08 ..03 ..28 53.50 52.60 52..45 .28 45.33 ...78 50.06 45.44 .20 .02 .29 .50* .50 46.36 .23 .09 .31 .06 .94 56...07 .52* .48* ...24 .14 .61 48..22 .61 46.68 47.50* .23 ..25 51.22 50.30 ...39 ..31 .19 .37 .89 49.12 .13 ..61 53.43* ...71 58..37 .43* ..41* .24 .28 56.30 Overall Effectiveness .79 51..50 ...83 52.38 .33 .68 44.83 52.11 .50 48..26 .72 Performance Rating .17 51.50 57.18 ...56 56.11 52.17 50.34 .37 246 .45 .12 .15 ..14 ..

35 .43 .92 ..42 .13 . Number of traffic arrests 4.56 .06 .23 ..06 .56 .15 .06 .79 .66 .34 ..83 ..18 .88 .. Percent of arrests contested 5..59 .71 .56 .. Overall Effectiveness Rating 11.Correlations Among Dependent Variables Performance Measurement (1) 1.10 ....07 .17 ..49 . Number of total arrests 2..20 .45 .13 .35 ..06 . Percent of arrests resulting in a conviction 6..71 .53 .55 ..86 ..34 .86 .10 ...21 .. Total number of sick leave days taken 7.41 .07 .70 .07 .93 .15 ..22 .56 .13 ..59 .02 .53 -.03 .53 . Number of misdemeanor arrests 3... Performance Rating 10...56 .93 ..23 .07 ..82 .41 ..60 .73 247 .42 -.13 .. Number of single-day sick leave 8.22 . Number of Single day sick leave with regular days off 9.80 .66 ...04 . Situational judgment (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) .87 ...13 ..07 .

3 4. Allen. A. D.__________________________________________________________________ Characteristics of Successful Policemen and Firemen Applicants Joseph Matarazzo. & Arthur Wiens University of Oregon __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Matarazzo. N.9 112.8 6.0 112.0 112. 48(2).9 6. J. Bernadene Allen.5 55 48 68 52 54 55 65 54 53 52 53 53 45 50 50 67 49 48 53 63 53 53 52 53 53 46 ________________________________________________________ 248 ..2 111.. Essential Findings: • Police and fire applicants had different personality patterns Subjects: N Dept 116 police applicants and 127 fire fighter applicants Portland.. Saslow. Characteristics of successful policemen and firemen applicants. (1964).4 112. Journal of Applied Psychology.0 5. Oregon Police and Fire Departments Independent Variables MMPI WAIS Dependent Variables: Personality profile Findings: ________________________________________________________ Mean Test Scores ______________________ WAIS Verbal IQ Performance IQ Full Scale IQ Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale Cornell Medical Index MMPI (police n=35. & Wiens. V. George Saslow. 123-133. B. fire n=49) L F K Hypochondriasis Depression Hysteria Psychopathic deviate Masculinity Paranoia Psychasthenia Schizophrenia Hypomania Social introversion Police _____ Fire ______ 112. G.

38 9.41 14. SD = 1.11* 6. SD = 9.04 14.48 9.95.05.75 15.82 5. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. patrol) Jailers 41 75.02 16.33.17 14.6% were men M = 28.68 10.94 11. Effects of differential work experience on personality characteristics in police officers and deputies.90 13.66 4.51 12.41 9.71 9. SD = 4.55 M = 26.15 249 F .58 9. (1993). California Graduate Institute.95 8. and scored lower on the psychopathic deviate scale Subjects N Gender Age Experience Education Patrol Officers 39 89.79 8.84 M = 13.7% were men M = 31.23 Independent Variables Time (pre.20 14. SD = 6.65 M = 26.59 Dependent Variables: MMPI Scores 16-PF Scores Findings MMPI Scale Pd Pa 16-PF Scale Suspiciousness Warmhearted Assertiveness Follow Rules Jailers Before After Patrol Officers Before After Combined Before After 16. Essential Findings • Compared MMPI and 16-PF scores prior to and after two years on the job for patrol officers and jailers • After two years.67 15.09 17.__________________________________________________________________ Effects of Differential Work Experience on Personality Characteristics in Police Officers and Deputies Bonnie L.53 15. Matthews California Graduate Institute __________________________________________________________________ Citation Matthews.14 8.30 15.32 10.05* 3. SD = 7.84.41. B.15.07 9.80 6. SD = 1.50 4.70 15.32 6.06 8.64 15. officers became more assertive and suspicious.72 16.78 3.87 14. less warmhearted. L.98 months M = 14. post) Occupation (jailor.32* 24.80 14.30 14.77* 1.

University of Missouri – Columbia.8%.78 for rejected applicants High school diploma=57. The relationship of MMPI and biographical data to police performance.6% Independent Variables MMPI Education Dependent Variables Supervisor ratings of patrol performance (Interrater reliability for 121 performance ratings was .6%.9% were white 23. S. Sex Race Age Education 160 police officers and 90 rejected applicants Elizabeth. G. New Jersey 100% were men 91. Essential Findings: • Few significant relationships between MMPI scores performance • Few significant relationships between education and performance Subjects N Dept.Columbia __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Matyas. some college=33. (1980). Unpublished doctoral dissertation.__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship of MMPI and Biographical Data to Police Selection and Police Performance George Stephen Matyas University of Missouri .83 for officers and 25. college degree=8.85) Commendations Sick days Auto accidents Injuries Disciplinary actions 250 .

00 .18 -.09 -.16 .06 -.67 57.10 -.03 .15 -.26* -.11 -.12 .21* .05 -.17 50.04 .16 .06 -.14 .03 .14 -.14 .07 -.01 .06 -.07 -.05 49.12 .16 -.01 .02 .17 -.07 -.03 .03 .06 .04 -.11 .03 .20* -.13 .11 .01 .15 -.12 .09 -.20* .10 .16 -.02 -.12 .04 .04 -.Findings (Matyas.25 49.06 .08 -.02 -.12 .01 .12 -.15 -.12 -.14 -.08 -.87 -.26* .21* -.20* -.14 .12 -.04 .07 -.00 -.11 -.01 -.01 .13 .37* .04 -.03 -.01 -.04 .14 .16 .02 .08 -.03 -.07 -.06 -.06 -.21* -.15 .13 -.01 .19 -.12 -.08 .02 -.13 .06 .19 -.13 .13 .09 -.12 -.18 -.08 .14 -.35* .31* -.06 -.12 -.07 62.15 -.17 .07 .23* -.31* -.00 .23* -.20 50.20* -.09 .60 43.04 -.23* -.04 .30* -.05 -.12 -.15 Biodata Education Age Race Number of jobs Number of debts Amount of debt Military discipline Employment discipline School discipline Military service Arrests Summons Court appearances Traffic citations _______________________________________________________________________________________ 251 .17 -.00 -.07 .14 -.10 -.14 .09 -.03 -.12 -.19 -.26* -.09 -. 1980) _______________________________________________________________________________________ Correlations with performance ratings _______________________________________________________ Mean ______ Ratings ______ Commendations _____________ Tenure ______ __ On-duty Auto Days Times Discipline Injuries Accidents Sick Sick ________ _______ ________ _______ ______ MMPI L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si 54.23 51.12 -.15 -.15 .13 -.28* .01 -.02 -.22* -.14 .25 -.10 .17 .03 -.24* -.02 -.18 -.05 -.03 -.14 -.11 .29* -.09 -.05 .19 -.20* -.00 -.06 -.08 .06 -.02 -.17 .15 -.01 .16 .16 -.91 55.26* -.09 -.16 -.17 -.06 .11 .03 -.51 53.23* -.11 .19 -.05 -.12 -.14 50.07 -.05 .09 .18 -.03 -.32* -.11 -.14 -.28* .19 -.17 .14 .05 -.05 -.50 55.15 .18 -.08 -.23* .04 .06 .12 -.02 .01 -.16 -.06 .08 -.11 .10 -.02 .01 -.07 -.19 -.20* -.23* -.

A study of the prediction and measurement of police performance. Essential Finding: • Cognitive ability highly correlated with academy survival (r = .34* 252 Police.__________________________________________________________________ A Study of the Prediction and Measurement of Police Performance John A.34) Subjects: N Dept 465 New York Police Department Independent Variables IQ (Otis-Lennon) Dependent Variables: Academy Survival Findings: Correlation with Academy Survival Cognitive ability . J. A. 258-64. (1970). March-April. McAllister Northwestern Connecticut Community College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: McAllister. .

07 .16 Correlations were obtained by entering the frequency data from Appendix III into the computer 253 .24 . 1=yes) Times fired from previous jobs Number of traffic tickets Number of auto accidents Previous police experience Age Note: . Relationship of personal history to success as a police patrolman.07 . HS.. Colorado State University. W.44 with a hold-out sample Sample N Dept. HS diploma=53. Education Internal reliability 97 (65 in the derivation sample.8%. Summary and Essential Findings • Study used the horizontal percent method to create a 57 item biodata instrument (from 61 original items) • The instrument correlated .. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.22 . (1967). McConnell Colorado State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation McConnell.08 . 32 in the hold-out sample) Four medium sized police department in Colorado < HS=12. > HS) Previous military service (0=no..91 (split-half with Spearman-Brown correction) Independent Variables Background Dependent Variables Patrol Performance Findings Performance __________ Education (< HS. A.8% Biodata instrument=.__________________________________________________________________ Relationship of Personal History to Success as a Police Patrolman William A.3%.05 . >HS diploma=30.

49 . CPI-Responsibility CPI-Flexibility. Clinical eval 254 Multiple R . MMPI-Hy CPI-Flexibility. L.41 . CPI-Flexibility. 11(1). 91 of whom were hired (24. CPI Flexibility. Essential Findings: • CPI flexibility and well-being scales best predictors of patrol performance ratings Subjects: N Department Gender Independent Variables CPI MMPI 372 applicants.52 . CPI-Well being College. Clinical evaluation CPI-Flexibility. McDonough & John Monahan San Mateo County Mental Health Services __________________________________________________________________ Citation: McDonough. CPI-Well being CPI Flexibility. CPI-Well being..45 . MMPI-L. MMPI-Ma CPI-Flexibility.50 . CPI-Responsibility CPI-Flexibility.__________________________________________________________________ The Quality Control of Community Caretakers: A Study of Mental Health Screening in a Sheriff’s Department Leah B. Clinical eval. & Monahan. 33-43. CPI-Well being.54 . Clinical eval.48 . Community Mental Health Journal. The quality control of community caretakers: A study of mental health screening in a sheriff’s department.48 .50 . MMPI-Ma. J. Youngest child.47 .5% selection ratio) San Mateo’s Sheriff’s Department 100% were men Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings Criterion Overall rating Use of authority Initiative Competence Routine Self-control Public Relations Empathy Loyalty Adaptability Variables in Equation CPI-Socialization. CPI-Well being IQ. B. MMPI-L. (1975). Youngest child College.

43 .. being dismissed from the department.405 applied.8 12 weeks Independent Variables IQ (Culture Fair Intelligence Test) 16-PF Clinical Analysis Questionnaire Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Termination for cause (0=no. 22. and Work Evaluation Ratings for Police Officers in Atlanta. O.5% were women 6 – 18 months M = 24.5% were men.60 . Being Dismissed from the Department. 1=yes) Probationary supervisory ratings Findings Intelligence Academy Grades 16-PF G.46 Academy Completion Terminated Probationary Performance .51 255 .22 ..06 . 111 were hired) 77. L..__________________________________________________________________ Assessment of Some Personality Traits that Show a Relationship to Academy Grades.23 . Essential Finding • Cognitive ability and personality predicted academy grades and being forced to resign/being fired Subjects N Gender Tenure Age Academy length 111 police officers in Atlanta (1.22 . Assessment of some personality traits that show a relationship to academy grades.73 Academy Grades . Georgia Orin Lewis McEuen Fielding Institute __________________________________________________________________ Citation McEuen. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (1981).. Conscientious CAQ Schizophrenia Worthlessness Test-Retest Reliability . The Fielding Institute. and work evaluation ratings for police officers in Atlanta.56 . Georgia.

J.09 24.__________________________________________________________________ A Field Study of the Relationship Between the Formal Education Levels of 556 Police Officers in St. Michigan State University. T.5% Independent Variables Education (years) Dependent Variables Activity (Citations issued.83 . Unpublished master’s thesis.006 .40 .004 .9 .009 .19 .015 . Louis.50 102 10 .8 .86 1.31 .06 17.11 .003 .66 .26 .42 .21 .74 .16 .03 .2 .40 . Missouri. and their Patrol Duty Performance Records Thomas J. Some College = 11.004 .47 .006 . Louis (MO) Police Department < HS = 40.33 .1%.38 .04 158 14 15 16 Total 19 .37 .63 .66 .10 .10 17.05 .008 .41 .3 .05 26.6 .1 .8 .12 .21 .002 .000 .37 .12 .77 .007 .60 .94 .96 98 6 .07 20.49 .63 .05 26.45 1.11 .60 .51 111 39 .67 .48 . business checks) Findings: Average Number of Daily Citations Written Criterion Sample size Parking meter citations Other parking citations Hazardous traffic violations Other traffic violations Business checks Business interviews Ordinance violation notices Curfew notices issued Vehicles stopped Pedestrians questioned Field interrogation cards Performance Index 7 8 9 5 .28 .004 . Summary and Essential Findings • The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between education and patrol performance over a 28-week period from August. Education 556 police officers St.003 .57 .41 105 Years of Education 10 11 12 13 95 . Missouri. 1961 • Education was not related to the number of citations issued Sample N Dept.24 .92 .24 .4%.59 .5 .17 .08 21.52 .5 .34 .0 . McGreevy Michigan State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation McGreevy.26 .17 .32 .03 .005 .16 .006 .2 .004 .34 120 256 269 . HS Diploma = 48.20 .34 82 58 .67 .47 123 26 .52 .006 . and their patrol duty performance records.037 .16 .59 118 .004 .56 . A field study of the relationship between the formal education levels of 556 police officers in St.11 23. 1960 to March.005 .28 .25 . Louis.65 120 29 .33 .52 .45 .010 .09 22.000 .21 82 556 .38 . (1964).47 .04 17.10 31.18 .29 .16 .

03 .14 .08 Years on Force 556 .05 .55 .60 . Other parking citations 3.12 .68 .08 .34 1. Field interrogation cards 12.51 HS Diploma 269 .59 .01 .19 .21 .69 .06 .02 .20 .64 556 .01 .54 .08 College Education 64 .. Other traffic violations 5.12 .40 .01 ..07 . Business interviews 7.01 .23 . Pedestrians questioned 11.49 . Curfew notices issued 9..25 .04 .03 ...40 . Years on the Force Parking Citations (1+2) Traffic Citations (3+4) Parking + Traffic Citations Investigations (9+10+11) Ordinance citations (7+8) 223 .81 . Hazardous traffic violations 4.36 ..10 23.97 .67 .04 .00 .00 .02 < HS Correlations . Business checks 6.09 25.01 .34 .05 . Ordinance violation notices 8.08 ..17 .76 .09 ..19 .McGreevy (1964) continued Means Criterion Sample size 1.03 Note: The raw data were included in the thesis.16 .96 1.57 .01 .11 . The means and correlations in this table were generated by entering the data into SPSS.45 . 257 .26 .05 .04 .01 .44 ..26 . Parking meter citations 2.76 1.71 .14 .50 ..11 .06 23.05 .74 .01 .11 1.10 .09 ..18 .58 ..37 . Vehicles stopped 10.94 ..

Russell. & Wayne R. TC(-). Psychological test validity for selecting law enforcement officers. Essential Findings • Cadets doing well in the academy scored high on conforming/compulsive and self-criticism. and low on wanted-affection and expressed affection Subjects N Dept.45 . narcissism. TPOS(-) CC(-) 258 Model R . W. Faust Middle Tennessee State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation McQuilkin.. Range = 18 to 41 M = 13 years Independent Variables Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS) Millon Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MMCI) FIRO-B Test of Social Insight (TSI) Wilson Drivers Selection Test (WDST) Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Patrol Performance Findings Criteria Academy Performance Grades Class Rank Probationary Performance Commendations Reprimands Suspensions Auto accidents Injuries Re-employment Test Significant Predictors Scales MMCI TSCS FIRO-B MMCI FIRO-B CC (+). R. AS (-). L. N (-) SC (+) WC (-) CC (+). D(-). AS (+). J. Journal of Police Science and Administration.37 . N (-) WC (-) FIRO-B TSCS FIRO-B FIRO-B FIRO-B MMCI TSCS TSI TSCS MMCI WA (-) TF (+) WC (-) EA (+) WC (-) CC (-).43 .21 .17 . & Faust. Alan G. A. Vickey L. G. Russell.43 . 15% were women M = 26.. McQuilkin. Sex Age Education 143 Police department in a large southeastern city (500. V. and wanted-control • Officers doing well in the probationary period scored high on wanted-control. (1990).21 ..000) 85% were men.31 . SC(-) Pass (+) NDS(+). AS (-). Frost. Frost. 289-294. 17(4). I. N (+) NDS(-). and low on asocial.__________________________________________________________________ Psychological Test Validity for Selecting Law Enforcement Officers Joyce I.

R.48* .15* .15) • Cognitive ability was significantly related to performance (r = . Albany..8%.14* 259 .__________________________________________________________________ Background Factors and Police Performance Robert Michael Mealia SUNY-Albany __________________________________________________________________ Citation Mealia. associate’s=1%.19* .24* . bachelor’s=2% Independent Variables Education Cognitive ability Background problems Dependent Variables Patrol Performance in 7th year Findings Predictor Cognitive ability Education Prior military experience Felony arrests Misdemeanor arrests Juvenile delinquency arrests Traffic tickets Parking tickets Auto accidents Discipline problems in military Number of prior jobs Mean months in prior jobs Job related discipline problems Negative comments from prior employers Rating from background investigator Race (1=white.. Essential Finding • Education was positively related to performance (r = .29 ...... Hispanic=4. State University of New York.. (1990).47* .. 2 = minority) Age Correlation ..21 ..09 .8.19* .11 .29* .28* .. HS=54..18* .29* .6% GED=15. some college=26.4%. M.14* . African American=8. Race Education: 500 New York City Police Department White=86. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.8%.19) • Preemployment problems correlated negatively with performance Subjects N Dept..15* . Background factors and police performance.6%.

04 ..41 260 .08 .Mealia (1990) continued Education Level GED High School Diploma Some College Associate’s Degree Bachelor’s Degree N 79 272 134 5 10 Performance d-score .10 .03 ..

125 San Antonio (TX) Police Department Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (supervisory ratings) Notes: • The five MMPI items in the scale were: . & Joseph C. (1980). Summary and Essential Findings: • This study looked at the validity of 5 MMPI items in predicting police performance.47 261 .I am an important person (F) . Schoenfeld. S.I think I'd like the work of a building contractor (F) . 47. & Kobos. Stefan. L.47 ) Subjects: N Dept. E.__________________________________________________________________ Screening of Police Applicants: A 5-Item MMPI Research Index Elizabeth M.A large number of people are guilty of bad sexual conduct (F) Findings: ______________________________________________________________ Scale Score _______________________________________ 0 ___ 1 ___ 2 ___ 3 ___ 4 ___ 5 ___ Unacceptable 0 1 2 10 6 4 Intermediate 1 5 19 10 8 3 Acceptable 5 14 16 7 3 1 Police Performance ______________________________________________________________ Note: r = -.. Psychological Reports. Kobos Trinity University and University of Texas at San Antonio __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Merian. Screening of police applicants: A 5item MMPI research index. Lawrence S.. C. M. David Stefan.155-158.I seldom worry about my health (T) . Schoenfeld. • The 5-item scale significantly predicted performance (r=-.What others think of me does not bother me (T) . Merian.. D. J.

& Robert Weller Ball State University and Muncie (IN) Police Department __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Meunier. Psychological characteristics of reserve police officers. F. 8. Tanya Koontz. 57-59.__________________________________________________________________ Psychological Characteristics of Reserve Police Officers Gary F. Koontz. & Weller. T. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.. R.8% were men. Meunier. G. Essential Findings: • MMPI profile of reserve police officers similar to profile of regular police officers Subjects: N Dept Gender Age 159 applicants for reserve officer training Muncie (Indiana) Police Department 91.2% were women M = 25. 11(1).. (1995).0 (range 20-50) Independent Variables MMPI Wonderlic Personnel Test Dependent Variables: Average scores Findings: ___________________________________________ Mean _____ Wonderlic Personnel Test 20 MMPI L 51 F 51 K 58 Hypochondriasis 51 Depression 55 Hysteria 54 Psychopathic Deviate 59 Masculinity-Femininity 54 Paranoia 51 Psychasthenia 54 Schizophrenia 55 Hypomania 62 Social introversion 47 ___________________________________________ 262 .

32* .14 .12 _____________________________________________________________________________ n=165 * r is significant at the . Paper presented at the annual graduate conference in Industrial/Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior. Effects of education level on performance of campus police officers.7%.63* . M. IL. & Higgins..56* .. J.05 Report writing (2) . Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to report writing and communication skills • Education was negatively related to discipline problems Subjects: N Dept. (1994).32* . Michals and James M. Chicago. some college=24..3%. Higgins Radford University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Michals. Education: 165 16 college campus police departments in Virginia HS=38%.52* . AAS=17. E.04 Communication skills (3) .. J..11 Experience .04 (2) _____ (3) ____ (4) _____ .05 level or better Note: correlations with individual performance dimensions are available 263 . BA=20% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: _____________________________________________________________________________ Education ________ Experience _________ Overall performance .__________________________________________________________________ Effects of Education Level on Performance of Campus Police Officers John E.07 Discipline problems (4) ..25* .29* .60* .

__________________________________________________________________ Predicting Police Performance for Differing Gender and Ethnic Groups: A Longitudinal Study Alice Mills California School of Professional Psychology __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Mills.2 Q2: Self-sufficient 4.5 .12* Q3: Controlled 6.12* Calm 5. Supervisor ratings Findings: ____________________________________________________________________________ 16 P.2 Bright 4.0 .14* .5% were White Mean = 26.08* ...11* Apprehensive 3. Scale _________________ Mean ______ Tenure ______ Complaints _________ Commendations ____________ Sample size 753 720 430 Culture Fair Intelligence 105. A.17* Dominant 5. and commendations but not supervisor evaluations.10* 16-PF Outgoing 4.3 .4 .5 .09* .1 .14* .... California School of Professional Psychology..18* Venturesome 5.2 . 37.08* . Subjects: N Gender/Race Age 753 officers hired between 1977 and 1982 87% were men.5 .6 Tender-minded 3.10* .. Essential Finding: • Significant correlations between 16-PF and tenure.11* ____________________________________________________________________________________ 264 . complaints.10* .13* Suspicious 4.15* Q4: Tense 3.10* Conscientious 5.0 Q1: Experimenting 3.6 . Predicting police performance for differing gender and ethnic groups: A longitudinal study.7 Happy-go-lucky 4.5 ... Unpublished doctoral dissertation...09 ..9 Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Personality (16-PF) Tenure..10* .0 .6 .F.15* Shrewd 4. Complaints. Cognitive ability (Culture Fair Intelligence Test) Commendations.08* Imaginative 3.15* . (1990)..

20 .01 .19 .07 .45* __________________________________________________________________ 265 .29 46.43* . (1980).133Gi+. Mills & Wayne E.32* .68 53...94 54.39* .274Ai) Police Equation (20.26* ...Education Mean = 13 years (range 12-18) Independent Variables California Psychological Inventory Dependent Variables: Supervisor rating of performance during 1st year .55 47. Essential Findings: • Significant relationship between several CPI scores and ratings of performance. Personality characteristics of effective state police officers.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Characteristics of Effective State Police Officers Carol J.07 53.27* .41 51.13 47.55 53. J.16 53. 65(6).24 .32* .02 .07 .372Do+..02 45.345Wb-. W.33* .14 .02 .05 .03 .74 31.24 .02 . Subjects: N Gender Age/Education 49 Maryland State Police Officers with 1 year of experience (1978/79) 100% were men Mean = 25 years (range 20-35) .78 Findings: ________________________________________________________________________________ Supervisor Ratings _______________________ CPI Scale ___________________ Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Well-being Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Good impression Communality Ach via conformance Ach via independence Intellectual effectiveness Psych mindedness Flexibility Femininity Leadership Equation (14.33Ai+. Journal of Applied Psychology.31* .47Sp+.09 . Bohannon Franklin and Marshall College & Johns Hopkins University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Mills.02 ..25 .. 680-684..16 .69 (raw) 49.12 .15 .01 .696Sa+.15 .44 (raw) Leadership ________ .01 .21-.07 .Interrater reliability = ..26* .23 .43* Suitability ________ ..20 .68Ie) Mean _____ 55. E. & Bohannon.03 54.29 45.17 51.13+.68Sa+.17 .14 50..02 .08 .08 46.14 .15 51. C.28 50.

and field) showed no useful differences in MMPI scores. Subjects: • No subject information given Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Academy Performance (26-week academy) Findings: • No statistical data were given. Stratton Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Mills. Essential Finding: • No significant relationships between MMPI scores and academy performance or patrol performance. C.__________________________________________________________________ The MMPI and the Prediction of Police Job Performance Marcia C." 266 . & Stratton. Mills & John G. graduation from the academy..".. Article quoted "A comparison of successful and nonsuccessful groups as all three states (entry. J... and behaviorally anchored supervisory ratings. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. M."There were a few significant but weak relationships between MMPI measures and successful policing defined by entrance into the academy. retention in field. G. academy.. February. 10-15. (1982). The MMPI and the prediction of police job performance.

Cincinnati. Criminology. Mills.11 . 57(1). Journal of Criminal Law. McDevitt. R. R. Robert J..38* ...14* ..09 . J. Ohio Police Department Academy length 22 weeks Independent Variables Cognitive ability (Army General Classification Test) Situational exercises Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Findings: _______________________________________________________________ (1) _____ Academy performance (1) Cognitive ability (2) (2) _____ (3) _____ (4) _____ (5) _____ ..10 .05 . & Sandra Tonkin University of Cincinnati __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Mills. & Tonkin.__________________________________________________________________ Situational Tests in Metropolitan Police Recruit Selection Robert B. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability was positively related to academy performance (r = .60) Subjects: N 42 Dept.60* . McDevitt. and Police Science. B.06 Situational Exercises Clues test (3) Foot patrol test (4) . 99-106. (1966).15 Pistol marksmanship test (5) _______________________________________________________________ 267 .21 . Situational tests in metropolitan police recruit selection. S.

R.8 years. R.39* 268 . 41-44... Richard O.01 .32 .80 . K.90 ..08 . SD = 3.1 M = 4. July-August.13 . Hankey. Multiple relationships of TAV selection system predictors to state traffic officer performance.6.06 . Heywood.16 . and against people (V) • Two scales measuring movement against people were significantly related to performance of state traffic officers Subjects: N Gender Education Age Experience Independent Variables TAV 38 traffic officers in Los Angeles 100% % were men M = 13. & Kennedy.86 . Los Angeles __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Morman.3 M = 31. Hankey.2.. P.39* . R. Harold L. O. SD = 1. L.3 Dependent Variables: Arrest Performance (Hours worked per arrest) Rankings of Overall Performance (Interrater = .31 .. away from people (A). & Phyllis Kennedy California State College.. Essential Finding • The article looked at the validity of a test battery developed on the basis of Karen Horney’s theory involving movement toward people (T).88 .12 .05 .23 . SD = 4.. Morman.78 . H.08 .03 ..11 . Heywood.06 . Police. (1965).73 .78) Findings Internal Reliability _________________ Criteria Supervisor Ranking Demographics Age Education Experience Adjective Check List Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Preferences Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Hours per Supervisor Arrest Ranking ____________________________ .06 .06 .78 ..__________________________________________________________________ Multiple Relationships of TAV Selection System Predictors to State Traffic Officer Performance Robert R..

.78 .05 .16 .22 .81 .40* 269 ..86 .83 .Internal Reliability _________________ Proverbs and Sayings Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Judgments Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Hours per Supervisor Arrest Ranking ____________________________ ..09 ..20 .07 ..82 .18 .29 ..16 .85 .16 .10 .

90 .. & Heywood.3.19 .29* . Hankey. away from people (A).07 .71 270 Correlation with Supervisor Ranking .77 . 70-73.78 . R. R.20 . May-June. & Harold L.6 M = 4. Phyllis Kennedy. and against people (V) • Several scales were significantly related to performance of state traffic officers Subjects: N Gender Education Age Experience 62 traffic officers in California 100% % were men M = 12. P.__________________________________________________________________ Predicting State Traffic Officer Performance with TAV Selection System Theoretical Scoring Keys Robert R.6 M = 32.2.11 . Essential Finding • The article looked at the validity of a test battery developed on the basis of Karen Horney’s theory involving movement toward people (T).91 .77 . SD = 3. Richard O. K.14 .27* . O.93 .89 .90 . R. Morman.26* . L.1 years. Hankey.03 .78) Findings For this study.88 .80 .28* .09 .. (1965). SD = 4. Kennedy. Los Angeles __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Morman.29* . SD = 0.20 . Predicting state traffic officer performance with TAV selection system theoretical scoring keys.23 .91 . the rankings seem to have been converted such that a positive correlation indicates that a high test score is associated with a high level of performance Test Scale Criterion Demographics Supervisor Ranking Age Education Experience Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Adjective Check List Preferences Proverbs & Sayings Judgments Internal Reliability .90 .34* ..0 Independent Variables TAV Dependent Variables: Rankings of Overall Performance (Interrater = . H. Heywood California State College. Police.

06 . & Rogers Liddle California State College..02 .05 .. SD = .84 . L. SD = 1.. (1966).__________________________________________________________________ Predicting State Traffic Cadet Academic Performance from Theoretical TAV Selection System Scores Robert R.83 ..07 .89 .92 .. Harold L.19 .. Heywood.85 .. Essential Finding • The article looked at the validity of a test battery developed on the basis of Karen Horney’s theory involving movement toward people (T). Los Angeles __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Morman.14 .91 .25* .07 . SD=3. Hankey.04 .3. R. R.19 . & Liddle.88 ..89 .. away from people (A).. 54-58.10 ..89 .99 16 weeks Dependent Variables: Academy Performance (M=84. Predicting state traffic cadet academic performance from theoretical TAV selection system scores.16 .9. O.10 . and against people (V) • Several scales measuring movement against people were significantly related to academy instructor ratings • No scales were related to academy grades Subjects: N Gender Education Age Academy length Independent Variables TAV 78 cadets in Los Angeles 100% % were men M = 13.08 . Hankey.85 . Morman.07 .17 271 . July-August. Heywood. Richard O.69 M = 26. R..2. R.08 . Police.26* .24* .87 ..18 ..18 .07 .85 . H.9) Findings Internal Reliability _________________ Adjective Check List Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Preferences Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Proverbs and Sayings Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Judgments Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Personal Data Academy Instructor Grades Rating ____________________________ .11 .02 .

11 .81 .04 .Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Sales Reactions Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) ..13 .11 .46 .08 .22* .57 ..84 ....17 .00 ..08 .88 .13 272 .08 .03 .65 .

30-34.08 . SD = 1. & Jones.07 .15 .88 .13 .8.. Hankey.82 .79 .01 . away from people (A).__________________________________________________________________ Academy Achievement of State Traffic Officer Cadets Related to TAV Selection System Plus Other Variables Robert R.. Los Angeles __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Morman..11 . Kennedy.02 .03 . Jones California State College.75 .76 . Phyllis K. and against people (V) • There were no significant correlations with academy performance Subjects: N Gender Education Age Academy length 109 cadets in Los Angeles 100% were men M = 13.. O. E..89 . Kennedy..1.. Essential Finding • The article looked at the validity of a test battery developed on the basis of Karen Horney’s theory involving movement toward people (T). SD = 2..88 .71 273 Correlation with Academy Grades .07 .2. SD=3.11 .00 . R. Academy achievement of state traffic officer cadets related to TAV selection system plus other variables.87 .89 . (1966).28 . Hankey.03 .02 .04 . July-August.81 .00 . R.90 .. & Ethel M.5 16 weeks Independent Variables TAV Dependent Variables: Academy Performance (M=85. Richard O.74 .. P. M. Morman.02 .48 .4) Findings Test Scale Adjective Check List Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Toward People (T) Away from People (A) Against People (V) Age Previous Police Exp Education Preferences Proverbs & Sayings Judgments Personal Data Demographic Internal Reliability .0 M = 26..17 . Police. K.07 . R..

Essential Finding A regression analysis indicated that elevated scores on driving violations and lack of assertiveness and low scores on Type A Behavior were related to poor officer performance. A. Mufson & Maurice A.134) and low scores on Type A Behavior (z = -2. Predicting police officer performance using the Inwald Personality Inventory: An Illustration from Appalachia. Subjects N Dept Sex Race 33 police officers Huntington. M. 3% were African American.____________________________________________________________________________________________ Predicting Police Officer Performance Using the Inwald Personality Inventory: An Illustration from Appalachia Diane W.704) were related to poor officer performance. 5962. & Mufson. 29(1). (1998). D. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.765) and lack of assertiveness (z = 2.9 % were men. Mufson Marshall University School of Medicine ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Citation Mufson. and 3% were Hispanic Independent Variables Personality (Inwald Personality Inventory) Dependent Variables Supervisor ratings of performance Findings A regression analysis indicated that elevated scores on driving violations (z = 2. W.1% were women 94% were White. WV Police Department 90.. 9. 274 .

MD Police Department 100% were men 440 hours (11 weeks) Independent Variables Cognitive ability (Army General Classification Test) Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Findings: _______________________________________________________________ Correlations with cognitive ability ___________________________ Academy Overall Average . E. Mullineaux Baltimore City Service Commission __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Mullineaux.__________________________________________________________________ An Evaluation of the Predictors Used to Select Patrolmen Jewel E. 84-86. J.73) Subjects: N Dept. An evaluation of the predictors used to select patrolmen. 16. (1965).56* Board interview prior to academy . Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability was positively related to academy performance (r = . Gender Academy length 50 Baltimore.46* _______________________________________________________________ 275 . Public Personnel Review.73* Spelling during the academy .

Motivational Analysis Test) were reported. M. Predicting police officer performance from a psychological screening battery.50) Subjects: N 64 police academy cadets (41 completed the academy) Dept. the directions of the relationships were not listed so the results are not listed below. (1996). W. W. results from other tests (MMPI. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Police and Criminal Psychology. C. 15-25.50* _______________________________________________________________ 276 . However. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability was positively related to performance on a state licensing exam (r = . 10(4). C.__________________________________________________________________ Predicting Police Officer Performance from a Psychological Screening Battery Wayman C.Verbal) Dependent Variables: Score on State licensing test Notes: • In the published article. Mullins and Michael McMains Southwest Texas State University and San Antonio Police Department __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Mullins. & McMains. (1990). San Antonio Police Department Academy length 24 weeks Independent Variables Cognitive ability (Shipley-Hartford. Findings: _______________________________________________________________ Correlations with license exam score _____________________________ Cognitive ability (Shipley verbal) . Mullins. Predicting patrol officer performance from a psychological assessment battery: A predictive validity study..

07 .. D..11 .42* ..13 . 1% were women City East: HS=175. Essential Finding: • Education was significantly related to performance ratings and peer ratings Subjects: N Dept.22* City East (n = 603) CJ Military Major Education .11 .11 .14 ..08 ..09 .06 ..10 .03 .01 . Bachelor’s=34 Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings Criteria Patrol Performance Commendations Suspensions Reprimands Performance ratings Complaints Sick leave Promotional test scores Peer ratings Firearm discharges Felony arrests Misdemeanor arrests GPA ..03 .13 ....04 .24* .02 .26* .24* .02 ...11 ..01 .00 .04 .19* ..09 .14 Rural West (n = 137) CJ Military Major Education .11 .07 ..03 .03 ..07 .04 -. Florida State University.11 .03 . (1982)...12 .04 .13 .02 . Some College=150.25* . Bachelor’s=128 Rural West: HS=52.05 .03 .42* .08 . The influence of education on police work performance. Associate’s=150..16 ...01 .18 .13 .16 ..02 .08 . Associate’s=34. Some College=17..08 .. rural department) officers employed for at least one full year Two departments in the Southeast 99% were men.07 .24* ....12 . B.10 .13 .01 .04 ....03 .09 277 GPA .00 .10 .02 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation..00 .26* .14 .01 .18 ..05 .19 .07 ..09 . Gender: Education 603 (large urban department) and 137 (smaller.38* ..12 .19* .20* .04 .01 .10 .___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Influence of Education on Police Work Performance David Bruce Murrell Florida State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Murrell.06 ..13 ...

04 . Commendations 2.07 .03 .54 .. Sick leave 278 (4) (5) (6) . Suspensions 3.06 .29 ..Page 2 City East (n = 603) 1.01 6. Reprimands 4.36 ..31 ..00 .18 .04 .00 .01 .14 .08 .10 .15 .Murrell ....53 .01 .03 . Complaints Rural West (n=137) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (2) 3) ... Performance evaluation 5.21 .01 .05 .17 ..

T.. B.62 Skill Level Judgment .55 . Psychological services for law enforcement.42 46.3% (1) were women Independent Variable MMPI Dependent Variable Supervisor ratings Findings MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Descriptive Statistics Correlations with Performance Mean SD Low High Report Writing 52. A.25 54. (Eds).__________________________________________________________________ The K Scale (MMPI) and Job Performance Bob Neal Peace Officer Resource Associates __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Neal. (1986).56 56. • A few of the scales correlated significantly with a few of the 10 rating dimensions Subjects: N Sex 12 officers in a small suburban police department in Minnesota 91.54 279 Overall .60 5. Washington.55 . & Goldstein.61 .64 .02 4. H.33 54..30 8. pp 83-90. J.. 8.51 .64 .: U.C.47 6. D.58 10.56 .61 5.92 7.89 Grooming Traffic Enforcement .11 5.75 8.73 52.67 38.50 60. Essential Findings: • Study correlated the MMPI scores of 12 officers with supervisor ratings of performance.00 50.83 53.87 2.7% (11) were men.08 67.52 5.29 5.83 50. The K scale (MMPI) and job performance..S.. Government Printing Office.14 40 46 57 41 41 44 43 43 35 42 44 53 32 66 53 75 57 56 64 74 73 65 60 61 73 50 .72 6.83 48. In Reese.

16 3.09 4.86 4.59 5.10 4.05 3. African American=48.78 6.39 6. Nemeth University of South Alabama __________________________________________________________________ Citation Nemeth. University of South Alabama.14 7.50 7.32 6.83 .8% were women White=47.9%.97 6. gone) Dependent Variables: Clinical Analysis Questionnaire Findings 16-PF Scale A Warmth B Intelligence C Emotional stability E Dominance F Impulsivity G Conformity H Boldness I Sensitivity L Suspiciousness M Imagination N Shrewdness O Insecurity Q1 Radicalism Q2 Self-sufficiency Q3 Self-discipline Q4 Tension MD Defensive Department Cobb County DeKalb County Mean (n=43) Mean (n=139) 5.88 4.39 3.02 5.01 280 Employment Status Still Employed Not Employed Mean (n=93) Mean (n=89) 6.95 5.83 4. 89 had left) 90. Other=3.05 5.80 7. (2001).98 6. Predictive validity of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire in the pre-employment selection of police officers.81 6.2% were men. Essential Finding • Thesis provided applicant means for the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire • Only the Intelligence Factor of the 16-PF differentiated applicants who completed the academy and were hired from those who did not Subjects N Gender Race Age 182 applicants to two police departments in Georgia (93 were employed. Y.3% Range = 20 to 42 Independent Variables Department Employment Status (employed.70 4.91 7.19 3.72 5. Unpublished master’s thesis.8%.88 4.99 4.57 6.98 4.32 5. M.48 5.93 6.60 6.64 6.09 4.16 5.76 4.00 7.53 5. 9.05 6.99 7.75 6.__________________________________________________________________ Predictive Validity of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire in the PreEmployment Selection of Police Officers Yvette M.57 4.31 4.

Police.78 Re 54.00 Sc 50. 39-41. A study of the personality characteristics of successful policemen. Gender: Age 27 Three suburban police departments (population about 30.07 F 48.96 Pd 56.48 Social status (St) 60.74 D 50. Jr. Essential Finding: • Officers had elevated scored on K. (1966). and Ma clinical scales and Dominance (Do).74 Pa 53.48 K 61. S. ego strength (Es). Pd.___________________________________________________________________________________________ A Study of the Personality Characteristics of Successful Policemen Stephen Nowicki.52 Dominance (Do) 63. 10.41 Hs 50.48 Cn 52.52 Pt 51.81 Pr 42.44 _________________________________________________________________________________ 281 .000) 100% were men M = 26 Independent Variables Dependent Variables: MMPI Scores (t scores) Findings: _________________________________________________________________________________ MMPI Scale _____________________ Mean T-Scores ____________ L 49. and Social Status (St) research scales of the MMPI Subjects: N Dept.74 Mf 53.00 Ma 55. Purdue University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Nowicki.63 Si 45.00 Ego strength (Es) 62.63 Hy 53.

Essential Finding: • MMPI. M.79) Findings MMPI Scale ___________ HS D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Mean ______ 50 59 45 55 56 49 58 53 52 62 Correlation with Performance Ratings ________________________________ . TX police department 100% were men Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables Supervisor Ratings in Year 1 (reliability = .26 . IPI.. and cognitive ability predictive of patrol performance. Subjects: N Sex 51 police officers from the Abilene.38* .27 . Unpublished master’s thesis. Abilene Christian University. (1979).___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Relationship Between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Profiles of Police Recruits and Performance Ratings in their Rookie Year Melissa Ann Ofton Abilene Christian University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Ofton.24 282 . The relationship between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profiles of police recruits and performance ratings in their rookie year.. A..

10 ..02 . J..20* .. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.30* .26* ..22* .21* .00 .18 . and cognitive ability predictive of patrol performance..09 .08 ..04 .02 .97) Dependent Variables: Academy Grades (M=89. Hispanic=3.3%..18* . Subjects: N Gender: Race Age Education Academy length 301 Michigan State Troopers 73% were men white=69..15 .14 .18* ..6% 22 weeks Independent Variables Personality (MMPI... 2=f) MMPI Scales L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Mac GPA 231 Patrol Ratings 174 Patrol Activity 174 Tenure 301 .21* . IPI..11 ...17* .06 .2%. Bachelor’s=10.21) Supervisor Ratings (reliability = ...3% M = 25.10 .25* ..___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Big-Five Factors and Hostility in the MMPI and IPI: Predictors of Michigan State Trooper Job Performance John Joseph Palmatier Michigan State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Palmatier.10 ..17* .23 .07 . Associate’s=28.00 .11 .09 .22* .10 ..07 .80) Patrol Activity Tenure (0=quit..04 ..15* .22 . some college=46.4%.02 .4%..92 (range = 20-37) HS diploma=14. Asian=1.17 . SD = 4..11.01 .16* .25* ..02 . black=24.10 .6%.15* .6%..01 . J.6%.03 . IPI) Civil Service Test (M=93..05 . Essential Finding: • MMPI. The big-five factors and hostility in the MMPI and IPI: Predictors of Michigan State Trooper job performance.07 ...09 .16* .06 .. Michigan State University.60* ..19* .28* ...11* . SD=4..16* .. 1=stay) Findings: Sample size Criteria Academy GPA Patrol ratings Patrol activity Civil service exam Gender (1=m..11* .02 .08 .03 .12 .99...17* ...14 .04 .12 283 .04 ..13 ...19* . Native American=1.. (1996).

.02 .19* ...15* .10 ..07 .....11 .14 ...15 ..04 .12 ..18* .15 .24* ...10 ..02 .......24* ..07 .11 .01 .15* .30* ...13* .07 ..15 .25* .13 ..00 .31* ..10 .06 .14 .17* .14* ..03 .12 .22* 284 ...13 ..16* .12 .....16* ..04 ..03 .22* .08 ...12 .09 ..07 .01 ..01 ..22* ..22* ....23* .17* ....01 ..21* .21* ....02 ....02 .12 ...15* .11 .20* ..18* ..10 .10 ..15 ...13* .08 .28* ..19* .15 .03 .00 .09 .06 .19* .18* ..18* .27* .05 ....10 .20* ..07 .....11 ...09 ...19* ..12* ..09 ...03 ...09 ..18* ...14* ...21* .23* ..06 .27* .07 ...Palmatier (1996) continued Sample size IPI Scale Guardedness (GD) Alcohol use (Al) Drug use (Dg) Driving violations Job difficulties Trouble with the law Absence abuse Substance abuse Antisocial attitudes Hyperactivity Rigid type Type A personality Illness concerns Treatment programs Anxiety Phobic personality Obsessive personality Depression Loner type Unusual experiences Lack of assertiveness Interpersonal difficulties Suspiciousness Family conflicts Sexual concerns Spouse conflicts GPA 231 Patrol Ratings 174 Patrol Activity 174 Tenure 301 .10 ..19* .04 ..02 .04 ..03 ..21* .

.24* . J.__________________________________________________________________ Academic Professionalism in Law Enforcement Bernadette J. Gender: Education: 397 Los Angeles Police Department 89% were men.23* ..15* Professional Attitude .29* .. 11% were women High school diploma and no college = 37. some.04 0.57 285 Citizen Complaints . Academic Professionalism in Law Enforcement. B.4% Independent Variables Education (no college. aa.18* . ma) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (probationary period) Findings Mean Education Commendations Citizen complaints Commendations . New York: Garland Publishing. ba. Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to commendations and professionalism • Education was negatively related to citizen complaints Subjects: N Dept.16* 3. (1995). Palombo __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Palombo.

W. J.78 .88 . Unpublished master’s thesis. (1979).06 . The relationship between recruit school evaluations and future job performance in predicting job success for Michigan sate police troopers.20 .17 .31 .32 .__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship Between Recruit School Evaluations and Future Job Performance in Predicting Job Success in for Michigan State Police Troopers William John Parviainen Michigan State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Parviainen.71 286 . Michigan State University. Essential Findings • Ratings of performance in the academy significantly predicted performance during the probationary period Subjects N Gender 103 new officers who completed one of 7 Michigan State Police academies 100% were men Independent Variables Ratings of academy performance Dependent Variables Ratings of probationary performance Findings Interrater Reliability Academy Dimension Attitude Image Academic ability Experience Marksmanship ability Performance Ratings Peer Ratings Supervisor Ratings Correlation with Supervisor Ratings of Probationary Performance .

Education 2..39* .06 (8) .28* ... Predicting the effects of military service experience on stressful occupational events in police officers. (2002). G.07 . Police experience (years) 4..7% Age M = 38 Police experience M = 11 Military 23% had prior military experience.S. African American=15%.36* . Asian=1..03 . Mid-size police department in Northeastern U.03 . Sex 89% were men.04 . Military experience (years) 3. averaging seven years Independent Variables Military experience Education Dependent Variables Organizational work events (Police Stress Survey Field work events (activity) Findings: Correlations (1) 1.28* (3) ..94* 287 . Perceptions of stress .39* (5) (6) .09 .. 602-618.04 Organizational work events 5.10 (4) . Hispanic=11%. Number .22* .02 .26* (7) ..__________________________________________________________________ Predicting the Effects of Military Service Experience on Stressful Occupational Events in Police Officers George T.06 . Patterson New York University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Patterson.00 .. Police rank (2) . T. 25(3).36* . Perceptions of stress .33* 6. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management.08 .26* .06 .96* .31* Field work events (activity) 7. Number 8. 11% were women Race White=72%.15* . Essential Findings • Military experience was not related to stress • Educated and higher ranking officers perceived greater organizational work event stress • Experienced officers perceived lower stress from enforcement-related work activities Subjects N 233 police officers Dept.21* .

bachelors+ = 8.72 0.15* . Illinois State University.11* .72 Force Complaints Arrests .8%. Hispanic = 2.13* .06 ..12* .6%. Peterson Illinois State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Peterson. D. AAS=11. Asian = 1. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.34* . Native American = 1. complaints.04 .6%.9% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables Use of force incidents Citizen complaints (previous year) Arrests (past 30 days) Job satisfaction Findings: Correlations Variable Education Age Use of force incidents Citizen complaints Arrests Satisfaction with the department Satisfaction with career Mean 34..8%. graduate/law degree = 1. SD = 8. (2001). 3-4 years college=10..3%. S.62.9% were women White = 86. The relationship between educational attainment and police performance. or arrests made • More highly educated officers with more satisfied with their department bus less satisfied with their careers in law enforcement Subjects: N Department Sex Race Age Tenure Education 370 police officers Seven medium-sized police departments in the Midwest 88. 11.83 9.2%. SD = 7. Essential Findings: • Education was not related to use of force.0% BA=30..4%.20* .55* Note: Correlations for education were computed by computing the F values listed in the dissertation into rs 288 .04 .83...6%..13* Job Satisfaction Department Career .08* .78 9. African American = 7.1% were men.74 HS/GED = 10.37 M = 9.37* .06 .9% M = 34. some college = 27%.___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Relationship Between Educational Attainment and Police Performance Diana S.

018 Police union membership (0=no.025 Morale . 1=conservative) ______________________________________________________________ n=135 * r is significant at the .05 level or better 289 . Education: Independent Variables Education Age 135 patrol officers Medium size (n=300) department in the south HS=33. A correlation of police productivity with educational level.3%.000 Political belief (0=liberal. MA=3. 4yrs=11. L. A quantitative analysis of dynamic performance measurements of a southern police department. 1=intrinsic) Stress -. BA=15.010 Age -. Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to arrest performance • Age and length of service were negatively related to arrest performance Subjects: N Dept.23* .08 . Quarles..6%. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Little Rock.15 . and seniority of officers in a southern police department.9%. 3yrs=9. S.009 Length of service -...16 .18* . AR.004 Job satisfaction . 2yrs=25.52* . Note: These two studies have the same database and identical findings. University of Mississippi.2%.6%. (1984). age. (1984).51* .Arrests Findings: ______________________________________________________________ DV=Arrest Performance r ______ R ______ Educational Level .7% Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance .44* . C. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Police and Criminal Psychology.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Performance Measurements of a Southern Police Department Supachoke Pibulniyom University of Mississippi __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Pibulniyom.001 Religious orientation (0=extrinsic.34* . 1=yes) -.615 -.006 .

Findings Correlation with Academy Graduation _________________ Education College units Military experience (0=no..7% M = 25 HS diploma=50. O.25* .21* . BA=14. 1=yes) Oral board score Written score Prior marijuana use (0=no. AA=34.05 290 .4%.7% Independent Variables Education Military experience Background Civil Service Written Exam MMPI Dependent Variables: Academy Graduation (20-week academy) Notes: • The data from the tables in the dissertation were entered into the computer to obtain the correlations below. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.6%. K. Asian=. Pre-employment factors that determine success in the police academy. Claremont Graduate College.7%. 2=female) . Hispanic=14%. oral board scores..43* . Black=14.5%. Essential Finding: • Significant correlation between college units. . Native American=. MA=. 1=yes) Gender (1=male.4%.6%.13 . Gender: Race Age Education 131 Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department 81% were men. and cognitive ability and academy graduation • Significant negative correlation between marijuana use and academy graduation Subjects: N Dept. (1979).12 .___________________________________________________________________________________________ Pre-Employment Factors That Determine Success in the Police Academy Keith Otis Plummer Claremont Graduate College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Plummer. 19% were women White=68.20* .

03 Si 46 .08 Sc 52 . Correlations were obtained by comparing converting the mean T-scores to d scores using a standard deviation of 10 and then converting the d scores to correlations (r) 291 .10 Pd 57 ...00 Note: MMPI means are T scores.00 F 51 .15 Pa 50 .00 Hy 54 .00 Ma 57 .12 Mf 56 .12 Pt 52 .10 Hs 49 ..05 D 50 ..00 K 60 ..Plummer (1979) continued Correlation with Academy Graduation _________________ Mean ______ MMPI L 50 ..

11 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.10 .21 .5% 3.27 .5 Years 12... J..22 .. M.2% 42.04 .6% 49. Michigan State University.12 .32 .6 Years 65.19 .0% 31.30 292 . An exploratory analysis of the relationship between social background factors and performance criteria in the Michigan State Police.15 ..13 .___________________________________________________________________________________________ An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship Between Social Background Factors and Performance Criteria in the Michigan State Police James Michael Poland Michigan State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Poland.5% Michigan State Police 16 weeks Independent Variables Education Military service Dependent Variables Awards Accidents Times used weapon Times assaulted Findings Performance Variable 1964 (n = 93) Complaints Awards Auto Accidents Times assaulted Times used weapon Sick days 1969 (n = 106) Complaints Awards Auto Accidents Times assaulted Times used weapon Reprimands Academy Score Education Background Factor Military Traffic Tickets Auto Accidents .2% 8. Essential Finding: • Data collected in 1975 from two academy cohorts: 1964 and 1969 graduates • Few significant correlations between background variables and police performance Subjects N Education High school Some college Bachelor’s Dept. (1976). Academy length 1964 1969 93 106 12.

Native American=1. However. W.68 44. black=48%. Powers Adler School of Professional Psychology __________________________________________________________________ Citation Powers.20 .45 52.11 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.60 55.18 293 .43 58.03 . Hispanic=16%.3% Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables Complaints of excessive force Arrests made Findings Mean Score Arrests made MMPI Scale L F K HS D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si 54.04 52.44 55.3%.08 48.24 50.85 63. An evaluation of the predictive validity of the MMPI s it relates to identifying police officers prone to engage in the use of excessive force. because the study did not include officers with few or no complaints (they only included those with 6 or more complaints though the department mean was .23 57. (1996). Essential Finding • MMPI did not correlate with complaints of use of excessive force. Asian=1. Adler School of Professional Psychology.3%.15 Arrests Made . P.3). Sample N Gender: Race 75 police officers in a Midwestern police department who had at least 6 excessive use of force complaints 100% were men white=33.60 Complaints .96 54.87 53. little confidence can be placed in the results.___________________________________________________________________________________________ An Evaluation of the Predictive Validity of the MMPI as it Relates to Identifying Police Officers Prone to Engage in the Use of Excessive Force William P.

08 .62.03 Social presence (Sp) . ...1% were men. (1985).12 Self-acceptance .03 Flexibility . Journal of Police Science and Administration.04 Sense of well being (Wb) ..14 Sociability (Sy) .08 Achievement via conformance (Ac) . Subjects: N Gender Age 61 officers in the City of Edmonton (Canada) Police Department 95.87) Findings: ___________________________________________________________________________ Validity after _____________________ CPI Scale _________________________ 2 years ______ 4.14 .11 . 172-177.12 ___________________________________________________________________________ 294 .22 Self-control (Sc) .03 . 4.11 .9% were women Mean = 23.08 .04 .17 .17 .12 . 13(2).5 years _______ Dominance (Do) . G.07 .08 Psych mindedness .15 Good impression (Gi) .11 . The California Psychological Inventory and police selection. .23* Responsibility (Re) .24* .08 .2 Independent Variables CPI Dependent Variables: Supervisor ratings (interrater reliability = .04 .02 Femininity .17 Tolerance (To) .18 Achievement via independence (Ai) .58.04 .30* Socialization (So) . Essential Finding: • Capacity for Status scale of the CPI predicted performance after two years on the job and Well-being and Responsibility predicted performance after 4 years on the job.__________________________________________________________________ The California Psychological Inventory and Police Selection George Pugh Forensic Assessment and Community Services __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Pugh.14 Intellectual efficiency .17 .16 Capacity for status (Sc) .07 .16 Communality (Cm) .

(1992). Gender Race Academy length 275 Large southeastern city 82. The predictive validity of an assessment center for the selection of entry-level law enforcement officers. Hispanic=58.27* 150 .23* .1% 16 weeks Independent Variables Cognitive ability (SRA Writing Skills Test) Assessment center scores Dependent Variables: Academy performance Police patrol performance Findings Variable Academy overall average Cognitive ability Assessment center Vocational interest Brown-Carlson Listening Comprehension Academy N r 150 199 . Pynes. John Bernardin Florida Atlantic University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Pynes. Journal of Applied Psychology. Entry-level police selection: The assessment center is an alternative..9%. H. 20. J.18 295 FTO Performance N r 150 .24) Subjects: N Dept..21* 51 . (1988).14* . Journal of Criminal Justice.5% were women White=20%.14 . Pynes.01 .02 .08 204 . African American=21. 41-52. J. J.12) performance • Assessment center scores were positively related to academy (r = . J.14) and patrol (r = . Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability was positively related to academy (r = . 17. 74(5). (1989). J.01 Patrol Performance N r .19 68 . J. Unpublished doctoral dissertation..08 . & Bernardin. 831-833.20) performance • Academy performance correlated significantly with patrol performance (r = . Predictive validity of an entry-level police officer assessment center. & Bernardin.24* .___________________________________________________________________________________________ Entry-Level Police Selection: The Assessment Center is an Alternative Joan Pynes & H.32* .5% were men. Florida Atlantic University.32) and patrol (r = .

44* .42* Total __________ .47* .34* .58) Study 7 246 Critical thinking ratings . F.45 . those in brackets have been corrected for direct restriction of range 296 .34* .31* .54* . Seven criterion-related validity studies conducted with the national Police Officer Selection Test.31* (.5% were men.42* ..77] .55* .58* Study 2 38 Report writing ratings .__________________________________________________________________ Seven Criterion-Related Validity Studies Conducted with the National Police Officer Selection Test Fred Rafilson and Ray Sison Illinois Institute of Technology and Loyola University of Chicago __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Rafilson. & Sison. R.5% were women Independent Variables Cognitive ability Dependent Variables: Academy Performance (12-week academy) Supervisor Ratings Findings: _________________________________________________________________________________________ Study 1 Study 3 Study 4 Study 5 Study 6 n ___ Criterion ________________ Math ____ Reading ______ Grammar _______ Writing ______ 88 98 186 33 186 Academy performance Academy performance Academy performance Academy performance Academy performance .40* .22 (.32) _________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Correlations in parentheses have been corrected for unreliability. Psychological Reports.43* .20* .45* . 163-176. Summary and Essential Findings: • This article reported the results of seven validation studies • Significant correlations between cognitive ability and academy performance • Significant correlations with specific dimension ratings Subjects: N Dept Gender 875 A variety of law enforcement agencies 80.40* .53* . (1996).24* . 19.43* .34 [. 78.

Job-Related. (1987).99 (based on a sample of 10 officers' scores) • Coefficient alpha was . 7% were Hispanic Independent Variables Police Experience Dependent Variables: B-PAD Scores Findings: 297 . University of San Francisco. California 100% were men 93% were White.90 • There was a small.66.21. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. • Interrater reliability and intrarater reliability (rate-rerate) were both .40. Behavioral Police Assessment Device: The development and validation of an interactive. SD = 7. Video Psychological Test Randy Rand University of San Francisco __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Rand. difference between rookies' scores (M = 24. Preemployment. job-related. R.39). preemployment. SD = 8. Summary and Essential Findings: • Dissertation describes the development of the B-PAD. Subjects: N Dept Gender Race 30 police officers (15 with < 3 years experience. but significant.74. t = 2. r = . video psychological test. 15 with > 6 years experience) Several departments from Marin County.___________________________________________________________________________________________ Behavioral Police Assessment Device: The Development and Validation of an Interactive.02) and veterans' scores (M = 32. a situational selection device for law enforcement.

.03 . 477-478.31* . SD = 8.2.09 .7 M = 6.9 years 100% were men Dependent Variable Performance rankings (Interrater agreement = .18 . Correlations between Hand Test variables and patrolman performance. & Wagner..08 .01 . Wagner University of Akron __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Rand. 37....__________________________________________________________________ Correlations Between Hand Test Variables and Patrolman Performance Thomas M. Essential Findings: • Several Hand-Test scales predicted police officer performance.03 . Subjects: N Department Age Tenure Gender Independent Variable Personality (Hand Test) 42 police officers Cuyahoga Falls. Ohio M = 32...37* . (1973).03 298 .40* .30* .31* .09 . Psychological Reports. T.05 ...05 .15 .10 . Rand & Edwin E.07 .31* . E. E.01 .05 ... M..91) Findings Variable Affection Dependence Communication Exhibition Direction Aggression Active Passive Tension Crippled Fear Description Fail Bizarre Interpersonal Environmental Maladjustment Withdrawal AIRT High-Low Pathology Rho . The Hand Test is a projective personality test.

06 . Research. yelling. gossip whining.14 299 .. (1997). saying yes all the time.06 .06 .15* .05 .M.05 . L. Self-Esteem.00 . Radford University. and problem communication styles. selfesteem. gossiping) difficult behaviors and passive difficult behavior (e.R. 6(1).g.g. Applied H. Unpublished master's thesis.16* .02 ... 33-66.. and problem communication styles.05 .08 ._____________________________________________________________________ Predicting Difficult Employees: The Relationship Between Vocational Interest. (2001).. and Problem Communication Styles Bobbie L.02 .01 . sniping.08 . B. selfesteem.. Summary and Essential Findings: • Study examined "Difficult Employees" using 3 police departments • Correlated personality and interest scores with ratings of police performance and supervisor ratings of aggressive (e..04 .. B..09 . not talking at meetings) • No real relationship between performance and vocational interest or personality Subjects: N Dept 168 Three medium-sized police departments in Virginia Independent Variables Vocational Interest (Aamodt Vocational Interest Inventory) Personality (Employee Personality Inventory) Self-esteem Self-monitoring Dependent Variables: Performance ratings Difficult behaviors (e. L.g.14 .08 .03 . Predicting difficult employees: the relationship between vocational interest.. Predicting difficult employees: the relationship between vocational interest.01 . yelling) Findings: Variable Employee Personality Inventory Thinking (openness) Directing (extraversion) Communicating (extraversion) Soothing (agreeableness) Organizing (conscientiousness) Radford Self-Esteem Inventory Self-Monitoring Scale Performance Ratings Problem Communication Style Aggressive Passive .. Raynes Radford University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Raynes. Raynes.

.05 ...05 .07 ...10 .17* ..03 .16* ..03 .07 .13 .12 300 ..00 .17* .01 ..04 .14 .09 ...14 .) Variable Aamodt Vocational Interest Inventory Clerical Customer Service Science Analysis Sales Agriculture Transportation Trades Protection (fire and police) Helping Leading Consumer Economics Creative Total Interest Score Performance Ratings .13 .09 ..05 ....10 .12 ..16* .Raynes (cont...09 ..06 .03 .14 ..05 .04 ..06 .00 ..06 .08 .11 ..09 ..04 .06 .21* ....08 ...16* Problem Communication Style Aggressive Passive .17* ...

24 Sample Size 38 11 27 11 27 301 .73 20.64 24.89 38.74 38. Essential Findings • CPI did not distinguish officers who were promoted from those were not promoted Subjects N Department Education 38 candidates for promotion Redondo Beach.48 42.48 26. Long Beach __________________________________________________________________ Citation Reischl.46 13.45 26. CA police departments 100% were men Independent Variables CPI Dependent Variables Promotion status Findings: Mean CPI Scores CPI Scale T Score for total sample Approximate T Score Raw Scores Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Sense of well being Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Good impression Communality Achievement via conformance Achievement via independence Intellectual efficiency Psychological mindedness Flexibility Femininity 63 55 55 39 60 54 51 54 51 55 50 58 60 63 55 60 53 44 Promoted 61 53 53 39 63 53 50 54 51 54 47 59 59 69 53 59 55 42 Not 66 57 57 39 58 56 52 53 52 55 52 57 60 57 57 60 51 45 Promoted 32.82 39.91 18.09 38.44 25. Long Beach. S.74 9. Personality profiles of successful and nonsuccessful police promotional candidates administered the California Psychological Inventory. Unpublished master’s thesis. R.82 13.45 30.36 Not Promoted 35. California State University.74 32.59 21.82 26.18 38.19 14.00 32.44 32. (1977).__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Personality Profiles of Successful and Unsuccessful Police Promotional Candidates Administered the California Psychological Inventory Susan Rae Reischl California State University.00 24.96 31.96 27.36 31.89 22.00 27.16 39.46 10.19 21.50 13.19 21.55 40. CA & Anaheim.

and average citizens • Supercops were defined as those who had produced above the 90th percentile for the last 3 months in selfinitiated felony arrests • Results indicated that supercops were more similar to criminals than to average cops Subjects: N Dept 100 (25 supercops. C. 25 citizens) Los Angeles Police Department Independent Variables Supercop/Criminal category (personality) Dependent Variables: Score on Reming's Response Disposition Findings: ________________________________________________________________________________________ Reming Response Disposition _______________________ Age ____ % Married ________ Years of Education _______________ Super cops 38.12a 28 48 13 Criminals 35. (1988). 16(3).28* ________________________________________________________________________________________ 302 . criminals.36b 31 80 13 F 36. Personality characteristics of supercops and habitual criminals. Reming Los Angeles Police Department __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Reming. Journal of Police Science and Administration. Summary and Essential Findings: • Used a "home grown" personality test to determine differences between supercops. 25 average cops.04a 25 40 11 Average cops 22. G. 163-167. average cops.80b 30 76 14 Average citizens 23. 25 criminals.___________________________________________________________________________________________ Personality Characteristics of Supercops and Habitual Criminals George C.

13 . D.18 .07 1.55 4.30 .50 .3%.28 . Hispanic=6.86 Independent Variables Cognitive ability Biodata Dependent Variables Supervisor ratings of performance Findings Cognitive Verbal Math Spatial Scanning Recall Recall + Verbal Recall + Verbal + Scanning Cognitive + Biodata Rater Reliability N Consortiums I and II Duty Ratings Ability Ratings .076 3.16) • Combination of biographical component and cognitive component correlated .12 .2% M = 33. SD = 7.__________________________________________________________________ The RBH Law Enforcement Candidate Record Technical Report Richardson.913 6. African American=22. 12% were women White=71. Washington. Bellows.076 Performance Ratings by Sex and Race Demographic N Mean Race White 3.09 Female 564 6.: Author Essential Findings • Cognitive component significantly related to performance ratings (r = .54 3.10 .15 .91 Sex Male 3. The RBH Law Enforcement Candidate Record technical report.17 Black 996 5.15. Bellows.11 .11 .12 . & Henry __________________________________________________________________ Citation Richardson.C.09 .10 .16 .477 . & Henry (1989).4%.553 police officers and state troopers 88% were men.33 .29 .05 SD 1.09 .05 1.170 6.05 1.09 1.05 303 Consortium III Duty Ratings Ability Ratings .10 .84 Hispanic 277 5.477 .33 with performance ratings Subjects N Gender Race Age 7.18 .51 4.

(1977).'s rating of performance .28* . University of Nebraska. 61-124 hrs=23%.'s rating of performance 57. An analysis of the relationships among higher education.1% Independent Variables Education Dogmatism Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: ____________________________________________________________________ Mean SD ______ _____ Sgt. Gender: Age Years of service Education: 118 Lincoln (NE) Police Department (294 personnel) 97. (1978). and Job Performance of Patrol Officers Roy R.5% were women M=26 (range 21-42) M=3.05 level or better 304 . 1-60 hrs=36. open-closed belief systems and job performance of nonsupervisory patrol personnel.17* . R. Essential Finding: • Education was positively related to performance • Higher educated officers were less dogmatic • Less dogmatic officers were higher performers Subjects: N Dept.83* 6. Belief Systems.5% were men. Bachelor’s=27.7%. 336-344. R.25 ...32 Sgt.36 26.____________________________________________________________________________________________ An Analysis of the Relationships Among Higher Education. R. Roberg University of Nebraska .'s Rating of Performance _____________ Education Dogmatism 135.7 years (range 1-15) Hs=12. 2.26* . and job performance of patrol officers.4%.Omaha __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Roberg.34 Dogmatism _________ . 6. belief systems. R. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Journal of Police Science and Administration.55* ____________________________________________________________________ n=118 * r is significant at the . A study of the relationships among higher education. Roberg.86* Lt.

.15 .19 .27 .09 .22) Subjects N Gender Academy length 58 police academy cadets in Washington 84.11 .12 .08 ..5% were men.23 .16 .12 .07 . Essential Findings • Cadet’s self-efficacy prior to the start of the academy was not related to actual academy grades • The higher the pre-academy self-efficacy. 15.14 .18 ....18 . the lower the human relations ratings in the academy (median r = ..5% were women 11 weeks Independent Variables Self-efficacy Dependent Variables Academy grades Findings Academy Grades Pre-Academy Self-Efficacy Grade on Dimension Academic Average Academy Average Human Relations Mock Scenes ..16 .12 .10 .__________________________________________________________________ Perceptions of Self-Efficacy and Police Academy Performance: A Test of Predictive Validity Rose Marie Roberson Central Washington University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Roberson. Unpublished master’s thesis..32 .42 .27 .27 .08 .05 .33 .12 ..08 . Perceptions of self-efficacy and police academy performance: A test of predictive validity...23 .02 .05 .31 ..33 ...11 ...22 .07 .28 .05 ..27 ..27) • The higher the pre-academy self-efficacy.08 .24 .00 ..12 ..15 . (1996).12 ....08 .20 .14 ..30 .31 .06 .35 . Central Washington University.. R.02 . the higher the performance on mock scenes (median r = .01 . M.18 .13 .30 Self-Efficacy Dimension Criminal procedures (CP) Patrol procedures Traffic accident investigation Criminal investigation Emergency vehicle operation Defensive tactics Firearms Traffic enforcement Criminal law Communication skills Anticipated use of force 305 .

4%.75 306 d Score .0.35 6. HS/GED=25.58 5. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 16 years=19. University of Oklahoma.28 5.26 74.25 5.33 .63 73.0.27 74.3%.10 73. J.12 0. Essential Findings: • Education was significantly related to scores on a job-knowledge test Subjects: N Education 150 Highway Patrol Troopers in Oklahoma representing a stratified sample of 497 troopers Of the 497 troopers.46 75.25 The standard deviations in the table are from the SAS output and differ from those reported in the dissertation Years of Education 12 13 14 15 16 TOTAL N 30 30 30 30 30 150 Mean 71.__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship of Higher Education to Oklahoma Highway Patrol Troopers’ Performance Jim Roberts University of Oklahoma __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Roberts.3%. The relationship of higher education to Oklahoma Highway Patrol Troopers’ performances. 14 years=26. 13 years=13.5% 15 years=15.46 .75 Standard Deviation 5.08 0.5% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Score on a job-related knowledge test Results • • • The raw data were reanalyzed using SAS The correlation between education and knowledge was . (1984).54 5.09 0.

g.12 .10 (4) . T. L. Work problems 4.48 .. W. W. G..42 ...57 .08 .54 (2) .. T.06 . Public Personnel Management. absenteeism.94 .__________________________________________________________________ Prediction of Job Performance Dimensions: Police Officers W. Mullet Georgia Institute of Technology __________________________________________________________________ Citation Ronan.35 307 (3) . M.W. Peer ratings Regression of 20 test variables (R) Regression of 50 biodata items (R) (1) . Supervisor ratings 3. Talbert.. Significant regression equations were obtained for each of the four criteria. M. L.04 . Ronan. Physical agility 5. Unfortunately. Subjects N 183 police officers Independent Variables Conscientiousness Aggressiveness Emotional stability Perceptual speed Bruce Test of Social Insight Cognitive ability (IPMA test) Oral directions test SRA Non-verbal reasoning test Dependent Variables Job knowledge measures Supervisor ratings of performance Negative work history (e..18 . the article did not list individual correlations. May-June.. & G. 173-180. & Mullet. Prediction of job performance dimensions: Police officers. Talbert. Job knowledge 2. Essential Findings Study investigated how well the components of a test battery correlated with four measures of performance. complaints) Physical agility tests Findings Criteria 1.25 .13 .53 . (1977).

.16* .07 .45* . MA=3. 2=female) (5) .5% 40% had prior military experience 585 hours (15 weeks). Northern Arizona University. 96-124 hours=3. Rose Northern Arizona University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Rose.. E.03 .. HS=17..08 Education (2) .08 .02 . major Police Academy Performance: Exam Scores Cognitive Ability: Nelson Denny Reading Test Prior Military and Law Enforcement Experience Findings: __________________________________________________________________________________________ (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Academy Performance (1) .52 Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Education: Degree. cognitive ability (reading) accounted for 34.16* .05 level or better The dissertation contained the original data that we entered into SAS to create the above table and conduct the regression analysis 308 ..5% Black.20* .2%.59* .. SD=3.__________________________________________________________________ Consolidation of Law Enforcement Basic Training Academies: An Evaluation of Pilot Projects John E. 2=minority) (6) Age (7) .3%..00 .00 ..21* . Unpublished doctoral dissertation. AA=7..02 .07 ... (9) ___________________________________________________________________________________ n=203 Note: * r is significant at the .05 .02 . AZ.. 12% were women 71% White.02 Major (0=not CJ.06 . 2. Consolidation of law enforcement basic training academies: An evaluation of pilot projects.5%.25* .05 Race (1=white.30) Subjects: N Dept.10 .05 . 12-32 college hours=15. (1995).9%.3% (p < .007) • Criminal justice majors performed no better than other majors • Mean reading grade level for the cadets was 14.001) of the varience and education accounted for an additional 2.52 on the Nelson-Denny (SD = 2. 65-95 hours=7. Essential Findings: • Education and cognitive ability were significantly related to academy performance • In a regression.01 .5% (p < .6... 13.42* .29* . 1=CJ) (8) Prior Law Enforcement Exp.39* . 9.04 .1%.00 .03 .9%. Gender: Race: Education Other: Academy 203 graduates of the police academy Arizona Law Enforcement Training Academy.5%. Arizona 88% were men.4% Native American.25 .01 Prior Military Experience (4) .04 Gender (1=male. BA=28. 33-64 hours=14.3%. J.3% Hispanic. Flagstaff.04 Cognitive Ability (3) . 3% Asian GED=2. mean score=91..09 .04 .

writing skills.47 309 . written exercise. verbal skills. analytic skills. Journal of Criminal Justice. and versatility (all are weighted equally) Ratings Each dimension rated on a 100-point scale Activities Leaderless group discussion. D. background. (1980). and two personality tests Assessors Law enforcement managers Findings ƒ The correlation between the assessment center total score and performance on the job was . Determination of the predictive validity of the assessment center approach to selecting police managers. 89-96. Ross San Diego State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Ross. interview. Essential Findings: • Assessment center was a valid predictor of supervisor performance (r = . interpersonal skills. J. 8.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Determination of the Predictive Validity of the Assessment Center Approach to Selecting Police Managers Joyce D.47) Subjects: N Department 49 police managers in five departments who were applying for promotion to lieutenant or captain Three small police departments and two large sheriffs’ departments in California Assessment Center Information Number of dimensions 6 individual and 1 group (group appraisal of promotability) Dimensions Technical knowledge.

(1999).31 . Pinkston. & Corwick..25 . The MMPI-e and satisfactory academy performance: Differences and correlations..37 . Summary and Essential Findings: • Several MMPI-2 scales correlated significantly with academy GPA Subjects: N 95 cadets at a state police academy in Louisiana Independent Variables MMPI-2 Dependent Variables: Academy GPA Academy graduation Findings MMPI Scale Si Anx Dep Lse Sod Wrk D1 Hy3 Hy4 Sc4 A Pk Ps Trin Mt SI3 Dep1 Lse1 Lse2 Trt1 Correlation with Academy Grades .22 . C. M.21 . D. L.23 .22 . Davis. B.21 . Pinkston. Inc. 14(2).21 . Rostow.33 .28 .24 .23 .24 . D.30 310 . & Leah M. Robert D.30 .21 .___________________________________________________________________________________________ The MMPI-2 and Satisfactory Police Academy Performance: Differences and Correlations Cary D.34 .28 . R. James B. J. __________________________________________________________________ Citation Rostow.26 . 35-39. Corwick Matrix. Davis. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology..

..05 .47 T Score 53.35 17.27 .86 11...13 .11 .08 .45 24.14 .01 . (1989). The relationship of the MMPI and the Wollack Alert/PAF for police applicant selection..17 .16 .17 .06 .07 .39 .21 .40 .18 .26 .24 .29 8.24 .07 .25 .5%.14 ...15 .07 .10 ....01 ...05 ...24 .32 ..24 ...36 .10 3..37 .90 54.37 .03 .26 . East Carolina University.28 .26 ..27 .02 .17 ..05 .04 .92 50..18 .03 .07 .19 .14 24.52 59.20 ..12 . F..42 53..98 17.10 ..16 .31 .18 ...21 .26 .30 .14 . Essential Finding • Compared MMPI scores with a test used to select police officers Subjects N Gender Race Age 53 officers in the Greenville.01 .07 .25 .32 ..13 .26 .31 ..00 .13 .24 .11 .30 51.06 .14 .43 ..17 .01 .05 60.__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship of the MMPI and the Wollack Alert/PAF for Police Applicant Selection Faye E.14 .05 .....35 26. Rounds East Carolina University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Rounds.03 ..25 ...07 .22 .27 13.65 23.06 .27 .24 .06 .11 .05 .09 .20 . Unpublished master’s thesis.80 20.22 .25 .18 .11 . Minority=41.01 ..27 ..20 .08 ..20 .22 .17 ..06 .36 ..23 .05 .04 .17 ..39 .25 .22 ..14 .28 .27 ..12 ..06 .86 17.04 17.37 .5% Range = 21 to 36 years Independent Variables MMPI Scores Wollack Alert/PAF scores Dependent Variables Findings MMPI Mean MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Ego Strength Ma Anxiety Anxiety Repression Back Pain Prejudice OC Hostility Dependency Control Dominance Repression Caudality Raw 5.32 .76 20.34 .01 55.28 .25 ..02 .15 .11 .33 ..03 .22 ..30 57..15 .00 ..01 .27 .38 .13 .30 ...18 .18 .25 .04 .51 58.30 .19 .20 .37 10..14 . NC police department 75.22 .5% were women White=58..21 .19 .01 .16 .14 .02 .05 68..08 ..13 .14 .01 .51 22..09 .10 .03 .10 ..13 .22 .20 .11 . E. 24.07 .11 .65 9..31 .28 ..30 ..15 .25 .08 .37 .60 45.04 .40 ....19 ...13 ..18 7.28 .10 .09 .13 .67 19.12 9.47 16.41 50.....28 ...05 .16 .03 .17 .18 .06 .17 ..21 .04 .03 .69 48.69 ALERT Correlations Correlations with PAF Scales Composite Read Write Race Force Authority Flexibility Maturity Composite .07 .09 .11 ..08 .10 ..26 ......47 25.38 .41 .32 ..02 .10 .27 ..17 .25 .10 ..10 .18 .13 .06 .17 .32 ..22 .55 8..01 .14 ...31 ...13 .10 ..20 .11 .35 311 .40 ..........02 .05 .24 .25 .32 ..24 .5% were men.21 .28 ..14 .15 .

17 ..67 312 .33 ..29 .06 .64 ..03 .69 .64 16..61 .62 .34 .40 .44 .18 .12 .28 .13 ...58 .86 21.50 .25 .15 .35 .92 .40 .08 .72 12.06 12.23 .28 ...38 .40 .41 .21 .15 .36 .02 .19 .26 .91 .16 .06 .02 .45 6.75 .49 .24 .57 .MacAndrew Social Status College mal Social Resp PAF Scales Race Force Authority Flexibility Maturity Composite ALERT Composite Reading Writing 23.27 .22 .03 .18 .20 .46 .19 ..08 ..06 15.18 .49 .47 21.08 .09 .10 .30 .01 .....11 .33 ..37 .07 ...59 .15 ..24 ..35 .17 ..51 ..42 .23 .22 .76 13.19 .

& Lewandowski.33 M = 25.__________________________________________________________________ Program for Psychological Assessment of Law Enforcement Officers: Initial Evaluation Dennis P.. Higgins.91 years 100% were men Independent Variables Dependent Variables: MMPI Scores Kuder Preference Record Scores Notes: • Data from Figure 1 in the article were used to list T scores • There was a mistake in the article as no Si scores were listed Findings: _____________________________________________ MMPI Scale Mean T Score ________________ ___________ L 54 F 48 K 59 Hs 48 D 47 Hy 54 Pd 56 Mf 51 Pa 48 Pt 50 Sc 50 Ma 52 Si not listed _____________________________________________ 313 . and Denis Lewandowski Middle Tennessee State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Saccuzzo.. Gwendolyn Higgins. 651-654. G. Psychological Reports. D. P. Essential Findings: • Police applicant MMPI profile was the typical 439 (high Pd. Saccuzzo. TN Police Department (n=104) and a non-metropolitan PD (n=92) M = 102. K. D. IQ Age Gender 196 Nashville. (1974). 35. Ma) • Interest profiles were flat (range 30th-60th percentile) with social service at the 85th percentile for the metropolitan sample and 78th percentile for the non-metropolitan sample Subjects: N Dept. Program for psychological assessment of law enforcement officers: Initial evaluation.

E. Police officers: The relationship of college education to performance. injured-on-duty days Disciplinary action Percent promoted Rated in top 25% of academy performance H. Education: 117 male officers who graduated the academy in 1965 and were still active in 1975 Los Angeles Police Department HS=88. ____ B.3 28. ______ A.0 26. E. (1976). E. ____ 40.14 _________________________________________________________________________ 314 . (1977).9 18. B.0 35.0%.3 46.4 18.0%.__________________________________________________________________ Police Officers: The Relationship of College Education to Performance B.4 24. 44(8).S.3 30.A. California State University at Los Angeles.0 78. 62-63. two years college=12. The Police Chief.5 n/a correlation __________ . Police officers: The relationship of college education to job performance. B. Essential Findings: • College educated officers had significantly fewer absences • College educated officers were more likely to be the top 25% of performers • College educated officers missed significantly fewer days due to job related injuries • College educated officers received significantly fewer complaints • College educated officers were more likely to be promoted Subjects: N Dept.A. Sanderson. Bachelor’s=0% (during academy) Independent Variables Education Notes • • Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Academy Performance (rank order split into 5 groups) Means but not standard deviations were given in the published article and thesis Data from thesis Table 4 were entered into computer to obtain r for academy performance Findings: _________________________________________________________________________ N Avg days absent Avg.0 24. Unpublished master's thesis. Sanderson Los Angeles Police Department __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Sanderson.

66 56.__________________________________________________________________ Personality Constructs and California Psychological Inventory Subscales as a Predictor of Job Difficulty in Police Officers Charles Dean Sarchione University of North Carolina.29 8.01 ..99 7..82 6.27 7.15 .11 60.85 6...91 52.43 9.28 .08 62.05 .85 5.46 55. Essential Finding • CPI successfully classified officers with disciplinary problems from those without • Officers involved with critical incidents were not different from the control officers Subjects N Gender Race Age Education 252 patrol officers employed at 13 agencies 90% were men..65 58.51 8.12 .01 53.38 56.68 51. Native American = 0.22 6.50 57.31 315 ..78 55.01 58.55 47..15 8.15 53. Personality constructs and California Psychological Inventory Subscales as a predictor of job difficulty in police officers..69 57.00 .48 4.80 8..65 55.30 57.73 5.41 8.15 .49 6.14 52.12 .01 .25 4.00 55. C.58 50.32 5.76 9. Greensboro.79 55.12 7.96 63. African American=17.87 7.00 7.93 8.23 52.76 60.34 60.12 9.08 51.78 55.47 54.73 2.3% M = 25 M = 14 Independent Variables Personality (CPI) Dependent Variables Job Difficulties Findings CPI Scale Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Well-being Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social-presence Self-acceptance Good Impression Communality Ach via conformance Ach via independence Intellectual efficiency Py Flexibility Femininity Law Enforcement Social Maturity Index Disciplinary (n=91) Critical Incident (n=26) Control Group (n=126) Control-Discipline Correlation Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD 51.46 63.41 57.00 7.11 58.23 56.39 8. D.67 45. Unpublished master’s thesis..32 8.52 5..52 7.81 7.73 57.97 57.15 9.13 7..6%.30 7.30 61.17 .97 55.03 2.38 57.15 9. University of North Carolina.93 55.93 55.22 52.65 57.88 57.20 .27 50. Greensboro __________________________________________________________________ Citation Sarchione.5%.17 .34 60.16 .82 7.. Hispanic=1.6%.49 5..45 .23 ..77 7.92 7.67 46.13 .35 59.83 55.29 8.43 56.56 8.65 7.69 61.31 56.14 .07 .53 4. 10% were women White=80..88 4.08 58.50 6.57 55.14 .63 6.97 4.62 3.48 6.89 6.27 8.05 .91 6.53 6..91 7.89 49.37 6..60 6.12 8. (1995).38 56.78 60.73 8.46 46.

R.95 7. Hispanic=0.62 3. P. Nelson-Gray University of North Carolina.30 .25 0. & Nelson-Gray.34 .86 60...83 4.9% Independent Variables Personality (CPI) Life history Dependent Variables Job Difficulties Findings CPI Scale CPI Scale Responsibility Socialization Self-control Life History Work index Drug use index Criminal index Disciplinary (n=109) Control Group (n=109) t-value Equivalent r Mean SD Mean SD 51.95 55.17 .66 6. (1998).3..2%.95 0.82 7. 83(6).5.23 .46 0. Cuttler. Paul M. Journal of Applied Psychology.46 .62 1.52 3.54 . Prediction of dysfunctional job behaviors among law enforcement officers. Michael J. 904-912 Essential Finding • CPI successfully classified officers with disciplinary problems from those without • Life history problems were related to on-the-job problems Subjects N Gender Race 218 patrol officers employed at 13 agencies 90% were men.00 . African American=20.__________________________________________________________________ Prediction of Dysfunctional Job Behaviors Among Law Enforcement Officers Charles D. J. Muchinsky. Greensboro __________________________________________________________________ Citation Sarchione.2.50 1. Cuttler. M..9%.33 0. C..24 58.78 57.13 0. & Rosemery O.23 316 .58 0.64 4. O..92 0.58 .28 . M.73 7.89 0. Sarchione.20 0. D. 10% were women White=78.83 5.85 0.45 56. Muchinsky.

80 52..16 51.17 43. & Reiser.80 48. Journal of Police Science and Administration.67 52.48 55... (1976).00 .96 60.73 49.11 55.__________________________________________________________________ A Comparison of Three Police Applicant Groups Using the MMPI Susan J.99 58.06 58.83 50.31 54.17* . Saxe & Martin Reiser Los Angeles Police Department __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Saxe.17* .21 51.20* .48 51..59 46. M.56 51.07 . IQ Age 196 Los Angeles Police Department M = 105 M = 24 years Independent Variables MMPI Scores Dependent Variables: Retention in LAPD Notes: • t-values from the article Table V were converted to r's • norms from the Dahlstrom articles were used to convert MMPI raw scores to t-scores • Means for North Jersey were cited from the Gottesman (1969) unpublished study Findings: (correlations with performance) ________________________________________________________________________________________ Mean for Successful Applicants (n=100) _________ L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si 56.00 .03 51..60 50. 4(4). Essential Findings: • Successful and unsuccessful LAPD officers differed on MMPI scores Subjects: N Dept.63 62.28 56.07 .80 52.37 42.97 54.16 52.74 46.46 correlation with performance (n=196) _______________________ .05 .21* .83 49.15* .01 . J.10 45.97 42.42 Mean for all LAPD Applicants (n=296) _________ Mean for North Jersey Applicants (n=203) __________ 54.87 57.51 51.76 55.72 55. A comparison of three police applicant groups using the MMPI.17 50.80 58.23 53.09 ________________________________________________________________________________________ 317 . 419-425.28 52. S.03 .

05 College Hours (3) .07 Cognitive Ability (4) -.40* -.13 -. Research.25* .01 Prior military (8) -.5%.R.07 .04 .20* -.3% 32% had prior military experience Independent Variables Education Degree College hours Cognitive Ability Civil Service Exam Prior Military Experience Dependent Variables: Police Academy Grades (24-week academy) Findings: __________________________________________________________________________________________ (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Academy Average (1) . education did not add incremental validity to cognitive ability • The type of degree did not matter as criminal justice majors performed at similar levels as other degree holders Subjects: N Dept.6%.6%.04 Age (7) .04 -.8%.01 Gender (1=male.05 level or better 318 .31* .18* . Gender: Race: Age: Education Other: 152 graduates of the police academy in 1996 Fort Worth.02 -.16* . Bachelor’s=11. 15% were women White=79.8%. J. Associate’s=9. 2=minority) (5) -.27* . 1=yes) (9) __________________________________________________________________________________________ n=152 * r is significant at the . Texas 85% were men.04 . Applied H. 7(1).12 -.08 -.26* -. Hispanic=10. 24.09 -.05 .02 CJ Major (0=no.11 -.2%.09 -. Relationship between police academy performance and cadet level of education and cognitive ability.3% M = 25.__________________________________________________________________ Relationship Between Police Academy Performance and Cadet Level of Education and Cognitive Ability Stephen J.M.74. 2=female) (6) .13. S.08 Degree (2) .22* -.37* -.06 -.14 Race (1=white. (2002).07 -. Master’s=1. Essential Findings: • Education and cognitive ability were significantly related to academy performance • In a regression analysis. Other=3.06 .03 -. Scarfo Radford University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Scarfo. SD = 3. African American=6. range = 20-41 HS diploma=11.59* .51* -.

Scarfo (2002) continued Academy GPA by Type of College Degree ___________________________________________________________________________ Type of Degree N Mean SD d-score ___________________________________________________________________________ 118 89.91 ..70 .62b 2.63 High School Diploma Total 152 90.16ab 2.81a 3.69 ____________________________________________________________________________ 319 .24 Bachelor’s Degree 20 92.79 .13 Associate’s Degree 14 91.29 3.

18 .5%. HS=80. 2 years of college=6% White=88. R. G.7% Independent Variables Education Cognitive ability (AFQT) Dependent Variables: Academy Performance (16-week academy) Findings: Education Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) Total Score Work knowledge Paragraph comprehension Arithmetic reasoning Numerical operations Coding speed Mathematics knowledge Electronics information Mechanical comprehension Verbal Academy Training Performance Chi-Square Correlation 72. African American=9. GED=3.4%.18 320 .23* .32* .09 .8%.9%. Gender: Education Race 721 trainees U. < 1 year college=5%. Schaller Auburn University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Schaller.4%.83* .32) • Significant correlation between cognitive ability and training performance Subjects: N Dept.25* . Auburn University.15 . Use of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery to predict training outcomes in female military police trainees.__________________________________________________________________ Use of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery to Predict Training Outcomes in Female Military Police Trainees George R. (1990).10 .15 . Essential Finding: • Significant correlation between education and training performance for military police trainees (r=.11 . 1 year college=3.10 .S. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.3%. Army Military Police 100% were women <HS=1. other=1.

J. Radford University...24 Soothing (agreeableness) .____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Use of the Law Enforcement Selection Inventory in the Selection of Communication Officers: A Concurrent Validity Study Matthew John Schelling Radford University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Schelling.30 ...EPI) Supervisor ratings of performance Cognitive Ability (Law Enforcement Selection Inventory .12 Law Enforcement Selection Inventory Math ..05 .LESI) Self-ratings of performance Education Job Satisfaction Organizational Commitment Findings Correlations with performance ratings and organizational commitment Performance Ratings Organizational Predictor Commitment Supervisor Self Employee Personality Inventory Thinking (openness) .12 Education .02 Sex (1=male.20 .18 ...22 Organizing (conscientiousness) ...03 .07 321 .26 .13 Logic ..24 .31 . neither personality nor cognitive ability was significantly related to performance of communications officers Subjects: N Department Sex Race Age 21 communications officers with at least 6 months of tenure Roanoke County Police Department (Virginia) 33% were men and 67% were women 100% were white M = 34..41 .06 Grammar .21 .36 .19 . M.22 .22 .02 Age . Essential Findings: • Due to small sample size..15 . 2=female) .07 ..11 . Unpublished master’s thesis..20 . The use of the Law Enforcement Selection Inventory in the selection of communication officers: A concurrent validity study.27 .05 .02 .12 Total . Range 21 – 58 Independent Variables Dependent Variables Personality (Employee Personality inventory .07 Communicating (extroversion) .16 Vocabulary .14 .23 .21 .16 .. (1993).21 Directing .11 .

JDI – Pay 7.01 ....25 .45 ..53 .00 .05 ...35 .29 ..01 ..18 .39 ..25 .26 .19 .16 ..16 ..50 322 .44 .01 ..59 .25 .27 ...07 .34 ...07 .07 .25 .17 .29 .08 .02 .....12 . JDI-Work 5. Job-in-General (JIG) Scale (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) ..19 .05 .30 .49 .06 ..06 .03 .03 .11 ..Correlations with Job Satisfaction Predictor Employee Personality Inventory Thinking (openness) Directing Communicating (extroversion) Soothing (agreeableness) Organizing (conscientiousness) Law Enforcement Selection Inventory Math Vocabulary Grammar Logic Total Education Sex (1=male.34 .62 .09 .07 ..10 .19 ..35 .33 ..22 .37 .20 ....22 .13 . Self 3.18 ..13 ..02 .20 .29 .29 ..39 .24 .05 .18 .02 .16 .38 . Organizational Commitment (OCQ) Job Satisfaction 4.08 Correlations among Criteria (1) Performance Ratings 1.47 . JDI – Coworkers 9.06 .34 ..38 ...14 .07 .22 .32 ..13 .00 .44 .08 .01 .12 .21 ..04 .07 .25 .11 ..18 .21 .29 . Supervisor 2... JDI – Supervision 6..12 ..13 .06 ..09 .19 .09 ..06 .41 .36 .43 .26 .17 .19 .10 .66 .69 .03 .46 .23 .06 .33 ..03 .28 .15 .31 .19 ..04 .15 ...16 .06 .... 2=female) Age Work Job Descriptive Inventory (JDI) Facet Supervision Pay Promotions Coworkers Faces Scale Job in General .02 .12 ..23 .32 .15 .25 .43 ..03 .18 .06 .37 .18 .49 . JDI – Promotions 8.06 .17 .47 . Faces scale 10.

. & Phinney. TX Police Department All officers had at least three years but less than 12 years experience Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Clinician reliability Task • Two clinicians were given MMPI profiles of actual police officers.__________________________________________________________________ _ Screening Police Applicants: A Study of Reliability with the MMPI Lawrence S. L. J. Findings: • • • Rate-rerate reliabilities were 93% for clinician 1 and 91% for clinician 2 Interrater agreement between the two judges was 67% With an actual baserate accuracy of 50%. Phinney University of Texas. S. Screening police applicants: A study of reliability with the MMPI. Half of the profiles were from officers considered to have acceptable performance and half were from officers considered to have unacceptable performance. Neither clinician was better than chance at using MMPI profiles to predict performance. & Ivan R. I. Essential Findings: • No relationship between MMPI scores and police performance • Clinicians agreed about 67% of the time Subjects: N Dept. C. Kobos. R. The clinicians were asked to independently look at the profiles and "predict" whether the officer would make an acceptable officer. Kobos. 419-425. Experience 424 San Antonio. Joseph C. (1980). Schoenfeld. San Antonio & Trinity University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Schoenfeld. clinician 1 had an accuracy rate of 55% and clinician 2 an accuracy rate of 49%. 323 .. 47. Psychological Reports.

. D. White=1) N 108 108 140 108 108 Civil Service Score . Essential Finding • Civil service exam scores were positively related to the number of commendations received but not to supervisor ratings of patrol performance or chronic use of sick leave.__________________________________________________________________ A Study of the Validity of the Entrance Examination for the Position of Patrolman Under the Guidelines Established by the EEOC Donald Joseph Schroeder John Jay College __________________________________________________________________ Citation Schroeder.20* .02 . Hispanic=5.4%. Subjects N Department Gender Race 140 patrol officers New York City Police Department 100% were men White=87%.24* Patrol Performance . A study of the validity of the entrance examination for the position of patrolman under the guidelines established the Equal Opportunity Employment Commission.11 Note: Correlations with race and chronic sick list were computed using the data in Tables 7 & 8 in the thesis 324 .03 .6% Independent Variables Civil Service Exam Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (supervisor ratings) Commendations (number) Findings: Correlations Patrol Performance Commendations Left department On chronic sick list Race (Minority=0.. (1973). Unpublished master’s thesis. African American=7. J. John Jay College.12 .

6 2.2 5.9 2.22 .9 1.2 5.. K. 51(1)..8 5.M.06 .5 7.7 4.08 .2 2. J..0 6.0 Correlation with Performance Rating 84 .18 .16 . Kochevar.7 2.02 . F.20 .05 . 21. Male and female corrections officers: Personality and rated performance.8 6.7 1. K.0 1.6 1..1 2. F.08 . 223-228. Kochevar. M.0 4. & Reinwald.8 2.9 4.18 . E. (1982).1 1.8 4.27 .0 2.16 ..03 325 ..9 7..4% were women Independent Variable Personality (16-PF) Dependent Variable Performance ratings Findings N of officers 16-PF Scale Outgoing Bright Emotionally stable Assertive Surgent Conscientious Bold Tender-minded Suspicious Imaginative Closed-mouthed Worrisome Experimenting Self-sufficient Controlled Tense Mean 105 SD 105 4.0 5.0 5.4 5.__________________________________________________________________ _ Male and Female Corrections Officers: Personality and Rated Performance J. E. J. Psychological Reports. & J.24 .. Reinwald Cleveland State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Schuerger.2 5.10 .11 . Schuerger.0 2.1 1. Essential Findings: • Several 16-PF scales predicted corrections officer performance Subjects: N Tenure Gender 105 corrections officers Average tenure was about one year 78.1 2.0 2.6% were men.

Essential Findings: • Peer assessment predicted job performance Subjects: N Dept.3. J. SD=7. J.4% were men.27* Absenteeism . African American=33. 286-293.3% M=30. 19(3).__________________________________________________________________ _ The Relation of Peer Assessment to Future Law Enforcement Performance Joseph E. E.6 M = 13. & John McGee University of Alabama __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Schumacher..32* . Kim Howland. Scogin.30* Recognitions ns ns Reprimands ns ns Instructor rankings . SD = 1. & McGee.7%.6% were women White=66. Gender Race Age Education Academy Length 82 at the University of Alabama Law Enforcement Academy Various departments in Alabama 75. 24. Criminal Justice and Behavior.6.37* .33* . K.61* 326 ..36* Retention .7 7 weeks Independent Variables Academy peer rankings Dependent Variables: Job Performance after one year Objective performance data Findings Peer Rankings ____________ Instructor Rankings ________________ Supervisor ratings of performance . F. The relation of peer assessment to future law enforcement performance. Schumacher. Howland. Forrest Scogin. (1992)..

4 M = 13. The regressions used way too many variables given the small number of subjects. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.6 Independent Variables Personality (MMPI.8% were men M = 30. Gardner.70* R = . Joseph Schumacher. J. & William Chaplin University of Alabama __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Scogin. (1995).49* R = .70* ns ns ns ns 327 Supervisor Ratings ________________ R = . African American = 33% 76. 26(1). W.1 years. Predictive validity of psychological testing in law enforcement settings.__________________________________________________________________ Predictive Validity of Psychological Testing in Law Enforcement Settings Forrest Scogin. J. SD = 7.39* . 68-71.. Schumacher. Essential Finding: • Study entered a large number of personality variables into a regression to predict police performance • Each of the regressions was statistically significant Subjects: N Academy Length Race Gender Age Education 82 cadets attending the University of Alabama Law Enforcement Academy 7 weeks White = 67%. Jennifer Gardner. SD = 1. F.. & Chaplin. Negative Performance __________________ MMPI IPI Shipley Positive Performance __________________ ns R = .. IPI) Cognitive ability (Shipley) Dependent Variables: Performance Findings • • • • Lower performance appraisal scores indicate higher performance Negative performance data were dichotomized such that any officer receiving a reprimand or complaint was placed into one group and officers never receiving a reprimand or complaint were placed into another group Positive performance data were dichotomized such that any officer receiving a merit increase or commendation were placed into one group and officers never receiving a merit increase or commendation were placed into another group.6 years.

• 4 items were related to academy graduation at the . 86 did not) 25 corporals and sergeants in the Michigan State Police 72 recruits in the Detroit. J. Essential Findings • The study looked at the relationship between a measure of control and academy performance and found no relationship between the Mann Attitude Inventory and academy or patrol performance • Officers’ average score on the Mann (13. A. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Michigan State University.25) was in the normal range Subjects: N 171 cadets in the Michigan State Police (85 completed the academy. (1972).10 level • 6 items differentiated cadets who passed the academy from those who were promoted • 11 items differentiated cadets who failed the academy from those who were promoted 328 . Sendo Michigan State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Sendo. Thus no overall validity coefficients were available. A study of the potential use of the Mann Attitude Inventory in the selection of police recruits.__________________________________________________________________ _ A Study of the Potential Use of the Mann Attitude Inventory in the Selection of Police Recruits James A. MI police academy 42 State Police officers Independent Variables Personality (Mann Attitude Survey) Dependent Variables: Police Academy Graduation (22-week academy) Findings • The dissertation compared each of the 63 items of the MAI to academy graduation rather than correlating an overall score.

.12 . tolerant.32 70.. Florida School of Professional Psychology.00 73.11 ..68 47. A.09 .. reflective.03 77.23 .21 .01 .59 66.53 71. friendly.04 .79 67..85 .__________________________________________________________________ _ Police Selection: A Predictive Study Barbara Alyne Serko Florida School of Professional Psychology __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Serko.85 69. ascendent.14 . and masculine Subjects: N Dept.06 .09 . (1981)..87 68..51 58.17 329 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.17 .77 70.90 ..29 78. responsible.14 74.03 . Police selection: A predictive study.00 . sociable. Gender 62 Broward County. Florida Sheriff's Department 100% were men Independent Variables Personality (Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey) Interest (Kuder Preference Record) Dependent Variables: Performance Findings Mean percentile ____________ Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey General activity Restraint Ascendance Sociability Emotional stability Objectivity Friendliness Thoughtfulness Personal relations Masculinity Kuder Preference for groups Preference for familiar and stable situations Preference for working with ideas Preference for avoiding conflict Preference for directing others Correlation with Performance _______________________ 57.. B. hyposensitive.66 46. emotionally stable.. Essential Finding: • Vocational interests did not predict performance • Department means indicated an "exceptionally healthy" profile of energetic.

7%.. Predictive and discriminative validity of various police officer selection criteria. 17. Irvine __________________________________________________________________ Citation Shaffer.. Irvine. University of California.2%. African American=1.24 .24 Commendations Citizen Legal Complaints Personnel Complaints .20 . (1996).__________________________________________________________________ Predictive and Descriminative Validity of Various Police Officer Selection Criteria Aaron M. Hispanic=20. M.9%.2% Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Personality (Edwards Personal Preference Schedule) Patrol Performance Findings • Academy attended was either Rio Hondo (1) or Sheriff’s Academy (0) • Created several prediction scales using the EPPS and MMPI o Interaction skills = [(Dominance + Aggression) ÷ 2] – Deference o Organizational compatibility = Pd + K Patrol Performance Criteria Damage Claims High School GPA Academy Attended Traffic accidents prior to hire EPPS Scale Dominance Achievement Interception New EPPS Scale Interaction skills New MMPI Scale Organizational Compatibility Interview ratings of communication Variety of hobbies Traffic Accident s ..20 ...19 . A.1% were men. Other = 14. Shaffer University of California.28 ..35 .31 . Essential Finding • Dominance scale of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule significantly predicted some aspects of patrol performance Subjects N Age Gender Race 106 patrol officers 19 – 60 years 82.28 330 Supervisor Ratings .26 . Unpublished master’s thesis.22 ..9% were women White=63.

(1981). • Applicants who passed initial MMPI screen (n=427) then completed a clinical interview. and Bender-Gestalt. Psychiatric examination of law enforcement officer candidates over a 10-year period.249 Applicants referred for further consideration Passed psychological testing Failed psychological testing 427 231 196 Referred for further psychiatric examination (196) Rejected by psychiatrist Considered doubtful by psychologist Rejected by civil service commission Considered acceptable by civil service commission 331 61 135 123 73 . 312-319. draw-a-picture test. S. NY from 1970-1979. Essential Findings: • Article describes the number of candidates who failed the psychological exam in Nassau County. 22(3).__________________________________________________________________ _ Psychiatric Examination of Law Enforcement Officer Candidates Over a 10-Year Period Stanley Shapiro SUNY – Stony Brook __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Shapiro. Rorschach. Subjects: N 4. Comprehensive Psychiatry. Those who failed this assessment met with a psychiatrist to discuss the reasons for the failure to determine if the results could be interpreted in a more positive light.249 applicants Findings Number of applicants 4.

07 .12 .01 .02 .01 ..02 . Essential Findings: • Some significant correlations between personality and performance Subjects: N Gender 31 police officers in three small towns in Northwest Arkansas 97% were men.18 . POI Cognitive ability (Cognitive Ability Test) Dependent Variables: Supervisor ratings of performance Commendations.07 ..20 .09 ...19 .19 .16 .01 .08 .14 .01 332 .23 57. 3% were women Independent Variables CPI.00 .04 .07 .06 .09 . (1980).02 .08 .18 ..00 .24 .09 .14 .11 .05 .17 .05 ..02 .19 .02 ..01 .03 .17 .05 .01 .20 .22 .00 .02 .17 .06 .00 .45 51.15 .08 .01 .21 .48 51..06 .18 .32 52.77 56.16 .08 .14 .18 .07 .28 ...58 50.27 .48 52.58 52..13 .01 ..09 .. reprimands. A descriptive study of police officers in selected towns of northwest Arkansas.18 .09 .15 ..03 .10 ...17 .31* .01 ...10 .15 ..12 ..12 .19 ..25 ....02 .16 47.00 54.13 ..00 .23 .42* .20 .07 .21 ... arrests Findings: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ CPI Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Sense of well being Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Good impression Communality Ach via conformity Ach via independence Intellectual efficiency Psych mindedness Flexibility Femininity Mean _____ JK ____ J ____ I ____ D ____ Dm ____ A ____ R ____ C ____ Overall ______ 57.14 .05 .02 .03 ..02 . P.15 .10 .18 .02 .30* .25 ..28 ..08 .06 .97 45.05 .03 .55 .00 52.08 ..09 .20 .09 .09 .45 59..33* .46* .12 .33* ...05 .06 ..02 ..09 .29 .. University of Arkansas.58 53.11 .01 . D.00 .13 .08 ...00 .12 .16 ..25 ..13 .07 ...15 ......19 ..09 .07 ..02 .25 .08 .__________________________________________________________________ A Descriptive Study of Police Officers in Selected Towns of Northwest Arkansas David Paul Shaver University of Arkansas __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Shaver. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.00 .12 .01 .58 48.14 .05 .08 .18 .08 .11 ...02 .09 .02 .28* .02 .03 .39 49.13 .20 .22 49..02 .08 ..04 .05 .03 ..17 .04 .08 .16 .23 ..04 ..

21 .04 .38* .03 .02 .26 .12 .30* .10 .22 .05 .15 .41* .06 .49* Reprimands _________ Arrests __________ .22 .68 .03 .01 ....19 .02 .04 .22 .25 Commendations _____________ Performance Ratings Job knowledge (JK) Judgment (J) Initiative (I) Dependability (D) Demeanor (Dm) Attitude (A) Relations with others (R) Communication (C) Overall (O) Objective Data Commendations Reprimands Demographics Age Education # times married # of children # times hospitalized Military service # years living in present city # of prior jobs # drinks per day # of citations received ..03 .11 .13 .06 .02 .08 .03 .25 ..30 .45* Self-regard 57.01 .06 -.04 .03 Accept of aggression 48.00 ..01 .25 .18 .11 .12 .07 .07 .02 .11 .18 ...03 ..00 .04 .10 ..02 Feeling reactivity 49.31 ..01 .08 .05 .35* .30* ...25 contact T1:T2 .24 .19 .14 .05 ..20 .00 .02 .17 .20 .Mean _____ JK ____ J ____ I ____ D ____ Dm ____ A ____ R ____ C ____ Overall ______ 104.14 .13 .01 .67* .07 .17 .28 .29 Self-acceptance 46..11 ..15 .12 ..58 .47* ...18 ..07 .36* .44* ..12 .84 .02 ..13 ..36 .05 .84 ..01 -.05 ..06 .12 ..34* ....24 .22 .19 .19 ....28 .08 .06 .01 ..28 .03 .12 ....08 .28 .26 ..22 .04 ..03 ..40* .15 Capacity for intimate 47.04 Nature of man 49.23 .15 .22 .61 .30 .11 .23 .01 ...28 .97 .01 .03 .01 .08 Synergy 53..32* .06 .01 .07 .15 .21 .27 ..02 ..06 .03 .41* .26 .19 .12 IQ Verbal Quantitative Nonverbal Social Insight Test Personal Orientation Inventory Inner directed 48.16 333 .58* ..09 .00 98.02 .25 .32 .02 .14 .06 .22 .00 .02 ..31* .01 ..27 ..10 .24 .21 -.10 .02 ...02 .22 .14 ...19 .43* .01 ..30* .38* .42* .15 .14 .06 .17 .07 .07 .23 .19 .29 .03 .05 .18 .01 .03 .17 Self-actualizing value 53.15 .20 .15 O:I .20 .39* .61 .11 ..03 .22 Spontaneity 53.04 Existentiality 44.08 .10 .16 .32* .10 ..03 .37* ...02 .34* .20 .10 .04 .39* .07 .06 .11 .01 .15 .16 ..07 .16 .18 98.05 ...29 .14 ..

.29 .12 Social Insight Test .01 .06 .16 .17 .08 .03 ..14 Sav ..15 .15 Fr .00 .14 .21 ..14 .05 ..04 .21 .07 .02 .16 .22 .15 .55* .09 .24 .20 .26 .11 .18 .09 .15 ..01 Nc .12 .06 Ex .22 .07 .22 C .08 ..04 ..29 ..20 Sr .05 ..27 .09 .01 .02 .09 .10 .34* .32* .28 ..12 .07 .09 ..03 .31* O:I .10 .30 .17 ..02 .08 .10 .15 .04 .06 ...08 ..07 .16 .13 .03 .23 .04 I .01 Sa .19 .23 ..04 .22 ..06 Sy .42* .16 ___________________________________________________________________________ 334 ..16 ..09 ..22 Personal Orientation Inventory T1:T2 .14 .Shaver (1980) page 3 Commendations _____________ Reprimands _________ Arrests __________ Cognitive Ability Verbal IQ Quantitative IQ Nonverbal IQ CPI Do Ds Sy Sp Sa Wb Re So Sc To Gi Cm Ac Ai Ie Py Fx Fe .03 A .04 S .34 .14 .23 ..05 .03 .16 .20 .11 .00 .22 .05 .13 ....06 .08 .21 ..03 ..12 ..36* .

6 42. Two clinical psychologists had accuracy rates of 60%.3 6.00 .2 6.8 6..8 7.__________________________________________________________________ _ Effectiveness of the MMPI in Differentiating Ideal from Undesirable Police Officer Applicants James H.. one at 57%..4 6.16 . Subjects: N 132 officers with at least 3 years of experience Academy length 400 hours (10 weeks) Independent Variable MMPI Dependent Variable Supervisor ratings Findings MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Ideal Officers (N=75) M SD 50. (Eds). In Reese.09 .48* .48* ..5 62. J.0 51.2 50. Shaw Olympia..4 3.3 65.09 .6 6.2 54.08 .27 .4 6. & Goldstein..9 52.0 49.1 52...S. Government Printing Office.9 59..7 54.7 56.1 55.8 7.8 53.00 . H..6 49.1 7.01 ..4 48. two at 53%. D.C.9 51. Psychological services for law enforcement.4 8.21 .5 8.3 5.4 8.0 49. WA __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Shaw.0 3.54* .7 6.13 . Ideal officers scored significantly lower on five of the scales.3 55.6 9.24 . H. Washington.4 54.6 7.24 . T. and two at 50%.5 51.7 6.06 .19 .43 .: U.5 7.9 4..39* .9 56.38* .0 8..2 9.18 .9 7..21 .01 .7 6...1 54. Essential Findings: • Study compared the MMPI scores of 75 officers rated as “ideal” with the MMPI scores of 52 officers rated as undesirable by five supervisors. (1986). • Study also had 7 clinical psychologists evaluate the profiles of 15 ideal and 15 undesirable officers and indicate the performance category (ideal or undesirable) represented by each of the profiles.20 . pp 91-95. Effectiveness of the MMPI in differentiating ideal from undesirable police officer applicants...3 Undesirable Officers (N=52) M SD 51.5 43...10 Note: The d score was created by taking the difference between the two means and dividing by the average of the standard deviations) 335 .5 7.. A. J.1 d r .18 .

1 10. J.0 14.4 12. C.4 12.7 11. John Fracchia.9 11. Essential Findings: • Study provided scores on the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule for 33 officers Subjects: N Gender Education: Age 33 police officers fro 3 New York departments who were attending college courses 100% were men M = 13.3 14.4 14.4 14. 4 years. & Merlis. S.9 12..2 14.2 14. Cindy Bates.5 12. non-officer status Dependent Variables: Personality scores (Edward Personal Preference Schedule) Findings EPPS Scale Achievement Deference Order Exhibition Autonomy Affiliation Intraception Succorance Dominance Abasement Nurturance Change Endurance Heterosexuality Aggression Consistency Police 16. SD = 5. Psychological Reports.1 11.0 15.7 17.3 15.3.8 14.6 Adult Men 14. range 24 to 44 Independent Variables Officer vs. range 12 to 15 years M=33.7 14. 35.7 12.8 11.0 16. C.5 12. SD = 1.5 20.5 12..5 336 . Psychological need structures of law enforcement officers. (1974).2 10.__________________________________________________________________ Psychological Need Structures of Law Enforcement Officers Charles Sheppard.8 15.6 15.2 13. Bates. 583-586.0 11.6 13.8 16.. and Sidney Merlis Central Islip State Hospital __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Sheppard.7 11.2 12.7 17.4 11.1.8.1 10.3 College Men 15.7 14.9 16.2 14.1 14.5 14.8 11.2 13. Fracchia.5 14.

4 68.33 .07 45.5 31.0 68.1 72.4 11.7 Citizen Behavior Prior to Shooting Assault officer Other assault Flee from with gun on officer officer 73.8 29.0 79.0 256 2.3 41. Essential Findings: • No relationship between education and the use of deadly force Subjects: N Gender Education 473 police officers from the Kansas City.8 67.8 19. MO Police Department 100% were men GED or HS diploma = 64. 1-3 years of college = 30.3 24.__________________________________________________________________ Higher Education and Police Use of Deadly Force Lawrence W.9 38.5 42.8 75.2 61.06 256 2.4 17.12 .23 .09 337 Other .42 . & Blumberg..6 6.5 17. Journal of Criminal Justice.4 21. 317-331.5 16.8 15. W.1 15.3 9.2 13.9 5.2 24.9 27.0 39..93 .2 21.2 58.8 249 14.8 36.4%.0 27.1 40.3 15.17 n/a 31.9 76.8 21.4 14.1%.47 .1 23.5 10.1 44. (1981).0 25.2 39.6 13.2 13.88 n/a 32.1 373 .4 23.39 . Sherman & Mark Blumberg SUNY – Albany & Central Missouri State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Sherman.76 .5 10.n/a 28. 4 years of college = 5.9 24.5 22..2 32.1 23.3 303 .0 31. M.2 28.9 473 2.2 295 2.3 21.3 18..8 29.5 29..0 12.82 .19 .6 32.2 21. Higher education and police use of deadly force.9 17.8 71.02 .04 48. L.2 373 1.32 .03 67.5 33.5% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Use of deadly force Findings Education Level At Appointment GED/HS 1-3 yrs college 4+ yrs college (N) (X2) p< r In 1979 GED/HS 1-3 yrs college 4+ yrs college (N) (X2) p< r Changes in Education No increase 1-3 yrs increase 4+ yrs increase (N) (X2) p< r Fired Weapon Shooting Justified % No %Yes % Yes % No 66.54 .5 249 9.25 .11 76.3 4.39 . 9.48 .

02 . Hispanic=4.000) a medium sized department in a New York city (100. 11. >BA=9.02 .000 .. 3 years=9.04 .1%.72 Education ________ CJ Major _______ .80 .4%.200.04 .8%.6% were women White=82.03 . other=3.2%. Black=9. C. Gender: Race Education: Age 414 (response rate of 45.4%..5%.35%) a medium sized department in a Connecticut city (100.4% were men..000) 88. The relationship between higher education and job satisfaction: A study of municipal police officers in two cities.000 . W.18* Tenure .. Essential Findings: • Education was not related to job satisfaction • Criminal justice majors were no more satisfied than other majors Subjects: N Dept 1.24* ____________________________________________________________________ 338 .85 .06 .85 .9%. BA=21.6 (range 23-68) Independent Variables Education (years of formal education) Dependent Variables: Job satisfaction Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Job Diagnostic Survey Findings: ____________________________________________________________________ Satisfaction Dimension _____________________ Achievement Growth Advancement Autonomy Responsibility Overall Satisfaction Reliability ________ . 2 years=16.10* .4% M = 39.8% HS=26. Connecticut. (1994).200.02 . Dept 2.__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship Between Higher Education and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Municipal Police Officers in Two Cities Charles W. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.. Sherwood University of New Haven __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Sherwood.4%.05 .05 . University of New Haven.05 .03 Demographics Age . 1 year college=16...

57 .76 . black=12%.68 . Hispanic=10%.66 .. Robin E. (1987). Inc.57 .75 .64 .57 .61 .70 339 .77 . & Knatz.59 .56 . Knatz Hilson Research. A cross-validation study of police recruit performance as predicted by the IPI and MMPI. other=1% Independent Variables MMPI IPI Dependent Variables: Supervisor ratings of Academy performance Absences (<3. Shusman. F. 162-169.57 . E.76 .75 .55 .73 . Inwald. Inwald.67 . black=14%. E. and Hilary F. R. 15(2).70 .59 .70 .63 .65 .55 .61 .74 . >2) Number of disciplinary problems Findings: Criterion Absenteeism Tardiness Derelictions Restricted duty Negative reports Positive reports Overall rating Final rating IPI .67 .52 . Hispanic=13% Cross validation sample: white=77%. J.72 .70 .64 .60 .74 Percentage of Correct Decisions Validation Sample Cross-Validation Sample MMPI IPI + MMPI IPI MMPI IPI + MMPI . 277 in cross-validation sample) M = 24 (range 19-34) 100% were men Analysis sample: white=73%.57 . H.69 . Essential Findings: • The Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI) significantly predicted a variety of criteria Subjects: N Age Gender Race 698 urban police officers (421 in the analysis sample.59 .50 .67 .64 .58 ..60 . Journal of Police Science and Administration. __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Shusman.43 .66 .56 .63 .__________________________________________________________________ A Cross-Validation Study of Police Recruit Performance as Predicted by the IPI and MMPI Elizabeth J.87 . >2) Tardiness (<3.53 .

Negative reports 6. Absences 2.08 .20 .10 .34 .35 .22 .14 .25 . Final rating 1 .17 .08 . & Knatz (1987) continued Correlations between IPI.16 ..05 .01 . Restricted duty 5.09 .25 .16 . Times late 3.13 . Derelictions 4.18 .05 .23 8 .12 Criteria 4 5 .09 .27 .22 .32 .13 3 . Overall evaluation 8.18 .15 .03 .30 .30 .07 .29 340 6 .25 .13 . and Criteria IPI MMPI IPI + MMPI 1.Shusman.34 .14 .20 .11 .01 .17 .29 .14 .13 7 .31 . MMPI.22 . Inwald.34 .15 .65 .20 2 .36 .47 . Positive reports 7.

& Landa. and Beth Landa Hilson Research. Criminal Justice and Behavior. Black=34%. Inc.. Essential Findings: • Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI) and MMPI were able to predict performance at about equal levels • The addition of the MMPI to the IPI did not add incremental validity Subjects: N Age Gender Race 716 urban correction officer recruits (665 remained. Robin E. Hispanic=18% Independent Variables MMPI IPI Education Background problems Dependent Variables: Remaining/Terminated Absences (<3. 309-329. >2) Number of disciplinary interviews (0. 11(3). Inwald. E. R. 51 were terminated) M = 25 (range 19-33) 100% were men Remaining officers: White=45%.__________________________________________________________________ Correction Officer Job Performance as Predicted by the IPI and MMPI Elizabeth J. Correction officer job performance as predicted by the IPI and MMPI: A validation and cross-validation study. Black=61%. B. __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Shusman. other=2% Terminated officers: White=21%.. >2) Tardiness (<3. Hispanic=19%. >0) Findings: ____________________________________________________________ Percentage of Correct Decisions Using _______________________________ IPI ____ MMPI _____ IPI+MMPI _________ Retention 73% 63% 73% Absenteeism 65% 62% 67% Tardiness 65% 64% 67% Disciplinary interviews 62% 59% 65% ____________________________________________________________ 341 . J. E. Inwald. (1984). Shusman.

24 . 1=retained) ________________________________________________________________ IPI Scale _____________________________ r (converted from F's in the article) ____________________________ Rigid type .06 .11 Absence abuse .08 Unusual experiences/thoughts .12 Family conflicts .02 Marital Status Single ..07 Military experience .31 B.A.29 .08 Spouse/mate conflicts . remarried .16 Trouble in the military .38 .12 Trouble with the law .06 ______________________________________________________________________ IPI Correlations with Tenure (2=terminated.22 .13 Job difficulties . divorced..12 .08 .31 Separated.54 ..61 .72 Had collected welfare .12 Hyperactivity .15 .16 Antisocial attitudes .35 ..14 Background Arrested at least once .33 .06 Fired at least once from job .08 HS .31 .67 1-3 years of college . (1984) continued Demographic variables by Tenure Status (retained.10 . terminated) ______________________________________________________________________ Retained % _______ Terminated % __________ r _____ Education .55 Married for the first time .12 Alcohol .06 . or higher .08 Substance abuse ..08 ________________________________________________________________ 342 .55 .Shusman et al.

Essential Findings: • Study provided scores on the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule for 29 officers Subjects: N Gender Experience 29 police officers from a New York county police department who were taking an introductory psychology college course 100% were men M = 6.59. SD = 5.00 16..4 14.06 11. W.21 10.5 343 .3 15.00 17.7 14. 313-314.67 13. Wilde.23 14.14 14.75 14.69 12. (1973).5 12.97 11.62 14.7 17.2 14..10 13. & Cristal.8 14.65 12.83 Adult Men 14.7 17. M.0 15.87 16. & Robert M. Psychological Reports.41 15.59 15. R.5 14.45 14.72 12.10 20.2 14.66 years Independent Variables Officer vs.51 14.97 12. Psychological needs of professional police personnel. 33.83 13. non-officer status Dependent Variables: Personality scores (Edward Personal Preference Schedule) Findings EPPS Scale Achievement Deference Order Exhibition Autonomy Affiliation Intraception Succorance Dominance Abasement Nurturance Change Endurance Heterosexuality Aggression Consistency Police 12.__________________________________________________________________ Psychological Needs of Professional Police Personnel William E. E.3 College Men 15.44 12.79 11. V. Cristal Southampton College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Simon.21 13.0 14.21 11.12 10.1 10. Veronica Wilde.7 11. Simon.

72(3). Essential Findings • Article describes the psychological evaluation of police officers over an 11-year period. and 45-minute psychiatric interview are used to determine suitability for hire. life history. The Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey. New Jersey __________________________________________________________________ Citation Smelson. Findings Number of applicants evaluated Number of applicants passing evaluation Number of applicants not recommended Schizophrenic reactions Psychoneurotic reactions Psychophysiological disorders Personality disorders Alcoholism Behavioral patterns and other characteristics 450 338 112 2 2 2 3 3 100 344 . H. 213-216. Psychiatric screening of police candidates. 25% of the applicants failed the psychological assessment Subjects N Sex 450 applicants for law enforcement positions in New Jersey from 1963 to 1974 100% were men Evaluation Procedure Background information. (1975).__________________________________________________________________ Psychiatric Screening of Police Candidates Harold Smelson Elizabeth. MMPI scores.

33 . Relationship among police officer characteristics and work-related accidents.80 . Southern Illinois University .91 . 1967) Organizational Commitment Questionnaire Dependent Variables Accidents (1 year period) Near accidents (1 year period) Findings Variable 1. Essential Findings: • Officers with high self-esteem had few accidents than officers with lower self-esteem Subjects: N Department 42 police officers Four small community and university police departments Independent Variables Risk Taking (Sensation Seeking Scale) Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale Self-esteem (Coopersmith.15 ..07 2.15 .90 .25 345 .___________________________________________________________________________________________ Relationship Among Police Officer Characteristics and Work-Related Accidents Danielle L.82 . Smith Southern Illinois University .21 .35* .Edwardsville __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Smith.31 .16 . L..63 .55 74.41* . Self-esteem 4. Unpublished master’s thesis.72 .14 .Edwardsville.88 0.87 160. Recorded accidents Mean N 16.07 ..56* . D. Organizational commitment 5.26 .09 .14 40. Risk-taking 2. Near Accidents 6. (2001)..80 42 42 42 42 42 25 Reliability Correlations Internal Test-Retest (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) . Chronic self-destructiveness 3...91 .75 .33* .88 ..

02 346 .04 .903 citizens from 45 neighborhoods 29 St. but weakly.10 . Smith & Elinor Ostrom New York University & Indiana University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Smith. In Jacob.16 .__________________________________________________________________ The Effects of Training and Education on Police Attitudes and Performance: A Preliminary Study Dennis C. Louis area police departments Independent Variables College education (credits) Weeks of police training Dependent Variables: Police attitudes Citizen attitudes Findings Officer Attitudes Favors increased use of force Probable cause restrictions reduce police effectiveness Supreme Court decisions harmful Protest and dissent are not justified Approves of lateral entry into command Military model is a good police model Citizen Attitudes Police service is outstanding Response time is rapid Crime is increasing in neighborhood Police community relations are outstanding Police treat all citizens equally Weeks of police training Officer education _________ ______ .07 .. CA: Sage Publications.. Beverly Hills..03 .04 .03 .00 ..15 . D.01 .01 . The Potential for Reform of Criminal Justice.10 . C.09 . Herbert (Ed. to police and citizen attitudes Subjects: N Dept. The effects of training and education on police attitudes and performance: A preliminary study. 712 police officers and 3.14 ..07 .08 ..... Essential Findings: • Amount of police training not positively related to police or citizen attitudes • Number of college credits related significantly.. & Ostrom..12 .).19 ..11 . (1974).05 .. E.00 ..

02 ...02 .17* .3 (Range 24-63) High School=37. AAS=16.7%.. Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to performance • Education was not related to performance in the first two years but was significantly related after two years of experience Subjects: N Dept.13* .11 Report writing . Smith & Michael G..05 level or better 347 ..22* .24* ..14* ..09 Accidents .8%. M. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology...03 .01 .11 Discipline .25* . 7-14..02 .. & Aamodt.1%. BA=12.01 .14* . M.1% were men..12 . (1997). and police performance.04 . Aamodt Radford University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Smith.08 .29* . experience.1%.10 ..09 .06 .02 .12* _____________________________________________________________________________ n=299 * r is significant at the . Experience.07 Communication skills .00 .24* Public Relations ..20* . 12(2).01 Level of commitment .0% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: _____________________________________________________________________________ Education ________ Experience ________ Gender ______ Age _____ Overall performance .16* .22* ..03 .01 Response to new training .__________________________________________________________________ Relationship Between Education.06 .20* Arrests ..9% were women M = 36. and Police Performance Scott M.23* Decision making ability .. 3.. MA=2.05 . some college=28. The relationship between education.02 . S. Gender: Age: Education: 299 Several small police departments in Virginia 96.03 .. G..

15 .63* . Spaulding University of South Florida __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Spaulding.11 .40* . Minority=21% 16 weeks Independent Variables Cognitive Ability (Nelson-Denny) Interest (Strong Interest Inventory) Dependent Variables Academy performance First-year job performance ratings Success/failure status after 2 years Findings: Academy Average Sample Size Cognitive Ability Vocabulary Comprehension Vocabulary + Comprehension Reading rate ____________________ WM MM F _____ _____ _____ 153 45 39 .10 .12 .10 . 16% were women White=79%.37* .36* .26* .21* ..30* .. (1980).17 .08 .55* .34* . H.26* .___________________________________________________________________________________________ Predicting Police Officer Performance: The Development of Screening and Selection Procedures Based on Criterion-Related Validity Harry C.52* . Unpublished master’s thesis.05 .08 .40* .49* .38* .24* .21* ..45* .46* .14 .33 348 .12 .29* .01 .21* .. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability and interest in the military predicted academy performance • Interests did not predict patrol performance Subjects: N Gender: Race Academy length 264 police cadets at seven Florida academies 84% were men..14 .32* .14 .18 . Predicting police officer performance: The development of screening and selection procedures based on criterion-related validity. C.16 .17 .12 Supervisor Ratings Sample Size Cognitive Ability Vocabulary Comprehension Vocabulary + Comprehension Reading rate Instructor Ratings of Suitability ____________________ WM MM F _____ _____ _____ 167 55 42 .26* .05 .08 Success/Failure at 2 Years ____________________ WM MM F _____ _____ _____ ____________________ WM MM F _____ _____ _____ 160 50 38 .32* ..31* .35* .44* .22* . University of South Florida.

13 .34* .15 .17 .06 ..08 .08 .07 .15* .01 .41* .00 .11 .16 .11 .22 .24 .36* .24 .06 349 .04 .05 .18 .03 .04 .04 .08 .16 .13 .01 .10 .19* .20* .22 .29 .32* ..12 .05 .08 .26* .12 .08 .08 .14 .02 .02 .28* .12 .12 .11 .14 ..09 .23 .08 .10 .36* .24* .44* .19* .33* .21* .16 .14 .32* .19 .28* ..11 .02 .17 .17 .18 .15* .21 .38* .20 .36* .12 .04 .11 .28* .10 .11 .29 .33* .36* .16 .14 .06 .14 .21 .08 .30* .25* .00 .31* .35* .13 .Spaulding (1980) – page 2 Instructor Ratings of Suitability Academy Average Sample Size Vocational Interest General Occupational Themes Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional Special Scales Academic orientation Introversion-Extroversion Occupational Scales Police Officers (m) Highway patrolmen Army officers (f) Navy officers (m) Army officers (m) Air force (m) Basic Interest Scales Agriculture Nature Adventure Military activities Mechanical Science Mathematics Medical science Medical service Music Art Writing Teaching Social service Athletics Domestic arts Religious Public speaking Law/politics Merchandising Sales Business management Office practices ____________________ WM MM F _____ _____ ______ 167 55 42 ____________________ WM MM F _____ _____ _____ 153 45 39 .01 .12 .04 .00 .31* .09 .11 .26 .07 .23* .00 ..11 .30* .14 .22 ..15 .28 .01 .05 .10 .01 ..16 ..25 .29* .26* .02 .12 .23 .20 .32* .02 .26 .02 .24 ..10 .25 ...22* .01 .34* .21 .31* .08 ..08 ..18 ..17* .10 .32 .06 .14 .05 .05 .14 .35* ..22* ..08 ..09 .07 .36* ..15 .08 .23 .11 .07 .25* .05 .06 .41* .04 ...27 .06 .23 .14 .41* .03 ..22* .38* .20 .17 ..14 ..10 .03 .00 .46* .44* .30* .41* .25* .08 .28* .36* .15 .26 .14 .29* .12 .05 .06 ..29* ..23* .22* .01 .04 .23 .11 .22 .01 ..01 .07 .20 .25* .30* .40* .15 .15 ..36* .13 .01 .05 .05 .31* ..03 .08 .00 .43* ..22 ..

15 ..14 .08 .04 ..06 .08 ...30 .03 .02 ..18 .08 .21 .03 .11 .08 ..09 .13 .12 ..10 .04 .14 .14 .34* .14 .08 .01 .07 .12 .11 .08 .Spaulding (1980) – page 3 Supervisor Ratings Success/Failure at 2 Years ____________________ WM MM F _____ _____ _____ Sample Size Vocational Interest General Occupational Themes Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional Special Scales Academic orientation Introversion-Extroversion Occupational Scales Police Officers (m) Highway patrolmen Army officers (f) Navy officers (m) Army officers (m) Air force (m) Basic Interest Scales Agriculture Nature Adventure Military activities Mechanical Science Mathematics Medical science Medical service Music Art Writing Teaching Social service Athletics Domestic arts Religious Public speaking Law/politics Merchandising Sales Business management Office practices ____________________ WM MM F _____ _____ _____ 160 50 38 .11 ..01 ...20 .04 ..10 .05 ...15 .08 ..25 ..09 ..29 .08 .06 .16 .06 ..40* .12 .08 .11 .11 .14 .10 .10 .20 .15 .03 .14 .01 .01 .06 .30* .14 ..14 .04 ....11 .16 .05 .11 .07 .06 .08 ....01 .11 .15 .11 ..03 ..07 .08 .15 ..07 ..20* .15 .19* ..01 .08 .13 .06 ..07 .08 .13 350 .21 ...25 ..14 .02 .18* .04 .16 ..04 ...09 .20 ..14 .06 .16 .07 .....00 .15 .11 .05 ..27 .16 .14 ..14 ..01 .12 ...00 .

Florida: University of South Florida. C.. 17 351 .49* ..07 . T. Spielberger.28 -. (1979).. D..). P.14* . (1981). Spielberger (Ed.. C.___________________________________________________________________________________________ Selection of Effective Law Enforcement Officers: The Florida Police Standards Research Project Charles D. Spielberger. H. 43 women 16 weeks Independent Variables Personality Cognitive Ability (Nelson-Denny) Dependent Variables: Academy & FTO survival (0=failed. & Ward. In Charles D.11 . Spaulding. M. R. Police Selection and Evaluation: Issues and Techniques.33 . 1=passed) Job Performance Ratings (1 year) Findings: Variable _______________________ Nelson-Denny Scores Vocabulary Comprehension Total (V+C) Reading rate Vocational Interest (SCII) Conventional Military activities Navy officer Army officer Office practices Police officer Highway patrol Social Domestic arts Adventure Medical services Academy & FTO Survival ________________________ 1-year performance ratings ______________________________ white men (n=168) _________ white men minority men women (n = 149) (n = 49) (n = 30) _________ ____________ ______ women (n = 43) ______ . Margie T.. C. C.14 .21* . Jolley. H. C. Jolley. C. Selection of effective law enforcement officers: The Florida police standards research project. J.32* n/a ... Ward. New York: Praeger Publishers.. . Tampa. J. Ward University of South Florida __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Spielberger.14 .16 .05 . & Vagg.14 . & John C.30 . Spaulding.04 .25* .26 .16 . D.27 . Harry C. The Florida Police Standards Research Project: The Validation of a Psychological Test Battery for Selecting Law Enforcement Officers. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability significantly predicted academy and FTO survival Subjects: N Dept Sex Academy length 211 Several Florida law enforcement agencies 160 white men.19 . Spaulding.15 .

64* .16* .28 .33 .48* .19* .22 .26 .33* .12 .08 .17* .15 .Variable _______________________ Personality (CPI) Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Sense of well being Responsibility Self-control Tolerance Good impression Communality Achievement via conformance Achievement via independence Intellectual efficiency Psychological mindedness Self-acceptance Socialization Flexibility Femininity Trait Anxiety (STAI) Academy & FTO Survival ________________________ 1-year performance ratings ______________________________ white men (n=168) _________ white men minority men women (n = 149) (n = 49) (n = 30) _________ ___________ ______ ..40* .21 .16 .37* .25 ..45* .24* women (n = 43) ______ .12 .27 Note: t values from tables were converted to correlations 352 .27 .08 .25 .14 ..18* .35* .40* .13 .53* .

064 .202 . Psychopathic deviate 5.23 56.349 .84 54.000* .23 53. Emporia State University.90 60.8% were men. 3. Comparing personality profiles of law enforcement officers and criminals based on the MMPI and MMPI-2.82 61.40 59.20 60.39 45.015* 353 . Essential Findings: • Criminals scored higher than police on 8 MMPI scales Subjects: N Age Gender: 31 patrol officers 18 to 40 years 96.54 54. Paranoia 7. Hysteria 4. Hypochondriasis 2.004* .23 50. T.022* . Social introversion 50.000* . Unpublished master’s thesis.03 58. Depression 3. Schizophrenia 9. (1997).57 56.07 51.26 48.57 62.000* .004* . Hypomania 0. Psychasthenia 8.33 60.37 56.29 45.39 51. Masculinity-femininity 6. A. Kansas.200 .94 54.20 65.97 .___________________________________________________________________________________________ Comparing Personality Profiles of Law Enforcement Officers and Criminals Based on the MMPI and MMPI-2 Travis A.58 52.2% were women Independent Variables Cop or Criminal Dependent Variables: MMPI Score Findings MMPI Scale Police Criminals Significance Level L F K 1.00 60.018* .77 56. Sprenger Emporia State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Sprenger.87 53.011* .

.44 .12 .23* .30 . O.08 .15 .47 .04 .53 . & Swander.42 .31 .41 .17 .08 .88 .56 .37* .45 .07 1.38 .71 .26* .46 .3% were men.35 .38 .35 .44 .3.56 .. C.17 .1%.20* .33* . Validity and fairness of the police officer written exam: Research finding.32 .20* .44 .05 .9%.29* .38 .83 .20* . WA: Public Safety Civil Service Commission.66 . Ratio = 2.1%.25* . Seattle.9% Population SD=7.63 .24* .21* .56 .__________________________________________________________________ Validity and Fairness of the Police Officer Written Exam: Research Findings Oscar Spurlin & Carla Swander Ergometrics and Applied Personnel Research __________________________________________________________________ Citation Spurlin.7% were women White=78.03 .20* . Essential Finding • Cognitive ability significantly predicted academy and patrol performance Subjects N Tenure Gender Race Range restriction 175 patrol officers 3 .14 .07 .25* .01 0.43 354 Male – female d score .2 Independent Variables Cognitive Ability (Civil Service Exam) Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (Interrater = . Hispanic=2.4.37* .27* ..21* .23 . Asian = 8. Restricted SD = 3.45 months. 16.09 .57 .44* .31 .19* . (1987).27* . African American=8.57) Academy Performance (11-week academy) Findings Academy Performance N Academy Performance Overall academic average Overall average Patrol Performance Dimension Overall performance Dependability Appearance Productivity Vehicle operation Investigative skills Working under supervision Getting along with peers Public relations Oral communication Written communication Decision making Control/working under stress Technical knowledge Male – Female d score White – Black d score White – Hispanic d score Interrater Reliability 189 189 175 175 175 175 168 172 175 174 175 172 172 175 175 175 1575 1357 1326 Cognitive Ability Academic Average Overall Average Tenure .39 .12 .41 .. Median = 19 months 83.12 .54 .

15* ... Disciplinary actions 9.14* . The utility of biographical data in predicting job performance: Implications for the selection of police officers.16* .23* . Sex (1=male. Academy grades 3.28* .5% white M = 14 years HS Diploma= 24.17* (4) . Defaults and civil judgments 6.36) • Pre-employment problems significantly related to patrol performance Subjects: N Dept...14* . Citations/peer awards 11.22* ..04 (14) .23* ...4%..19* ... Race (1=white.05 .41* .17* .14* (9) (11) . Gender: Race: Education 156 patrol officers Large police department in the North central US 70.13 .05 level or better 355 .. Criminal justice major 13.16* .04 .. 1-2 years of college = 31.28) • Cognitive ability significantly related to academy performance (r = . Unpublished doctoral dissertation....36* .26* .14* .. Preemployment traffic tickets 12.04 .23* . Patrol performance 2.. Education 7. Pre-employment discipline 5. Reprimands 8. Cognitive ability 14.09 (3) .01 * r is significant at the .36* . 3-4 years = 23.22* .. 29.19* ..50* (6) (7) (8) .41* .7%.5% were men.1% Independent Variables Education Preemployment problems Cognitive ability Dependent Variables: Police Patrol Performance (after 3 years) Academy Performance (20-week academy) Findings (correlations) 1.2%. Pre-employment discharges 4.22* .. BA = 20..___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Utility of Biographical Data in Predicting Job Performance: Implications for the Selection of Police Officers Thomas Gordon Staff University of Toledo __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Staff. Suspensions 10.34* (5) ..16* .17* . 2=minority) N = 156 (2) . T..21* .15* .13 . 2=female) 15. G.14* .17* .18* .34* ..33* .05 .5% were women 70.23* . University of Toledo Essential Findings: • Academy grade significantly related to patrol performance (r = .41* .16* . (1992).

Overall Job Performance Alpha .56 .35 . Other = 4% Median age is under 30 Median years of experience is 0-4 No HS diploma = 8%.02 .92 .. some graduate school = 14% Independent Variables Education Experience Dependent Variables Supervisor ratings of performance Findings Performance Dimension 1.01 .46 .11 after holding all other variables constant Subjects N Gender Race Age Experience Education 78 officers in three Mississippi police departments 96% were men.. Cooperation 3.52 .86 .77 .14 .58 . R. Appearance 2..32 . Writing ability 8.78 .65 .09 .05 .08 .25 .06 .93 Sex & Race Female? White ? .90 .78 .88 . A.79 .24 .03 .. Judgment 6. Interest 4. Essential Findings • Correlation between education and performance was . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.84 .56 . Driving ability 7. 4% were women White = 76%.59 .26 .01 .47 .41 . University of Southern Mississippi.00 . (1983).23 . 3-64 college hours = 36%.17 .24 356 (1) (2) .42 .31 .33 .16 .27 .__________________________________________________________________ The Relationship of Job Performance to Personal Characteristics of Police Patrol Officers in Selected Mississippi Police Departments Alan Ray Stafford University of Southern Mississippi __________________________________________________________________ Citation Stafford. The relationship of job performance to personal characteristics of police patrol officers in selected Mississippi police departments.91 . African American = 20%.29 (8) . 65-128 college hours = 28%.32 .07 .40 .29 Performance Dimension (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) .04 . HS or GED = 14%.73 .34 .41 . Public contact 5.

74 32.09 12.10 .25 8.36 31.36 26.17 14.73 15.86 16.53 130.00 12.64 21.67 25..00 13.00 21.95 2.64 16.64 20.33 20.03 .31 .83 130.43 15.67 16.86 12.32 37.33 18.1.25 133.86 130.78 .75 17.46 1.20 24.67 16.25 25.72 126.09 .57 8.00 24.33 8.50 9.30 .73 8.4 years 4 .59 8.14 8.36 16.33 18.91 18.23 8.64 21.73 19.48 24.11 4.82 15.25 12.53 12.04 357 .86 12.18 129.50 12.19 133.82 15.71 Education < High School High School 3-64 college hours 65-128 hours Some grad school Total Mean SD Experience 0 .75 21.29 16.36 8.49 12.27 31.03 .21 .43 15.43 8.00 31.20 .29 12.67 13.78 20.03 .11 .32 131.00 117...33 32.Stafford (1983) continued Performance Dimension Total N Appearance Cooperation Interest Public Contact Judgment Driving Ability Report Writing Mean D score 6 11 28 22 11 78 12.66 8.89 16.16 years Over 16 years 42 22 4 3 7 Education Experience Age Sex Correlation with overall performance (holding all other variables constant) .07 .47 2.04 32.09 23.36 25.64 2.55 14.75 21.55 18.57 20.09 .12 years 12 .8 years 8 .27 16.00 12.45 134.57 24.29 12.35 1.43 21.54 2..14 140.49 15.33 21.14 19.75 16.18 25.00 25.

47 13. T.62 .. graduated from college=9.5 2:08 0:42 Passing score for obstacle course (PARE) is 4:45 358 Correlation with PARE .0 47..0 43.9 180..26 20.8 15. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.4 5.5-mile run (minutes) PARE Obstacle course (minutes) 23.8 43.5 .0 for women Results Variable Mean Men SD BMI.9 230.50 Mean 22. some college=73.0 . kg 70-lb bench press (number in 30 sec) 40 meter sprint (seconds) Vertical jump (cm) Long jump (cm) Push-ups (number) Sit-ups (number in one minute) Agility run (seconds) 1.66 . Essential Findings: • Men (90% passed) performed better than women (47% passed) on the RCMP physical agility test • The Physical Ability Requirement Evaluation (PARE) consists of two components..30 ..0 .7 31. The first is an obstacle course and the second is an exercise simulating a physical struggle with a suspect.41 2.6%. P..0 39. kg 1-RM leg press.46 .0 14...2 11:24 3:45 2.0 23.0 ..64 . Stanish.65 2:59 .0 21.4 8. The two components are run back to back with no break in between.. kg/m2 1-RM bench press.45 ..4 13:20 5:41 Women SD Correlation with PARE 3..51 . & Campagna. (1999).32 .7 21.64 1:37 . 669-677.51 0.27 8.47 4. I. Wood..9 .1 34.47 44.9 for men and 23. Wood. Prediction of performance on the RCMP physical ability requirement evaluation.32 .0 .5 257.__________________________________________________________________ Prediction of Performance on the RCMP Physical Ability Requirement Evaluation Heidi I.1 58.0 10. Subjects: N Gender Education Age 48 44% were men and 56% were women HS=17%..7 .49 11..0 1.9 44.3 7.6 .32 7.. & Phil Campagna Dalhousie University & Oregon State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Stanish.0 21.6 0.9 81.9 172.2 20. Terry M. 41(8).40 .4% M = 23. H.4 ..9 . M.4 10.

Range 7 to 16 years Independent Variables Kuder Vocational Preference Record . Personal.4.71 Supervisor Ratings (B) (C) (D) (E) . 323-324. Does the officer work well in groups?).69 . Sterne Veterans Administration Hospital.90 .89 . Preference for dealing with ideas D.43* .__________________________________________________________________ Use of the Kuder Preference Record with Police Officers David M. Range 27 to 66 M = 11. Journal of Applied Psychology.06 359 (A) . Preference for being active in groups B. Use of the Kuder Preference Record. with police officers. (1960). D.4.53 29. Vancouver.28) • Occupational interest not related to performance Subjects N Gender Age Education 49 100% were men M = 40. 44(5).53 40.92 49.Personal Notes • Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Education and Kuder scores were correlated with supervisor ratings of overall performance and ratings of the officers' behavior in each of the Kuder scale areas (e. Preference for directing others Mean Performance 11.84 . Preference for working in stable conditions C.g. Essential Findings • Education significantly related to performance (r = .31* .4 . Each officer was rated by seven supervisors Findings Reliability of performance scale (Intraclass) Education Kuder Preference Record A. Preference for avoiding conflict E.47* .57 30.28 33. Washington __________________________________________________________________ Citation Sterne. M.59 .

35* ..12 . socially deviant.. Unpublished doctoral dissertation..24* .02 . Sterrett Claremont Graduate School __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Sterrett. BA=20.06 .30* .13* .3%.. AA=17..7% were women HS=56.15 . and hostile than officers who remained on the force Subjects: N Dept.23* .03 .8%.09 .12 .02 . Gender: Education: 133 graduates of the Utah Police Officers Standards and Training Academy Several police departments in Utah 96..11* .26* Note: Correlations were obtained by converting tabular data found in the dissertation 360 .02 . M. The utility of the Bipolar Psychological Inventory for predicting tenure of law enforcement officers. (1984).10* .04 .07 ..4%.3% were men.20* Tenure .03 . 1=yes) Bipolar Psychological Inventory Dependent Variables: Academy Performance Police Tenure (remained in LE.3% Independent Variables College degree (0=no.__________________________________________________________________ The Utility of the Bipolar Psychological Inventory for Predicting Tenure of Law Enforcement Officers Morris R.35* ..04 Asked to resign/fired .16 .00 . impulsive.02 . 3.10 ..12 . left law enforcement) Findings: Predictor College degree? Criminal justice major? Bipolar Psychological Inventory Defensive Psychic pain Depression Self-degradation Dependence Achieving Gregariousness Family harmony Sexual maturity Social deviancy Self-control Kindness Empathy Academy Performance . Claremont Graduate College.3%. not reported=5. Essential Finding: • Officers who were fired were more open. insensitive.06 . MA=. R.

52 for standout officers (t=9.02 .64 .97 24. (1991).00 5.10 5.60 .30 1.63 4.65 .2% of academy cadets were men Mean age was 29.__________________________________________________________________ A Comparison of Psychological Characteristics of Standout Police Officers and Oregon Police Academy Trainees Carl W.93 .52 6..10 .. 25 standout officers) Oregon Police Academy and several municipal police agencies in Oregon 96% of standout officers and 86.1. W.09 6.72 4. psychasthenia. boredom. C.39 . standout police officers had higher intellectual orientation and lower levels of depression.07 .04 4.03.56 361 t _____ . BA=44%. Stevenson Oregon State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Stevenson.3. and psychoticism.80 7.99 5.08 4.1. p < .77 4.47 6.60 5. Gender: Age: Education: 148 (123 academy cadets.01 .32 6.91 4. Essential Finding: • Compared to academy cadets. some college=48%.44 6. A comparison of psychological characteristics of standout police officers and Oregon police academy trainees. MA=8%.64 4.96 4. Unpublished doctoral dissertation..20 6.89 4. Independent Variables Dependent Variables: CAQ 16-PF Cognitive Ability (Wonderlic Personnel Test) Findings Cognitive Ability (Wonderlic) 16 PF Scales A Warmth B Intelligence C Stability E Dominance F Impulsivity G Conformity H Boldness I Sensitivity L Suspiciousness M Imagination N Shrewdness O Apprehensiveness Academy Cadets Standout Officers _____________ ______________ 23.28 5.001) HS=8%.48 7.38 for cadets and 38. Subjects: N Dept.20 .96 4.29 . Oregon State University.15* 1.68 6.

83 4.83 4.70 4.20 3.75 .47 5.33 5.32 .52 .5 and a standard deviation of 2.13 4.04 4.60 4.84 4.52 6.24 6.88 2.41 6..48 3.49 1.a standard score with a mean of 5.45 3.Stevenson (1991) continued Academy Cadets _____________ Standout Officers _____________ t _____ Q1 Experimenting Q2 Self-sufficiency Q3 Self-discipline Q4 Tension 4.01 4.08 4.83 4.91 6.49 6.1.69 FG Faking Good FB Faking Bad 5.13 1..21* .89 3..91 4.07 4.92 4.26 6.64* 1.40 3.47 .97 .76 6.06 3.94* 1.20 3.63 3.23 4.81 CAQ Scales D1 Hypochondriasis D2 Suicidal depression D3 Agitation D4 Anxious depression D5 Low energy depression D6 Guilt and resentment D7 Boredom and withdrawal PA Paranoia PP Psychopathic deviation Sc Schizophrenia As Psychasthenia Ps Psychological inadequacy TP Tough Poise IN Independence DP Depression AX Anxiety NE Neuroticism PM Psychoticism SO Sociopathy ________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Mean 16-Pf and CAQ scores are STEN scores .76 2.76 4.89 5.06 .79 5.50 1....96 .69 .73 5..41 4.48 6.07* .04 5.53 1.30 4.28 3.19 5.08 4.87* .05 1.74 1.0 362 .84 .35 .71 5.12 6.60 4.07 5.36 6.70 4.09 4.52 3.

. Review of Public Personnel Administration.16 Criterion 363 . W.16 .04 . Michael W.63 Academy performance .. Stohr-Gillmore. M. K. Essential Findings • Interviews with situational questions were more valid than interviews without situational questions Subjects N Department Gender Race Age 69 correctional officers Spokane County (WA) Jail 75% were men Approximately 92% were white M = 40. Stohr-Gillmore.0 Independent Variables Type of interview Dependent Variables Academy performance (11-week academy) Supervisor ratings Findings: Correlations Interview Type Situational No Situational Questions Questions 33 36 N Interrater reliability (median) Military Experience 36 .35 .20 Performance rating (summer 1988) ...19 Performance rating (fall 1988) .37 On-the-job training performance (15 days) . & Kistler.15 . 1-18.14 . Stohr-Gillmore. (1990).65 . M.__________________________________________________________________ _ Improving Selection Outcomes with the Use of Situational Interviews: Empirical Evidence from a Study of Correctional Officers for New Generation Jails Mary K. 10(2).39* .. & Nannette Kistler New Mexico State University & Washington State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Stohr-Gillmore. N.11 .19 . Improving selection outcomes with the use of situational interviews: Empirical evidence from a study of correctional officers for new generation jails.

6. and had a tendency toward mood fluctuations Subjects N Department Gender Race Age Education 53 police applicants Knoxville. Essential Finding • On the basis of the Rorschach.90* 26. TN Police Department 77% were men. G.4%. African American=19.87 . University of Tennessee. lacked awareness of affective needs.6%. Knoxville. were committed to individuality of self.4% Mean = 25 Mean = 14 years Independent Variables Rorschach Dependent Variables Findings Rorschach Category Total Responses M Active responses EB Popular responses X+% responses Xu% responses Lambda Location DQ Determinants FQ Pairs Content Cognitive special forces Other special forces Kappa Applicant Mean 21.00 .5%.85 .14. Hispanic 2.90 1.1.78* .61* 6.30* . had a more action oriented coping style moderated by a vacillation in problem solving.__________________________________________________________________ _ Assessing Police Applicants: A Further Look at MMPI and Rorschach Data Carla Gayle Strassle University of Tennessee __________________________________________________________________ Citation Strassle.89 .70* 4. (1997).40* .95 .93* .80 . police applicants were not people oriented.10. Unpublished master’s thesis.86 364 Norm Comparison t Chi-square .96 .74 . C.93 .8.06 . Asian=2. 23% were women White=75. Assessing police applicants: A further look at MMPI and Rorschach data.

8 3.08 .9 1. (1995).0 2. 60-63.1 .2 2.3 2. Age Gender: 34 SWAT team members Manatee County Sheriff's Office M = 33 (range 26-45) 100% were men Independent Variables CPI FIRO-B Wonderlic Personnel Test Dependent Variables Supervisor ratings Notes: • F values from Table 2 in the article were converted to correlations (r) for the table below Findings: _____________________________________________________________________________________ Test/Scale ____________________________________ _____________ Raw scores for Raw scores for Correlation with Mean Percentile most successful less successful Performance ____________ _____________ _____________ Wonderlic Personnel Test FIRO-B + Inclusion ++ Inclusion + Control ++ Control + Affection ++ Affection 365 22.___________________________________________________________________________________________ Psychological Characteristics of Successful SWAT/Tactical Response Team Personnel John T.6 1.19 4. T.14 . Psychological characteristics of successful SWAT/tactical response team personnel.3 3.2 4.7 . J. V2 and Femininity on the CPI Subjects: N Dept.07 .24 . Essential Findings: • Successful SWAT/tactical personnel scored higher in Socialization.12 .1 2.0 20. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. 11(1).0 2.43 . Super Manatee County (FL) Sheriff's Office __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Super.8 2.

2 7.20 Achievement v.8 .3 .24 Psychological mindedness 54 16.7 28.2 26.23 Good impression 56 22.7 .26 Dominance 63 26.2 .7 .32 Achievement v. conformance 54 28.7 .1 19.36 Tolerance 50 20.51* Self-control 53 21.9 .9 .4 21.3 .9 31.34 Responsibility 51 23.10 Femininity 40 10.0 26.16 Social presence 54 27.8 22.6 .03 Capacity for status 52 17.6 33.00 Socialization 53 32.52* _______________________________________________________________________________________ 366 .23 Well-being 53 33.04 Intellectual effectiveness 49 29.Super (continued) Test/Scale ____________________________________ _____________ Raw scores for Raw scores for Correlation with Mean percentile most successful less successful Performance _____________ _____________ _____________ CPI v.3 .52* v.2 25.9 .2 18.1 Internality 14.5 19.37 Communality 55 35.32 Independence 58 21.1 19.3 Self-realization 36.4 .18 Empathy 53 22.2 Norm favoring 25.2 .19 Flexibility 47 13.1 20.4 21.8 34.0 18.7 28. independence 52 22.28 v.3 23.8 .0 .18 Sociability 53 21.2 11.6 .0 12.1 .7 .6 15.1 16.9 .6 .05 Self-acceptance 54 20.9 .5 .

G. & Serafino.22 10. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Police and Criminal Psychology..08 . G.. Aamodt.20 2. M.82 17.69 2.41 56.18 22. & Gerald Serafino University of Wisconsin-Platteville and Radford University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Surrette..9 Independent Variables MMPI CPI Inwald Shipley Institute of Living Scale Dependent Variables Supervisor ratings of patrol performance in the first year Findings: MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Good cop/bad cop scoring Clinical evaluation of MMPI Goldberg Index Husemann Index Gonder Index Factor 1: Hs+Pd+Pa+Pt+Sc+Ma Mean MMPI Score Raw Score T Score 4. Essential Findings: • The MMPI and CPI were not valid predictors of supervisor ratings of first-year police performance.04 18...02 .02 51.74 21..70 48.69 46..07 55.02 ..07 .86 23.03 .87 54. Validity of the New Mexico Police Selection Battery.05 .10 .41 47.32 48..50 49.14 9. Michael G.08 . NM. A.61 60.64 21. Surrette.18* .40 51.23 21.98 367 N Correlation with Performance 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 .14 . (1990). Subjects: N Dept Gender Race Age 130 officers A variety of law enforcement agencies in New Mexico 95% were men 71% were white M = 27.01 .08 .01 .04 .06 56.00 17.14 19. M.00 .__________________________________________________________________ Validity of the New Mexico Police Selection Battery Michael A.03 . Aamodt.06 .19 2.43 55.02 . Albuquerque.04 .

03 .00 55 39.25 .06 .12 .20 .67 56 30.09 ..95 55 21.33 55 24.00 ..04 .33 47.00 53 40.90 47.75 54 12.18* .44 2.12 .21 .88 51 25.50 52.43 48.03 .13 49.93 46.17 .03 54 30.Factor 2: Hy + Hs + K – Ma Factor 3: Si Factor 4: Pa + Mf – L – K Factor 5: F-K CPI Scale Do Cs Sy Sp Sa Wb Re So Sc To Gi Cm Ac Ai Ie Py Fx Fe Law enforcement scale Clinical evaluation of CPI IPI Scale Guardedness Alcohol use Drug use Driving violations Job difficulties Trouble with the law Absence abuse Substance abuse Antisocial attitudes Hyperactivity Rigid type Type A Illness concerns Treatment programs Anxiety Phobic personality Obsessive personality Depression Loner Unusual experiences Lack of assertiveness Interpersonal difficulties Undue suspiciousness 129 129 129 129 CPI Mean Score Raw Score T Score 25.40 ..00 .12 .83 49.23 .10 48.25 .86 47.02 .13 45.12 ..19 .17 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 .00 47..43 46.03 .80 54..50 56 8.07 .06 .74 52 36..19 47 15..50 48.20 55 26.04 52 23.00 54 35..07 .56 49 39.00 .05 .90 47.02 .03 47.06 .02 .09 .43 50.13 44.67 368 .02 .04 N 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 96 Correlation with Performance .24 ..47 45.04 .08 ...46 41.01 .52 56 20.10 .87 43.07 .10 .01 ...11 47 51.30 .07 44.02 ..07 .83 50.59 55 19.11 .06 .

27 30 30 30 30 125 130 130 .23 3..09 .08 .40 .09 .03 .87 48...Family concerns Sexual concerns Spouse concerns Clinical IPI evaluation Clinical Interview Sex (1=male.05 3..03 106.02 6. 2=female) Race (1=white..23 130 129 .66 128 .12 .23 46.03 .. 2=nonwhite) Age Shipley Institute for Living Scale Nelson Denny Reading Ability 43.40 369 .

02 Note: Means within a row not sharing the same superscript are significantly different from one another 370 .42b 1.42ab 2. Subjects: N Department Gender 40 officers (11 urban.80b 5. T. and officers from urban departments scored higher in organizing (conscientiousness) than did the other departments. & Tara M. Ebert. A.09 2. (2003).00 1.50 4. Willis. officers from campus police departments scored higher in soothing (agreeableness).15 3.86 8.13 6.64b 2. M.90a 1. Public Personnel Management.73 8.57 2. Smallidge Springfield College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Surrette.66a 11. M. 15 rural.__________________________________________________________________ Personality of Law Enforcement Officials: A Comparison of Law Enforcement Officials’ Personality Profiles Based on Size of Community Michael A. Ebert.92 2.46 6. A. Michael A.93b 9. Essential Findings: • Officers from rural departments scored higher in thinking (openness to experience).91 6.30 8.61 2. 14 campus) Three police departments in the Eastern U. 97. Personality of law enforcement officials: A comparison of law enforcement officials’ personality profiles based on size of community.73 9.36 1.00 1.27a 1. M. & Smallidge.67 Department Type Rural Campus 15 14 7. Willis.5% were men Independent Variables Type of police department (urban. J. 32(2).36a 3. Joseph M. M.... rural. Surrette. 279-285.71 2.91 7. campus) Dependent Variables Scores on the Employee Personality Inventory (EPI) Findings: EPI Dimension Thinking Directing Communicating Soothing Organizing N M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD Urban 11 6.S.32 12.

University of Iowa.17* .18* .9%.19* .18* (7) _____ (8) _____ (9) _____ .81 47.84 59.48 56..__________________________________________________________________ The Iowa Law Enforcement Personnel Study: Prediction of Law Enforcement Job Performance from Biographical and Personality Variables Michael Gerard Sweda University of Iowa __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Sweda.1% M = 29.50 52. (1988). M.19* . other=1.19* .19* ..54 55..98 57.04 56.18* __________________________________________________________________________________________ Performance Ratings (Landy and Farr Rating Scale) Job Knowledge (1) Judgment (2) Initiative (3) Dependability (4) Relations (7) Communication (8) Composite Total (9) 371 Demeanor (5) Attitude (6) .. The Iowa law enforcement personnel study: Prediction of law enforcement job performance from biographical and personality variables. G.37 (1) _____ (2) _____ (3) _____ (4) _____ (5) _____ (6) _____ .74 60..67 50.73 51.75 56.77 55.19* . Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Essential Findings: • The MMPI did not predict performance at levels exceeding those expected by chance Subjects: N Dept Gender Race Age 190 officers A variety of law enforcement agencies in Iowa 100% were men White=98.5 Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables Supervisor ratings of patrol performance Objective patrol data Findings: __________________________________________________________________________________________ Correlations with Performance Ratings Mean T _____ MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Demographics Previous police experience Number of children 49.18* .

21 4. Bachelor’s=20. African American=31.21 6. Findings 16-PF Factor A: Warmth B: Intelligence C: Stability E: Dominance F: Impulsivity G: Conformity H: Boldness I: Sensitivity L: Suspiciousness M: Imagination N: Shrewdness O: Apprehensiveness Q1: Experimenting Q2: Self-sufficiency Q3: Self-discipline Q4: Tension QI QII QIII QIV Academy Performance (n=28) 1st Quartile Mean 4th Quartile Mean 4.__________________________________________________________________ Validating State Police Trooper Career Performance with the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire Michael R.43 5. Swope Wayne State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Swope.11 5. 2 years of college=17. Hispanic=6% Range = 23 to 31 HS=58.29 6. (1989).36 4. Wayne State University.07 6.86 4.45 4.54 5.15 5.58 5. Essential Findings • Linear combinations of 16-PF scores and demographic variables significantly predicted several aspects of job performance Subjects N Gender Race Age Education 67 state police troopers in Michigan 80.50 5.8%. 19.43 5.09 7.5% Independent Variables Personality (16-PF) Dependent Variables: Academy grades (quartile) Patrol performance Notes No correlation matrix was included in the dissertation. Validating state police trooper career performance with the Sixteen Personality Factor questionnaire.50 5.36 7.08 5. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.14 5.93 6.43 5. R.48 372 SD from Test Manual Correlation .07 5.64 6. The mix of demographic variables and 16-PF scores in the regressions make the multiple correlations meaningless.57 6.64 5. M.9%.07 4.93 4.72 7.71 6.14 4.2%.93 5.29 4.75 6.43 5.6% were men.9%.64 6.79 6.4% were women White=62%.00 5.43 5. Master’s=1.79 4.

10 6.14 4.29 6.69 5.29 5.67 5.93 5.05 5.89 5.76 5.09 6.77 6.36 6.88 5.57 5.53 4.09 5.36 6.18 4.00 5.09 6.13 5.67 5.50 4.94 5.00 5.82 6.77 5.48 5.33 6.35 5.56 4.19 4.71 4.10 6.91 4.55 6.14 5.16-PF Factor A: Warmth B: Intelligence C: Stability E: Dominance F: Impulsivity G: Conformity H: Boldness I: Sensitivity L: Suspiciousness M: Imagination N: Shrewdness O: Apprehensiveness Q1: Experimenting Q2: Self-sufficiency Q3: Self-discipline Q4: Tension QI QII QIII QIV 16-PF Factor A: Warmth B: Intelligence C: Stability E: Dominance F: Impulsivity G: Conformity H: Boldness I: Sensitivity L: Suspiciousness M: Imagination N: Shrewdness O: Apprehensiveness Q1: Experimenting Q2: Self-sufficiency Q3: Self-discipline Q4: Tension QI QII QIII QIV 16-PF Factor A: Warmth B: Intelligence C: Stability E: Dominance F: Impulsivity G: Conformity H: Boldness I: Sensitivity L: Suspiciousness M: Imagination N: Shrewdness O: Apprehensiveness Q1: Experimenting Q2: Self-sufficiency Q3: Self-discipline Q4: Tension QI QII QIII QIV Activity (n=22) < 500 > 599 5.24 6.13 6.50 4.18 5.71 5.81 5.05 4.55 6.18 4.25 5.13 5.62 6.86 5.64 4.05 5.94 5.59 4.82 5.23 6.28 6.35 5.35 5.55 4.23 6.66 6.29 5.09 6.01 Correlation .59 6.71 6.71 5.00 6.91 5.57 4.18 5.70 Absences (n=33) < 12 > 16 5.88 5.77 5.43 6.71 6.00 4.74 373 5.00 6.82 6.77 4.93 7.93 4.36 5.00 5.43 4.64 5.13 5.69 5.00 .88 6.50 6.53 6.63 4.13 4.32 6.62 5.24 5.71 5.17 4.50 6.48 6.00 6.29 6.25 5.41 6.91 5.14 6.00 5.36 6.57 6.00 4.36 4.90 5.46 6.25 4.64 4.95 5.41 SD from Test Manual Correlation SD from Test Manual Correlation Vehicle Accidents (n=39) None 1 or more SD from Test Manual 4.

14 Otis-Lennon (IQ) . Talley and Lisa D. 2=female) .6 . Subjects: N Gender Race Tenure 208 public safety officers at Duke University 88. Hinz Duke University & University of Louisville __________________________________________________________________ Citation Talley. range = 1 to 228 Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Education Supervisor ratings of performance (82% agreement) Cognitive ability (Otis-Lennon – reliability = .19 24.05 25.17 39. Inconsistent results with the MMPI. (1990).3 .79* 26.08 Sex (1=male.21* Imperturbability .. L. Thomas..34 months.94) Findings: Correlations with Supervisor Ratings of Performance White men N = 121 r Mean .21* MMPI Subscales Ego inflation .56.. 2=black) . IL: Charles C.15 Familial discord .18* 13.77* MMPI Scale L . SD = 45.7% M = 38.29 0.5 97.9 .4 Black women N=7 r Mean .9 Black men N = 63 r Mean . African American=35.5% were men. Summary and Essential Findings: • Education and cognitive ability were significantly related to performance for white men.5 110.0 ..18* 27.. J. & Hinz.. E..18* 108.____________________________________________________________________________________________ Performance Prediction of Public Safety and Law Enforcement Personnel Joseph E. Springfield.26* K .09 Age Race (1=white.5 .6 .07 .09 14.53* Defective inhibition .50* 14. D.7 ..82* Ma . Performance prediction of public safety and law enforcement personnel..5% were women White=66.13 .3%.3 TOTAL N = 208 r Mean Education Prior military experience .15 Authority problems .8 White women N = 17 R Mean .4 Note: Signs reversed from article so that positive correlations indicate higher performance 374 41.2 ....03 17.27* Self-alienation ... 11.09 47.3 92..

defensive and impulsive and less nurturing and orderly Subjects: N Sex Age Academy length 79 officers from a large urban police department (n=1. and again after the completion of 18 months of police work • Results indicated that officers became more aggressive. 1989) Findings (Mean Standard Scores) ƒ Note: Many of the analyses in the dissertation seem to be incorrect.16) Yes. Range = 22 to 42 17 weeks Independent Variables Time interval Dependent Variables: Personality Research Form (Jackson. at the end of academy training.76) No No No Yes. decreased (F=7. (1992). Essential Finding • Study compared the personalities of 79 police officers prior to academy training. A longitudinal study of personality change in urban police officers: Educational implications. decreased (F=6. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.02) Yes.02) Yes.36) .48) No No No No No Yes.__________________________________________________________________ A Longitudinal Study of Personality Change in Urban Police Officers: Educational Implications Carolyn Marie Tenerowicz Cleveland State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Tenerowicz. increased (F=10. C.74) No No No No Yes.700) in Ohio 84. decreased (F=8. M. Cleveland State University. PRF Scale Abasement (Ab) Achievement (Ac) Affiliation (Af) Aggression (Ag) Autonomy (Au) Change (Ch) Cognitive structure (Cs) Defendence (De) Dominance (Do) Endurance (En) Exhibition (Ex) Harm avoidance (HA) Impulsivity (Im) Nurturance (Nu) Order (Or) Play (Pl) Sentience (Se) Social recognition (Sr) Succorance (Su) Understanding (Un) Infrequency (In) Desirability (Dy) Recruit (n=74) Rookie (n=79) Veteran (n=62) 48 56 56 42 39 40 56 42 54 54 52 51 42 58 55 46 41 46 51 45 45 65 45 51 55 49 43 46 51 46 54 49 52 49 49 56 50 52 42 46 49 42 60 55 42 50 54 52 42 43 50 48 54 51 52 50 49 55 50 50 42 45 49 42 60 54 375 Significant change? No No No Yes. increased (F=10. increased (F=7. increased (F= 3. 15.8% were men.2% were women M = 27.

07 .15 Note: First four columns are from Table 18 in the dissertation. The R2 from the table were converted to rs for this table.11 .03 .14 .14 .09 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.06 .01 ..08 . R.00 ..18 . TN & Franklin.17 ..12 .26 .22 ..03 .09 ..04 .33 .24 46 45 46 46 46 35 46 45 43 46 .08 ..12 .02 .. Tennessee State University.10 .12 ...05 .06 .09 .05 .02 .07 ..10 46 35 46 .08 ..00 ..14 .06 . Essential Findings: • Study investigated the validity of the MMPI Immaturity Index (L + Pd + Ma) • No significant correlations between the MMPI Immaturity Index and field training performance Subjects: N Department 46 police recruits completing their field training Clarksville...17 .17 . R.14 .06 .00 .00 .03 ..21 . The MMPI/MMPI-2 Immaturity Index as a predictor of police performance..18 ..03 .21 .04 ..05 . Tesauro Tennessee State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Tesauro.. TN Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables Supervisor ratings of FTO performance Findings: Correlations and Multiple Correlations Rating Dimension Attitude Acceptance of feedback Attitude toward police work Knowledge City ordinances Criminal procedure codes Performance Driving skill Field performance Interview/interrogation skill Officer safety Control of conflict: voice Control of conflict: physical skill Problem solving/decision making Relationships With citizens in general With other ethnic groups With other department members N L Pd Ma Immaturity Index (n=33) 46 46 .__________________________________________________________________ The MMPI/MMPI-2 Immaturity Index as a Predictor of Police Performance Raymond R.15 ..23 .07 . (1994).09 ..06 .01 ..18 ..15 . 376 ..04 .05 .

Use of pre-employment MMPI scores in predicting domestic violence perpetration in a large metropolitan police department.92 No Domestic Violence Mean SD 48.___________________________________________________________________________________________ Use of Pre-employment MMPI Scores in Predicting Domestic Violence Perpetration in a Large Metropolitan Police Department Michael J.33 . Gender Race 114 officers (57 had been investigated for domestic violence) Baltimore Police Department 100% were men White=37%.91 5.25 .67 11. Unpublished master’s thesis.89 6.08 43. Summary and Essential Findings • MMPI scores did not differentiate officers investigated for domestic violence from those who were not investigated Subjects N Dept.46 11.16 ..07 48..44 7.27 .26 .04 0.83 47.42 5.05 6.18 6. J.31 .. African American=63% Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Investigated for domestic violence Findings MMPI Scale Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Domestic Violence Mean SD 47. M.77 0..06 1.65 47.86 7.29 .54 48.41 45.16 .32 6.18 . Loyola College.75 8.54 43.28 6.19 5.11 7.31 50.39 8.09 6. (1996).67 53.89 7. Tiburzi Loyola College __________________________________________________________________ Citation Tiburzi.80 51.21 44.44 377 d score .46 7.04 .90 47.85 45.04 6.99 45.87 46..89 7.39 F 0..75 50.19 46.89 47.

900 officers) 80% were men White=49%. D.09 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.. Hispanic=13%.16* . black=36%.Arlington. Summary and Essential Findings: • 17-item biodata questionnaire not very successful in predicting tenure and eligibility to be rehired Subjects: N Dept..14 ________________________________________________________________ 378 . Texas Police Department (2. 2=black) .12 Traffic tickets . H.___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Predictive Value of Biographical Data: An Analysis of Using Biodata to Predict Short Tenure or Unsuitability of Police Officers Harold Douglas Tidwell University of Texas . Gender Race Age 205 Dallas. (1993).Arlington __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Tidwell. University of Texas . The predictive value of biographical data: An analysis of using biodata to predict short tenure or unsuitability of police officers.22 Race (1=non black. other=2% M = 26 Independent Variables Background Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Findings: ________________________________________________________________ Tenure __________ Eligible for Rehire ______________ Education ..20* .

.01 .05 .000).90) 16-PF Findings: Variable GATB General learning ability Verbal aptitude Numerical aptitude 16PF Second Order Factors Extroversion Anxiety Tough poise Independence Control Adjustment Leadership Creativity Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Overall satisfaction Sex (1=male.. Aptitudes... Summary and Essential Findings: • No real relationships between personality. 2=female) Police psychologist’s rating of fit Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance (alpha=.94 7.14 .03 .03 . A.4% from large towns (pop > 22.000) 66..98) Job Satisfaction (MSQ alpha = . University of Windsor.20* 136 150 379 .33 7.14 . The person-job fit: Implications of selecting police personnel on the basis of job dimensions.16 .97 102.17 .00 .8% from medium towns (pop < 22.17 .03 .57 . Tomini University of Windsor __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Tomini.02 6.08 .91 4.15 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.2% were men.09 . and Personality Traits Brenda A.29 4.04 . and performance.28.___________________________________________________________________________________________ The Person-Job Fit: Implications of Selecting Police Personnel on the Basis of Job Dimensions.03 .06 .09 . and 32. aptitudes and personality traits..07 6. B.06 .81 106.84) n 151 Mean Patrol Performance Overall Job Satisfaction 104.95 6. 100% were White Mean experience = 28.000).03 . (1995). 23..07 .4% from small towns (pop < 8.78 .17 .12 ..000 & less than 77.12 .12 7. Subjects: N Gender/Race Age/Experience 151 police officers from several departments in Canada .2 months (range 12-45) Independent Variables GATB (test-retest=. cognitive ability.

33* . Summary and Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability and academy performance were related to subsequent performance Subjects: N Gender Race Age Education Independent Variables Education Cognitive ability Academy performance 125 cadets attending 11 academy classes between 1982 and 1984 93.12 . 6. FL. Unpublished master’s thesis.04 .10 380 .19* .49* . Rollins College. P.6% were men. L. An evaluation of police academy training upon selected recruits and its relationship to job performance.6 Dependent Variables: Supervisor ratings of on-the-job performance using two different evaluation instruments Findings Age Education Cognitive ability Academy performance Supervisory Rating Form Albany Form Atlanta Form . 15% were African American M = 30 M = 12. Tompkins Rollins College __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Tompkins.___________________________________________________________________________________________ An Evaluation of Police Academy Training Upon Selected Recruits and its Relationship to Job Performance Lewis P.10 .23* . (1986).4% were women 85% were White.

16 . C.14 4.07 5.39 8. Native American = 19. Summary and Essential Findings: • Significant relationships between 16-PF scales and graduation from the police academy.04 7.39 6.39 8...11 . achievement.34* . Journal of Police Science and Administration.67 9.6%. White=59.44 4. Subjects: N Gender Age Education 95 recruits enrolled in 3 academy classes in the southwest 81.1%.92 4.88 7.50 5. (1986).24 4.93 5.. Associate’s or Bachelor’s degree = 20% Independent Variables 16-PF Dependent Variables: Academy graduation (0=no.65 4.21 4. and attrition: Validation in a multiplejurisdiction police academy.17 .27* .9% were men.20 6. B.28 6.28* Sten ____ 381 Sten ____ Academy Score ____________ 65 .38* . Achievement.71 4. and Attrition: Validation in a Multiple-Jurisdiction Police Academy Bruce W.7 (SD = 5. Topp & Carol Anne Kardash University of Missouri __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Topp..59 4.48 8.26 6. 234-241.31* .33* .39 4.50 .5). 14(3). W.___________________________________________________________________________________________ Personality. & Kardash.50 3.1 Mean = 27.. Personality..43 5.20 3. 1=yes) Findings: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Graduates ___________ Drop-outs ___________ Correlation with ___________________________ 16-PF Scale __________________________ Raw ____ Raw ____ Graduation _________ Sample size Education Level A Outgoing B Intelligent C Stable E Assertive F Impulsive G Conscientious H Venturesome I Tender L Skeptical M Imaginative N Shrewd O Apprehensive Q1 Experimenting Q2 Self-sufficient Q3 Controlled Q4 Tense 66 28 94 9.94 5.02 .54 7. 50% had previous police experience No college = 25%.18 .89 5.32 4.39* .04 .17 .14 6. A.17 .13 .40* . Hispanic = 19.01 .50 4.

09 13..25* . D. (1998).01 ..26* .12 .04 . Reprimands . Four-year degree ..16 . R.39* . Two-year degree .. Associate’s degree = 6%.35* . Criminal justice major . Bachelor’s degree = 18% Dependent Variables: Supervisor ratings after 10 years on the job Reprimands and suspensions over a 10-year period Findings: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Job Performance 1. L. Volume (.31* .07 .. 27(2).18 ..22 . S.31* . & Collins..37* . Summary and Essential Findings: • Education and cognitive ability predicted on-the-job performance 10 years after hire Subjects: N Education Independent Variables Education Cognitive ability 94 police officers hired between 1980 and 1982 High school = 76%..22 ..24* .. Collins Portland State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Truxillo..20 2. Rank .13 . & Michelle L...52* 4.26* . Job knowledge (. M. Years of school . Cognitive ability .07 .06 .23 .13 ...27* .35* 5.13 .19 .69) 8..33* .02 .26* .30* .61* 7.35* .18 . Cooperation Education 9.16 .19 ..24* 11..19 .___________________________________________________________________________________________ College Education and Police Job Performance: A Ten-Year Study Donald M. Suzanne R.26* .00 .24* . Truxillo.14 . College education and police job performance: A ten-year study.62* ..54* 6. Quality (..62) ..21 .01 .40* .05 .03 .22 .08 . Public Personnel Management.08 .12 Note: Coefficients in parentheses are coefficient alphas 382 (8) (13) .69) .18 12.23* 10..05 . 269-280..10 ..45* . M.. Dependability (.24* .11 .50* .28* 3. Bennett.67) .25* . Suspensions . Bennett..07 .02 .60* (.11 .59) .04 .34* .22 .

and 70 patrol officers Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Cognitive ability (MEAS Police Officer Exam) Academy Performance Patrol Performance Notes: • The findings listed below are from promotional literature sent by the company. __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Tyler. (1989).. Inc.26 Study 1 Study 2 Peer ratings Supervisor ratings 70 .___________________________________________________________________________________________ MEAS Police Officer Examination Thomas A. Flossmoor.28 70 .46 Patrol Performance (peer ratings) 78 . IL: Merit Employment Assessment Services. Executive summary: MEAS police officer examination. T. Inc.44 ____________________________________________________________________ 383 . Findings: ____________________________________________________________________ Correlation with Cognitive Ability ______________ N ______ Academy Performance 119 . A. Tyler Merit Employment Assessment Services. Essential Finding: • Cognitive ability significantly related to academy and patrol performance Subjects: N 78. 119.32 Supervisor ratings 78 .

01 . Hispanic=7.. Asian = 1.06 .. 1 year college=29.06 53 47 64 52 51 58 57 57 53 54 56 55 44 38 52 64 53 47 63 49 51 56 57 57 53 52 53 55 44 38 51 63 .06 .5%.10 ..10 .0%. A.08 .02 384 .1%.03 . Summary and Essential Findings • MMPI did not differential officers who were successful from those that were failures • Failures were defined as those who were terminated. Success was defined as officers remaining with the department who would be eligible for rehire..2%.0%. or were still employed but who would not be rehired.6% Independent Variables Personality (MMPI) Education Dependent Variables Success/Failure as an officer Findings Selection Measure Education Military experience MMPI L F K HS D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Welsh A Welsh R Barron’s Ego Strength (Es) Mean Score Success (n=180) Mean Score Failure (n=50) Correlation with Success (failure=0.02 . California School of Professional Psychology-Berkeley..11 ....00 . Black=2. MA=1.. resigned under unfavorable conditions.04 . Subjects N Gender Race Age Education 248 police officers from 8 departments near San Francisco 100% were men White=87.01 .03 .6%. success=1) . BA=15. The prediction of job failure: A study of police officers using the MMPI.01 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (1979).Berkeley __________________________________________________________________ Citation Uno. Native American = .14 .3%.__________________________________________________________________ The Prediction of Job Failure: A Study of Police Officers Using the MMPI Elizabeth Ann Uno California School of Professional Psychology . AAS=28. E.3%.04 . Range (18 to 42) HS=19.4% M = 24..4%. 3 years=6.

65) Education Dependent Variables: Academy performance Findings Supervisor Rank _________ Years of Education Background questionnaire Psychological assessment Total Score Criteria Supervisor rankings Peer rankings Academy GPA Peer Rank _____ . R.02 Years of Education _________ .59* . K. Behavioral Science and the Law. 5% were women White = 87%.19 .43* 385 Academy GPA _________ .43* . Essential Findings: • • Years of education was significantly related to academy GPA Combined assessment significantly related to supervisor rankings of academy performance Subjects: N Gender: Race: Age Education Academy length 38 academy cadets 95% were men. & Robert K.32 .01 .61 interrater = . Scogin.. G. (1999).52) Background (alpha = . Vipperman University of Alabama __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Varela. F.23 .2 years 12 weeks Independent Variables Clinical interview (alpha = . African American = 13% Mean age was 29.19 .. Varela.02 . Scogin. R.38* .. Forest R. J. 17(4). 467-481.5 M = 14. & Vipperman. Development and preliminary validation of a semi-structured interview for the screening of law enforcement candidates..08 .__________________________________________________________________ Development and Preliminary Validation of a Semi-Structured Interview for Screening Law Enforcement Candidates Jorge G.

92* 35.12 .05 65.10 2.4% were White Mean = 33.56* 33.04 40.46* 60.92 60. Subjects: N Gender/Race Age Experience 271 police officers from a large city in the southeast 100% were men.34 36.?) Independent Variables Personality (MCMI) Reliability (TR = .71 68.85 8.57 21.16 4.15 54..00* 25.39 54. B.70 31.21 53.Los Angeles.13 29.__________________________________________________________________ Police Personality and Performance: A Concurrent Validity Study Burt V.15 33.26 63.08 32.11 .45 (range 3 .77* 74.13 . California School of Professional Psychology ..23 2.11 1.17 21.Los Angeles __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Vosburgh.25 1.76 40.60 59. California School of Professional Psychology .85 27. Little evidence of validity.26 65.15 .83 46.46 51.22 64.81 15.72 38. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.46) Performance Ratings Findings: MCMI Scale Schizoid-asocial Avoidant Dependent-submissive Histrionic-gregarious Narcissistic Antisocial-aggressive Compulsive-conforming Passive-aggressive Schizotypal Borderline Paranoid Anxiety Somataform Hypomanic Dysthymic Alcohol abuse Drug abuse Psychotic thinking Psychotic depression Psychotic delusions Mean MCMI Scores Black White F 28.17 .16 6. 41.35 386 Correlations with Performance Injuries Performance Complaints .71 50. Jr.76 28.18* 41.96 17..54 41.12 .80) Dependent Variables: Injuries & Accidents ( r = .56 32. V.38 32.95 5.41 40.65 54.39 0.93* 50.74 58.85 (range 21-57) Mean = 10.15 . Vosburgh. Police personality and performance: A concurrent validity study.47* 22.26* 32.51* 65..77* 40.51* 40.87 22.74 42.44 17.64 26. Essential Finding: • Huge racial differences in MCMI scores. (1987).

3% were white Independent Variables Education CPI Dependent Variables: Probationary (FT0) Performance Academy Performance (16-week academy) Notes: • Dissertation only included significant correlations • Dissertation reported results broken down by white men. Ward.40* . Jr.39* . The predictive validity of personality and demographic variables in the selection of law enforcement officers. and minority men.35* .29* . J. 17. Gender: Race: 223 in two samples Eight different law enforcement training academies in Florida 82.5% were men.39* .33* . University of South Florida. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.22* .32* .22* . Essential Findings: • • Significant relationship between education and academy performance and field training performance Significant relationship between CPI scores and performance Subjects: N Dept.41* 387 .20* . women.64* .28 . University of South Florida __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Ward.29* .28* .5% were women 62.35* . Findings: Education CPI Sociability Intellectual efficiency Self-acceptance Capacity for status Social presence Dominance Academy A White Minority Men Men Women N=100 N=45 N=39 .__________________________________________________________________ The Predictive Validity of Personality and Demographic Variables in the Selection of Law Enforcement Officers John C. C.26* .22* .39* .26* . (1981).25* .30* Academy B White Men N=39 .40* .36* .

20* .18* .30* .18* .25* Probationary A Minority Men Women N=45 N=39 .40* .Ward .32* .26* .17* .29* .25* .30* Probationary B White Men N=39 .page 2 Education Academy Grades CPI Sociability Intellectual efficiency Self-acceptance Sense of well-being Responsibility Capacity for status Social presence Dominance Communality White Men N=100 .26* .41* 388 .

12 . Police officer recruit selection: Predictors of academy performance.04 . Standard progressive matrices 8.19* .07 . DAT numerical ability 11.04 .37* 389 . (1996).07 . Cognitive ability composite 5.14 .11 .16* . WAIS-R digit span 7.21* . L..31* .30* .06 .03 .09 .51* ..05 .42* . WAIS-R digit symbol 6.53* .12 .29* .13 .01 . Australia police academy 68% were men.48* .06 . Academy grades 2.07 .09 .38* .11 . DAT mechanical reasoning 9.10 .53* .__________________________________________________________________ Police Officer Recruit Selection: Predictors of Academy Performance Linda Waugh Queensland Police Academy __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Waugh.41* .05 .. Panel interview 3. Queensland.07 ...27* . Education 4. Australia: Queensland Police Academy Essential Findings: • • Both education and cognitive ability predicted academy performance Neither the scores from a 3-person panel interview nor the scores from the 16-PF predicted academy grades Subjects: N Gender: Age 437 recruits attending the Queensland.25* . 32% were women Mean age was 26 for men and 24 for women Independent Variables Education Cognitive ability 3-person panel interview Dependent Variables: Academy grades (26-week academy) Findings Variable 1. DAT special relations 10.30* .21* ..24* .31* .21* ..28* .01 .50* .14 ..03 . Watson-Glaser (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) .41* .

__________________________________________________________________ The Influence of Personality Dimensions and Physical Abilities on a Pistol Shooting Task Esther Mae Weekes University of Houston __________________________________________________________________ Citation Weekes. Sex Race Age Education: 70 cadets Houston Police Department 87.0%.35 no college degree = 47. SD = 3. The influence of personality dimensions and physical abilities on a pistol shooting task.1% (61) were men and 12. Hispanic = 25.1%.3%. (1994). Unpublished doctoral dissertation.7%.9% (9) were women White=30. E. M. Essential Findings: • Personality was not related to shooting performance • Physical strength was related to shooting performance Subjects: N Dept. college degree = 52.9% Independent Variables Personality Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Physical ability Dependent Variables: Pistol shooting performance Findings 390 . Range = 21 .2.0. University of Houston. African American = 34. Asian = 10.0% M = 27.

Weekes (1994) continued Personality Anxiety Trait anxiety (Spielberger) Social evaluation (EMAS) Physical danger (EMAS) Ambiguous situations (EMAS) Daily routines (EMAS) State anxiety (Spielberger) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Psychoticism Neuroticism Extroversion Lie Scale Goal Perspective Ego orientation Task orientation Gender (male=1.1 2..9 4.05 .0 34.3 6.07 1..9 24.03 ..9 0.33 .55 391 .. female=2) Mean Correlation with Pistol Shooting Score 30.8 45.6 .4 24.7 9.14 .2 36.5 ..

18 .3 11.9 189.3 176.7 114.8 .0 69.0 146.6 24.0 75..34* 392 .11 .9 ..31* .18 .Weekes (1994) continued Mean Physical Age Height in inches Weight BMI (wt/ht2) Tricep skinfold Percent body fat Fat weight (lbs) Fat-free weight (lbs) VO2max (ml/kg/min) Shoulder lift Arm lift Shoulder + arm lift Physiological Heart rate (pre) Heart rate (post) ∆ Heart rate Correlation with Pistol Shooting Score 27.4 16.5 46.51* 82.4 30.9 94.

11) Findings: ____________________________________________________________________ < A. The Police Chief. ______ A.A. 34-36. ____ B. (1978).9 1. • Data in table were used to compute a chi-square (4.6 5. 45(8).21) which was then converted to an r (r = -.A.2% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Patrol Performance Academy Performance Notes • Data were given only for involuntary turnover.11) • Criminal justice majors performed equally to other majors Subjects: N Dept. Associate’s=17. Education: 357 Michigan State Police Academy High school or some college=54. C. Essential Findings: • Education was positively related to academy GPA • Troopers with a B.1%.A. and both of these performed better than those without a degree • Education was negatively related to involuntary turnover (r = -. performed equally to those with an A. Bachelor’s=28. Weirman Michigan State Police Training Academy __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Weirman.__________________________________________________________________ Variances of Ability Measurement Scores Obtained by College and Non-college Educated Troopers Charles L. L.A.A.7%%. All other results were verbal summaries of findings.9 N ____________________________________________________________________ 393 . _____ 191 64 102 # involuntary dismissals 17 1 6 dismissal percent 8. Variances of ability measurement scores obtained by college and non-college educated troopers.

D.__________________________________________________________________ The Psychopathic Deviate Scale of the MMPI in Police Selection William U.18 . Essential Findings: • Psychopathic Deviate .22* ... 10(4).04 Pd2 – Authority Problems .06 Psychopathic Deviate – Obvious .74* . 14...15 .34* .09 . The psychopathic deviate scale of the MMPI in police selection.00 . U.3% were women Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Job Satisfaction Self-rated performance Findings (correlations): Job Satisfaction Self-rated Performance Job Satisfaction PD PD-O PD-S . Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.16 Psychopathic Deviate – Subtle .. Indiana Police Department (150 officers) 85. K. Weiss.42* .07 . Kevin Buehler. Buehler.7% were men.60* . (1996). W.Subtle scale of the MMPI was significantly related to job satisfaction Subjects: N Dept Gender 77 Evansville. & David Yates University of Evansville __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Weiss.39* MMPI Psychopathic Deviate .22 394 . 57-60. & Yates.

Cary Rostow.18 Passed overall evaluation (1=no.347 . The MMPI-2 L scale as a tool in police selection.15 Department requested officer to resign or be terminated for cause 938 . 57-60. (2003). W.__________________________________________________________________ The MMPI-2 L Scale as a Tool in Police Selection William U...12 Still employed 938 .347 A variety of police departments in Louisiana Independent Variables MMPI-2 Dependent Variables: Tenure Performance problems Findings Performance measure N Correlation with L scale Knowledge mistakes 938 ... Rostow.. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.12 Failed to complete requirements for conditional hire 938 . __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Weiss. Essential Findings: • Lower scores on the L scale of the MMPI-2 were associated with being terminated for cause Subjects: N Dept 1.09 Terminated for cause 938 . R. & Sarah Kinsman University of Evansville & Matrix. Weiss. C. Inc. & Kinsman. U. 18(1).. S..17 Disciplined for insubordination 938 . 2 =yes) Note: All correlations listed are statistically significant 395 . Robert Davis.10 1... Davis.

4 60. Davis. Corpus Christi. C.7 44..7 42.01 .00 .1 48. __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Weiss.2 44. R.__________________________________________________________________ The Personality Assessment Inventory as a Selection Device for Law Enforcement Personnel William U. Decoster. W. 1=yes) Findings PAI Scale Inconsistency Infrequency Negative impression Positive impression Somatic Conversion Somatization Health concerns Anxiety Cognitive Affective Physiological Anxiety related disorders Obsessive-compulsive Phobia Traumatic stress Depression Cognitive Affective Physiological Mean 45. Essential Findings: • A few of the PAI scales had low. but statistically significant correlations with being terminated for cause Subjects: N Dept 746 A variety of police departments in Louisiana Independent Variables Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Dependent Variables Terminated for cause (0=no.9 44. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Police and Criminal Psychology. Robert Davis.2 50. The Personality Assessment Inventory as a selection device for law enforcement personnel.2 42.. & Rostow.4 44..02 . Inc. E.05 .05 .10* ..02 .02 .03 .07 .0 43.06 .4 42.02 . Texas.6 45.01 .01 .. October).6 Correlation ..7 42.03 .4 45. & Cary Rostow University of Evansville & Matrix.7 44. U.5 41.07 .. Emily Decoster.0 43.02 .5 41..02 396 . Weiss.01 . (2003.3 43.03 .

02 .05 .02 .01 .5 47.3 44.02 .08* .8 57.1 42.04 .5 45.2 44.00 397 .4 47.2 50.0 47.4 43..3 45.1 47.4 56.4 47.01 .01 .07 .02 .07 .07 .01 .7 43.8 46.02 .3 47.01 .3 44.01 .06 .9 45.10* .05 .3 47.02 .8 49.02 .3 43.04 .08* .01 .8 44.1 42.Weiss et al (2003) continued PAI Scale Mania Activity level Grandiosity Irritability Paranoia Hypervigilance Persecution Resentment Schizophrenia Psychotic experiences Social detachment Thought disorder Borderline Affective instability Identify problems Negative relationships Self-harm Antisocial Antisocial behaviors Egocentricity Stimulus seeking Alcohol problems Drug problems Aggression Aggressive attitude Verbal aggression Physical aggression Suicidal ideation Stress Nonsupport Treatment rejection Dominance Warmth Mean 49.0 41.03 .9 45..07 .9 45.5 44.05 .4 57..1 Correlation .01 .7 44.09* .04 .1 56.11* .2 42.

1=yes) Findings Paranoia Scale Pa Pa (obvious) Pa (subtle) Performance rating Correlations with Performance Performance Rating Terminated? . Serafino.52* 398 . NM __________________________________________________________________ Citation Weiss. & Steve Knoll University of Evansville and Private Practice.... Wilson. W. the article found that applicants who scored higher on the Pa obvious scale of the MMPI-2 had lower performance ratings during their first year on the job than did applicants who scored lower on the Pa obvious scale.__________________________________________________________________ Use of the MMPI-2 to Predict the Employment Continuation and Performance Ratings of Recently Hired Police Officers William Weiss.. Ann Serafino. Subjects N Sex Age 32 police officers in New Mexico after one year on the job 94% (30) were men. 40-44. Walt Wilson. W. Roswell. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. & Knoll.26 .32 . Use of the MMPI-2 to predict the employment continuation and performance ratings of recently hired police officers.7 Independent Variables MMPI-2 Dependent Variables Performance rating (5-point scale) Fired (0=no. A. Serafino.35* . (1998). 6% (2) were women M = 27. G.... Gerald Serafino.04 . 13(1)..21 . Essential Finding On the basis of a small sample size. U. S.49* .

Walt Wilson. Essential Finding On the basis of a small sample size.40 399 . Ann Serafino.__________________________________________________________________ Use of the MMPI-2 and the Inwald Personality Inventory to identify the Personality Characteristics of Dropouts from a State Police Academy William Weiss. Gerald Serafino.44 . Subjects N 24 cadets attending the New Mexico Police Academy (15 completed. Roswell. W. (1999). and had a previous history of absence abuse. G. Use of the MMPI-2 and the Inwald Personality Inventory to identify personality characteristics of dropouts from a state police academy. Serafino. the article found that cadets who dropped out of the academy were more sensitive (higher MF score).54 . 14(1). Serafino.. U.. A. 9 dropped out) Independent Variables MMPI-2 Inwald Personality Inventory Dependent Variables Academy completion Findings Correlation with Academy Completion MMPI Scales Mf IPI Scales Loner type (Lo) Absence abuse (AA) . Sarsany. Jason Sarsany. & Felton.. W.. J.. & John Felton University of Evansville and Private Practice... Wilson. NM __________________________________________________________________ Citation Weiss. 38-42. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. were loners. J..

53-56..44* .23 Desire to stay in policing Years service . Occupational satisfaction and competence of police officers as predicted by the Kuder Interest Inventory..26* Interests Police . D. Kevin Buehler University of Evansville __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Weiss.. Weiss.15 Elementary education .17 . & Buehler. 95% had nursing.02 ..39* Self-rated performance Desire to stay in policing ____________ . W..19 .08 .. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology... David Yates.14 . (1996).21 .. Indiana Police Department (150 officers) Independent Variables Kuder Occupational Interest Inventory Dependent Variables: Job Satisfaction Self-rated performance Desire to stay in policing Findings: _________________________________________________________________________ Job satisfaction _________ Job satisfaction Self-rated performance ___________ .. & 92% had elementary school teacher in their top 10 Subjects: N Dept 77 Evansville. K. Essential Findings: • Vocational interest not significantly related to satisfaction or self-reported performance • 81% of officers had policing in their top ten interests.03 Nursing .__________________________________________________________________ Occupational Satisfaction and Competence of Police Officers as Predicted by the Kuder Interest Inventory William U. 10(4).44* . U... Yates.06 _________________________________________________________________________ 400 .08 .

14 __________________________________________________________________ 401 .67. R.__________________________________________________________________ Accident Proneness in Police Officers: Personality Factors and Problem Drinking as Predictors of Injury Claims of State Troopers Robert J.83) Findings: __________________________________________________________________ Variable ____________________________ Education Rank Personality G: General Activity DA: Deviation for Ascendance DSA: Deviation for Social Activity Correlation with accident claims _________________________ .81) Problem Drinking (Mortimer-Filkens Questionnaire) Reliability (internal = .. University of Connecticut. internal = . J.. Subjects: N Gender 144 state troopers in New England 100% were men Independent Variables Dependent Variables: Education Number of accident claims Personality (Guilford-Zimmerman) Reliability (TR= . (1982).15 .06 .14 Problem Drinking (MFQ) . Wellman University of Connecticut __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Wellman.09 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.14 . Essential Finding: • No significant correlations between personality and accident claims. Accident proneness in police officers: Personality factors and problem drinking as predictors of injury claims of state troopers.

1 23. K.09 .17 ..4 25.11 .3 5.1 3.3 2.10 .1 22. (1991).7 23.09 . 3.8 21.9 26.7 3.4%.5 1.6 26.4 2.19 .00 .1 1.6 19. Essential Findings • Tolerance scale of CPI best distinguished problem from non-problem officers Subjects: N Gender Race Age Education 102 officers in 7 municipal police departments 93. V.1% were White.15 .0 4.6 2. 6. Range = 23 to 51 HS/GED=52.9 3.6 35. The MMPI and CPI as predictors of police performance.08 . Unpublished doctoral dissertation.5 .04 .37 .9%..05 ..5 40.00 32.9 3.8 32.9 40.3 22.7%.07 .03 402 . Bachelor’s=28.9 .4 32.16 ..22 .9 26.7 2.5 2.3 3.7 21.07 .2 6.00 .00 .__________________________________________________________________ The MMPI and CPI as Predictors of Police Performance Valynda K.5 2.9% were women 96.1% were men. AAS=12.5 32.0 1. Saint Louis University.6 34.7 3. Master’s=4.0 2.5 4.4 22.5 2. Wells Saint Louis University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Wells. Other =1% Independent Variables MMPI CPI Dependent Variables: Discipline problems Findings Personality Dimension MMPI Scale Hs Pd Pt Ma CPI Scale Ac Re Sc Cs Wb GI To Cm No Problems N = 51 Mean SD Problem Officers N = 51 Mean SD d score Correlation 11.2 11.08 .2 4.00 .3 2.5 23.9%.6 19.9% were African American M = 32.5 2.18 .00 .

02 .44 52.06 ..12 .16 .23 Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables Patrol Performance Academy Grades (24-week academy) Findings MMPI Mean N MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si 55..08 .15 403 Reprimands 101 .09 .86 56.13 .09 .81 54.08 .03 .. (1988)..07 .04 ...03 .03 .9 (range 19 to 43) M = 86.01 .__________________________________________________________________ The Validity of the MMPI in the Selection of Police Officers Sandra Dean West University of North Texas __________________________________________________________________ Citation West.21 48..78 50.19* ..04 . Essential Finding • L..09 . University of North Texas.21* . SD = 4. Ma.05 ....22* .01 ...02 .64 53. The validity of the MMPI in the selection of police officers.14 ..57 63.11 . F.....20* .79 Academy 206 .08 .19 .10 . Unpublished master's thesis.16* Performance Measure Supervisor Ratings Commendations 109 99 .04 ..10 .46 50.03 .03 .12 .. & Si scales of the MMPI were negatively related to academy performance • K and Hy scales of the MMPI were positively related to supervisor ratings of on-the-job performance • Pd and Pt scales of the MMPI were negatively related to commendations received • No scales were significantly related to reprimands received Subjects N Department Age Academy 206 Large police department in the southwest M = 25.14 .01 .04 ...10 .01 .00 .92 55. D..08 ...13 ..21* .11 .20* .12 .12 .09 ..02 . S.88 45.21 58.19.16* ..38 52.

2 7.8% were White.5% passed Independent Variables Sex Race Dependent Variables MMPI-2 scores Findings Race/Sex White Male Female African American Male Female Hispanic/Latino Male Female Psychological Fitness Failed Passed Total Sample N MMPI-2 Scale Pd Ma Mean SD Mean SD 26 22 58.9 56. (1996). Los Angeles __________________________________________________________________ _ Citation Wexler. Gender and ethnicity as predictors of psychological qualification for police officer candidates.5 55.1 6. California School of Professional Psychology.5% were women 35.8 52.3 8.1 55.9 54.4 56. 32.1% were African American M = 27.8 22 21 58.7 21 22 58.3. Range = 20-49 48.4 55. Los Angeles.3 8.7 65 69 134 56.7 8. Essential Finding • Study looked at race and sex differences in scores on the Pd and Ma scales of the MMPI-2 • Pd scores were elevated for the sample and men scored higher on the Pd scale than women Subjects N Sex Race Age Suitability 134 applicants to the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) 51.6 . K.3 8.5% did not pass the psychological screen.9 6. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 51.1% were Hispanic.4 404 8.1 57. A.__________________________________________________________________ _ Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Psychological Qualification for Police Officer Candidates Ann Kathryn Wexler California School of Professional Psychology. SD = 5. and 32.3. 48.5% were men.

34* .00 .46* .85* .12 Education .52* .80 . Sex Race 203 academy cadets and 89 patrol officers Multiple departments in New Jersey 94% were men. 6% were Hispanic Independent Variables Education Cognitive ability Dependent Variables: Academy performance (20-week academy) On-the-job performance Findings Academy Performance Sample Size (N) Predictors Old civil service exam New civil service exam Education Physical fitness test Sex (1=male.24* . Sullivan New Jersey Department of Civil Service __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Wexler.42* .26 .85* .21* . N.17 .21* . 10.6% were White.12 .22* .08 .42* .06 .39 .18 .39* α = .00 .08 Final Exam Final % 203 . 6% were women 83.34* Patrol Performance .19 405 .26* .19* α = .34* .__________________________________________________________________ _ Concurrent Validation of a Prototype Selection Test for Entry-Level Police Officer Norman Wexler & Sharon M.17 . Division of Examinations. S. M. & Sullivan.10 .32* .37* .37* .26* .22* .00 .52* .08 ..18 .35* .04 .33* .07 . 2=female) Criteria Academy final exam Overall academy percent Job Knowledge Test Global job performance rating Predictors Global Performance Rating 89 Cognitive Ability (new test) 203 Job Knowledge Test 285 .4% were African American. Concurrent validation of a prototype selection test for entry-level police officer.08 . Trenton. Essential Findings: • Cognitive ability significantly related to academy and on-the-job performance • Education significantly related to academy performance and test of job knowledge Subjects: N Dept. NJ: New Jersey Department of Civil Service. (1982)...02 ..

60 . 13. 1 year college=18.31 .41 .26 .5%.41 .26 .48 Licensing Exam N=359 _________ 77 .3%.45 . (1990).__________________________________________________________________ The Nelson-Denny Reading Test as a Predictor of Academic Performance of Police Recruits and the Impact of Nine Related Variables on Recruit Academic Performance Warren M.46 Final Overall Class Exam Average N=457 N=456 _____ ___________ 81 81 . The Union Institute. 5 years=1. 4 years=9.36 . 3 years=7. W. M. Essential Finding: • Reading ability was significantly related to academy grades and scores on the state licensing examination Subjects: N Sex Education Academy Length Academy mean score 569 cadets attending the University of Houston Downtown Regional Law Enforcement Academy in 1986 and 1987 86.40 .2% were men.14 .58 .2%. 2 years=14.9%.8% were women HS/GED=48. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Whitton The Union Institute __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Whitton. The Nelson-Denny Reading Test as a predictor of academic performance of police recruits and the impact of nine related variables on recruit academic performance.50 406 .3%.7% 400 hours (10 weeks) 81 Independent Variables Reading Ability (Nelson-Denny) Dependent Variables: Academy grades State licensing exam Findings Mean Nelson-Denny Scores Vocabulary Comprehension Total Score Dependent Variables Mid-term Exam Final Exam Overall class average Mid-term Exam N=503 ________ 79 .33 .

A. & Connelly... 2=married) College (0=no.6% were men.5%.. Purintun.. 1=yes) In debt (0=no. some college=53. 1=yes) Disciplined in school (0=no. Factors associated with successful completion of the Oklahoma Highway Patrol Academy. 29 drop outs) 96. Oklahoma City.07 .18 407 . & Michael Connelly Oklahoma Criminal Justice Resource Center __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Wiens. 1=yes) Military experience (o=no. 3.4% were women HS/GED=46. M. Curtis Purintun. C.07 . (1997). 1=yes) Disciplined in job (0=no. 1=yes) . OK: Oklahoma Criminal Justice Resource Center.5% 18 weeks Independent Variables Education Demographics Dependent Variables: Academy graduation Findings Demographic Variable Correlation with Academy Completion Marital status (1=single.00 .09 .__________________________________________________________________ _ Factors Associated with Successful Completion of the Oklahoma Highway Patrol Academy Adam Wiens.06 . Essential Finding: • Reading ability was significantly related to academy grades and scores on the state licensing examination Subjects: N Sex Education Academy Length 58 cadets in two police academies (29 graduates.

Boston University.59.04 70 11.2%.05 48 12.04 53 19.88 56 23.38 48 408 R2 Change in Regression Model # of Accidental Injuries Mean Days Lost .3% None=14.010 .5% Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables: Number of accidental injuries Findings MMPI Scale L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si First Factor – Anxiety Second Factor – Denial Ego strength (Es) Low back pain (Lb) Caudality (Ca) Dependency (Dy) Dominance (Do) Social responsibility (re) Mean MMPI Scores Raw Mean Approximate T Score 5.3%. A.42 51 8.53 52 24.024* . (1980).87 < HS=6.81 44 14.024* .7% M = 27.016 .42 49 18.77 54 18.07 42.15 59 19.52 50 11.26 53 2.60 53 20. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Essential Finding • A few MMPI scales were related to the number of accidental injuries received and the mean number of days lost from work Subjects: N Sex Race Age Education Military 338 100% were men White = 92.049* .73 53 19.02 52 23.044* . Bachelor’s=3. African American = 7. HS diploma=67.__________________________________________________________________ Reported Accidental Injuries in a Metropolitan Police Department Amani Wilson Boston University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Wilson.1%. SD=3.62 54 16. some college=23.2%.35 61 21.10 55 18.79 47 14. Reported accidental injuries in a metropolitan police department.01626* .

76 18.51 16.90 11.18 24.90 50 51 50 .42 49.1596* 409 .16 18.01 42.00851 .48 22.Prejudice (Pr) Social status (St) Control (Cn) Worried bread winner Over-controlled hostility Alcoholism Repression-sensitization Social desirability Social desirability .revised Length of Service 11.

Golden Gate University. Gender: Race Education Age Years of service 500 Large police department (over 6..17* . Asian=5%.5 (range 5-15) Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Citizen complaints Findings: (1) _____ (2) _____ (3) _____ (4) _____ (5) _____ (6) _____ (7) _____ Degree (0=no.08 . 18% were women White=70%.18* Race (1=white. African American=9%. Post-secondary education and the police officer: A study of its effect on the frequency of citizens' complaints.__________________________________________________________________ Post-Secondary Education of the Police Officer: A Study of Its Effect on the Frequency of Citizens' Complaints Hugh Taylor Wilson Golden Gate University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Wilson.03 .000 officers) in California 82% were men.06 ... unknown=17% M = 35. H. (1994)..02 . Hispanic=14%.07 . 1=yes) (1) College Units (2) Gender (3) (8) _____ ...00 . 2=nonwhite) (4) Age (5) Years employed (6) Allegations (7) Complaints (8) 410 .70* .09 .00 .25 (range 26-46) M = 9. Essential Finding: • Education was negatively correlated with citizen complaints Subjects: N Dept. Associate’s=13%. Other=2% HS=61%. Unpublished doctoral dissertation..12* .11* .09* ..05 .09 .11* .06 .02 . Bachelor’s=9%.16* .10* . T.

____________________________________________________ The Relationship Between a College Education and Police Performance Thomas E.76 . Florida M = 2..04 ..43 30.0% 2 years of college = 13.27 411 .12 39. SD = 1..67 11.91 2..18 71.24 38.43 11.40 7..33 Sick Days Used ____________________ M SD d _____ _____ _____ 45.3% Bachelor’s degree = 20.79 . The relationship between a college education and police performance.40 75. E.34 27.46 9. (1991). Essential Findings: • Amount of education was positively related to supervisor ratings of performance • Education was negatively related to sick days Subjects: N Dept.03 27.08 53. Wolff University of South Florida __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Wolff.0% 3 years of college = 9.12 . T. Unpublished master’s thesis.15 .14 28.0 HS diploma = 44.159 . University of South Florida.11 10.54 .29 43.97 . Experience Education: 161 police officers with between 1 and 4 years of experience Tampa.47 67.19 .1% 1 year of college = 13.42 40.79 .19 years.5 Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables: Supervisor performance ratings after 1-4 years Number of sick days Findings: High School Diploma 1 year of college 2 years of college 3 years of college Bachelor’s degree Total Sample F ratio Correlation N ____ 71 21 21 15 33 161 Performance Ratings ____________________ M SD d _____ _____ _____ 70.32 72.095 .10 10.29 2.12 76.08 71.68 .

1=yes) Days suspended Sick days Assaults against Duty related injuries .03 -.4% Native American M=37.29* .25* -. the above interpretation of the data is different from that found in the original thesis. 2.04 n=232 * r is significant at the . (1989). it was discovered that the original analysis in the dissertation had incorrectly coded zeros as missing data. and assaults against Findings Education Performance Ratings Commendations Disciplinary Actions Ever suspended (0=no. injuries. S. J. 12. MS) Number of commendations Disciplinary actions Absences.A. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. A. R.22* . University of Kansas.03 -.09 . MA) Dependent Variables: Supervisor ratings of performance (US.=44. 412 . MO 88% were men. range = 21-58 no degree=143. AA.=8 Independent Variables Education Degree (none. Gender: Race: Age: Education: 232 police officers Kansas City.6% Hispanic. Higher education and police performance.05 level or better Note: The data in the tables provided in the dissertation did not contain statistical tests so the data were entered into the computer and reanalyzed to yield correlation coefficients. During that process. Wolfskill University of Kansas __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Wolfskill.__________________________________________________________________ Higher Education and Police Performance Jerry R. 12% were women 84.=35.A.98. BA. . Essential Findings: • Amount of education was positively related to supervisor ratings of performance • Degree status (no/yes) was negatively related to disciplinary actions and sick days Subjects: N Dept.1% White. B. Thus.5% Black. M.S.A..10 -.

12) Subjects N Department Gender Race Education 376 police officers Various departments in Texas 95% were men. 5% were women 78. (1991).1% White. A..2% African American. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. 7. D. 2=female) ____________________________________________________ Note: Chi-squares from dissertation were converted to r's 413 .2%.03 Amount of law enforcement training Certification level (basic.1% Independent Variables Education Dependent Variables Licensure revocation Findings _____________________________________________________ License Revocation _________ Education . 14. Woods Sam Houston State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Woods. Bachelor’s = 14.13* Tenure .12* -. some college = 36. An analysis of peace officer licensing revocations in Texas. intermediate.__________________________________________________________________ _ An Analysis of Peace Officer Licensing Revocations in Texas David A. advanced) .7% Hispanic HS or GED = 49. Essential Findings • Amount of education was not related to licensing revocations (r=-.05 .00 Gender (1=male. Sam Houston State University.7%.03) • Amount of law enforcement training was negatively related to licensing revocations (r=-.

55 49.09 .15 . & Pallone. 29(3/4).29 44. (1999).01 . J.03 .19 .08 .01 .. Pallone Treatment Trends..34 . Inc.62 52.70 44.09 ..48 47.08 41.40 39 38 42 35 24 21 34 36 35 32 62 62 62 60 66 59 55 54 57 52 Correlations with Performance Commendations Reprimands .. Previously unscored pre-service MMPI data in relation to police performance over a decade: A multivariate inquiry..26 . J.12 . Workowski & Nathaniel J. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation.59 0. 71-94.___________________________________________________ Previously Unscored Pre-Service MMPI Data in Relation to Police Performance over a Decade: A Multivariate Inquiry Eric J..10 .14 414 .41 48. E..24 .04 ..25 .29 .12 .37 52. N.96 1 0 16 10 49. & Rutgers University __________________________________________________________________ Citation Workowski.16 ..15 . Essential Findings • Investigated relationship between MMPI scores and commendations and reprimands received over a 10year period • Only two significant correlations between MMPI scores and commendation or reprimands • Small sample size may account for lack of statistical significance Subjects N Department Gender Age Education 27 police officers hired in 1984-85 Medium sized department in a Mid-Atlantic city 100% were men M = 27 at time of hire M = 14 years Independent Variables MMPI Dependent Variables Commendations and Formal written reprimands Findings Variable Criteria Commendations Reprimands MMPI Clinical Scales Hypochondriasis Depression Hysteria Psychopathic deviate Masculine-feminine Paranoia Psychasthenia Schizophrenia Mania Social introversion Descriptive Data Mean Min Max 8..09 ..11 42.

.17 .51 42.37 42.26 41..33 .09 .48 42.13 .05 .14 .15 ..29 .77 42.07 35 33 35 36 28 37 35 38 24 28 59 48 48 54 63 62 55 58 53 53 .08 .47* .00 .08 .07 41.33 .02 .09 .48 36. Chu Scales Social introversion Tension Resentment Autism Suspiciousness Descriptive Data Mean Min Max Correlations with Performance Commendations Reprimands 45.77 27 32 37 31 40 36 65 51 48 54 74 87 .13 .19 .29 38.02 .07 .17 .24 .09 .77 33 32 33 31 28 50 49 50 46 60 .01 .63 40. Stein..01 .05 .07 35.22 48.04 .37 39.Workowski & Pallone (1999) continued Variable Wiggins Content Scales Religious fundamentalism Phobias Poor morale Social maladjustment Authority conflicts Feminine interests Poor health Organic symptomatology Hypomania Manifest hostility Harris & Lingoes Scales Authority problems Social alienation Lack of ego mastery Ego inflation MacAndrew Alcoholism Overcontrolled hostility Tryon.44 54..08 ..45* .10 .04 ..33 .73 42.25 38..13 415 ..08 .06 .03 47..24 39.05 .66 61.01 .21 ..08 .67 38.85 38.02 .16 .

Wright.__________________________________________________________________ Psychological Evaluations as Predictors of Police Recruit Performance Benjamin Wright & J. 65-83. (1990).1%.65 SD . C. Gender: Race 135 officers in a 14-week field-training officer (FTO) program Tallahassee (FL) Police Department (300 employees) 59. (1988).34 4. Doerner.57 .73 . & Spier) Subjects N Dept.68 . J. CPI) Dependent Variables Patrol Performance (14-week FTO) Findings Correlations during final two weeks Knowledge Performance Appearance Attitude Relations with others Mean 4. Florida State University. S.69 . W. G. 40.65 .69 . Speier Florida State University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Wright. S.72 . Psychological evaluations as predictors of police recruit performance. Florida State University.68 416 Correlations Among Performance Dimensions Performance Appearance Attitude Relations .. C.7% were women White= 68.84 4. Speir.33 .9% Independent Variables Personality (MMPI.. B. J.11 4.3% were men.51 .49 . The journal article is a combination of the two studies.3% of African-American officers survived the probationary period compared to 87.66 .49 . African American=31. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.65 . Police performance and psychological testing: Application of the Megargee-Bohn MMPI-based classification system. 9(4). Note: The above two dissertations used the same data set. Doerner. B. Essential Findings • • • • Tolerance scale of the CPI was the best predictor of FTO performance (Wright) Megargee-Bohn classification system was not useful (Speir) Only 64. C. Speir.8% of White officers (Wright) Psychologist’s recommendation based on test scores significantly correlated with FTO performance (Wright.79 4.81 . Pre-employment psychological testing as a predictor of police performance during an FTO program. (1988). Unpublished doctoral dissertation. One looked at simple correlations and the other looked at the Megargee-Bohn classification system. American Journal of Police.

09 .00 .14 .00 .24 60..14 .01 .12 .14 ..12 ..01 ..31 62.02 .04 .06 417 ..02 ...19 .34 55.03 .90 55...41 ...04 43.99 53.. Doerner.11 .04 .04 ..17 . & Speir (1990) continued Mean CPI Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Ach via Conformity Ach via Independence Intellectual efficiency Psych Mindedness Flexibility Femininity Well-being Good impression Communality Model R Model R2 MMPI L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Model R Model R2 Psychologist’s recommendation Sex (1 = male.09 .79 52.85 ..33* .13 .64 43.33* .09 .17 .03 .01 ..05 .03 .32* .09 .31 .13 .12 ...14 .10 .19 .10 .06 .35 .06 ..39 .11 54.88 55.07 .17 .08 .99 58.75 48...13 .12 .02 .47 .03 .93 52.25 .10 .07 .01 ....27 57..32 ..30 ..03 .04 ..01 ..14 .20 .18 .23* .09 .14 55..30* ..42 .14 .19 .43 54..18 .46 .05 .65 57.07 .12 .09 .17 .72 53.03 .02 .11 ..17 ..07 ...33 59..09 .30 .09 .17 .13 ..67 58...00 .01 .05 .10 .09 ..26 ..21 ..15 .18 ...99 58.15 ..07 . 2= nonwhite) Probationary Performance During Weeks 1-4 (N = 129) Knowledge Performance Appearance Attitude Relationships 61.33* .03 .04 .05 .08 .03 ..17 .12 .16 ..10 .36 48..12 ...10 ..94 54.21 .09 .01 .11 ..15 .05 .08 . 2=female) Race (1=white.09 ...09 .15 ..01 .13 ..28* .07 .08 .24 ..07 .01 ..30* ..12 ..08 .02 ..05 .11 .04 .13 .72 48.13 .06 ..19 ..08 .48 59.14 .07 .02 .12 .02 ..10 ...01 .04 .09 .10 .07 .05 ..06 .42 .09 ..22 ..60 55..07 51.11 .03 .12 .04 .18 ..01 .10 .00 .02 .15 .09 ....09 .24 .88 51..10 .06 .02 .27 ..06 .11 .09 .16 .43 ..14 .02 ..29* .18 .27* ..08 .43 50.08 .20 ..34 .14 .06 .13 ..Wright.18 50.

29 .12 ...02 ..09 ..37* .60 55. & Speir (1990) continued Mean CPI Dominance Capacity for status Sociability Social presence Self-acceptance Responsibility Socialization Self-control Tolerance Ach via Conformity Ach via Independence Intellectual efficiency Psych Mindedness Flexibility Femininity Well-being Good impression Communality Model R Model R2 MMPI L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Model R Model R2 Psychologist’s Recommendation Sex (1 = male.23 .93 52.26 .08 .09 .05 .03 .20 ..24 60...06 .34* ..03 .90 55.31 .18 .17 .11 .03 ..99 58.02 .03 ...19 .48 59...08 .15 .29 .06 .13 . 2= nonwhite) Probationary Performance During Weeks 11-12 (N = 106) Knowledge Performance Appearance Attitude Relationships 61.07 ..01 .13 ..45 .43 ..65 57.13 .08 .06 .Wright.34 55.10 ...14 ..01 .14 .07 .02 .20 ...09 ...09 ..14 55..09 .35* ..31 .04 .11 .12 . Doerner.16 ..10 .11 .20 50.06 ...28 .08 ..27 .02 .17 .01 ..13 .38 ..31 .19 .32* ..43 50.01 .48 .01 .03 .31 ..03 .01 .05 .02 .31 .19 .06 .44 ..07 .35 .17 .32* . 2=female) Race (1=white.08 .04 .31 62.00 .04 43..19 .11 54.04 .99 58.26 418 .02 .03 .00 .28* .13 .02 .17 .14 .13 ..11 .05 .07 .05 ...08 .09 .04 .05 .67 58.12 .07 .13 .01 ..19 .07 .88 51.17 .01 ...32* .07 51..08 .02 .06 .29 .04 .30* .07 .07 .09 .64 43.23 ...00 ..27 57.07 .44 .11 .10 .03 .16 .01 .02 .85 .10 ..05 .11 .14 .19 .02 .00 .03 .88 55.11 ...33 59.02 .08 ..04 .01 .09 .10 .22 .07 .79 52.01 .06 .94 54..00 ..15 ...18 .31 .17 ..16 ..07 .75 48.05 ..08 .09 .12 .36 48..72 48.09 .....04 .04 .10 .19 .03 ..16 .06 .18 .06 .01 .01 .01 ..72 53..07 .10 .01 .34* .43 54..06 .04 .34* .36* .14 .01 ...99 53.05 .04 .05 .

8%.50 . M = 31.6% Mean = 11. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. and beliefs on professionalism within the Virginia State Police. Summary and Essential Findings: • Education was negatively related to awards and commendations • Troopers with a CJ degree (n =57. C.2 (range 2-41).83 Mean 1. HS=14. and Beliefs on Professionalism Within the Virginia State Police Charles W.05] Subjects: N Dept.8 years Mean = 37.10 419 Bachelor’s Degree SD . AA=13.47 .90b 2. Bachelor’s or master’s = 36. 92% were white. Job Performance.84 SD 1.69 F r 9. Gender/Race Education Length of employment Age 112 Virginia State Police 93% were men. [r = . associates=34. job performance. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.33.6%. Wymer Virginia Tech __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Wymer. SD=-6. W.39 Associate’s Degree Mean 1. the text description and the numbers in the tables are not congruent Findings High School Criterion Awards & citations Complaints (n=112) Mean 3. BA=6.29 SD . (1996). A comparison of the relationships between level of education.40b 2.1 years.__________________________________________________________________ A Comparison of the Relationships Between Level of Education.25).1% were African American HS/GED = 28.28) received comparable evaluations to their counterparts who did not major in criminal justice (n=21. there were only 31 subjects in the analysis below Many analyses are missing from the dissertation and in some parts.. 7.20a 2. M = 32.8 years.1 (range 24-64) Independent Variables Education Notes • • Dependent Variables: Patrol performance (awards & citations) Although the original N in the dissertation is given as 150. SD = 7.07.

81 31.47 49.37 55.18 56. Summary and Essential Findings: • Officers with less time spent at a post significantly differed from troopers with more time at a post on 8 scales (K.89 51.87 54.63 53.09 6.61 51.06 9.98 51.42 54. Mf.72 57. Hy.80 over 12 months ____________ 49. Pd.38 54.50 53. Zalen Central Michigan University __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Zalen. Pt.25 50.78 52.59 33.68 56.51 58.46 50.09 54. W. past high school 0-6 months _________ 47.00 51.27 53.83 52.__________________________________________________________________ MMPI Profile Comparisons of the Michigan State Police Compared for Length of Time-Spent at Command Posts Gerald W.81 51.00 6-12 months _________ 48.13 57. and Ma).25 55.05 51.81 50.00 50.90 54.36 55.48 53. Michigan State Police Independent Variables Time at current post Dependent Variables: MMPI Scores Findings: __________________________________________________________________________________ Months at Current Post ____________________________________________________________ MMPI Scale __________ L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Years seniority Age % Educ.31 59. D.72 53.54 57. (1967). Subjects: N Dept.48 51.81 28.88 53. 16 troopers with less than 6 months.68 50.12 56.11 53.72 27.68 53.36 58. Pa.30 420 Total (n=98) __________ 48.56 5. 22 with 6-12 months.31 50.70 .00 48.67 57. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. G.25 53.12 56.00 49. MMPI profile comparisons of the Michigan State Police compared for length of time-spent at command posts.42 55.50 29.58 51.58 50. and 60 with over 1 year experience. Central Michigan University.

Alabama Police Department White=79.27 Independent Variable MMPI MBTI Dependent Variable Probationary performance Findings Test/Scale MMPI L F K Hs D Hy Pd Mf Pa Pt Sc Ma Si Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Extraversion-Introversion Sensing-Intuition Thinking-Feeling Judgment-Perception Mean SD 52 49 61 50 51 54 59 54 50 53 54 58 44 80. A typology of police applicants based on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.22 92.11 81.25 22.__________________________________________________________________ A Typology of Police Applicants Based on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Mark Zelig University of Alabama __________________________________________________________________ Citation: Zelig.52 23. Essential Finding: ƒ Dissertation reported MMPI means and conducted a cluster analysis of MMPI scores Subjects: N Dept.3%.7% M = 24. M. African American=20. University of Alabama.18 17. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (1982).85 M = 13.71 20.41 73.27 421 . Race Age Education 536 police applicants Birmingham.

4 3.3 1.2 81.88 3.3 2.6 2.7 6.9 4.42 Total (n=181) M SD 87.4 80.4 2.2 2.3 80.6 3.0 3.1 81.4 80.5 81.5 2.8 4.9 5.5 81.4 2.7 2.3 2.4 82.3 2.1 6.9 2.0 79.5 79.1 79.7 6.8 422 3.9 81.8 2.6 81.4 81.6 5.5 80.6 80.0 3.4 6.2 80.6 2.56 79.5 81.0 80.4 2.7 4.3 80.2 79.2 81.1 3.9 6.2 82.0 79.9 2.5 2.2 80.9 80.0 2.0 2.1 80.4 2.3 82.2 4.Zelig (1982) continued Racial Differences in academy grades and probationary performance ratings Criterion Academy GPA Probationary Performance Work quality Work quantity Knowledge Initiative Judgment Reliability Punctuality Compliance with rules Disposition Diplomacy and tact Attitude toward supervision Cooperation with peers Personal habits Personal appearance Emotional stability Overall value to department White (n=156) M SD 88.3 79.2 4.6 81.8 78.2 81.1 1.1 3.0 78.7 81.4 80.5 .1 79.7 80.4 79.2 79.3 82.4 80.3 1.13 Black (n=25) M SD 83.9 2.3 80.55 3.0 3.3 1.3 6.8 80.3 81.89 3.7 2.1 2.9 79.2 81.9 2.9 78.9 3.