You are on page 1of 26

CHAPTER I

POLICY
1.1 Definition ofPolicy
Policyis a translationofthe word policy is derived from English. The
word policyis defined asaplan of actionor a statement ofobjectives,
roposedoradopted bya government orpolitical party. The wordpolicyis
etymologicallyderivedfrom the wordpolisin Greek(Greek), whichmeans
thecity-state. In Latinthis wordintoPolitia, meaningthe country. SignintoOld
English(MiddleEnglish), the wordbecomesPolicie, whose meaning isrelated to
theaffairs ofthe governmentor administrationcommands(Dunn, 1981:7).
Inharifahsciencepolicyisa

direct

translationofthe

wordsciencepolicy(Dror, 1968). In a general sensethis wordsodefined
asacourseof

actionintendedtoAccomplishsomeend(Jones,

1977)

orwhatevergovernmentchoosestodoor nottodo(Dye, 1975).
Etymologicallythe wordpolicytogether withtwoother importantwords,
the policeandpolitics.This is one reasonwhymanymodern languages, such as
German and Russian, has only oneword(politics, politics)for thetwo senses
ofpolicyandpolitics. Somegreat writersuse the termpublic policyandpublic
policyanalysisin the sensethatno different.
According

to

the

UnitedNations(1975)

Policy

isabasicpolicyguidelinesact, acertaincourse of action, a programofactivityspecific activityora plan. Sothere aresomepolicy definitionsaccording to
experts, are as follows:

1

a. "The

policyisa

complexdependencepatternofinterdependentcollectivechoices,

including

the decisionto actismade by thebodyorgovernmentagency," (William
Dunn, 2000).
b. "Policy isa set of conceptsproposed actionby agovernmentor agroup of
peopleorin

aparticular

opportunitiesof

the

environmentby

implementation

proposingconstraintsand

ofthe

proposalin

order

to

achievecertain goals, '' (Carl J.Friedrich, 1963).
c. “a policy is a statement by government at whatever level- of what it
intends to do about a public problem,”(Birkland, 2010)
d. “Policy as a projected program of goals, values and practices,”(Stewart,
Hedge & Lester, 2008).
e. "Policies are elements

or

expressions

of

the

programs

and

decisions,"(Charles O. Jones, 1996)
f. "The policy as a series of actions that have a specific purpose that is
followed and implemented by an actor or group of actors in order to solve
a particular problem" (James E. Anderson, 1979).
g. "Policy is what is chosen by the government to do or not do" (Thomas R.
Dye, 1976).
h. "The policyasto what is statedanddone or not doneby the government. The
policycan

be

Determination

eitherthe
ofthe

targetorgoalofgovernment

policycan

be

clearlymanifested

programs.
inlaws

andregulationsorin the speeches ofsenior government officialsas well as
theprogramsandactions ofthe government",(George C.EdwardsIII, 1980).
Based on the opinionsof variousexpertsmentioned above, itcan be
concludedthat thepoliciesare actionsoractivities thatintentionallydone or not
doneby a person, agroupor agovernmentin which there areelements ofthe

2

it turns outin the policythese two wordscan be interpreted asthe samething. 1. both inthe publicand privatesphere.The purposeofthepolicyistointegratethe knowledgeintoaholisticdiscipline(overarching) to analyze thepublic optionand thedecision-makingandkarenannyahehad a role inthe democratization of society(Parsons. security. 2001). social. The settingis donein order to createastabilityinvarious fieldsandto realizethe state oforder. while the function ofthe objectisassociated with the object.harmony. 3 . The roleandfunctionsof differenttrue. and more. but also prevent problems. such as health. 1.2 RoleandFunctionPolicy Policiescan be brieflydefined as arulein the form ofa writtenandanofficial decisionof an organization. economic.3 Principles ofPolicy Policy-making it not only functions to solve problems that are. A variety ofthese rulesgovern every aspect ofhuman life. environmental. so we have to notice some principles of the policy itself. transportation. whichrelates tothe role ofthe human subject. and the existence ofgood relationsbetween peopleconcernedin it. This was for the policy that we made it can be beneficial and in accordance with the needs the organization. The roleandmain functionsof the policyis toregulate allaspects ofhuman lifein theprocessinvarious fields.decisionin the form ofelectioneffortsamong the various alternativesavailableto achievethe aims andobjectivesparticular. education. both public andprivate.

supported by the fundamental policy that would be ascertained again it complies with basic values. Some policy principles according to Freegard in his book Ethical Practice for Health Professionals (2006). 2. but it's in this principle also had to be flexible. Policy is flexible On the principle above explained that the policy is consistent. That policy is made with firm and clear. Policy is based on explicit ethical values. 3. Policy is made with the words that are easily understandable and didn't cause appearance ambiguous or different perceptions for every its executive. Consistent policy Policy Guidelines must be clear that all the members the chief executive of the policy have similar perception about this policy that can be done properly. Policy can be made to prevent a conflict. which is: 1. Help to solve conflicts Policy that must be used as a reference in solving a conflict that may arise. Consistency seen in its application in the region and carried out by all the policy itself. 4. Policy should be able to give a concession or exception in a certain conditions. so that the policy is expected to act wisely. Consistent policy also means that policy applied in all areas and remained. Not all of the policies made at the time problems or conflicts arise. with that can be justified. but it is hoped that policy will be complete assignments conflict if the conflict arise. 4 .The principle in policy function as our standard or in the formulation of guidelines that can be more effective.

Policiesare especiallyproblemsthat . but it's renewed so that the policy can become more accurately or according to the organization at once. Policy is a dynamic Policy could change in accordance with the current internal and external from that organization. Policy was supported by education Education is needed when making policy beginning.5. then a policy has a certain restrictions. namely: 1. They then tried to break policy by applying and perceives that policy with evil. It is often a policy to fail because of its executive who did not agree with the policy. so that policy can be developed continuously according to the needs the organization. so that the contents of the policy made can be understood or's explanation by all people or executing the policy. 6. 7. Policy with limited time In accordance with the characteristic's dynamic. 1. Some people who interpret and apply policy itself Sound policy will not be able to walk better if the executive cannot or do not want to run it.4 Elements-elements ofpolicy Policiesgenerally have afive main elements. the executive this policy is very influence success of the policy itself. So. This does not mean that policy was eliminated because it was considered not useful. 8. Problempublic(PublicIssue) Is acentral issueto alwaysformulated besolved tosolveorprevent 5 byapolicy. problems.

arepublic issues. Therefore it is necessarythatintenseparticipation andcommunicationwhenformulatingpolicy. thenormative In approach. 5. implementation ormanagerial approach. which is widely usedapproachis predictiveorempirical. outcomesand impact . The problemis referred to asa public issuewhenthe issueof concernthe public andaffect the livelihood ofthe community at large. CyclePolicy Actualpolicy-setting process isacyclicalprocessand thenatureof the continuum. at eachapplication of the policyshould be observedeffects that. the phasemanystructuralapproach(organizational) valuatif. While theevaluation phaseusesthe same approachto theformulationstage. and also aims to createa newor thenew normin the organization. 2. whichconsists of threephases: (1) Policy Formulation (2) Policy Implementation (3) Policy Review The thirdstagein the cycleorprocessare interdependent. 4. The selection ofthe approach usedwill determinethe level ofeffectivenessand success ofapolicy. 3. At theformulationstage. thatall interconnectedand threeso-calledPolicy Analysis. complexandnot linear. Consequences ofPolicy. Whatever the 6 . In monitoringthe results ofthe policywehave to distinguishtwotypes ofresult. Approaches toPolicy At eachstage ofthe policy cycleshould be accompanied bythe application ofthe approach as appropriate. Oftenthe valuethat is inthe publicormembers ofdifferentorganizationswithvalues that are inthe government. PolicyValue Each policyalways containsa certain value.

said the analysis used in the most general sense. but also to plan and look for the synthesis of various new alternative. onepolicyto Another consequenceisalso noteworthyisthe emergence of resistance(rejection) andnegative behavior. Dunn.formandcontent ofpoliciesin generalwill impactorconsequencesarise. to produce a design option on public policy (Williams.mayalsovary consequenceswillvary byplace and from timedimensions. 1989). and includes not only policy testing by breaking into its various components. Analysis of the policy is the process of downloading activities information synthesis.The word implies the use of intuition and judgment. Public policy is the government's decisions or actions that affect or lead to the actions of individuals in the community. (William N. 1. From the definition above would be the basic characteristics can be formulated policy analysis. First. 1971. research results. policy analysis is a 7 .In another requires extensive data that can be calculated by a complex mathematical process. Some analysis is informal form of thinking that is not only tough and thorough.These include a variety of activities from research to explain or provide insight to the problem or issue that precedes or to evaluate programs that are already completed. 2000) In policy analysis.The level ofintensity ofthe another.5 Definition of Policy Analysis Policy analysis is an applied social science discipline which uses various methods of research and argument to produce and move the policyrelevant information that can be utilized at the political level in order to solve policy problems. Weiner and Vining.

policy analysis output option is on design decisions or public policy. The main activity is the collection of information policy analysis in a systematic and logical inferences from that information. Fifth. This means that policy analysis is further processing of the results of research that is ready for use in decision making and the design of public policy. Third. This is an implication of the nature of policy analysis that produces ready-to advice decision for a specific client. Fourth. policy analysis is one form of dissemination of research results. Second. policy analysis client is a public policy decision makers (government and parliament) and interest groups (interest groups) at the discretion of the government. policy analysis based on scientific principles. including research. policy analysis should be presented in a clear. Policy analysis is only done when there is a request or "reasonably suspected" of his clients are really needed. complete and thorough. concise. Without a client-oriented policy analysis would not likely be ready for. 8 . one of the main sources of information is a matter of policy analysis of research results. This means that the object of the analysis is the process of policy formulation and policy package.process or activity "synthesis" means information integration across information. in order to obtain a conclusion that is consistent. Therefore. This means that the output is in the form of operational guidance policy on public decision making for specific clients. This means that policy analysis should didasarkanpada "of. by and for the client". Thus. This relates directly to the output in the form of policy analysis on public policy advice. Therefore. dense. The client user specific policy analysis. client-oriented policy analysis (client oriented).

Policy analysis is driven by the urgent needs of his clients (client's need a push). a policy-oriented research on knowledge of policymaking (knowledge of policy making) while policy-oriented analysis of knowledge in policy formulation (knowledge in policy making).The combination of science "on" and "in" the formulation of this policy is called science policy (policy science). In fact. and finally the policy analysts will be revealed that the government has lost its direction. Therefore. 1. while the output is the knowledge of policy analysis perskriptif (prescriptive knowledge) of a normative nature of public policy. the strategy satidfied became vague. it has to be a purpose Policy is a means to an end. even it is not impossible that will cause new problems. The Announcement the purpose is also in the most important because it was only tujuanlah that can give the direction and reason for the public. policy analysis is basically a vehicle for the dissemination of research results. a tool to achieve a common purpose community (public). the policy is a government actions that are designed to achieve a certain result expected by the public as constituents government. policy-makers are often lose direction in 9 . This means that.Or the classification of Johnson (1986) output of policy research is descriptive knowledge (descriptive knowledge) that is objective.By using the dichotomy Laswell (1970). For example. a policy that does not have obvious purpose. A policy without purpose does not have meaning. the program that will be applied different. including the results of policy research.6 Characteristics of Policy A policy has a unique among others : 1. Policy.

it has to be able to unite expected (projection) about 10 . there are Based on six groups action policy (play action) that are essential. making policy. Its main objective given and deliver the information and give a specific guidelines. b. Policy-making must have obstacles. Infrastructure Provision (Infrastructure Provision) Its main objective provides things as inherently infrastructural improvements. it has to be based on by stages policy circles that on planning and evaluation. Incentives (Reward) Its main objective to encourage and speed up the attainment of an this by providing a ebntuk rewards. e. 2. The influence (Influence) Its main objective to encourage and influence of the changes and assist in the changes to the party. the model or the hypothesis of cause and effect. Deregulation (Deregulation) Its main objective to make easing even canceling certain restrictions.determining policy objectives. f. Policy always rely on the assumption of behavior. Its main objective. Policy as the hypothesis Policy made based on the theory. Policy. namely: a. Regulations (River Basins) Its main objective to make the rules and certain restrictions. d. Information or guidelines (Informationor Simple Guidance When Choose). Policy always contain incentives that encourage people to do something or powerful disincentive to encourage people did not do anything. For the policy is still focused on the goal has been determined. but must be sought for a solution to cope with it and provide the required to achieve. c.

Policy then can be seen as a response or formal response to the issues or problems public. and it will be many companies to increase its output prices that will lead to prices for goods increased and low class society more difficult to meet needs for life. 3.the success that will be achieved and overcoming the failures mechanism is likely to happen. So believes that policy as the hypothesis also stressed the importance lessons and hits from the result of implementation and evaluation. (d) is political priorities that the election program priorities executive. The objective of the government policy reflect the achievement through the implementation resources public. As legal policy decisions are not also means that the government always have the authority in dealing with these issues. Those decisions made civil servants to act or direct action or activity options such as. Policy as a legal The action in the policy is legal or authorities because it was made by those who have legitimacy in the system of government. to prepare a bill or a government regulation to be considered by the parliament or allocate the budgets to implement a specific target. (b) With regard to decisionmaking and testing well-consequently. if the government to increase fuel prices. 11 . (c) Structured with the players and his steps that there is a clear and measured. Policy involving the participation and aspirations of the community. 4. This means that the policy is: (a) Intensional or have a goal. For example.

This means that policy-making could not be violated the law and legislation. it has to be analyzed ahead of time is to have a good impact or bad for the community. All of the policies that have been made and ordered to have a legal and law. the community is also more likely to obey the policy making and arrangement involves the participation and aspirations of the community is actively. 5. Policy an impact (outcome) Every time the process of making policy. 7. implicit (implicit policy) Implicit policy is the policy that aimed to give impact will not directly to the object policy objectives. Type of policy based on the influence or impact that want to emanate include: 1. implementation. Policy-making that involve the participation and aspirations of the community is intended to be policy that has already been compiled and are planned to be in accordance with the reality.Participation is a process involvement in decision-making process.7 Cycle of Policy Analysis 12 . 1. planning. explicit (explicit policy) Explicit policy is the policy that aimed to give impact directly on the object policy objectives. and control policy. Policy forms structured and arranged according to the law and the law. In addition. A policy that is made not to harm the public. 2. 6. the formulation.

Therefore.and post-formation. from pre. 13 . Analysts policies are often required to advise the policy makers (executives).Willia m N Dunn (2008) Public Policy Analysis (an Introduction Fourth Edition) New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall Analysis of public policy(public policy analysis) is an attempt to prevent the failure in solving problems through public policy. while the look of the process of formation. Public policy can be viewed from two perspectives.The first (pre) the formation of public policy. looking after becomes a product of the policy. so always be at each stage in the process of public policy (public policy process).The second (post) the formation of public policy. one of the essence of the presence of public policy analysis(public policy) is to solve a growing problem in society properly. in the form of laws or regulations and the public.

then went into a public issue public agenda. arguments. 4. 2. The methodology of policy analysis with five general procedures commonly used in solving human problems. 3. namely: 1.In the first approach. which is usually followed up with a variety of actionreaction between stakeholders with a public agency authorized to issue a policy. Monitoring (description). 14 . Recommendations. deployment support and more.Beginning with the identification of the problems that arise in the public domain. The formulation of the problem (definition) yield information about the circumstances of the conditions that give rise to policy issues. Monitoring.If the conclusion is reached. generate information about current and past consequences of the implementation of policy alternatives. Recommendations (prescription) provides information about the relative value or usefulness of the future consequences of a solution to the problem. certain interested parties then seek the problems presented to the public so known and recognized that the issues that arise relating to the public interest (public issues).As more and more concerned (concerned).At this stage often arise pros and cons. Forecasting. there are steps that would be made. Formulation of the problem. interplay. Forecasting (prediction) provides information about the future consequences of the implementation of policy alternatives. the resulting product in the form of legislation and public policy or public regulation.

Formulation of the problem will help to produce what he wanted to solve the problem. 1. to provide information about the value or usefulness of the consequences of solving or coping. the policy analyst can use the methods of formulation of the problem (problem structuring).To formulate a good policy.Through this method the analyst must find the root of the problem or the root cause of the emergence of the problem. Evaluation. and 5) evaluation (evaluation).In achieving this aim. 2) prediction (forecasting). and the recommendation is the method used before (ex ante) policy is adopted and implemented. namely: 1) formulation of the problem (problem structuring). forecasting. and evaluation of policy performance also helped produce. and help generate the adoption of policy recommendations. formulated five methods of policy analysis in formulating public policy. to determine the root cause 15 .5. which has the same name as that used in everyday language.8 Methods of Policy Analysis William N Dunn (2004). while monitoring and evaluation methods used after (ex post) policy adopted and implemented. Formulation of the problem. The evaluation. 4) monitoring (monitoring). 3) recommendation (recommendation).Monitoring will help to produce a variety of outcomes as a result of policy implementation.Forecasting will help produce a formulation or the expected policy outcomes. the first step that must be done and that is critical is how to formulate the problem correctly.

problem definition. So. rules. defining the problem will produce a substance problem. the model is a substitute for reality (a the model is an abstraction of reality). 1. problem specification. critically assess. the problem will result in a meta search problem (the problem to the problem).From this formal problem analyst will know the real root of the problem.of the emergence of the problem formulation phase may use four interrelated problems. in another sense. and the problem specification will result in a formal matter. and procedures to create.If the formal problem is found. it will be easier to move on to the next stage. Dunn.9 Models of policy analysis According to William N. and communicate 16 . Introducing problems (sensing). Introduction of the problem will result in a problem situation. 2. The four phases are as follows: 1. according to ES Quade. the model is a system of standards. 3.This is in line with the statement that the problem well-defined is a problem half solved. the model is a simple representation of selected aspects of a problem conditions are arranged for a specific purpose. Meanwhile. engine problems. and 4.

Verbal Models This model rests on the valuation of reason to make predictions and offer recommendations. Descriptive Models Descriptive models have the goal to explain and / or predict the causes and consequences (causation) of policy options. while the optimum service and repair (replacement models). This model in addition to explain and predict the causes and effects of a policy action. the volume and the optimum time (inventory models) and optimum benefits of public investment (costbenefit models). 3. The advantages 17 . Or it could also mean that the model is a tool or a means to transform the information to facilitate the understanding of what has been delivered.policy-relevant knowledge. there are 6 models: 1.policy action as well as to predict the performance of the economy. This model is used to monitor the results of the action . Assessment of reason produces policy arguments but are not depicted in the figures for sure. Among the several types of normative models used by policy analysts are normative models that help determine the optimum level of service capacity (queuing models). Normative Model The purpose of this model is not only explain and / or predict but also provide the arguments and recommendations to optimize the achievement of some utility (value). In a policy. as measured in the output variable to be changed by the policy makers. also contain rules or references on how to optimize the achievement of a particular benefit. The problems are usually in the form of normative decision values looking for a controlled variable (policy) that will yield the greatest benefit (value). 2.

and maximum effort. The advantages of this model. Symbolic Model Symbolic models use mathematical symbols in explaining the relationship between the variables-variables that are characteristic of a problem. 5. Substitute Model and Perspectives Replacement model (surrogate models) is assumed in lieu of substantive issues. Formal problem is a legitimate representation of the 18 . The weakness of this model requires a relatively high cost and the relatively long time because of the time needed to develop and run computer programs. thus facilitating communication among ordinary people. While the advantages. The disadvantage of this model is difficult communicated to the layman. this model assumes (simulate) the relationship between policy variables and outcomes. 6. this model can be written in non-technical language incomprehensible. and even the expert model makers. Costs more. While the weakness of this model. This model allows the simulation and creative research. it can improve policy decisions if the premises are arranged explicitly.of this model is easily communicated and the cost is cheap. takes a long time. This model has the advantages of using the actual data to estimate the relationship between policy variables and outcomes. In this model is also often difficult to find data or arguments that reinforce assumptions. policy makers. 4. The result is also not easy to interpret because its assumptions are not clearly stated. the problems that used to make predictions and recommendations are implicit or hidden. Procedural Model By looking at the variables in dealing with a matter of policy.

Rational models. Models Group. namely: 1. Model System In addition there are three proposed models of Thomas R. 5. 4. Strategic Models 19 .substantive issues. 8. Incremental Model. Game Theory Model. 2. Elite Model. 7. While the model is based on the assumption that the perspective of the formal problem never fully legally represent substantive issues. Model Integrated Observation. The difference between the model and the replacement is very important perspective in policy analysis because most of the important issues it is difficult to be formulated (illstructured). 2. 3. Institutional Models. 3. 6. Public Choice Models. In formulating public policy Thomas R. Dye formulate policy models. Dye. namely: 1. Democratic Model.

Relation to this. Realist view considers that the public interest is the result of a compromise of the various interest groups fight. 2. 3. That environment policy formulation (Formulation). namely: 1. Rationalist view that says the public interest is the interest of most of the total population. and those who consider public policy have consequences that can be foreseen. see public policy in all three environments. modern society means that the ideal society is a society that is able to organize themselves in accordance with their respective interests. Idealistic view saying that the public interest is a sublime thing.revealed that the public interest it turns out there are at least at least three views are: 1. public policy must have an interest in public nature which according to Schubert Jr. it appears that we should reflect on the fact of real political life of modern society.Linking of unofficial and semi-official among individuals and groups within a system policy. so that should not be fabricated by humans. 20 . By looking at the above explanation.In the policy process has included a variety of practical and intellectual activity that goes together.Representing the group of Nakamura and Smallwood in his book The Politics of Policy Implementation. Experts are then looked at as a public policy decisions of government that has the purpose or specific purposes.

but also of public administration. involves the knowledge of the results and in the policy process. evaluative.2. and normative. public policy analysis is an applied social science research methodology uses a wide and argument to produce and transform policy-relevant use in a particular political environment to solve policy problems. ethics. Policy analysis. the existence of which may 21 . the purpose of policy analysis is to provide information for policy makers to be considered that reasoning to find solutions to policy problems. borrowing policy analysis is not only the social and behavioral sciences. While public policy according to William N Dunn (N. which is the main achievement is a measure to see if the problem has been resolved. law. According to William N Dunn Similarly. (2) the facts. and 3. Environmental assessment (Evaluation) policy. in a broad sense. Analysis of the policy is expected to generate and transform information about: (1) values. including decisions to act are made by the agency or government office. Application environment (Implementation). Analysis of policy taking from various disciplines whose purpose is descriptive.As an applied science disciplines. Dunn. 2000) is a complex pattern of dependence of collective choices are interdependent.Historically. 1. and various branches of applied mathematics and systems analysis.10 Approach in Policy Analysis The approach is a variety of assessment methods and arguments to produce and transform policy information to be used politically to resolve policy issues.

explain.For example.limit or enhance the achievement of values.The three types of information can be generated by using one or more of the three main approaches of policy analysis by William N. after providing descriptive information about various tax policies. namely empirical. For example. and normative. with particular emphasis on the description of the cause and effect of a specific public policy. 3. the question would arise with respect to the value (what value?) And the type of information generated is valuatif. Normative Approach This approach is more focused on recommendation upcoming series of actions that can resolve public issues. In this case. education. So in this case. the application may result in the achievement of values. or predict public spending on health. the main question will be factual (if anything there?) And the kinds of information generated is descriptive. or highway. Dunn. the analyst can describe. Approach Valuatif This approach is the opposite of the empirical approach. the question with respect to the action (What should I do?) And the type of information generated prescriptive. Empirical Approach Empirical approach. 2.From here. valuatif. analysts can evaluate a variety of different ways of distributing the tax burden according to their moral and ethical consequences. the annual minimum 22 . For example. 1. This approach is more focused on the determination of the weight or value of some policies. and ( 3) actions.

Policy decisions participation madeinthe of fromthe macroareacanbe the basisofthings that willbe madeat themesoand microlevels. UU. when an analyst uses all three. In themacropolicy making. and others. For example. 1.Perpu. Macro Macro policiesinvolving thewholecommunityandgovernment leadersare generallyin the formation ofpublicpolicy.Law.and others. However. communications media. Minister of Health. it can be said that analysts have exceeded the goal of traditional disciplines. Macropolicyis a policythat can affect thewhole country(national). spokespersonof the group.11 Levels ofPolicy 1. legislative. where the traditional disciplines tend to ignore the values and the fact that there are (ignoring valuatif and normative approach). the the president. TAP MPR.income security policies can be recommended as a way to solve the problem of poverty. notonlythe role governmentareinvolvedbutalsoactive community. Contoh kebijakan makro di Indonesia antara lain adalah UUD 1945. III/MPR/2000 23 .PP dan Kepres. Berdasarkan TAP MPR No. government Participantsinmacro executive. Changes oradditionstothe existing policywillenablehandled at themeso level. Government Regulation(PP). A policy analyst may use one or more of the three approaches. Macropolicyinvolves leadersin generalin policyareasincluding thewholecommunityandlocal scopeforpublic policy. ExampleMacro Policyin thefield of healthis Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 1464/MenKes/Per/X/2010 tentang Ijin dan Penyelenggaraan Praktik Bidan.

or the granting of a patent. Typically include a means by private and government at the local level. Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-undang (Perpu) e. Ketetapan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Republik Indonesia: merupakan putusan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) sebagai pengemban kedaulatan rakyat yang ditetapkan dalam sidang-sidang MPR. Target implementation of meso policies can be used by the public or individuals. 2. memuat dasar dan garis besar hukum dalam penyelenggaraan negara. such as commercial air transport. b. tata urutan peraturan perundang-undangan Republik Indonesia adalah: a. d. the expansion of agricultural activities. 24 . c. Meso Meso policies typically focus on a particular policy or functional areas. construction of dock and river. Peraturan Pemerintah: dibuat oleh Pemerintah untuk melaksanakan perintah undang-undang. f. Undang-Undang Dasar 1945: merupakan hukum dasar tertulis Negara Republik Indonesia. for example: to strengthen support in the business environment and to change the structural shape of an autonomous region.tentang Sumber Hukum dan Tata Urutan Peraturan Perundangundangan. Keputusan Presiden: bersifat mengatur dibuat oleh Presiden untuk menjalankan fungsi dan tugasnya berupa pengaturan. Meso policy formation is due not everyone cares about public policy that has existed. Undang-Undang: dibuat oleh Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) bersama Presiden untuk melaksanakan UUD 1945 serta TAP MPR-RI.

In a micro policy. Daerah Surabaya pun mempunyai kebijakan lain. actions and decisions are not so considered during the intervention of the government to bring a loss for the adherents of micro policies. Micro More micro policy involves the efforts made by a particular individual. such as officials or citizens who are truly interested in maritime shipping policy may have little interest or even no policy health. and business networking . yaitu Peraturan Daerah Kota Surabaya Nomor 5 Tahun 2008 Tentang Kawasan Tanpa Rokok dan Kawasan Terbatas Merokok. Contoh di atas membuktikan bahwa Kebijakan Meso pada suatu daerah memiliki kebijakan yang berbeda. A company wants a favorable decision for his own company. for some parties in the policy of this micro. a company. Micro policies into competence in general private business. the parties concerned in a particular agency tends to have regulations or private laws without interference from the government. improving the quality of Human Resources (HR). 25 . typically include managerial strategies to increase productivity. or a community that seeks only to obtain profit for their own party. 3. ExamplesofMesopolicyinthe health sectoris Peraturan Gubernur Propinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Nomor 88 Tahun 2010 tentang Perubahan atas Peraturan Nomor 75 Tahun 2005 Tentang Kawasan Dilarang Merokok.many people are only interested in one of these areas.

It is categorized as a Micro policy because the regulation applies only within the scope of the organization (Work in Environmental Governance).Contoh yang dapat diambil adalah Keputusan Gubernur Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta No 11 Tahun 2004 tentang Pengendalian Merokok di Tempat Kerja di Lingkungan Pemerintahan adalah ilustrasi yang bagus dari kebijakan mikro. 26 .