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CHAPTER II

POLICY
2.1 Definition of Policy
Policy is a translation of the word policy is derived from English. The
word policy is defined as a plan of action or a statement of objectives, roposed
or adopted by a government or political party. The word policy is
etymologically derived from the word polis in Greek (Greek), which means
the city-state. In Latin this word into politia, meaning the country. Sign into
Old English (Middle English), the word becomes Policie, whose meaning is
related to the affairs of the government or administration commands (Dunn,
1981: 7).
In harifah science policy is a direct translation of the word science
policy (Dror, 1968: 6-8). In a general sense this word so defined as a course of
action intended to Accomplish some end (Jones, 1977: 4) or whatever
government chooses to do or not to do (Dye, 1975: 1).
Etymologically the word policy together with two other important
words, the police and politics. This is one reason why many modern
languages, such as German and Russian, has only one word (politics, politics)
for the two senses of policy and politics. Some great writers use the term
public policy and public policy analysis in the sense that no different.

According to the United Nations (1975) is a basic policy guidelines
act, a certain course of action, a program of activity - specific activity or a
plan. So there are some policy definitions according to experts, are as follows:
a. "The policy is a complex dependence pattern of interdependent collective
choices, including the decision to act is made by the body or government
agency," (William Dunn, 2000).
b. "Policy is a set of concepts proposed action by a government or a group of
people or in a particular environment by proposing constraints and
opportunities of the implementation of the proposal in order to achieve
certain goals, '' (Carl J. Friedrich, 1963)
c. “a policy is a statement by government at whatever level- of what it
intends to do about a public problem,”(Birkland, 2010)
d. “Policy as a projected program of goals, values and practices,”(Stewart,
Hedge & Lester, 2008).
e. "Policies are elements or expressions of the programs and decisions,"
(Charles O. Jones, 1996)
f. "The policy as a series of actions that have a specific purpose that is
followed and implemented by an actor or group of actors in order to solve
a particular problem" (James E. Anderson, 1979)
g. "Policy is what is chosen by the government to do or not do" (Thomas R.
Dye, 1976)
h. "The policy as to what is stated and done or not done by the government.
The policy can be either the target or goal of government programs.
Determination of the policy can be clearly manifested in laws and
regulations or in the speeches of senior government officials as well as the
programs and actions of the government "(George C. Edwards III, 1980)

ministerial regulations. Besides views of the hierarchy of public policy can be national. the governor's decision. it can be concluded that the policies are actions or activities that intentionally done or not done by a person. legal. cultural. the one feature of the policy is what government do or not to do. the regulations of the district / city. 2. social. In the dimension of the subject. regional and local such as laws. political.2 Scope of Policy 2. In terms of understanding public policy it turned out a lot.Based on the opinions of various experts mentioned above. The scope of the study of public policy is very broad because it covers a wide range of fields and sectors such as economic.2. and environment of the policy. depending on the point where we perceive it. namely the government. government regulations. and the public. and decision regent / mayor.1 Public Policy The term public in a series of words containing three connotations of public policy. government regulations / province. object. the public. presidential decree. a group or a government in which there are elements of the decision in the form of election efforts among the various alternatives available to achieve the aims and objectives particular. Easton provides a definition of public policy as the authoritative allocation of values for the whole society or as forcibly allocating . Policy of the government that can be considered an official policy and thus has the authority to force people to comply. public policy is the policy of the government. This can be seen in the dimensions of the subject. and so on.

Public Policy seeks to review the share theories and processes that take place in public policy. are as follows: a. “Public policies are the intentions and actions of government range widely over many fields of endeavour and may effect many members of society. 1980). including decisions to act are made by the agency or government office" (N. Some definitions of Public Policy. Thus. 1976) . 2000). or government within a given environment providing obstacles and opportunities which the policy was proposed to utilize and overcome in an effort to reach a goal or realize an objective or purpose”.” (Levitt. It can be said that public policy can not be separated from the process of policy formation itself. according to experts. (Thomas R. group. values. “Public policy is a proposed course of action of a person. e. one of the goals of public policy study is to analyze how the stage-by-stage process of the formation of public policy in order to realize a specific public policy. 1953) f. Dye. (Carl J. Laswell and Kaplan also defines public policy as a projected program of goals. “Public policy refers to a set of actions by the government that includes but not limited to. values in the targeted practices. “Public policy is the authoritative allocation of values for the whole society” (David Easton. and practice or something achieving program goals. d. Dunn.2011). making laws and is defined in terms of a common goal or purpose” (Mayer et al. b.values to all members of the community.1963) c. “Public policy is whatever governments choose to do or not to do”. Friedrick. "Public policy is a complex pattern of dependence of collective choices are interdependent.

This definition can also be classified as a series of public officials working to resolve the issues in the community. Public policy is a government activity to solve problems in the community. b) Distributive. “Public policies are those policies developed by governmental bodies and officials”(James E. redistributive and Regulatory Poicies (1) Distributive Policy . “Public policy is A proposed course of action of a person. (2) Procedural Policy Policy views of the various parties involved in the formulation (policy stakeholders). government officials or others who aimed to use public power to affect people's lives.1979). The definition of public policy according to Woll can be classified as government intervention (intervention socio-cultural) that is by utilizing a variety of instruments to address public issues. personnel formation and regulate it in the form of programs that will affect people's lives. 2003). either directly or through a variety of institutions that affect people's lives (Woll. 1966). budgeting. group or government within a given environment providing obstacles and opportunities which the policy was proposed to utilize and overcome in an effort to reach a goal or realize an objective or purpose” (Smith. 2) The output of the policy. As for the effect of government action are: 1) The existence of the policy choices made by politicians. i. where the policy is applied at this level requires the government to make arrangements.g. Anderson kind there are several kinds: a) Substantive and Procedural Politics (1) Substative Policy Seen from the substance of the policy problems faced by government. h. 3) The impact of the policy is the effect of policy choices that affect people's lives. Anderson. Public Policy by James E.

and not what 4. (2) Redistributive Policy Policies governing the transfer of wealth allocation. c) Material Policy Policies governing the allocation / provision of a number of real material source for the recipient. officials.Policies governing the provision of services to any individual or group of companies. Anderson further said there are important elements contained in public policy include: 1. d) Public goods and private goods policies: (1) Public Good Policies Policies governing the provision of goods or services a number of governments for the public good. and negative (government official's decision not to do something). Public policy is positive (a governmental action on a particular issue) 5. 2. ownership or right. is intended to be done. The policy is what is actually done by the government. (3) Regulatory Policy Policies governing the restriction / prohibition against actions / measures. (2) Private Good Policies Policy regarding the provision of a number of goods services by the private sector. From the definitions above it can be concluded also that public policy is a policy made by the government in the form of actions the Government either to do or not do something that has a specific purpose intended for the benefit of society. for the benefit of the free market perorangaan in exchange for a fee. Public policy is always based on certain rules and regulations that are forcing (authoritative). Public policy decisions are binding for the crowds at the strategic level or nature outline made by the public . The policy always has the purpose or goal-oriented. The policy contains the action or pattern of actions of government 3.

both in the public and private sphere. namely those who received a mandate from the public or the crowd. transportation. it turns out in the policy these two words can be interpreted as the same thing. security. 2. public policy will be implemented by the administration of the state which is run by the government bureaucracy. education. which is everything that can be done by the state to maintain or improve the quality of people's lives. The purpose of the policy is to integrate the knowledge into a holistic discipline (overarching) to analyze the public option and the decision-making and karenannya he had a role in the democratization of society (Parsons. and the existence of good relations between people concerned in it. 2001). and more. both public and private. The role and main functions of the policy is to regulate all aspects of human life in the process in various fields. Furthermore. usually through an election process to act on behalf of the people.3 Role and Function Policy Policies can be briefly defined as a rule in the form of a written and an official decision of an organization. A variety of these rules govern every aspect of human life. . economic. the public policy must be made by the political authority. harmony.authorities. while the function of the object is associated with the object. The main focus of public policy in the modern state is a public service. environmental. which relates to the role of the human subject. The role and functions of different true. As a publicly binding decisions. such as health. social. The setting is done in order to create a stability in various fields and to realize the state of order.

clean water. For example. Public intervention by the state is intended to assure the rule of law. education. and order. innovative economy. various fields. The role and function of public policy is as follows: 1. To protect and safeguard the interests and desires of the entire community (the availability of clean air. human rights. The segment in question is a large variety of fields. Of the regulation contains a ban on smoking in public places with a variety of the penalties. Peraturan Daerah Kota Surabaya Nomor 5 Tahun 2008 tentang Kawasan Tanpa Rokok dan Kawasan Terbatas Merokok. good health. The role of the state (government) here is to create better conditions to ensure that the public interest (together). health and so forth. and others. health. then the regulation can function as a suppressor activity of people not to 3. Realize government intervention and regulation of the life of society in 4. Public policy has a broader scope.1 Role and Functions of Public Policy Public policy is closely associated with the government and society. namely in the field of economic policy. 2. economic. education. smoke in public places.2. security. and made by the government to regulate or direct whatever he wanted to do or not do for the benefit of its people. Pressing and encourage community activity in a country. Achieving some broad goals that affect a large segment of a country's citizens or the public. Public policy will regulate everything that affects the interests of human activities that are necessary to set up and intervention by governments or social rules.3. such as social. political. . defense.

The policy is based on an explicit. low poverty. higher educational attainment. 5. Not all policies are made at the time of issue or conflict arises. Build an environment that allows each actor.4 Principles of Policy Policy-making function not only solve existing problems. 7. then we should pay attention to some of the principles of the policy itself. Perform a frontal attack on public issues. supported by the base value will return policies made ensured compliance with these basic values. arises. a decent house. The principle of the policy serves as a benchmark or guideline in the formation of effective policy. The policy was to be firmly and clearly. and other ). Consistent Policy Policy guidelines should be clear that all members of the policy implementers have the same perception about the policy to be . low crime rate. to be able to develop to become competitive actors. both business and non-business 6. but also to prevent the problem. This is so we created a policy that can be useful and appropriate to the needs of the organization. Policies can be created to prevent a conflict. but it is nevertheless expected that the policy will be accomplishing a conflict if a conflict 3. shared ethical values that can be justified. namely: 1. The policy helps solving conflicts Policy must be made can be used as a reference in the resolution of a conflict arising. Help for setting analysis contentious issue is happening or will happen in the future 2.active trading. 2. Some of the principles in his book Freegard policies according to the Ethical Practice for Health Professionals (2006).

Policies created with words that are easy to understand and does not lead to ambiguous or encouraging the perception of different things to different administrators. Consistent policy means the policy applies equally in all regions and fixed. then the policy has certain limitations. the implementers of this policy greatly affects the success of the policy itself. Policies with limited time In accordance with the characteristics of a dynamic policy. Some people who interpret and apply the policy itself Good policy will not run properly if the executor can not or do not want to run it. so that the policy can continue to evolve according to the needs of the organization. This does not mean the policy was .implemented. Not infrequently a policy to fail because the administrators who do not agree with that policy. 8. They then tried to ruin it by implementing policies and perceive it with bad policies. The policy is supported by education Education is necessary when the initial policy-making. 4. so that the contents of the policy created can be understood or perceived the same by everyone or implementing the policy. 5. Policies should be able to make allowances or exceptions to such a degree. 7. Thus. Policies are dynamic Policies can be changed according to the internal and external conditions of the organization. The consistency seen in its application to the whole region and carried out by all the implementers of the policy itself. that implementing the policy is expected to act wisely. The policy is flexible In the above principle is explained that the policy is consistent. but the policy on this principle should also be flexible. 6.

abolished because it is useless. So it is expected that there are private companies can still thrive. 4. not bothered by the ongoing public policy. the government should be able to ensure that the public policies they take it does not restrict the development of existing private companies. Public policy is flexible .4. Public policy must maintain the development of the private sector In principle. either directly or indirectly.1 Principles of Public Policy The principle of public policy can be used as guidelines and limits for the making of public policy which aims to improve the welfare organizations and community members. Public policy involves people in its development On this principle explains that public policy should be taken by the government with the knowledge of the people and must be willing to listen to people's opinions into consideration. 2. Public policy is based on the analysis of social benefits This principle requires governments prioritize consideration of the public policy benefits for all community. namely : 1. 3. 2. Here are some of the principles of public and private policy. but the policy is constantly updated so that the policy may be more appropriate or in accordance with the needs of the organization concerned. The government should not run a policy that clearly has been challenged or not approved by the people. rather than on the costs to be incurred to execute that policy or other factors. There are 17 principles of public policy according to the Association of Washington Business (2002).

Public policy should be implemented by the government functional This principle emphasizes that public policy is made by a functioning government. a favorable outcome. Public policy must be accompanied by documentation Public policy has been implemented by the government must be accompanied by documentation as evidence that the policy has progressed. 11. if the implementation of policies that can be detrimental to the business community. Public policy must be consistent with existing law Policies must be run in accordance with existing laws. Public policy must achieve the other objectives and measurable Policies that made his success should be measured by evaluating legitimate. Policies should be able to resolve public issues that arise quickly and effectively. policies can be flexible but only in certain situations. 7.The flexible nature of the question is the government's willingness to provide an exception to the business community. Public policy complemented the simple law Simple law is used to prevent any duplication of law as a basis in determining sanctions. Public policy should provide market-based incentives It is applied in the hope of making policy by the government can achieve 8. 5. Duplication of the law can lead to confusion in determining sanctions for fraud or breach of the policy used. . and the policies that should be implemented quickly and can address a public issue. Public policy is clear and realistic Public policy and laws should be clear boundaries can also be implemented by all implementing policies including community 10. 6. as well as evidence of the effectiveness of the policy. This will lead to policies that have made it ineffective. 9.

14. 16. 15. A policy . That is. so that the benefits of public and private resources that exist can be felt by all elements of society. and in accordance with the offense committed. Public policy prioritizing the efficient use of public and private resources. The policy should have a purpose A policy is a means to an end. so that policies can be seen to be effective. Public policy ensures that stakeholder committee and the board is representative of each part of the organization. Public policy ensures stakeholder committee and board positions. Public policy should support government innovation Innovations are expected in this principle is government innovation in improving the efficiency of public services with the most cost-effective. the policy is a set of government actions designed to achieve specific results expected by the public as a constituent of the government. Performance and board committee of stakeholders affected by public policy is created and selected by the organization. The right policy sanctioned Policies must be precise in giving sanction in accordance with a reasonable Law of limitations. 13.12. Public policy with clear time Public policy must have a certain period of time and clear in its execution.5 Characteristics of Policy 1. 2. Public policy is required to prioritize the use of public and private resources. 17. Public policy restricts civil penalties for economic restitution Public policy should be able to determine the specific penalty with a clear benchmark and limit criminal sanctions for criminal acts. a tool to achieve a public purpose (public).

namely: a) Regulation The ultimate goal makes certain rules and restrictions. Policies always contain incentives that encourage people to do something . Policies as hypothesized Policies are based on theories. c) Incentives The main objective to encourage and accelerate the achievement of something by providing a form of reward. Based on the main objective. a policy that does not have a clear goal. policy makers often lose their way in setting policy goals. In fact. f) Influences The main objective to encourage and influence the changes and assist the process of change to a particular party. the program will be implemented differently. d) Provision of infrastructure Its main purpose is to provide the infrastructural. In order for the policy remains focused on its intended purpose. e) Information or guidance The main objective to provide and deliver information and provide specific guidance. and finally policy analysts would argue that the government has lost its way. 2. Policymaking certainly has obstacles. Policies always rely on assumptions about the behavior. b) Deregulation The ultimate goal makes easing even the removal of certain restrictions. but to look for solutions to overcome them and realize the desired goals to achieve. there are six groups of policy actions (play action) fundamental. models or hypotheses about cause and effect. Goal setting is also the most important activity because only tujuanlah who can provide direction and rationale to the public option. achievement strategies become blurred. the policy-making should be based on the stages of the policy cycle that includes planning and evaluation. it is impossible not even going to create new problems. For example.without purpose has no meaning.

Policy as a legal decision not also mean that the government always has the authority to deal with issues. This means that the policy is: (a) Intentional or have a purpose. and evaluation. (b) Regarding the decision-making and testing its consequences. Policies must be able to unify estimates (projections) of the success to be achieved and overcome failure mechanisms that may occur. Participatory policy- . Means the achievement of government policy objectives through the application of public resources. implementation. 4. formulation.or disincentives that encourage people not to do something. Policy as legal action The choice of policy actions in the nature of legal or authoritative as they are made by people who have legitimacy in the government system. and oversight policies. For example. if the government raised fuel prices. Policies can then be viewed as a response or official response to the issue or public issue. (c) Structured with the players and the steps are clear and measurable. it will be many companies raise the price of production which will result in the price of goods increases and the lower classes increasingly difficult to make ends meet. planning. Participation is involvement in the decision-making process. So looking at the policy as well as the hypothesis and the findings emphasize the importance of learning from the results of implementation 3. The decisions were binding on the civil servants to act or direct the actions or activities of choice. such as preparing draft legislation or regulations to be considered by parliament or allocate a specific budget to implement the program. The policy involves the participation and community aspirations. (d) As the election express political priorities of the executive program.

people also tend to be more obedient to the manufacture and formulation of policy involving public participation and active aspiration.elements of policy Policies generally have a five main elements. Policies generate impact (outcomes) Each policy-making process should be analyzed in advance whether to provide a good or bad impact for the community.6 Elements . 5. Often the value that is in the public or members of different organizations with values that are in . Types of policies based on the effect or impact that want thereof include: a) The policy explicitly Explicit policy is a policy that is intended to impact directly on the target object policy. A policy that is made should not be detrimental to the public. is a central issue to be solved by a policy. 2. and also aims to create a new tatanilai or the new norm in the organization. especially problems that are public issues. 7. 6. namely: 1. b) Policies implicit Implicit policy is a policy that is aimed at providing an indirect impact on the policy target object. The problem is referred to as a public issue when the issue of concern the public and affect the livelihood of the community at large. each policy always contains a certain value. This means that policy-making should not be contrary to and in violation of the laws and regulations in force.making and aims to be the policy aspirations of the people who have organized and planned to match the reality. All the policies that have been created and compiled must have a legal basis and law. In addition. Policy Value . Problem public (Public Issue). 2. Policies are always formulated to solve or prevent problems. Policy and arranged structured form of law and legislation.

outcomes and impact . which is widely used approach is the normative approach. In monitoring the results of the policy we have to distinguish two types of result. While the evaluation phase uses the same approach to the formulation stage. Whatever the form and content of policies in general will impact or consequences arise. The level of intensity of the consequences will vary from one policy to another. valuatif. 5. predictive or empirical. that all three so-called Policy Analysis.7 Levels of Policy 1. Approaches to Policy. The selection of the approach used will determine the level of effectiveness and success of a policy. Consequences of Policy. Another consequence is also noteworthy is the emergence of resistance (rejection) and negative behavior. Cycle Policy. may also vary by place and time dimensions. at each application of the policy should be observed effects that. actual policy-setting process is a cyclical process and the nature of the continuum.the government. 3. 2. In the implementation phase many structural approach (organizational) or managerial approach. At the formulation stage. Therefore it is necessary that intense participation and communication when formulating policy. 4. Macro . complex and not linear. at each stage of the policy cycle should be accompanied by the application of the approach as appropriate. which consists of three phases: (1) Policy Formulation (2) Policy Implementation (3) Policy Review The third stage in the cycle or process are interconnected and interdependent.

Participants in macro policy areas including the president.Macro policies involving the whole community and government leaders are generally in the formation of public policy. legislative.PP dan Kepres. Minister of Health. Berdasarkan TAP MPR No. For example. Undang-Undang Dasar 1945: merupakan hukum dasar tertulis Negara Republik Indonesia. Contoh kebijakan makro di Indonesia antara lain adalah UUD 1945. Changes or additions to the existing policy will enable handled at the meso level. d. memuat dasar dan garis besar hukum dalam penyelenggaraan negara. TAP MPR. UU. c. and others. Ketetapan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Republik Indonesia: merupakan putusan Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) sebagai pengemban kedaulatan rakyat yang ditetapkan dalam sidang-sidang MPR. Example Macro Policy in the field of health is Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 1464/MenKes/Per/X/2010 tentang Ijin dan Penyelenggaraan Praktik Bidan. Macro policy is a policy that can affect the whole country (national). III/MPR/2000 tentang Sumber Hukum dan Tata Urutan Peraturan Perundangundangan. spokesperson of the group. the executive. and others. Law. In the macro policy making. tata urutan peraturan perundang-undangan Republik Indonesia adalah: a. Government Regulation (PP). Macro policy involves the whole community and local government leaders in general in scope for public policy. b. Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-undang (Perpu) . Policy decisions made in the macro area can be the basis of things that will be made at the meso and micro levels. not only the role of government are involved but also active participation from the community. communications media. Undang-Undang: dibuat oleh Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) bersama Presiden untuk melaksanakan UUD 1945 serta TAP MPR-RI.Perpu.

for example: to strengthen support in the business environment and to change the structural shape of an autonomous region. construction of dock and river. Meso Meso policies typically focus on a particular policy or functional areas. Target implementation of meso policies can be used by the public or individuals. many people are only interested in one of these areas. 2. Peraturan Pemerintah: dibuat oleh Pemerintah untuk melaksanakan perintah undang-undang. Micro . or the granting of a patent. yaitu Peraturan Daerah Kota Surabaya Nomor 5 Tahun 2008 Tentang Kawasan Tanpa Rokok dan Kawasan Terbatas Merokok. Keputusan Presiden: bersifat mengatur dibuat oleh Presiden untuk menjalankan fungsi dan tugasnya berupa pengaturan.e. Typically include a means by private and government at the local level. Contoh di atas membuktikan bahwa Kebijakan Meso pada suatu daerah memiliki kebijakan yang berbeda. Examples of Meso policy in the health sector is Peraturan Gubernur Propinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Nomor 88 Tahun 2010 tentang Perubahan atas Peraturan Nomor 75 Tahun 2005 Tentang Kawasan Dilarang Merokok. the expansion of agricultural activities. Daerah Surabaya pun mempunyai kebijakan lain. such as officials or citizens who are truly interested in maritime shipping policy may have little interest or even no policy health. 3. such as commercial air transport. Meso policy formation is due not everyone cares about public policy that has existed. f.

improving the quality of Human Resources (HR). or a community that seeks only to obtain profit for their own party. a company.In a micro policy. for some parties in the policy of this micro. typically include managerial strategies to increase productivity. actions and decisions are not so considered during the intervention of the government to bring a loss for the adherents of micro policies. It is categorized as a Micro policy because the regulation applies only within the scope of the organization (Work in Environmental Governance). and business networking . . Micro policies into competence in general private business.More micro policy involves the efforts made by a particular individual. the parties concerned in a particular agency tends to have regulations or private laws without interference from the government. Contoh yang dapat diambil adalah Keputusan Gubernur Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta No 11 Tahun 2004 tentang Pengendalian Merokok di Tempat Kerja di Lingkungan Pemerintahan adalah ilustrasi yang bagus dari kebijakan mikro. A company wants a favorable decision for his own company.