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THE AGENDA 21

What is Agenda 21?
Agenda 21 is a program of action into
21st century for bringing the Earth into a
sustainable future. It was adopted by the
participating government of the world in
the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED),
otherwise known as the Earth Summit, in
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992.

Sustainable Development
It focuses on improving the quality of life
for all of the Earth’s citizens without
increasing the use of natural resources
beyond the capacity of the environment
to supply them indefinitely. It requires an
understanding
that
inaction
has
consequences and that we must find
innovative ways to change institutional
structures and influence individual
behavior. It’s about taking action,
changing policy and practice at all
levels, from the individual to the
international.
Schematically using three circles for
the
target
dimensions
of
Environment, Economy and Society
Economic,
Social
and
Environmental
processes
are
interlinked. Public and private
agents alike cannot be permitted
to act one-dimensionally and
isolation. Instead, their actions
must take into account the
interplay
between
the
three
dimensions
Sustainable development goes
beyond
environmental
conservation. In order to satisfy
our
material
and
immaterial
needs,
we
require
economic
prosperity and solidarity in our
society.
The sustainable development calls
for long-term structural change in
our economic and social systems,
with the aim of reducing the

consumption of the environment
and resources to permanently
affordable level while maintaining
economic output potential and
social cohesion.

The Philippine Agenda 21
PA 21 is our own national agenda for
sustainable development. It is basically
made up of:
-

The Principles of unity
The Action Agenda
The Implementation Strategies

The Vision of PA 21
The PA 21 envisions a better quality of
life for all through the development of a
just,
moral,
creative,
spiritual,
economically-vibrant, caring, diverse yet
cohesive
society
characterized
by
appropriate productivity, participatory
and democratic process and living in
harmony within the limits of the carrying
capacity of nature and the integrity of
creation.
The Enhanced PA 21 has five (5)
goal elements as follows:
1. Poverty Reduction: Poverty is a
central concern of sustainable
development. Consistent with
this, the various consultations
for the updating of PA 21 have
yielded
poverty
reduction
agenda that includes measures
to
create
and
enabling
economic
environment
for
sustained
and
broad-based
growth; improve employment,
productivity and income; and
attain food security.
2. Social Equity: Social equity
should mean allocation of
resources on the bases of
efficiency and equity to achieve
balanced development.
3. Empowerment
and
Good
Governance: Empowerment is a
precondition
of
informal
choices. Good governance is a

resulting in more poverty and underdevelopment. Rootless Growth refers to the cultural decay and loss of meaning and identity which often accompany economic growth fueled by globalization and the entrance of materialistic lifestyles of industrialized countries. the path towards enhancing the integrity of the country’s ecological domain will have to involve heightened and sustained implementation of environmental laws. few individual billionaires/millionaires enjoy an income level equivalent to the combined income of the millions in poverty. the key actor in culture. which is concerned with the development of the social and spiritual capacities of human beings. as well as the continued pursuit of resource conservation. 5. meaning. Futureless Growth results from the destruction of nature through improper mining practices. hope. the key actor in economy. Executive Summary PA 21 is part of the country’s response to fulfill its commitments in the historic Earth Summit in 1992 where government and key sectors of society agreed to implement an action agenda for sustainable development known as Agenda 21. Ruthless Growth is forcing millions of Filipinos to live in poverty constraining them from developing as full beings.necessary precondition to empowerment. To these five undesirable forms of growth can be added a sixth. use of pesticides. The three (3) Key Actors Sustainable Development Work: in 1. 3. perspective. Jobless Growth results when economic output increases amidst high unemployment and underemployment. which is mainly concerned with producing goods and services for people. 2. Meanwhile. the key actor in polity. Business. as empowerment is to good governance. Meaningless Growth results when come combination of the other five forms of undesirable growth blocks the creativity of the human spirit. 2. 4. Ecological Integrity: in general. Peace and Solidarity: The cycle of poverty and conflict goes on as the cost of war escalate in terms of various kinds of destruction while withholding funds for basic services. and environmental restoration/ enhancement programs. 3. which is concerned with democratic governance and security of human rights. and morality necessarily expresses itself in suicide. 1. 5. Five forms of growth are identified as leading to unsustainable development. 4. Government. drug addiction. violence. corruption and other social ills. Voiceless Growth is economic growth racing ahead of direct human rights and democratic processes and participatory governance essential to modern societies. The resulting loss in creativity. Civil Society. PA 21 seeks to answer four (4) questions:   Where are we now? What is sustainable development? . crime. insufficient and improper environmental planning for the construction of dams and a range of other ecologically unsound development projects.

the journey towards sustainable development must be grounded on a clear understanding of the challenges trends and opportunities that lie ahead. PA 21 describes a path of images for individuals. in its report “Our Common Future” published in 1987. Political Trends What is Sustainable Development? A Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Development The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED).Intragenerational and Spatial Equity Participatory Democracy Institutional Viability Viable. responsible governance. families. Sound and Broad based Economic Development Sustainable Population Ecological Soundness Biogeographical equity and Community Based Resource Management Global Cooperation How do we get there? Operational Framework Action Agenda and The Operational Framework of Philippine Agenda 21 consists of a multilevel guide for decisionmaking consisting of sustainable . Urbanization Trends 6. Human Development Trends 7. Economic Trends 5. Order and National Unity Social Justice and Inter-.                Primary of Developing Human Potential Holistic Science and Appropriate Technology Cultural.  Where do we want to go? How do we get there? Where do we want to go? Where are we now? Elements of a Shared Vision The current and Emerging Landscape for Sustainable Development In concretizing the vision. defines sustainable development as “meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs” Thus. social cohesion/harmony and ecological integrity to ensure that development is a life-enhancing process. Science and Technology Trends 4. The PA 21 adheres to the following principles of sustainable development. Cultural Trends 3. households and communities. Demographic Trends 2. 1. Achieving sustainable development is a formidable task. The ultimate aim of development is human development now and through future generations. Moral and Spiritual Sensitivity Self Determination National Sovereignty Gender Sensitivity Peace. Environmental Trends 8. for each ecosystem and across ecosystems in consideration of the interaction of the various life capes and landscapes found therein. the essence of sustainable development is in the harmonious integration of a sound and viable economy. Hence. Institutional Trends 9.

Action Agenda The Action Agenda at the level of ecosystems consists of strategic and catalytic interventions covering the following ecosystems and critical resources. Ecosystems  Forest/upland ecosystem Coastal and marine ecosystem Urban ecosystem freshwater ecosystem Lowland/Agricultural ecosystem Critical Resources  Minerals  Biodiversity Strengthening the Role of Major Groups Operationalizing sustainable development involves the interlocking components of an ecosystem and how these interrelate towards defining specific roles and addressing specific needs of individual sectors. spiritually liberating. at the same time. gender sensitive. .   Operationally. Indigenous people and the urban poor. economically sound. Intermediaries – serve as the fulcrum upon which socio-economic. culture and excellence and  PA 21 advocates a fundamental shift in development thinking and approach. as well as the definition of the varying roles that various stakeholders are expected to play for achieving sustainable development. politically empowering. The national and global policy environment builds upon and support area-based initiatives. Church-based Organization. ecologically friendly. These are the Formal institutions that include Government Organization. and the international community. history. It is. Landless rural workers. Farmers. based on holistic science. builds upon Filipino values. fisherfolk. It departs from traditional conceptual frameworks that emphasize sector based and macro-concerns. Categories Stakeholders of major Basic Sectors – comprise the major poverty groups. Integrated island development approaches where applicable. technologically appropriate. civic groups and professional associations. sustainable development is development that draws out full human potential across ages and generations. socially just.development criteria. People and the integrity of nature at the saltier of development initiatives. cultural and political interventions towards sustainable development depend. The identification of key players and their interaction provide a basis for deepening our analysis and treatment of the ecosystem. PA 21 promotes harmony and achieves sustainability by emphasizing:    A scale of intervention that primarily arebased. mass media. parameters and descriptors.

O. No. But there are basic key holders that are considered “common” among the basic sectors and the intermediaries. Summarized by: Ronel Dagohoy Geraladizo BPA . city and municipality. motivation. and the establishment of local SD councils to implement the said agenda. serving as the region’s guide and springboard for the formulation by the local governments. PA 21 sees that localization will ensure that SD takes root in each region. On the 25th day of January 1999.Roles of the Major Groups in Sustainable Development The roles of the major stakeholders in sustainable development are defined according to sectoral needs. and all other entities of their respective Sustainable Development Agenda. or interest and perspectives. Equity and social justice are primary goals that should also be achieved. It implies a responsibility to effect a balance between development and ecological dimensions. It defines as a process that involves the formulation of local sustainable development action agenda. The Local Agenda 21 The PA 21 emphasizes the importance of localization as a strategy for its implementation. province. In the performance of this role. its interventions must go beyond the protection of the environment. regional line agencies. A number of regions have already formulated their own Local Agenda 21. M. 47 was issued by the Office of the President to strengthen the operationalization and localization of PA 21 and to monitor its implementation.