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ALEXANDER I., King of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1888-1934), was born at Cetinje on Dec.

4,
1888, the second son of Prince Peter Karagjorgjevic, later king of Serbia, and of Zorka, third daughter of
Prince Nicholas of Montenegro. His mother died in 1890, and during his early years he shared the exile of
his father at Geneva. In 1899 he was sent to St. Petersburg (Leningrad) to be educated, and in 1904
entered the corps des pages at the tsar’s court. It was not till 1909, nearly six years after his father’s
election to the Serbian throne, that the young prince came to reside permanently at Serbia. Soon after his
return his elder brother, Prince George, was obliged to renounce the succession (March 1909), owing to
his unbalanced temperament, and various incidents that occurred during the Bosnian crisis; and Alexander
was thereupon formally recognized as crown prince. On the outbreak of Balkan war (1912) he assumed
nominal command of the 1st army and won his spurs of the battle of Kumanovo, subsequently serving
with distinction in the campaigns against Turkey and Bulgaria.
On June 24, 1914 King Peter, whose health had completely broken down, appointed him prince regent,
and he thus held the position of commander-in-chief when the World War broke out. He remained
permanently at army headquarters, and shared with his soldiers all the privations of the retreat through
Albania. On reaching the coast he fell ill and underwent a serious operation, but when already
convalescent resolutely declined the proffered assistance of an Italian destroyer which had been sent to
convey him across the Adriatic; he remained till all the refuges had been transported into safety, and
eventually found his way on foot to Durazzo. After the exiled Serbian Government had established itself
at Corfu, Prince Alexander and M. Pasic paid visits to Paris and London, where the prince was received
with warm ovations. On April 5, 1916, on receiving an important deputation of British sympathizers (led
by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the lord mayor, Lord Milner and Sir Edward Carson), he publicly
identified the dynasty with the cause of unity, expressing his conviction that in the final victory “our
Yugoslav people, united in a single state, will have their part.”
During the rest of the War he remained at Serbian headquarters and shared his army’s victorious advance
in Oct. 1918. On Dec. 1 delegates of the Yugoslav National Council in Zagreb formally recognized him
as regent in all the Yugoslav provinces of the former dual monarchy, and he assumed the title of “princeregent of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.” The attempt made upon his life on June 29, 1921, after he had
taken the oath the previous day to the new Yugoslav constitution, was the outcome, not of any personal
unpopularity, but of the subversive aims of the Communists and other revolutionary groups, who hoped to
create confusion in the new state, owing to the lack of direct heir to the throne. On Aug. 16, 1921 Prince
Alexander succeeded his father as king of Yugoslavia. On June 8, 1922 he married Marie, second
daughter of King Ferdinand of Rumania, and on Sept. 6, 1923 an heir was born, who received the name of
Peter, a second son being called after Tomislav, the first Croatian king.
King Alexander inherited from his father a respect for constitutional and parliamentary traditions, which
was conspicuously lacking in his predecessors of the Obrenovic dynasty; and his influence was repeatedly
exercised behind the scenes to smooth down the acerbities of party strife. He was largely responsible for
the reconciliation in 1925 between the Serbian Radicals under M. Pasic and the Croat Peasant Party under
M. Radic. On Oct. 9, 1934, while visiting France, King Alexander, together with M. Barthou, the French
foreign minister, was killed by a Croat assassin at Marseilles.

ALEXANDER (Alexander of Battenberg) (1857-1893), first prince of Bulgaria, born on April 5, 1857,
was the second son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and the Rhine by his morganatic marriage with Julia,
Countess von Hauke, who received the title of Princess Battenberg. Prince Alexander was nephew of the
Tsar Alexander II, who had married a sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse. In his boyhood and early youth
he was frequently at St. Petersburg (now Leningrad), and he accompanied his uncle during the Bulgarian
campaign of 1877. When Bulgaria under the Berlin Treaty was constituted an autonomous principality
under the suzerainty of Turkey, Prince Alexander was elected prince of Bulgaria at the instance of the
tsar. He was at that serving in the guards at Postdam. He travelled to Bulgaria via St. Petersburg, and took
oath to the new constitution at Trnovo on July 8, 1879. The new ruler was 22 years of age, and chose his
advisers at first from the Russophil conservative side, and, finding the liberals irreconcilable, he suddenly
(May 9, 1881) issued a proclamation demanding absolute power for himself for seven years and
apoointing a Russian general, Enroth, as head of the administration. This edict was ratified by a Grand
Sobranje summoned for purpose. But Alexander found himself in reality under the tutelage of two
Russian generals, Soboleff and Alexander Kaulbars, sent from St. Petersburg. He chafed under the
restraint, joined hands with his subjects, and restored the constitution (Sept. 18, 1883). The consequent
breach with Russia was widened in 1885 when Alexander, who had been forwarded of the coup d’etat at
Philippopolis which deposed the governor-general of Eastern Rumelia and proclaimed union with
Bulgaria, entered Philippopolis on Sept. 21 and assumed the government.
The tsar struck his nephew’s name off the Russian army list, and recalled the Russian officers. Alexander
strengthened his position by his brilliant defense against the Serbian invasion and the victory of Slivnitsa,
Nov. 16-19, and the capture of Pirot. The sultan, in 1886, agreed that Alexander should be governorgeneral of Eastern Rumelia for five years. The Bulgarians would have like a more explicit arrangement,
and on the night of Aug. 20, 1886, the prince was kidnapped, compelled to abdicate, and handed over to
the Russians. In a fortnight he was back at Sofia, but an abject telegram to the tsar had destroyed his
prestige with his subjects, and the hostility of the tsar and of Bismarck drove him to abdicate in earnest on
Sept. 8, 1886.
He spent the rest of his life principally at Graz, where he died on Oct. 23, 1893.

CHARLES X (1757-1836), king of France from 1824 to 1830, was the fourth child of the dauphin Louis,
son of Louis XV and of Marie Josephe of Saxony. He was known before his accession as Charles
Philippe, count of Artois. At the age of 16 he married Marie Therese of Savoy, sister-in-law of his
brother, the count of Provence (Louis XVIII). His youth was passed in scandalous dissipation, which
drew upon himself and his coterie the detestation of the people of Paris. Prior to the revolution he took
only a minor part in politics, but when it broke out he soon became, with the queen, the chief of the
reactionary part at court. In July 1789 he left France and became leader of the emigrates. In 1795 he
attempted to aid the royalist rising of La Vendee, landing at the Island of Yeu. But he refused to advance
farther and returned to England, settling first in London, the in Holyrood Palace at Edinburgh and
afterwards at Hartwell. There he remained until 1813, returning to France in Feb. 1814, and entering Paris
in April, in the track of the Allies.
During the reign of his brother, Louis XVIII, he was the leader of the ultra-royalists, the party of extreme
reaction. On succeeding to the throne in Sept. 1824 he won a passing popularity. But his coronation at

Reims, with all the gorgeous ceremonial of the old regime, proclaimed his intention of ruling as the Most
Christian King, by divine right. It was soon apparent that the weight of the crown would be consistently
thrown into the scale of the reactionary forces. The émigrés were awarded a milliard as compensation for
their confiscated lands; and Gallicans and Liberals alike were offended by measure which threw increased
power into the hands of the Jesuits and Ultramontanes. In a few months there were disquieting signs of
the growing unpopularity of the king. The royal princesses were insulted in the streets; and on April 29,
1825 Charles, when reviewing the National Guard, was met with cries from the ranks of “Down with the
ministers!” His reply was, next day, a decree disbanding the citizen army.
In 1829 Charles consented unwillingly to try a policy of compromise. Villele’s successor was the vicomte
de Martignac, who took Decazes for his model; and in the speech from the throne Charles declared that
the happiness of France depended on the “sincere union of the royal authority with the liberties
consecrated by the charter.” But Charles had none of the patience and common sense which had enabled
Louis XVIII to play with decency the part of a constitutional king. “I would rather hew wood,” he
exclaimed, “than be a king under the conditions of the king of England;” and when the Liberal opposition
obstructed all the measures proposed by a ministry not selected from the parliamentary majority, he lost
patience. “I told you,” he said, “that there was no coming to terms with these men.” Martignac was
dismissed; and Prince Jules de Polignac, the very incarnation of clericalism and reaction, was called to the
helm of state.
A formidable agitation sprang up, which only served to make the king more obstinate. In opening the
session of 1830 he declared that he would “find the power” to overcome the obstacles placed in his path
by “culpable manoeuvres.” The reply of the chambers was a protest against “the unjust distrust of the
sentiment and reason of France”; whereupon they were first prorogued, and on May 16 dissolved. The
result of the new election was a large increase in the opposition; and Charles , on the advice of his
ministers, determined on a virtual suspension of the constitution. On July 25 were issued the famour “four
chambers” which were the immediate cause of the revolution.
With singular fatuity Charles had taken no precautions in view of a violent outbreak. Marshal Marmont,
who commanded the scattered troops in Paris, had received no orders, beyond a jesting command from
the duke of Angouleme to place them under arms “as some windows might be broken.” At the beginning
of the revolution Charles was at St. Cloud, whence on the news of the fighting he withdrew first to
Versailles and then to Rambouillet. On learning of the success of the revolutionaries he abdicated in
favour of his grandson, the duke of Bordeaux (comte de Chambord), and appointed Louis Philippe, duke
of Orleans, lieutenant-general of the kingdom (July 30). But, on the news of Louis Philippe’s acceptance
of the crown, he gave up the contest and began a dignified retreat to the sea-coast. Beyond sending a
corps of observation to follow his movements, the new government did nothing to arrest his escape. He
took ship at Cherbourg for England on Aug. 16. For a time he returned to Holyrood palace at Edinburgh,
which was again placed at his disposal. He died at Goritz, whither he had gone for his health, on Nov. 6,
1836.
The best that can be said of Charles X is that, if he did not know how to rule, he knew how to cease to
rule.