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# ABAQUS Lecture Notes

By:
Assistant professor of Mechanical Engineering
Shiraz, Iran

ABAQUS Lecture Notes

Chapter 1
Introduction
The finite element method is a numerical method that can be used for the accurate solution
of complex engineering problems. Although the origins of the method can be traced to several
centuries back, most of the computational details have been developed in mid 1950s,
primarily in the context of the analysis of aircraft structures. Thereafter, within a decade, the
potential of the method for the solution of different types of applied science and engineering
problems was recognized. Over the years, the finite element technique has been so well
established that today, it is considered to be one of the best methods for solving a wide
variety of practical problems efficiently. In addition, the method has become one of the active
research areas not only for engineers but also for applied mathematicians. One of the main
reasons for the popularity of the method in different fields of engineering is that once a
general computer program is written, it can be used for the solution of a variety of problems
simply by changing the input data.
The ABAQUS finite element software has strong capabilities for solving, specifically, nonlinear
problems and was developed by Hibbitt, Karlsson&Sorenson, Inc. The solution of a general
problem by ABAQUS involves three stages: ABAQUS Preprocessor, ABAQUS Solver, and
ABAQUS Postprocessor. ABAQUS/CAE or another suitable pre-processor provides a
compatible input file to ABAQUS. ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit can be used as
ABAQUS/Solver to solve the problem. The ABAQUS/Standard, based on implicit algorithm, is
good for static, strongly nonlinear problems. ABAQUS/Explicit, based on explicit algorithm, is
intended for dynamic problems. Both ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit can be
executed under ABAQUS/CAE. The ABAQUS/CAE or another suitable postprocessor can be
used for displaying the output (results) of the problem.
ABAQUS/CAE provides a complete ABAQUS environment that provides a simple, consistent
interface for creating, submitting, monitoring, and evaluating results from ABAQUS/Standard
and ABAQUS/Explicit simulations. ABAQUS/CAE is divided into modules, where each module
defines a logical aspect of the modeling process; for example, for defining the geometry,
defining the material properties, and generating a mesh. As we move from one module to
another module, we build the model from which ABAQUS/CAE generates an input file that
we can submit to the ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit for carrying the analysis. After
completing the analysis, the unit (ABAQUS/Standard or ABAQUS/Explicit) sends the
information to ABAQUS/CAE to allow us to monitor the progress of the job, and generates an
output database. Finally, we use the visualization module of ABAQUS/CAE (also licensed
separately as ABAQUS/Viewer) to read the output database and view the results of analysis.
The ABAQUS/Viewer provides graphical displays of ABAQUS finite element models and
results. It obtains the model and results information from the output database. We can
control the output information displayed. For example, we can obtain plots such as
undeformed shape, deformed shape, contours,x-ydata, and time history animation from
ABAQUS/Viewer.

Basic Concepts of the Finite Element Method
The basic idea in the finite element method is to find the solution of a complicated problem
by replacing it by a simpler one. Since the actual problem is replaced by a simpler one in
finding the solution, we will be able to find only an approximate solution rather than the exact
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ABAQUS Lecture Notes

solution. The existing mathematical tools will not be sufficient to find the exact solution (and
sometimes, even an approximate solution) of most of the practical problems. Thus, in the
absence of any other convenient method to find even the approximate solution of a given
problem, we have to prefer the finite element method. Moreover, in the finite element
method, it will often be possible to improve or refine the approximate solution by spending
more computational effort.
In the finite element method, the solution region is considered as built up of many small,
interconnected subregions called finite elements. As an example of how a finite element
model might be used to represent a complex geometrical shape, consider the milling machine
structure shown in Figure 1-1(a). Since it is very difficult to find the exact response (like
stresses and displacements) of the machine under any specified cutting (loading) condition,
this structure is approximated as composed of several pieces as shown in Figure 1-1(b) in the
finite element method. In each piece or element, a convenient approximate solution is
assumed and the conditions of overall equilibrium of the structure are derived. The
satisfaction of these conditions will yield an approximate solution for the displacements and
stresses. Figure 1-2 shows the finite element idealization of a fighter aircraft.

Figure 1-1

Figure 1-2

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and Topp presented a method for modeling the wing skin using three-node triangles.J. The name finite element was coined. as will be seen later. Turner. the developments of new finite elements for different types of problems and the popularity of the method started to grow almost exponentially.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Cough. Furthermore. Once the mathematical basis of the method was recognized. For example. This work is considered by some to be the origin of the present-day finite element method. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Historical Background Although the name of the finite element method was given recently. as the number of sides of the polygon is increased. the approximate values converge to the true value. the application of the finite 3 . for the solution of structural analysis problems. which contained some of the finite element ideas. In the current finite element method. By considering the approximating polygon inscribed or circumscribed. ancient mathematicians found the circumference of a circle by approximating it by the perimeter of a polygon as shown in figure 1-3. each side of the polygon can be called a “finite element”. engineers in aircraft industry have worked on developing approximate methods for the prediction of stresses induced in aircraft wings. In 1943. the method was recognized as a form of the classical Rayleigh-Ritz method in the early 1960s. for the first time. In 1956. Although the finite element method was originally developed mostly based on intuition and physical argument. At about the same time. Schellback discretized the surface into several triangles and used a finite difference expression to find the total discretized area in 1851. These characteristics. the concept dates back for several centuries. Figure 1-3 To find the differential equation of a surface of minimum area bounded by a specified closed curve. The digital computer provided a rapid means of performing the many calculations involved in the finite element analysis and made the method practically viable. Along with the development of high-speed digital computers. a differential equation is solved by replacing it by a set of algebraic equations. Since mid-1950s. Martin. by Clough in 1960. will hold true in any general finite element application. In terms of the present-day notation. Courant presented a method of determining the torsional rigidity of a hollow shaft by dividing the cross section into several triangles and using a linear variation of the stress function ϕ over each triangle in terms of the values of ϕ at net points (called nodes in the present day finite element terminology). Argyris and Kelsey presented several papers outlining matrix procedures. one can obtain a lower bound S(l) or an upper bound S(u) for the true circumference S.

including a complete aircraft. and a space shuttle. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Commercial Finite Element Program Packages The general applicability of the finite element method makes it a powerful and versatile tool for a wide range of problems. Many of these packages represent large programs that can be used for solving real complex problems.J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Some of the programs have been developed in such a general manner that the same program can be used for the solution of problems belonging to different branches of engineering with little or no modification. 5 .000 FORTRAN statements and can be used to analyze physical problems of practically any size. For example. a number of computer program packages have been developed for the solution of a variety of structural and solid mechanics problems. Hence. the NASTRAN (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Structural Analysis) program package contains approximately 150. an automobile.

and programming languages are being developed. can be displayed either numerically in tabular form or graphically (two. The use of personal computers and workstations in engineering analysis and design is becoming increasingly popular as the price of hardware is decreasing dramatically. the geometry. the analyst must ensure that the results agree with engineering intuition and behavior. Solutions Using Finite Element Software Three Steps of Finite Element Solution The solution of any engineering analysis problem using commercial FEA software involves the following three steps: Preprocessing: In this step. stress. the problem needs to be solved by changing the boundary conditions. Numerical analysis: The software automatically generates the element characteristics (stiffness) matrices and characteristic (load) vectors. Checking the Results of FEA It is extremely important to check the results given by the FEA software. Basic Element Shapes In most engineering problems.J. In-built automatic mesh generation modules develop the finite element mesh with minimal input from the analyst on the type of elements and mesh density to be used. pressure. and velocity as a function of spatial coordinates 6 . Many finite element programs. In addition. temperature. assembles them to generate the system equations. loads or materials to find whether the resulting FEA solutions behave as per engineering intuition and expectations. In order to realize the full potential of these supercomputers in finite element computation. we need to find the values of a field variable such as displacement. material properties. Kazemzadeh-Parsi The availability of supercomputers has made a strong impact on the finite element technology. If necessary. special parallel numerical algorithms. one needs to verify whether the solution satisfies the specified boundary and symmetry conditions. have been developed. The analyst can choose the mode of display for the results. loads (actions) and boundary conditions are given as input data. implements the specified boundary conditions and solves the equations to find the nodal values of the field variable (displacements) and computes the element resultants (stresses and strains). programming strategies.or three-dimensional plots of deformed shape or stress variation. such as nodal displacements and element stresses. especially suitable for the personal computer and workstation environment. The analyst can display the data as well as the finite element mesh generated for visual inspection and verification for correctness. Also.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Post processing: The solution of the problem. Usually a simpler version of the actual problem is to be solved using the software so that the results can be compared with known solutions (obtained by other methods such as a simplified analysis technique). Among the main advantages are a user-friendly environment and inexpensive graphics.

for example. number. A variety of methods can be used to model a domain with finite elements. for the analysis of beams. Some automatic mesh generation programs have been developed for the efficient idealization of complex domains requiring minimal interface with the analyst. known as finite elements. Although these elements have a crosssectional area. Mostly the choice of the type of element is dictated by the geometry of the body and the number of independent coordinates necessary to describe the system. one at each end. the field variable has to be found as a function of not only the spatial coordinates (x.J. we can use the onedimensional or line elements shown in Figure 1-4(a). For large problems involving complex geometries. y.In some cases. Different methods of dividing the domain into finite elements involve varying amounts of computational time and often lead to different approximations to the solution of the physical problem. In the case of transient or unsteady-state problems. they are generally shown schematically as a line element (Figure 1-4(b)). and the field variable of the problem can be described in terms of a single spatial coordinate. This is equivalent to replacing the domain having an infinite number of degrees of freedom (dof) by a system having a finite number of dof. with the corresponding value of the field variable chosen as the unknown (degree of freedom).ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Efficient methods of finite element idealization require some experience and knowledge of simple guidelines. one-dimensional elements are assumed to have two nodes. and configurations of the elements have to be chosen carefully such that the original body or domain is simulated as closely as possible without increasing the computational effort needed for the solution. The temperature distribution in a rod (or fin). material properties. If the geometry. Kazemzadeh-Parsi (x. Figure 1-4 For a simple analysis. can be determined using these elements. sizes. The geometry (domain or solution region) of the problem is often irregular. the cross-sectional area of the element may be non-uniform. z) but also time (t). the values of the field variable (transverse displacement) and its derivative (slope) are chosen as the unknowns (dof) at each node as shown in Figure 1-4(c). However. and the deformation of a bar under axial load. 7 . The shapes. y. finite element idealization based on manual procedures requires considerable effort and time on the part of the analyst. z). The first step of the finite element analysis involves the discretization of the irregular domain into smaller and regular subdomains. The process of discretization is essentially an exercise of engineering judgment. the pressure distribution in a pipe flow.

analogous 8 .J. Although a quadrilateral element (or its special forms. The basic element useful for two-dimensional analysis is the triangular element. multiple dof (transverse displacement and its derivatives) are used at each node. the rectangle and parallelogram) can be obtained by assembling two or four triangular elements. The basic three-dimensional element. Figure 1-5 Figure 1-6 If the geometry. and other parameters of the body can be described by three independent spatial coordinates. For the bending analysis of plates. Kazemzadeh-Parsi When the configuration and other details of the problem can be described in terms of two independent spatial coordinates. we can idealize the body by using the threedimensional elements shown in Figure 1-7. material properties.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. we can use the two-dimensional elements shown in Figure 1-5. in some cases the use of quadrilateral (or rectangle or parallelogram) elements proves to be advantageous. as shown in Figure 1-6.

rocket nozzles.J. such as pistons. In some cases the hexahedron element. Typical elements having curved boundaries are shown in Figure 1-9. Finite elements with straight sides are known as linear elements. 9 . whereas those with curved sides are called higher-order elements. Kazemzadeh-Parsi to the triangular element in the case of two-dimensional problems. storage tanks. The problems that possess axial symmetry. which are actually three-dimensional. finite elements with curved sides are useful. Figure 1-7 Figure 1-8 For the discretization of problems involving curved geometries. is the tetrahedron element. The ability to model curved boundaries has been made possible by the addition of mid-side nodes.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. can be described by only one or two independent coordinates. and reentry vehicle heat shields. Some problems. Such problems can be idealized by using an axisymmetric or ring type of elements shown in Figure 1-8. can be used advantageously. valves. fall into this category. which can be obtained by assembling five tetrahedrons as indicated in Figure 1-7.

and frame elements (for flanges)—have been used in the idealization shown in Figure 1-13. In this case. consider the problem of analysis of the thin-walled shell shown in Figure 1-12(a). and in such cases one has to choose the type of elements judicially. rectangular shear panels (for webs). triangular plate elements (for covers). stiffening webs.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. In such cases. For example. As an example. the type of elements to be used will be evident from the physical problem. Since the wing consists of top and bottom covers. An example of this would be the analysis of an aircraft wing. Type of Elements Often. the finite element idealization can be done using three-dimensional solid elements as shown in Figure 1-11(b). in the case of stress analysis of the short beam shown in Figure 1-11(a). the type of elements to be used for idealization is obviously the “bar or line elements” as shown in Figure 1-10(b). three types of elements—namely. Here. However.J. Similarly. we may have to use two or more types of elements for idealization. the number of dof needed. the type of elements to be used for idealization may not be apparent. if the problem involves the analysis of a truss structure under a given set of load conditions (Figure 1-10(a)). Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1-9 Discretization Process Various considerations to be taken in the discretization process are discussed in the following sections. and the degree to which the physical structure can be modeled without approximation will dictate the choice of the element type to be used for idealization. the given body cannot be represented as an assemblage of only one type of elements. the expected accuracy. and flanges. the ease with which the necessary equations can be derived. the shell can be idealized by several types of elements as shown in Figure 1-12(b). In certain problems. 10 .

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1-10 Figure 1-11 Figure 1-12 11 .J.

For example. the aspect ratio is taken as the ratio of the largest dimension of the element to the smallest dimension. in the case of stress analysis of a plate with a hole shown in Figure 1-15(a). However. elements of different sizes have to be used. If the size of the elements is small. we may have to use elements of different sizes in the same body. the final solution is expected to be more accurate. 12 . Another characteristic related to the size of elements that affects the finite element solution is the aspect ratio of the elements. as shown in Figure 1-15(b).ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1-13 Size of Elements The size of elements influences the convergence of the solution directly. The size of elements has to be very small near the hole (where stress concentration is expected) compared to distant places. we have to remember that the use of smaller-sized elements will also mean more computation time. Sometimes. we have to use a finer mesh in those regions. Elements with an aspect ratio of nearly unity generally yield best results. However. and hence it has to be chosen with care. For twodimensional elements. as shown in Figure 1-14(b). whenever steep gradients of the field variable are expected. the size of all the elements can be approximately the same. in the case of stress analysis of the box beam shown in Figure 1-14(a). In general. The aspect ratio describes the shape of the element in the assemblage of elements.J.

as shown in Figure 1-16. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1-14 Figure 1-15 Location of Nodes If the body has no abrupt changes in geometry. On the other hand. if there are any discontinuities in the problem. and external conditions (e. load and temperature).g. Figure 1-16 13 .. material properties. the body can be divided into equal subdivisions and hence the spacing of the nodes can be uniform.J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. nodes have to be introduced at these discontinuities.

we may consider only half of the body for finite element idealization. Although an increase in the number of elements generally means more accurate results. This is illustrated in Figure 1-18. 1 Since there cannot be a horizontal displacement along the line of symmetry AA. 14 . since the use of a large number of elements involves a large number of dof. there will be a certain number of elements beyond which the accuracy cannot be significantly improved. we may not be able to store the resulting matrices in the available computer memory. the condition that u=0 has to be incorporated while finding the solution. is considered for analysis. have to be incorporated in the solution procedure.J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. The symmetry conditions. Figure 1-17 Simplifications Afforded by the Physical Configuration of the Body If the configuration of the body as well as the external conditions are symmetric. size of elements. however. where only half of the plate with a hole. Moreover. This behavior is shown graphically in Figure 1-17. for any given problem. having symmetry in both geometry and loading. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Number of Elements The number of elements to be chosen for idealization is related to the accuracy desired. and the number of dof involved.

plates. in the case of the foundation problem shown in Figure 1-20(a). Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1-18 Finite Representation of Infinite Bodies In most of the problems. like in the analysis of beams. Hence. the entire body can be considered for element idealization.. u=0). it is not really necessary to idealize the infinite body.J. However. The fixed conditions (u=v=0alongBC) are often used if the lower boundary is taken at the known location of a bedrock surface. In this case. Since the effect of loading decreases gradually with increasing distance from the point of loading. the boundaries are not clearly defined. foundations. the boundary conditions for this finite body have to be incorporated in the solution. since the geometry is uniform and the loading does not change in the length direction. a unit slice of the dam can be considered for idealization and analyzed as a plane strain problem. these sides are supposed to be on rollers as shown in Figure 1-20(b). and shells. the bottom boundary can be either completely fixed (u=v=0) or constrained only against vertical movement (v=0). For example. we cannot idealize the complete semi-infinite soil by finite elements. and semi-infinite bodies. as in the analysis of dams. the boundaries of the body or continuum are clearly defined. we can consider only that much of the continuum in which the loading is expected to have a significant effect as shown in Figure 1-20(b). Fortunately.e. In the case of dams (Figure 1-19). 15 . Once the significant extent of the infinite body is identified as shown in Figure 1-20(b). in some cases. if the horizontal movement only has to be restrained for sides AB and CD (i. However.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

there are 252 unknowns in the final equations (including the dof corresponding to the fixed nodes). it will require 2522 =63504 locations. and if the entire stiffness matrix is stored in the computer. and thus the storage required for the upper half-band is only 15×252=3780 locations. 20 stories high. the storage requirements as well as solution time can also be minimized. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1-19 Figure 1-20 NODE NUMBERING SCHEME The finite element analysis of practical problems often leads to matrix equations in which the matrices involved will be banded.. Assuming that there are 3 dof per node. the demands on the computer storage can be substantially reduced by storing only the elements involved in half bandwidth instead of storing the entire matrix. consider a three-bay frame with rigid joints. the bandwidth can be minimized by using a proper node numbering scheme. 16 . Furthermore.J. since most of the matrices involved (e. If we can minimize the bandwidth. The bandwidth (strictly speaking. The advances in the finite element analysis of large practical systems have been made possible largely due to the banded nature of the matrices. shown in Figure 1-21. Since the number of dof per node is generally fixed for any given type of problem.g. The bandwidth of the overall or global characteristic matrix depends on the node numbering scheme and the number of dof considered per node. stiffness matrices) are symmetric. half-bandwidth) of the overall stiffness matrix can be shown to be 15. As an example.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

For this. we discuss the method of calculating the bandwidth. the nonzero terms in the first row of the global stiffness matrix (Figure 1.22) will be confined to the first 15 positions. This definition can be generalized so as to be applicable for any type of finite element as Bandwidth (B)=(D+1)*f. we consider again the rigid jointed frame shown in Figure 1.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Figure 1-21 17 . and f is the number of dof at each node. By applying constraints to all the nodal dof except number 1 at node 1 (joint A).J. Where D is the maximum largest difference in the node numbers occurring for all elements of the assemblage. and these forces are confined to the nodes B and C. This defines the bandwidth (B)as the maximum difference between the numbered dof at the ends of any member + 1.21. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1-21 Before we attempt to minimize the bandwidth. These constraining forces are nothing but the cross-stiffnesses appearing in the stiffness matrix. it is clear that an imposed unit displacement in the direction of 1 will require constraining forces at the nodes directly connected to node A—that is. B and C. Thus.

the bandwidth of the overall system matrix depends on the manner in which the nodes are numbered. it is easy to label the nodes so as to minimize the bandwidth. capable of discretizing any geometry into an efficient finite element mesh without user intervention. Kazemzadeh-Parsi The previous equation indicates that D has to be minimized in order to minimize the bandwidth. In such cases. mesh generation can be done manually.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. automatic mesh generation algorithms. This is clear from Figure 1-23 also.J. and construction industries have complex geometries that require the use of thousands and sometimes millions of elements. two-dimensional domains (planes or surfaces) are subdivided into triangle or quadrilateral shapes. most practical problems. Figure 1-23 Automatic Mesh Generation Mesh generation is the process of dividing a physical domain into smaller subdomains (called elements) to facilitate an approximate solution of the governing ordinary or partial differential equation. the procedure becomes nearly impossible. where the numbering of nodes along the shorter dimension produces a bandwidth of B=15 (D=4). and provides the element–node connectivity relationships. However. and three-dimensional domains (volumes) are subdivided into tetrahedron and hexahedron shapes. For simple systems or regions. have been developed. whereas the numbering along the longer dimension produces a bandwidth of B=66 (D=21). Most commercial finite element software has built-in automatic mesh generation codes. But for large systems. 18 . a shorter bandwidth can be obtained simply by numbering the nodes across the shortest dimension of the body. For this. Hence. the manual process of mesh generation is impossible and we have to use automatic mesh generation schemes based on the use of a CAD or solid modeling package. labels the nodes and elements. As observed previously. automobile. If the physical domain is simple and the number of elements used is small. Thus. An automatic mesh generation program generates the locations of the node points and elements. one-dimensional domains (straight or curved lines) are subdivided into smaller line segments. such as those encountered in aerospace.

the user can define the boundary of the object by a series of nodes. the user gives a collection of node points and also an arbitrary starting node. surface. Many automatic mesh generation schemes use a “bottom-up” approach in that nodes (or vertices or corners of the domain) are meshed first. The procedure is continued until all the elements are generated. The method then creates the first simplex element using the neighboring nodes. and finally solids. triangular. When the user supplies information on the surfaces and volumes of the material domains that make up the object or system. the boundary nodes are used to develop nodes in the surface(s). Then a subsequent or neighboring element is generated by selectingthe node point that gives the least distorted element shape. Then the tesselation method connects selected boundary nodes to generate simplex elements. or quadrilateral elements if the domain is two-dimensional. followed by curves (boundaries). Kazemzadeh-Parsi Automatic mesh generation involves the subdivision of a given domain. The step-by-step procedure involved in this method is illustrated in Figure 1-24 for a two-dimensional example. the triangular elements are generated by maximizing the sum of the smallest angles of the triangles. and then nodes are distributed along the geometric curves that define the boundaries. The stepwise procedure used 3 in this approach is shown in Figure 1-25. The nodes or mesh points are used to define line elements if the domain is onedimensional. which maybe in the form of a curve. In a particular scheme. The most common methods used in the development of automatic mesh generators are the tesselation and octree methods. Many mesh generation schemes first create all the nodes and then produce a mesh of triangles by connecting the nodes to form triangles (in a plane region). known as Delaunay triangulation.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. an automatic mesh generator generates the nodes and elements in the object. then surfaces. and tetrahedral or hexahedral elements if the domain is three-dimensional. and finally the nodes on the various surfaces are used to develop nodes within the given volume (or domain). Alternately. The user can also specify minimum permissible element sizes for different regions of the object. or solid (described by a CAD or solid modeling package) into a set of nodes (or vertices) and elements (subdomains) to represent the domain as closely as possible subject to the specified element shape and size restrictions. The automatic mesh generation schemes are usually tied to solid modeling and computeraided design schemes. for a given geometric domain of the problem. nodes are first placed at the corner points of the domain. Figure 1-24 19 . Thus. Next. In the tesselation method. thus the procedure avoids generation of thin elements.J.

If any one of the resulting quadrants is full (completely occupied by the object) or empty (not occupied by the object). you need to decide which system of units you will use. All input data must be specified in consistent units. which are extensively used in solid modeling and computer graphics display methods. If the object does not completely (uniformly) cover the cube. the object is first considered enclosed in a square region. On the other hand. or until some predetermined level of resolution is achieved. In the two-dimensional analog of the octree method. then it is not subdivided further.J. This procedure of subdividing partially full quadrants is continued until all the resulting regions are either full or empty. it is subdivided into four quadrants. In the octree method. Some common systems of consistent units are shown in table 1-2. Table 1-2 20 . the cube is subdivided into eight equal parts. Abaqus has no built-in system of units. If the object does not completely cover the square. the object is first considered enclosed in a three-dimensional cube. the square is subdivided into four equal quadrants. Do not include unit names or labels when entering data in Abaqus. At the final stage. Units Before starting to define any model. known as the quadtree method. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1-25 The octree methods belong to a class of mesh generation schemes known as tree structure methods. if any one of the resulting quadrants is partially full (partially occupied by the object).ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. the partially full quadrants are assumed to be either full or empty arbitrarily based on a pre-specified criterion.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes

Chapter 2
Geometric Modeling
In this chapter geometric modeling in the part module of the ABAQUS is investigated.

Example 1
Two and three dimensional wire parts

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Example 2
Two dimensional shell parts

Part (1)

Part (2)

Part (3)

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Part (4)

Part (5)

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J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Part (6) Part (7) 24 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 3 Three dimensional shell parts 25 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 4 Three dimensional solid parts Part (1) Part (2) Part (3) 26 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Part (4) Part (5) Part (6) 27 .

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Part (7) Part (8) Part (9) 28 .

J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Part (10) Part (11) Part (12) 29 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Part (13) Part (14) Part (15) 30 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Part (16) Part (17) Part (18) 31 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 3 Truss Structures Example 1 The structure is a simple. The members can rotate freely at the joints. All members are circular steel rods 5 mm in diameter.29. A simulation is required to determine the structure’s static deflection and the peak stress in its members when a 10 kN load is applied as shown in figure. The frame is prevented from moving out of plane. 32 . Elastic properties are E=200 GPa and v=0.J. pin-jointed truss that is constrained at the left end and mounted on rollers at the right end.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

A=2 in2. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 2 E =10e4 ksi.J. P4=P8= 100 kip 33 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. All base nodes fixed 34 . A=2cm2 for all members All dimensions in centimeters. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 3 E=2×10e7 N/cm2.J.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes

Example 4
Finite element to be used: T3D2 = 3D two-node truss element
Dimensions in figure are in mm; Area of cross section of each bar: 3225.8 mm2
Material: Aluminum; E= 69 GPa

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Example 5
In this example the 52 bar space truss (dome structure) with configuration shown in the
following figures is considered. At each free node (1–13) it is attached a non-structural mass
of 50 kg. The material is steel with Young’s modulus equal to 210 GPa, Poisson ration equal
to 0.29 and specific mass of 7800 kg/m3. The 52 bars are divided into eight groups, as shown
in the table.

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J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Other Examples 38 .

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 39 .J.

Also do a grid study analysis and determine the optimal mesh size. Use any symmetry in the model if it is appropriate.29 Poisson ratio determine the maximum deflection and Von-Mises stress due to the specified loading.J. If the plate was made of carbon steel with 210 GPa Young modulus and 0.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. 50 45 Maximum Stress (Mpa) 40 35 30 25 S (Mpa) Q4 20 S (Mpa) T3 15 10 5 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Number of Nodes 40 5000 6000 7000 . The plate thickness is 0.002 and the resultant of the axial loading is 2 kN. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 4 Two Dimensional Elasticity Example 1 Hole in Plate A Rectangular plate with central circular hole is subjected to a uniformly distributed axial force as shown.

41 .4 Mpsi Young modulus and 0. If the plate was made of aluminum with 10.333 Poisson ratio determine the maximum deflection and Von-Mises stress due to the specified loading.05 inch is subjected to a distributed force as shown. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 2 L Shaped Bracket An L shaped plate of thickness 0.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 3 Tensile Bracket A bracket plate with an internal hole is loaded axially.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.29 Poisson ratio. The plate was made of carbon steel with 210 GPa Young modulus and 0.J. 42 . Determine the maximum deflection and Von-Mises stress due to an axial tensile loading of 10 kN distributed along the right and left edges.

Assume the left hole constrained completely in all directions and 1 KN vertical force is distributed over the internal surface of the right hole. All deformations are in mm and all stresses are in MPa. The rod is made of ST37 structural steel with 200GPa Young modulus and 0. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 4 Connecting Rod Consider the following connecting rod (All dimensions are in mm). 43 .J. determine the maximum Von-mises stress and maximum displacement for the plane-stress case. If it was 10mm in thickness.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.3 Poisson ratio. The solution is as follows.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 44 .

45 .3 Poisson ratio determine the maximum Von-mises stress and also the maximum deflection in the object. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 5 Curved Slider Consider the following slider (all dimensions are in inch). If the thickness of the plate was 1/8 inch and it was made of structural steel with 30Gpsi Young modulus and 0. All deformations are in inch and all stresses are in psi. Also assume that 250 lb force is distributed in the semicircular arc at the upper end of the slit with an angle of 30 degree with respect to the horizon. The solution is as follows. The left hole is constrained in all directions and the right hole constrained only in y direction.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi 46 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 6 Concentrated Force Consider a 2D square object supported on a flat frictionless surface as shown in the following figure.J. A concentrated force is applied at the midpoint of its upper edge. 180 160 Element Q4 Maximum Stress (Mpa) 140 Element Q8 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Number of elements 47 3500 4000 4500 . The plate is made from structural steel with E=200GPa and v=0. Its thickness is 1mm and assume plane stress. Use linear and quadratic quadrilateral elements to evaluate the maximum Von-Misses stress under the load.3.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Examine different mesh size and draw convergence curve.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. The plate is made from structural steel with E=200GPa and v=0.J.3. Q4 Elements Q8 Elements 48 . Use linear and quadratic quadrilateral elements to evaluate the maximum Von-Misses stress in the object. Its thickness is 1mm and assume plane stress. Examine different mesh size and draw convergence curve. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 7 Sharp Corner Consider a 2D object with sharp corners which is clamped at left and is under a uniform tensile stress at right as shown in the following figure.

4 2.4 1.8 2.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.8 1.6 Element Q4 (Mpa) Maximum Stress (Mpa) 2.J.2 1 0 2000 4000 6000 Number of elements 49 8000 . Kazemzadeh-Parsi 2.6 1.2 2 1.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. The plate is made from structural steel with E=200GPa and v=0. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 8 Rounded Corner Consider a 2D object with round corners which is clamped at left and is under a uniform tensile stress at right as shown in the following figure. Examine different mesh size and draw convergence curve. Q4 Elements Q8 Elements 50 . Its thickness is 1mm and assume plane stress.J.3. Use linear and quadratic quadrilateral elements to evaluate the maximum Von-Misses stress in the object.

2 1.J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.05 1 0 2000 4000 6000 Number of elements 51 8000 10000 .3 Maximum Stress (Mpa) 1.1 Element Q4 (Mpa) Element Q8 (Mpa) 1.15 1. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 1.25 1.

The slab was made of concrete with 25 GPa Young modulus. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 9 Solid Slab under Variable Load Distribution A long rectangular solid slab is clamped completely along two opposite sides as shown in the figure. Determine the maximum deflection and maximum normal stress in the slab due to the specified loading. 0.J. 52 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. The slab is subjected to a transvers triangular distributed force with maximum of 100 tonne/m for unit depth.2 Poisson ratio and 2320 kg/m3 mass density.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 10 Solid Slab under Variable Load Distribution 53 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 11 Pipe Made of Two Different Materials 54 .J.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 5 Three Dimensional Elasticity Example 1 Cantilever Beam 55 .

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. All deformations are in mm and all stresses are in MPa. The solution is as follows. determine the maximum Vonmises stress and maximum displacement produced in the object. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 3 L Shaped Bracket 1 Consider the following 3D bracket (all dimensions are in mm). Assume that the left end of the object is clamped completely and a 1KN shearing force is distributed over the internal surface of the hole and is pointing to the right. 57 .3 Poisson ratio. The bracket is made of structural steel with 200GPa Young modulus and 0. In this circumstance.J.

J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 58 .

The bracket is made of structural steel with 200GPa Young modulus and 0. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 4 L Shaped Bracket 2 Consider the following 3D bracket (all dimensions are in mm).J. Assume that the internal surfaces of the two holes in the right leg are clamped completely and a 3KN shearing force is distributed over the internal surface of the upper hole and is pointing to the right.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. In this circumstance. 59 . determine the maximum Von-Mises stress and maximum displacement produced in the object.3 Poisson ratio.

determine the temperature distribution in the plate.7)/2=52 W/mK 61 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.2+50. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 6 Heat Transfer Example 1 Conductive Heat Transfer in a Square Three sides of a square plate are maintained at constant temperature of 0°C and the fourth one is kept at 100°C. Under this conditions.J. K=(53. The plate is made of carbon steel with average thermal conductivity of 52 W/mK.

J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 62 .

30 0.00 0.00 Mesh 1 Mesh 2 80.90 1.40 63 0. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 100.00 10.00 0.00 .70 0.00 90.00 20.00 50.50 0.80 0.00 40.00 30.20 0.J.00 Mesh 3 Mesh 4 70.10 0.00 0.00 60.60 0.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Under this condition.25 )t  1/ 3 0. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 2 Three Dimensional Needle Fin Consider a needle fin with circular cross section made of carbon steel which is under natural convection in the quiet air.25 ) t    do  h  (2.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.2+50.79  0.32  t0. The base of the fin is maintained at 100°C while the ambient temperature is 25°C.7)/2=52 W/mK The coefficient of convective heat transfer can be approximated for horizontal cylinders as the follows: h   (1. The thermal conductivity of the fin can be approximated for 50°C as fillows.J.16  0.179  t0. determine the temperature distribution along the fin.25 W/m2K for laminar conditions W/m2K for turbulent conditions 64 . k=(53.

08 0.12 0. Kazemzadeh-Parsi In this problem we consider t  25 .02 0.J.16 0. t  100  25  75 and d o  0.06 0.9 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.01 therefore one can obtain h  12.18 0.14 0.2 .1 65 0.04 0.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

The link is steel with a modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa. with no internal stresses. a thermal conductivity of 60. the link will attempt to expand. One of the solid structures is heated to a temperature of 75°C (348 K). since it is pinned. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 7 Thermal Stress Example 1 Thermal Stress in a Rod A steel link.5 W/mK. 66 . is pinned between two solid structures at a reference temperature of 0°C (273 K). Loads will not be applied to the link.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. A steady-state solution of the resulting stress will be found to simplify the analysis. and as such. As heat is transferred from the solid structure into the link. However. only a temperature change of 75°C. this cannot occur.J. and a thermal expansion coefficient of 12e-6/K. stress is created in the link.

3. 67 W/mK 1/°C Pa . The square is made of carbon steel with the following material properties.8e-6 200e9 0.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J. Coefficient of thermal conductivity: Coefficient of thermal expansion: Young modulus: Poisson ratio: 52 10. Under this condition. Three sides of the square are maintained in constant temperature of 0°C and the fourth one is kept in 100°C as shown in the following figure. determine the temperature distribution in the body and also obtain the maximum displacement and Von-Mises stress induced in it for both cases of plane stress and plane strain. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 2 Thermal Stress in a Square Consider a square 2D elastic object which is under thermal stress condition.

J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Plane stress case 68 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Plane strain case 69 .J.

70 . determine the temperature distribution. The pipe is made of carbon steel with the following material properties. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 3 Thermal Stress in a Pipe Consider a circular cross section long pipe with internal diameter of 60mm and external diameter of 100mm. maximum displacement and Von-Mises stress induced in the pipe due to thermal stress.8e-6 1/°C Young modulus: 200e9 Pa Poisson ratio: 0.J. Coefficient of thermal conductivity: 52 W/mK Coefficient of thermal expansion: 10. The internal surface of the pipe is maintained in 100°C and its external surface is kept in 0°C. Under this condition.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.3.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 71 .

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 8 Beam Structures Example 1 Beam Bridge Young’smodulus: E=70e3 Poisson’s ratio: v=0.J.0 it is not required for beams THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS PRINTED FOR NODES BELONGING TO NODES 72 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

73 . A uniform distributed load of 1000 N/m is applied to the lower horizontal members in the vertical downward direction.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.25) oriented as shown below. The detail of the cross section is also shown. Determine the stresses and the vertical displacements. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 2 Beam Bridge The two-dimensional bridge structure is simply supported at its lower corners. ν=0.J. The structure is composed of steel T-sections (E=210 GPa.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi 74 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Determine the stresses and the displacements of the structure. The structure is composed of steel box sections (E=210 GPa. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 3 Table The following table frame structure is supported by a frictionless surface under its legs.J. A uniform distributed load of 1000 N/m is applied to the upper horizontal members in the vertical downward direction.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.25). 75 . ν=0.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi 76 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J.

For steel. Under this circumstance. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 4 Crane The following structure is a part of a crane which is clamped at four left joints. This structure. In addition to the weights of its own members. determine the stresses and displacements of the structure. The main beams of the structure are composed of steel circular cross section pipes with 80mm outer diameter and 4mm in thickness.J. 77 . consider E=210 GPa.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.81m/s2.25 and mass density as 7800 kg/m3. supports a concentrated force of 6KN at the mid span of the last member on the right. The gravitational acceleration is 9. ν=0. The braces are also made of steel pipes of 60mm outer diameter and 3mm in thickness.

J. System-level stability was considered as described in the discussion of stability constraints 79 . Kazemzadeh-Parsi length equal to the member length.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Poisson ratio = 0.J.3 80 . Material: E=10e3 N/mm2.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. A concentrated transverse force of 100 N applied at center. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 9 Shell and Plate Structures Example 1 Rectangular Plate Plate is fixed at one edge and supported by rollers at the opposite edge. Other two edges are free (no support).

The dimensions of the cross section are also shown. In these conditions determine stress distribution and displacements of the structure. Assume the structure is completely fixed at point A and a vertical force of 1KN is applied at the end at B. The structure is made of structural steel with 200GPa Young modulus. It is also needed to consider the weight of the own structure.J. 81 .3 Poisson ratio and 7800kg/m3 mass density. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 2 L Shaped Beam Structure A frame structure which is composed of two I beams is shown in the following.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. 0.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 82 .

The thickness of the vessel and pipes is 0. 83 . Two pipes of 0.3). Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 3 Pressure Vessel A pressure vessel is composed of a cylindrical body with hemispherical caps. In these conditions determine the stress and displacement distribution in the vessel. v=0. Assume a constant pressure of 2atm is exerted on the internal surfaces and the free ends of the pipes are clamped completely.J.005m and are made of structural steel (E=200GPa.05m.2m diameter are attached to the central part of the vessel with relative angle of 90 degrees.6m.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.3m in length and the distance between centerlines is 0. The connection point of the pipes and the vessel is filleted with radius of 0. Each pipe is 0. The diameter of the vessel is 1m and its total length is 2m.

J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 84 .

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 4 Pipe E=200GPa Niu=0.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.3 Thichness=0.01 m Internal Pressure=1e6 Pa BC: onlt the translational DOFs of the edges of the bolt holes are restrained 85 .J.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi 86 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 87 .

Autoclave molding is a wellestablished method for composites used in the aero-space industry with certified resins and fibers. 88 . These components include the flaps. Most of these components are flat in shape and they are usually made using hand-lay-up (HLU) and autoclave molding techniques. radome etc.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J. One of the materials is the matrix in which the other materials called reinforcements are embedded. A photograph of an auto-clave is also shown. This airplane has more than 50% of its structure made of composite materials. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 10 Composite Structures Composite is a macroscopic mixture of at least two materials. rudder. The following figure shows a schematic of an Airbus 380 airplane (the largest airplane in the world as of 2008). The next figure shows a schematic of the hand-lay-up fabrication technique and a representative lay-up sequence. ailerons.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi 89 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J.

These components are made using the filament winding process. Kazemzadeh-Parsi The following figure shows a pressure vessel made of composite materials using the combination of hand-lay-up and filament winding processes.J. Composite pressure vessels are light weight and can contain pressures higher than those contained by metallic vessels.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. 90 . The following figure shows a photograph of a filament winding machine.

3(a) shows a component made using pultrusion. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1.3(b) shows the schematic of the pultrusion process.J. and Figure 1. 91 .3(c) shows a photograph of a lab scale pultrusion machine.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Pultrusion is used to make many structures for civil engineering applications. Figure 1.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi 92 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J.

 Smeared modeling  The composite is modeled as an equivalent homogeneous material with stacked or single layer element configuration 93 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Figure 1. Figure 1.  Layered modeling  Each element is composed of several layers of different materials. Depending on the purpose of the analysis.J.4(b) shows a schematic of the liquid composite molding process.  Each element is composed of a single homogeneous material.4(a) shows a composite component made using the liquid composite molding (LCM) method (5 piece). LCM has been used to make automobile composite components. different modeling techniques for composites can be used:  Microscopic modeling  Matrix and reinforcements are separately modeled as deformable continua.

J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 94 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

14 GPa Viu12=0. 45.26 Layer thickness =0.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. 90] 95 .002 m Layup: [90. 0.J. 45.27 GPa G12=4. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Example 1 Glass/Epoxy E1=38.6 GPa E2=8.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 11 Free Vibration Example 1 96 .J.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 12 Linear Buckling Example 1 97 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 13 Contact Stress Example 1 98 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 14 Plastic Deformation Example 1 99 .

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 15 Flow in Porous Media Example 1 100 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Chapter 16 Flow of Viscose Fluids Example 1 101 .J.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Appendix 1 Material Properties 102 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi 103 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 104 .J.

J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 105 .

J. Kazemzadeh-Parsi 106 .ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Appendix 2 Stress Concentration Factors 107 .J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.

Swept meshing Abaqus/CAE creates swept meshes by internally generating the mesh on an edge or face and then sweeping that mesh along a sweep path. Structured meshing Structured meshing is the top-down technique that gives you the most control over your mesh because it applies preestablished mesh patterns to particular model topologies. The top-down mesh matches the geometry. Figure 17–4 shows an example of a swept mesh. Like structured meshing. 108 . However. you may need to simplify and/or partition complex geometry so that Abaqus/CAE recognizes basic shapes that it can use to generate a high-quality mesh. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Appendix 3 Meshing Techniques Top-down meshing Top-down meshing relies on the geometry of a part to define the outer bounds of the mesh. you can often partition complex models into simple regions with topologies for which structured meshing patterns exist.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M.J. The result can be either a two-dimensional mesh created from an edge or a three-dimensional mesh created from a face. Figure 17–3 shows an example of a structured mesh. The top-down techniques—structured. swept meshing is a top-down technique limited to models with specific topologies and geometries. Most unpartitioned solid models are too complex to be meshed using preestablished mesh patterns. and free meshing—and their geometry requirements are well-defined. swept. In some cases top-down methods may not allow you to mesh portions of a complex part with the desired type of elements. and loads and boundary conditions applied to a part are associated automatically with the resulting mesh.

ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. you must also decide whether the resulting mesh is a suitable approximation of the geometry. but the mesh is not required to conform to the geometry. However. It uses no preestablished mesh patterns and can be applied to almost any model shape. However. Bottom-up meshing Bottom-up meshing uses the part geometry as a guideline for the outer bounds of the mesh. Bottom-up meshing can be applied to any solid model shape. Figure 17–5 shows an example of a free mesh. Kazemzadeh-Parsi Free meshing The free meshing technique is the most flexible top-down meshing technique. you can delete the mesh and try a different bottom-up meshing method or partition the region and mesh the resulting smaller regions with either bottom-up or top-down meshing techniques. free meshing provides you with the least control over the mesh since there is no way to predict the mesh pattern. To mesh a single bottom-up region. It provides you with the most control over the mesh. 109 .J. you may use an extruded bottom-up mesh to generate part of a region. If it is not. you may have to apply several successive bottom-up meshes. Removing this restriction gives you greater control over the mesh and allows you to create a hexahedral or hexahedraldominated mesh on geometry that is too complex for the structured or swept meshing techniques. since you select the method and the parameters that drive the mesh. For example.

What is structured meshing? The structured meshing technique generates structured meshes using simple predefined mesh topologies. Figure 17–42 illustrates how simple mesh patterns for triangles. Although this part is relatively simple. see “Mesh-geometry association. squares. and pentagons are applied to more complex shapes. it requires two regions and four bottom-up meshes to completely mesh the part.) Because of the extra effort required by the user to create a satisfactory mesh compared to the automated top-down meshing processes. (For more information. Kazemzadeh-Parsi then use the element faces of the extruded mesh as a starting point to generate a swept mesh for features that the extruded mesh did not include. Displaying both the geometry and the mesh allows you to view and edit the mesh-geometry associativity. a bottomup mesh may not be fully associated with geometry.11. Abaqus/CAE displays bottom-up meshed regions using a mixture of the region geometry color (light tan) and the mesh color (light blue) to emphasize that the geometry and mesh may not be associated. Abaqus/CAE transforms the mesh of a regularly shaped region. bottom-up meshing is recommended for use only when top-down meshing cannot generate a suitable mesh. such as a square or a cube. Unlike a top-down mesh. 110 . Loads and boundary conditions are applied to geometry. Proper mesh-geometry association will ensure that the loads and boundary conditions are correctly transferred to the mesh during the analysis. Therefore. For example.J. onto the geometry of the region you want to mesh.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. You can apply the structured meshing technique to simple two-dimensional regions (planar or curved) or to simple three-dimensional regions that have been assigned the Hex or Hex-dominated element shape option. you should check that the mesh is correctly associated with the geometry in areas where loads or boundary conditions are applied.4. Figure 17–6 shows an example of a bottom-up meshed part.” Section 17.

Kazemzadeh-Parsi Three-dimensional structured meshing Figure 17–49 illustrates examples of simple three-dimensional regions that can be meshed using the structured meshing technique. which are preferred over tetrahedral elements. your only meshing option may be the free meshing technique with tetrahedral elements.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. the four partitions in Figure 17–51 convert the part instance from one region with a hole to four regions without holes. Meshing more complex regions with this technique may require manual partitioning. If you do not partition a complex region. 111 . You can eliminate holes (whether they pass all the way through the part instance or just part way through) by partitioning their circumferences into halves. For example. etc. quarters. Meshes constructed using the structured meshing technique consist of hexahedral elements.J.

the vertex at the top of an unpartitioned pyramid in Figure 17–54 is connected to four edges. (A face must have at least three sides to be meshed using the structured meshing technique. However. the semicircles at either end of the part in Figure 17–53 have only two sides each. the vertex is connected to only three edges for each individual region.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Exactly three edges of the region must meet at each vertex.) If you partition the part into two halves. Kazemzadeh-Parsi You should limit arcs to 90° or less to avoid concavities along sides and at edges. if you partition the pyramid into two tetrahedral regions. For example. 112 . each semicircle is divided into two faces with three sides each. All the faces of the region must have geometries that could be meshed using the twodimensional structured meshing technique. For example. For example. without partitioning. the part instance in Figure 17–52 has been partitioned so that the single region with 180° arcs becomes two regions with 90° arcs.J.

the side that has an isolated edge or vertex) to be the source side. The swept meshing technique involves two phases: Abaqus/CAE creates a mesh on one side of the region. the resulting mesh is called a revolved swept mesh. Next.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. Abaqus/CAE selects the most complex side (for example. or a spline. until the final side. Abaqus/CAE copies the nodes of that mesh. If some regions of a model are too complex to be swept meshed. a circular edge. and this edge is called the sweep path. Figure 17–65 shows an extruded swept mesh. Abaqus/CAE copies the nodes along an edge.J. one element layer at a time. In some cases you can use the mesh controls to select the sweep path. Abaqus/CAE tests if the region can be replicated by sweeping a source side along a sweep path to a target side. known as the target side. the resulting mesh is called an extruded swept mesh. For example. To determine if a region is swept meshable. Abaqus/CAE asks if you want to remove these regions from your selection before it generates a swept mesh on the remaining regions. Abaqus/CAE first creates a two-dimensional mesh on the source side of the model. Kazemzadeh-Parsi What is swept meshing? Abaqus/CAE uses swept meshing to mesh complex solid and surface regions. is reached. or you can partition the regions into simplified geometry that can be structured or swept meshed. You can use the free meshing technique to mesh the complex regions. If the sweep path is a straight edge or a spline. each of the nodes in the two-dimensional mesh is copied along a straight edge to every layer until the target side is reached. When you assign mesh controls to a region. To mesh this model. The sweep path can be any type of edge—a straight edge. In general. If the sweep path is a circular edge. known as the source side. If the region can be swept in more than one direction. Abaqus/CAE indicates the direction of the sweep path and allows you to control the direction. Abaqus/CAE may generate a very different two-dimensional mesh on the faces that 113 .

the direction of the sweep path can influence the uniformity of the resulting three-dimensional swept mesh. as shown in Figure 17–66.J.ABAQUS Lecture Notes M. 114 . Kazemzadeh-Parsi it can select as the source side. As a result.