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Anatomy and Physiology

Chapter 1 - The Human Body: An Orientation
Anatomy: the study of the body’s structures and their relationships to one
another
Physiology: the study of the body’s function.

Topics of Anatomy
Gross/macroscopic anatomy: the study of large body structures (ex.
kidneys, lungs)
Regional anatomy: all the structures of the body (muscles, bones, blood,
etc.) in a particular region (legs, abdomen, etc.) are studied at one time
Systemic anatomy: body structure is studied system by system.
Surface anatomy: the study of internal structures as they relate to the
overlying skin surface.
Microscopic anatomy: the study of structures too small to be seen with the
naked eye (ex. cells). Subdivisions include cytology (cells of the body) and
histology (study of tissues)
Developmental anatomy: studies changes in the body throughout the life
span, a subdivision being embryology, the study of developmental changes
before birth.

Topics of Physiology
Has many different subdivisions, mostly concerning specific body systems.
For example, renal physiology concerns kidney function and urine production.
Often focuses on events at cellular or molecular level.
Complementarity of Structure and Function
Definition: The principle of complementarity of structure and function states
that what a structure can do depends on its specific form.
Function always reflects structure and anatomy and physiology is
inseparable.

Levels of Structural Organization
Chemical level: atoms combine to form molecules such as water and
proteins.
Molecules associate to form organelles, the basic components of living cells.
This is the cellular level.
Tissue level: groups of similar cells that have a common function. Four basic
types: epithelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nervous tissue.
Organ: a discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types that
perform a specific function for the body.
At the organ level, extremely complex functions become possible.
Organ system level: organs that work together to accomplish a common
purpose make up an organ system.
The organismal level represents the sum total of all structural levels working
together to keep us alive.

Maintaining Life

Maintaining boundaries: an organism must keep its internal environment
distinct from its external environment. All the cells of our body are
surrounded by a selectively permeable membrane. The body as a whole is
protected by the intergumentary system or skin.
Movement: the activities promoted by the muscular system, such as
propelling ourselves from one place to another such as running or swimming.
As well, movement also occurs when substances are propelled through the
internal organs. This is called contractility, the ability to move by shortening.
Responsiveness: the ability to sense changes in the environment and then
respond to them. The nervous system is most involved with responsiveness.
Digestion: the breaking down of ingested food to simple molecules that can
be absorbed by the blood, then distributed by the cardiovascular system.
Metabolism: a broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur
within our body cells.
Catabolism: breaking down substances
Anabolism: synthesizing more complex cellular structures
Excretion: the process of removing wastes (excreta) from the body.
Reproduction: occurs at cellular and organismal level
Cellular reproduction: the original cell divides producing two identical
daughter cells that may e used for body growth and repair.
Reproduction of the human organism is the major task of the reproductive
system,
Growth: an increase of the size of a body part or the organism.
Survival Needs
Nutrients: chemical substances used for energy and cell building. Taken in
via the diet.
Oxygen and water: molecules required for most chemical reaction in the
body.
Normal body temperature: needed for continued chemical reactions (37
degrees Celcius)
Atmospheric pressure: the force that air exerts on the surface of the body.
Breathing and gas exchange rely on appropriate atmospheric pressure.

Homeostasis

Definition: The body’s ability to maintain a relatively stable internal
condition even though the outside world is changing constantly.
Dynamic state of equilibrium refers to the fact that internal conditions vary
but always within relatively narrow limits.
Virtually every organ system plays a role in maintaining homeostasis.
Homeostatic control
Communication is essential for homeostasis. All homeostatic control
mechanisms involve at least three components that work together.
The receptor is some type of sensor that monitors the environment and
responds to changes called stimuli by sending information to the control
centre along the afferent pathway.
The control centre determines the set point (the level or range at which a
variable is to be maintained). It also analyzes the input it receives and

Often referred to as cascades. the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or otherwise reduces its intensity. The Language of Anatomy Superior: towards the head end. which are attached to the body’s axis. Directional terms: allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another Regional terms Axial part: includes the head. Sagittal plane: a vertical plane that divided the body into its right and left parts. In positive feedback the response is increased. Homeostatic imbalance: most diseases can be regarded as a result of homeostatic disturbance. above Inferior: towards the lower end (away from the head end) of a body structure. The results of the response then feed back to influence the effects of the stimulus. Information then goes to the effector along the efferent pathway. . or upper part of a body structure. and trunk. the response is reduced. Regional terms: used to designate specific areas within these division. Sometimes occurs when negative feedback cycles are overwhelmed. Body Planes and Sections For anatomical studies. in front of Dorsal: towards or at the back of the body. below Ventral: towards or at the front of the body. In negative feedback. Negative feedback mechanisms: in these systems. on the outer side of Intermediate: between a more medial and lateral structure Proximal: closer to the origin of the body part or to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk Distal: farther away from the origin of the body part Superficial (external): towards or at the body surface Deep (internal): away from the body surface. Appendicular part: consist of appendages. behind Medial: towards or at the midline of the body. on the inner side of Lateral: away from the midline of the body. more internal Anatomical position: the body is erect with feet slightly apart.determines the appropriate response. neck. or limbs. Positive feedback mechanisms: in these systems the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the result is accelerated. the body is often sectioned along a plane. Palms face forward and the thumbs point away from the body. The effector provides the means for the control centre’s response to the stimulus.

some reproductive organs. intestines. It is surrounded by the ribs and muscles on the chest. The pelvic cavity (inferior) lies in the pelvis and contains the urinary bladder. double-layered membrane called the serosa or the serous membrane. The parietal pleurae line the walls of the thoracic cavity and the visceral pleurae cover the lungs. Membranes in the Ventral Body Cavity The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by a thin.) The abdominopelvic cavity is inferior to the thoracic cavity. Chapter 4 . the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity The thoracic cavity is superior to the abdominopelvic cavity. Houses internal organs collectively called the viscera or visceral organs Two major subdivisions. and other organs. each enveloping a lung. The part lining the cavity walls is the parietal serosa and it folds in on itself to form the visceral serosa. The parietal peritoneum is associated with the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity while the visceral peritoneum covers most of the organs within that cavity. the stains in electron microscopy are heavy metal salts Artifacts: minor distortions that alter the tissue’s original condition Epithelial Tissue . spleen. Separated by a thin layer of lubricating fluid: the serous fluid This fluid allows the organs to slide without friction across other surfaces The parietal pericardium lines the pericardial cavity and folds back as the visceral pericardium.Tissue: The Living Fabric Preparing Human Tissue for Microscopy All specimens must be fixed (preserved). trachea. The mediastinum contains the pericardial cavity which encloses the heart and it also surrounds the remaining thoracic organ (esophagus. divided body into superior and inferior parts Oblique sections: cuts made diagonally between horizontal and vertical planes Body Cavities and Membranes Dorsal body cavity: two subdivisions. and the medial mediastinum. separated by the diaphragm The abdominal cavity contains the stomach.Frontal plane: divide the body into anterior and posterior (front and back) parts Transverse plane: runs horizontally from right to left. and the rectum. cranial cavity (in the skull encasing the brain) and vertebral or spinal cavity (enclosing the spinal cord) Ventral body cavity: the more anterior and closer body cavities. cut into thin sections and stained The stains used in light microscopy are dyes. etc. It is further subdivided into lateral pleural cavities.

secretion and filtration NOT protection Simple Squamous Epithelium Flattened laterally. They are nourished by substances diffusing from the blood in the underlying connective tissue 5. adhesive sheet consisting largely of glycoproteins plus some fine collagen fibres lying adjacent to the basal surface. i. Acts as a selective filter or as a scaffolding along which epithelial cells can migrate to repair a wound 2. All epithelia exhibit apical-basal polarity. stratified has two or more All epithelia have six sides which allows the cells to be closely packed. Regeneration: epithelium has a high regenerative capacity. The basal lamina and the reticular lamina form the basement membrane which helps the epithelia resist stretching and defines its boundaries 4. cytoplasm is sparse . lines the open cavities of many systems and covers the walls of the closed ventral cavity Glandular epithelium: fashions the glands of the body Special Characteristics of Epithelium 1.e. cuboidal cells are box-like and as tall as they are wide. and columnar cells are tall and rectangle shaped Stratified cells are named according to the cell shape in the apical layer Simple Epithelia Most concerned with absorption. As long as epithelia receive adequate nutrition. These tight junctions help keep proteins in the apical layer from migrating to the basal layer and thus help to maintain epithelial polarity 3. the cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface in structure and function Most apical surfaces have microvilli (for absorption) and some have cilia (to propel substances along their free surface) Basal lamina: noncellular. Avascular but innervated: epithelia have nerve fibres but no blood vessels. Specialized contacts: epithelial cells fit close together by tight junctions and desmosomes to form continuous sheets. they can replace lost cells by cell division Classification of Epithelia Two names: the first indicates the number of cell layers and the second describes the shape of its cells Simple epithelia has one layer of cells. But they do vary in height: Squamous cells are flattened and scale like. Supported by connective tissue: all epithelial sheets rest upon and are supported by connective tissue.Definition: a sheet of cells that cover a body surface or line a body cavity Covering and lining epithelium: forms the outer layer of the skin. Polarity: all epithelia contain an apical surface and a basal surface.

associated with absorption and secretion Dense microvilli are found on the apical surface of absorptive cells and cells secrete protective mucus Some simple columnar epithelium display cilia on their free surfaces Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Cells vary in height. Usually only two layers of cuboidal cells Stratified columnar epithelium is also rare.Thin and permeable. the male urethra. composed of several layers and is very thick Its free surface cells are squamous while its basal cells are cuboidal or columnar Forms the skin surface Stratified Cuboidal and Columnar Epithelium Stratified cuboidal epithelium is quite rare and is found in the ducts of some of the larger glands. Only its apical surface is columnar Transitional Epithelium Forms the lining of the hollow urinary organs. small amounts are found in the pharynx. Very useful in the bladder as it allows more urine to be stored Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal. closely packed cells Lines the digestive tract. and can change shape to accommodate a greater volume of urine. basal cells are cuboidal or columnar. surface cells dome shaped or squamous-like depending on degree of organ stretch . and in transition areas between cells. friction reducing simple squamous epithelium lining found in lymphatic vessels and in all the hollow organs of the cardiovascular system (blood vessels and heart) Mesothelium: found in serous membranes lining the ventral body cavity Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Consists of a single layer of cells as tall as they are wide Functions to secrete and absorb. the kidneys) Endothelium: slick. forms the walls of the smallest duct glands and kidney tubules Simple Columnar Epithelium A single layer of tall. all of its cells lie on the basement membrane but many do not reach the free surface A ciliated version lines most of the respiratory tract Stratified Epithelium Two or more cell layers that regenerate from below with the basal cells pushing apically as they divide to replace older surface cells Protection is their major role Stratified Squamous Epithelium Most widespread. found where filtration or rapid diffusion is a priority (ex.

the cuplike accumulation of mucin distends the top of the cell so it looks like a goblet Multicellular Exocrine Glands Two basic parts: a duct and a secretory unit (acinus) Supportive connective tissue surrounds the secretory unit to supply it with blood vessels and nerves Forms a fibrous capsule that extends into the gland to divide the gland into lobes  Structural classification: either simple (unbranched duct) or compound (branched duct). Apocrine cells pinch off a part of their apex releasing the secretion as well as a small amount of cytoplasm. most abundant and widely distributed primary tissue type Common Characteristics of Connective Tissue 1. Debate as to whether this is found in humans Connective Tissue Found everywhere. from avascular cartilage to poorly vascularized dense connective tissue to well vascularized bone . Degrees of vascularity: wide variety. Common origin: all connective tissue arises from mesenchyme 2. Called tubuloalveolar if they have both secretory units  Modes of secretion: merocrine secrete their products by exocytosis while holocrine glands accumulate their products within themselves until they rupture.Glandular Epithelia Gland: one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product (secretion) Endocrine: internally secreting Exocrine: externally secreting Unicellular (scattered within epithelial sheets) or multicellular (have ducts at least initially) Endocrine Glands Called ductless glands and produce hormones Hormones: regulatory chemicals secreted into the extracellular space that act to stimulate some specific target organ in a characteristic way Exocrine Glands Secrete their products onto body surfaces or into body cavities Unicellular Exocrine Glands Consist of mucous cells and goblet cells sprinkled in the epithelial linings of the intestinal or respiratory tract amid columnar cells with other functions Produce mucin that dissolves in water to form mucus In goblet cells. Tubular if the secretory cells form tubes or alveolar if the secretory cells form small flask-like sacs.

and reticular fibers Collagen fibers: most abundant. extremely tough and provide high tensile strength Elastic fibers: long. cartilage has chondroblasts. and proteoglycans Cell adhesion proteins serve as connective tissue “glue” that allows the connective tissue cells to attach themselves to matrix elements Proteoglycans consist of a protein core to which glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are attached GAGs (chondroitin sulphate and hyaluronic acid) are large negatively charged polysaccharides that make the ground substance viscous The ground substance holds large amounts of water and functions as a molecular sieve Fibers Provide support: three types are collagen. actively mitotic calls that secrete the ground substance and fibers characteristic of their particular matrix Connective tissue proper has fibroblasts. snap connective tissue back into normal length and shape after stretching Reticular fibers: short. and so on and so forth. fibres. Structural Elements of Connective Tissue Three main elements: ground substance. Branch extensively and form delicate networks around small blood vessels and support the soft tissue of organs Cells Blast cells: undifferentiated. fine. they become “cyte” cells Connective tissue also contains fat cells. elastic. and bone has osteoblasts Once they have synthesized the matrix. and cells Ground substance and fibres make up the extracellular matrix Areolar connective tissue is used as a model for this group of tissues Ground Substance Definition: unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibres Composed of interstitial (tissue) fluid. cell adhesion proteins.3. withstand great tension. Can stretch and recoil. immune cells (like white blood cells and macrophages) Mast cells: cluster along blood vessels to detect foreign microorganisms and initiate the inflammatory response against them Macrophages: large irregular cells that phagocytize foreign material from bacteria to dust particles Types of Connective Tissue . collagenous fibers continuous with collagen fibers. Extracellular matrix: connective tissue is composed mostly of extracellular matrix which allows it to bear weight. thin fibers that form a branching network in the extracellular matrix.

serves as packing material between other tissues Present in all mucous membranes as lamina propria Adipose (Fat) Tissue Stores nutrients in adipocytes.Connective Tissue Proper – Loose Connective Tissue Areolar Connective Tissue Supports and binds other tissue (fibers). holds body fluids (ground substance). it provides a reservoir of water and salts Hyaluronic acid makes its ground substance quite viscous and when a body region is inflamed the areolar tissue in the area soaks up excess fluid. as insulation. flexible structures with great resistance to tension where the tension is exerted in a single direction Collagen fibers are slightly wavy allowing the tissue to stretch a little This tissue has few cells other than fibroblasts and is poorly vascularized Forms tendons that attach muscle to bone and aponeuroses which attach muscle to muscle It also forms fascia and ligaments Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Same structural elements as the regular variety except the bundles of collagen fibres are much thicker and run in more than one direction This type of tissue forms sheets in body areas where tension is exerted in many directions like in the dermis or in fibrous joint capsules Elastic Connective Tissue . and in bone marrow Connective Tissue Proper – Dense Connective Tissues Often referred to as fibrous connective tissues Dense Regular Connective Tissue Contains closely packed bundles of collagen fibers running parallel to the direction of pull Results in white. cells are packed close together and there is little matrix Usually accumulates in subcutaneous tissue to act as a shock absorber. the spleen. and stores nutrients as fat (fat cells) Fibroblasts predominate but other cell types are also present Most obvious characteristic is the loose arrangement of its fibers Because of its loose nature. Helps prevent heat loss from the body Reticular Connective Tissue Resembles areolar connective tissue but the only fibers in its matrix are reticular fibers Reticular cells are scattered throughout the reticular fiber network. supports other cell types Found only in lymph nodes. and as an energy storage site. so the area become puffy (edema) Most widely distributed. defends against infection (white blood cells and macrophages).

contains large numbers of collagen fibers. Skeletal muscle cells (muscle fibers) are long cylindrical cells that contain many nuclei. all are continuous multicellular sheets with an epithelium bound to an underlying layer of connective tissue proper .A few ligaments connecting adjacent vertebrae are very elastic so that the dense connective tissue found in those structures is referred to as elastic connective tissue Cartilage Stands up to both tension and compression. Are striated but uninucleate and are branching cells that fit together tightly at unique junctions called intercalated discs Smooth muscle: have no visible striations. Their striation reflects the precise alignment of their microfilaments Cardiac muscle: only found in the wall of the heart and help propel blood throughout the body. Elastic Cartilage: nearly identical to hyaline cartilage but with many more elastic fibers. spindle shaped. Mature chondrocytes are usually found in lacunae Three types of cartilage: 1. receives nutrients through diffusion from perichondrium Ground substance contains large amounts of GAGs. well-vascularized tissues that are responsible for body movement Myofilaments: bring about movement or contraction in all cell types Skeletal muscle: these muscles form the flesh of the body and as they contract. Mainly found in the walls on hollow organs except the heart and acts to squeeze substances through these organs (peristalsis and such) Covering and Lining Membranes Three types. hyaluronic acid. Fibrocartilage: rows of chondrocytes alternate with rows of collagen fibers. Provides firm support with some pliability. found where strong support and the ability to withstand heavy pressure is needed: in the intervertebral discs and in the menisci of the knee Muscle Tissue Highly cellular. covers ends of long bones as articular cartilage 2. Hyaline Cartilage: most abundant cartilage type. has qualities intermediate between dense connective tissue and bone Tough but flexible and provides a resilient rigidity Lacks nerve fibers and is avascular. Found where strength and stretchability is needed: in the external ear and epiglottis 3. and firmly bound collagen fibers Cartilage is 80% water which allows it to rebound when compressed and helps nourish the cartilage cells Chondroblasts: predominant cell type in growing cartilage produces new matrix until skeleton stops growing. Compressible and resists tension well. they pull on bones or skin to cause body movement. and only have one nucleus.

mast cells and other tissues to release inflammatory chemicals which cause the capillaries to become very permeable. Some of the fibroblasts within the granulation tissue produce growth factors and new collagen fibers while others pull the edges of the wound together. Organization restores the blood supply: this is the first part of tissue repair. The result is thin. some secrete mucus Serous Membranes Moist membranes found in closed ventral cavities Consists of simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue. The mesothelial cells add hyaluronic acid to the fluid that filters from the capillaries in the associated connective tissue.Cutaneous Membrane The skin: see chapter 5 notes Mucous Membranes Line body cavities that open to the exterior. macrophages digest the original blood clot and collagen fiber deposit continues. The granulation tissue is destined to become scar tissue and is highly resistant to infection because it produces bacteria-inhibiting substances 3. The blood clot is replaced by granulation tissue (a delicate pink tissue containing capillaries proliferating fibroblasts). 2. Inflammation occurs: tissue trauma causes injured tissues. macrophages. This produces a clot and eventually forms a scab. This allows white blood cells and plasma to seep into the area. such as the organs of the digestive system All are “wet” or moist membranes bathed in secretions Most mucosae contain either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelia directly underlain by a layer of loose connective tissue called the lamina propria Mucous membranes are adapted for absorption and secretion. Regeneration and fibrosis effect permanent repair: during organization the surface epithelium start to regenerate until it finally . clear serous fluid Tissue Repair Repair occurs in two major ways: by regeneration and by fibrosis Regeneration is the replacement of the destroyed tissue with the same kind of tissue whereas fibrosis involves proliferation of fibrous connective tissue called scar tissue Steps of Tissue Repair 1. As organization continues.

nervous tissue. leathery layer composed mostly of fibrous connective tissue. bone. fibrosis totally replaces lost tissue Developmental Aspects of Tissues The first events of embryonic development is the formation of three primary germ layers: the ectoderm. Also acts as a shock absorber and an insulator Epidermis . Also called the superficial fascia. healing is by regeneration only Regenerative Capacity of Different Tissues Epithelial tissues. it is superficial to the skeletal muscles and is composed mostly of adipose tissue The hypodermis anchors the skin to the underlying structures but loose enough so it can still slide freely (this ensures that many blows just glance off our body). and endoderm These primary germ layers then specialize to form the four primary tissues: epithelium. muscle. only epithelia and blood-forming tissues are highly mitotic Chapter 5 . The end result is fully regenerated epithelium and an underlying area of scar tissue which may be visible or not This repair process follows healing of a wound. outermost protective shield of the body The underlying dermis makes up the bulk of the skin and is a tough. dense irregular connective tissue. and blood-forming tissue regenerate extremely well Smooth muscle and dense regular connective tissue regenerate moderately well but skeletal muscle and cartilages have a weak regenerative capacity Cardiac muscle and the nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord have virtually no functional regenerative capacity In nonregenerative tissues and in exceptionally severe wounds. is not part of the skin but shares some protective functions. Vascularized Nutrients reach the epidermis by diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis Hypodermis: the subcutaneous tissue just deep to the skin.resembles that of the adjacent skin. and connective tissue In adults. mesoderm. areolar connective tissue.The Integumentary System Two distinct regions: the epidermis and the dermis Epidermis: composed of epithelial cells. In simple infection.

they are little more than keratin filled plasma membranes. Millions of these dead cells rub off every day Melanocytes: spider-shaped epithelial cells that synthesize the pigment melanin. Found in the deepest layer of the epidermis and melanin accumulates in melanosomes that are moved along to the ends of the melanocyte’s process. they are taken up by the keratinocytes The melanin granules accumulate on the superficial side of the keratinocytes and form a pigment shield to protect against UV rays Epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhans cells): arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. These cells undergo almost continuous mitosis. Tactile (Merkel) cells: present at the epidermal-dermal junction and function as a sensory receptor for touch Layers of the Epidermis Thick vs. They ingest foreign substances and are key activators of our immune system. consisting of a single layer of stem cells representing the youngest keratinocytes. one daughter cell is pushed into the cell layer above to begin the process of becoming a mature keratinocyte while the other stays behind to continue the process of producing new keratinocytes Some melanocytes present in the stratum basale and occasional tactile cells Stratum Spinosum (Prickly Layer) Several cell layers thick.Definition: A keratinized stratified squamous epithelium consisting of four distinct cell types and four or five distinct layers Cells of the Epidermis Keratinocytes: chief role is to produce keratin. thin skin: five layers in thick skin (extra stratum lucidum) and only four in thin skin (layers are also significantly thinner) Stratum Basale (Basal Layer) Deepest epidermal layer. they make the keratin that eventually dominates their cell contents. cells contain intermediate filaments (mainly tensionresistant bundles of pre-keratin filaments) which span their cytosol to attach to desmosomes . From there. attached to the underlying dermis along a wavy borderline. Each time one basal cell divides. as the cells are pushed upwards by the new cells being produced beneath them. By the time the keratinocytes reach the free surface of the skin. are tightly connected by desmosomes and arise in the deepest cell layer known as the stratum basale. Also called the stratum germinativum because of the rapid division of cells.

Keratinocytes flatten. dead keratinocytes with indistinct boundaries. oil. causing them to integrate into cable-like. and they accumulate two types of granules. visible only in thick skin Here. and sweat glands are derived from the epidermis but reside in the dermis Two layers: the papillary layer and the reticular layer The thin superficial papillary layer is areolar connective tissue in which fine. macrophages. parallel arrays Stratum Corneum (Horny Layer) Outermost layer and is a broad zone of 20 to 30 cell layers. the epidermal cells are too far from the dermal capillaries and get cut off from nutrients and so they die Stratum Lucidum (Clear Layer) Two or three rows of clear. is made up of strong. the gummy substance of the keratohyaline granules clings to the keratin filaments in the cells. Accounts for up to three quarters of the thickness of the epidermis Keratin and the thick plasma membranes of the cells in this layer protect the skin against abrasion and penetration. flexible connective tissue Its cells are typical of any connective tissue proper and include: fibroblasts. blood vessels. and occasional mast cells and white blood cells Richly supplied with nerve cells. flat. their nuclei and organelles begin to disintegrate. and lymphatic vessels Hair follicles. The glycolipid between its cells waterproofs this layer The cell remnants of the stratum corneum are referred to as cornified or horny cells Dermis Definition: Second major skin region. there are melanin granules and epidermal dendritic cells (most abundant here) Stratum Granulosum (Granular Layer) Three to five cell layers in which keratinization begins. Keratohyaline granules: help to form keratin in the upper layers Lamellated granules: contain a water-resistant glycolipid that is spewed into the extracellular space that helps slow water loss across the epidermis Keratinocytes become more resistant to destruction as their plasma membranes thicken and lipids released by the lamellated granules coat their external surface Note: above the stratum granulosum.As well as keratinocytes. interlacing collagen and elastic fibres are mixed with small blood .

lying between the reticular layer and the hypodermis. Most contain capillary loops but some house free nerve endings and touch receptors (Meissner’s corpuscles) On the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. dense fibrous connective tissue Cutaneous plexus: the network of blood vessels. lines in the skin. . Separations between these bundles form cleavage. An incision is usually made parallel to these externally invisible cleavage lines The collagen fibres of the dermis give skin strength and prevent most scrapes and jabs from penetrating the dermis. allowing an epithelial bud to form. May pigment skin The pinkish hue of fair skin is due to the colour of haemoglobin. causing the epidermis to form epidermal ridges. The process is stimulated by reduced production of cell adhesion factor (cadherin). Collagen also binds water and elastic fibres provide the stretch-recoil properties of the skin Flexure lines: dermal folds that occur at or near joints where the dermis is tightly secured to deeper structures and so cannot slide easily. mostly running parallel to the skin’s surface. Eventually.vessels. Caucasian skin does not contain much melanin pigment and so allows haemoglobin’s crimson colour to show through Appendages of the Skin A key step in forming a skin appendage is the formation of an epithelial bud. these papillae lie atop dermal ridges. the melanosomes are broken down by lysosomes so it can only be found in the deeper layers of the epidermis. tends to accumulate in the stratum corneum and in the fatty tissue of the hypodermis. causing deep skin creases to form Skin Colour Melanin: a polymer made of tyrosine amino acids. Made by melanocytes and based on to the keratinocytes. which nourishes the reticular layer The extracellular matrix of the reticular layer contains pockets of adipose cells and thick bundles of collagen fibres. irregularly arranged. Called friction ridges. the cells can move about and rearrange themselves. Phagocytes and other defensive cells wander freely through this layer looking for bacteria and other foreign substances Dermal papillae: peg like projections on the superior surface of the papillary layer that indent the overlying dermis. or tension. these increase gripping ability Sweat pores open along their crests (this is what creates fingerprints) The deeper reticular layer is coarse. Protects DNA against the damaging effects of UV radiation Carotene: a yellow to orange pigment found in certain plant products (such as carrots). Once the cell-to-cell attractions are broken. ranges in colour from yellow to tan to reddish brown to black.

and nose hairs filter large particles from the air we inhale Structure of a Hair Hard keratin: dominated hair and nails (vs.Sweat (Sudoriferous) Glands Two types: eccrine and apocrine Both types are associated with myoepithelial cells: specialized cells that contract when stimulated by the nervous system to force sweat to the skin surface Eccrine (or merocrine) sweat glands: numerous simple. soft keratin found in skin cells) and is tougher and more durable and does not flake Shaft: portion of hair where keratinization is complete Root: portion of hair where keratinization is still ongoing Three concentric layers of keratinized cells: . prevents hair from becoming brittle. hair on the scalp guards against trauma. coiled. and sunlight. Its major role is to prevent overheating of the body. Also. Contains all the components of regular sweat plus some fatty substances and proteins Ceruminous glands: modified apocrine glands whose product mixes with sebum to produce earwax Sebaceous (Oil) Glands Definition: Simple. has bactericidal properties The arrector pili contractions force sebum out of the hair follicles to the skin surface Hairs and Hair Follicles Definition: Hairs or pili are flexible strands produced by hair follicles and consist largely of dead. heat loss. The secretory part lies coiled in the dermis and the duct opens in a funnel shaped pore at the skin surface Eccrine gland secretion: a hypotonic filtrate of the blood that is released through exocytosis by the secretory cells of the sweat glands Sweating is regulated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. and slows water loss in skin. tubular glands. keratinized cells Hair senses insects on the skin before they bite or sting us. Eyelashes shield the eyes. branched alveolar glands that secrete sebum (an oily substance) Holocrine glands: the central cells accumulate sebum until they burst and these lipids and cell fragments constitute sebum. Apocrine sweat glands: found on axillary and anogenital regions and secretes a thick. Sebum is usually secreted into a hair follicle Sebum softens and lubricates hair and skin. milky or yellowish version of sweat.

Only part of hair with soft keratin Cortex: the bulky layer surrounding the medulla. consists of several layers of flattened cells Cuticle: outermost layer. a thickened basement membrane called the glassy membrane. It is the most keratinized part of the hair and provides strength and keeps the inner layers compacted Hair pigment is made by melanocytes at the base of the hair follicle and transferred to the cortical cells Structure of a Hair Follicle Hair follicles fold down from the epidermis into the dermis Hair bulb: the deep end of the follicle. formed from a single layer of flattened cells that overlap like shingles on a roof. the follicle regenerates and new hair growth starts Nails Definition: a scalelike modification of the epidermis that forms a protective layer over the dorsal surface of the distal part of a finger or toe. in each cycle an active phase is followed by a regressive phase During the regressive phase. Nails contain hard keratin Each nail has a free edge and a body (the visibly attached portion) and a proximal root (within the skin) The nail matrix is the thickened proximal position of the nail bed (the deeper layers of epidermis that extend beneath the nail) that is responsible for nail growth . axillary and pubic regions Each follicle goes through a growth cycle. scalp. fine body hair of females and children Terminal: coarse. the hair matrix cells die and the follicle base and hair bulb shrivel somewhat and the follicle enters a resting phase of one to three months After the resting phase. is extended.Medulla: the central core consists of large cells and air spaces. and an inner epithelial root sheath Hair matrix: actively dividing area of hair bulb that produces the hair. A hair follicle receptor or root hair plexus wraps around the hair bulb so it serves a sensitive touch receptor Hair papilla: contains a knot of capillaries that supply nutrients to the hair and signal it to grow The wall of a hair follicle is composed of an outer connective root sheath. originates in the hair bulge (located close to the hair bulb) The arrector pili is attached so that its contraction pulls the hair upwards and dimples the skin Types and Growth of Hair Vellus: pale. long hair of eyebrows.

and many bacteria are killed by dermcidin in sweat and bactericidal substances in sebum Defensins are natural antibiotics secreted by the skin Cathelicidins are protective peptides that prevent infection by Group A streptococcus bacteria Melanin shields skin cells from UV rays Physical/Mechanical Barriers Provided by the continuity of the skin and the hardness of its keratinized cells and the water resistant glycolipids of the epidermis block most diffusion of water and water soluble substances between cells Some things do penetrate skin cells though (ex. informally called the quick Functions of the Integumentary System Protection The skin constitutes three types of barriers: chemical. and DNA itself The dendritic cells activate the immune system by presenting antigens to the lymphocytes The dermal macrophages are the second line of defense and they too act as antigen “presenters” DNA converts potentially destructive radiation into harmless heat Body Temperature Regulation Sweat glands secrete insensible perspiration daily to maintain body temperature homeostasis Sensible perspiration is activated in response to vigorous physical activity or high heat levels When the external environment is cold. macrophages within the dermis.The hyponychium is the region below the free edge. the acid mantel stops bacteria multiplication. Fat soluble substances) Biological Barriers Include the dendritic cells of the epidermis. dermal blood vessels constrict to allow blood to bypass the skin surface temporarily thus slowing passive heat loss Cutaneous Sensation Cutaneous sensory receptors are found throughout the skin and they respond to stimuli outside the body (exteroceptors) . physical. and biological Chemical Include skin secretions and melanin.

respiratory cartilages (forming the skeleton of the larynx and reinforcing other respiratory passageways).Bones and Skeletal Tissues Skeletal Cartilages Bone Structure. the dermal blood vessels constrict to shunt more blood into the general circulation Excretion Limited amounts of nitrogen wastes are eliminated through sweat Sweating is also an important avenue for water and sodium chloride loss Chapter 6 . Only have fine collagen fibers. The perichondrium acts as to resist outward expansion of the cartilage and it contains the blood vessels from which nutrients diffuse to reach the cartilage There are three types of cartilage in the body. All contain chondrocytes encased in lacunae with an extracellular matrix containing ground substance and fibers.Meissner’s corpuscles in the dermal papillae and tactile discs allow us to feel something like a caress. Types. Vitamin D plays a role in calcium metabolism and absorption Skin cells also activate some steroid hormones and make several biologically important enzymes Blood Reservoir The dermal vascular supply is extensive and can hold large volumes of blood When other body organs require a greater blood supply. They are found in the external ear and in the epiglottis . Skeletal hyaline includes articular cartilages (covering ends of most bones and joints). It is surrounded by perichondrium. and Locations Skeletal cartilage: made up of some variety of cartilage tissue consisting primarily of water. a layer of dense irregular connective tissue. while Pacinian corpuscles in the deeper dermis or hypodermis alert us to contact with deeper pressure Hair follicle receptors report on things like wind blowing though our hair Free nerve endings sense painful stimuli Metabolic Functions Skin modifies cholesterol in the blood to a vitamin D precursor when hit by sunlight The precursor is then transported to other body systems which activate it. most abundant skeletal cartilage. Hyaline cartilages: provide support with flexibility and resistance. The high water content of cartilage accounts for its resilience The cartilage contains no nerves or blood vessels. costal cartilages (connecting the ribs to the sternum). and nasal cartilages (supporting the nose) Elastic cartilages: contain more stretchy elastic fibers and are better able to stand up to repeated bending.

etc. Has a shaft plus two ends. Functions of Bones Support: bones provide a framework that supports the body and cradles its soft organs Protection: the fused bones of the skull protect the brain. Additionally. supporting. expanding the cartilage from within Cartilage growth usually ends during adolescence Classification of Bones The axial skeleton forms the long axis of the body and includes the skull. vertebral column.Fibrocartilages: highly compressible and have great tensile strength. calcium and phosphate. Found in sites subjected to heavy pressure and stretch. The sternum. Joints determine the range of movement possible Mineral and growth factor storage: bone is a reservoir for minerals. and skull bones are flat bones. All the limb bones except the wrist and ankle bones are long bones. ribs. Consist of parallel rows of chondrocytes alternating with thick collagen fibers. flattened. Grows in two ways: Appositional growth: cartilage-forming cells in the surrounding perichondrium secrete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage Interstitial growth: the lacunae-bound chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix. esp. The stored minerals are released into the bloodstream as needed. scalpulae. Involved in protecting. Sesamoid bones: a special type of short bone found in a tendon Flat bones: thin. the vertebrae surround the spinal column. Include vertebrae and hip bones. the rib cage protects the vital organs of the thorax. Short bones: roughly cube shaped. These bones help us move and manipulate our environment. Include the bones of the wrist and ankle. Irregular bones: have complicated shapes that fit none of the other classes. Movement: skeletal muscles use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts. usually a bit curved. Long bones: considerably longer than they are wide. and rib cage. or carrying other body parts The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the bones that attach the limbs to the axial skeleton (shoulder and hip bones). bone matrix stores important growth factors Blood cell formation: most hematopoiesis (blood cell formation) occurs in the marrow cavities of certain bones Triglyceride (fat) storage: fat is stored in bone cavities as a source of stored energy Bone Structure . like the knee and the disks between the vertebrae Growth of Cartilage Flexible matrix can accommodate mitosis.

may be roughened Crest: narrow ridge of bone.Gross Anatomy Bone Markings Bones display projections. slitlike opening Foramen: round or oval opening through a bone Notch: indentation at the edge of a structure Others Meatus: canal-like passageway Sinus: cavity within a bone. often serving as an articular surface Bone Textures: Compact or Spongy Bone The external layer is compact bone and internal to this is spongy bone Spongy bone is a honeycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces of trabeculae The open spaces between trabeculae are filled with yellow or red bone marrow Structure of a Typical Long Bone Same general structure: shaft. depressions. irregularly shaped process (only found on femur) Line: narrow ridge of bone. and openings that serve as the site of muscle. less prominent than a crest Tubercule: small rounded projection or process Epicondyle: raised area on or above a condyle Spine: sharp. bone ends. basinlike depression in a bone. and tendon attachment. ligament. blunt. usually prominent Trochanter: very large. and are usually an indication of the stresses created by muscles attached and pulling on them or are modified surfaces where bones meet and form joints Projections That Are Sites of Muscle and Ligament Attachment Tuberosity: large rounded projection. filled with air and lined with mucous membrane Fossa: shallow. forms the long axis of the bone. and membranes Diaphysis: shaft. slender. Constructed of a relatively thick collar of compact bone that surrounds a central medullary cavity or . or as conduits for blood vessels and nerves Projections: grow outward from the bone surface. nearly flat articular surface Condyle: rounded articular projection Ramus: armlike bar of bone Depressions and openings: usually serve to allow passage of nerves and blood vessels Depressions For Passage of Blood Vessels and Nerves Groove: furrow Fissure: narrow. often pointed projection Process: any bony prominence Projections That Help to From Joints Head: bony expansion carried on a narrow neck Facet: smooth.

the fatcontaining medullary cavity extends well into the epiphysis and little red marrow is present in spongy bone cavities Most blood cell production in adult long bones occurs only in the head of the femur and humerus The red marrow found in the diploë of flat bones and in some irregular bones is much more active in hematopoiesis Microscopic Anatomy of Bone . this contains fat and is called the yellow marrow cavity) Epiphysis: bone ends. however. the outer fibrous layer (dense irregular connective tissue) and the inner osteogenic layer. Compact bone forms the exterior and the interior contains spongy bone. and Flat bones All share a simple design: consist of thin plates of periosteum-covered compact bone on the outside and endosteum-covered spongy bone on the inside.marrow cavity (in adults. and blood vessels entering through the nutrient foramina Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers: secure the periosteum to the underlying bone. Contains both bone-forming and bone-destroying cells Structure of Short. the spongy bone is called the diploë Location of Hematopoietic Tissue in Bones Hematopoietic tissue (red marrow) is typically found in the trabecular cavities of spongy bone in long bones and in the diploë of flat bones Both cavities are often referred to as red marrow cavities In newborns. They contain bone marrow. a disk of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen the bone) Metaphysis: the region where the diaphysis and epiphysis meet Membranes The external surface of the bone (except the joint surface) is covered by a glistening white. Do not have a shaft or epiphysis. the medullar cavity of the diaphysis and all areas of spongy bone contain red bone marrow. Irregular. abutting the bone surface (consists primarily of bone forming cells called osteoblasts and bone destroying cells called osteoclasts). but no marrow cavity is present In flat bones. Covers the trabeculae of spongy bone and lines the canals that pass through compact bone. double-layered membrane called the periosteum Periosteum: has two layers. Consist of tufts of collegen fibers that extend from its fibrous layer into the one matrix Endosteum: delicate connective tissue covering the internal bone surfaces. In adult long bones. In addition. Between the diaphysis and the epiphysis of an adult long bone in an epiphyseal line (a remnant of the epiphyseal plate. The joint end is covered by a thin layer of articular (hyaline) cartilage. lymphatic vessels. there are primitive stem cells called osteogenic cells that give rise to osteoblasts The periosteum is supplied with nerve endings.

Canaliculi connect the lacunae to one another and to the central canal Canaliculi form when bone matrix hardens and the osteocytes become trapped within it. They also communicate with osteoblasts and osteoclasts Interstitial lamellae: incomplete lamellae lying between intact osteons. This helps reduce torsion stress Tiny crystals of bone slats also align with the collagen fibers and thus also alternate their direction in the adjacent lamella Central canal (or Haversian canal): a canal running through the core of each osteon. Nutrients reach the osteocytes by diffusion Chemical Composition of Bone Organic compounds include the cells and osteoid (the organic part of the matrix) Osteoid includes ground substance and collagen made by the osteoblasts . These are surrounded by an extracellular matrix of their own making Compact Bone Osteon (or Haversian system): the structural unit of compact bone. the collagen fibers fun in a single direction. Each osteon is an elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long axis of the bone. They either fill gaps between forming osteons or are remnants of osteons cut through by bone remodeling Circumferential lamellae: extend around the entire surface of the diaphysis and resist twisting of the long bone Spongy Bone The trabeculae in spongy bone align to resist stress as much as possible Trabeculae contain irregularly arranged lamellae and osteocytes interconnected by canaliculi. formerly tentacle-like extensions containing gap junctions of the osteocytes. Tiny canals. Functions as a weight-bearing pillar An osteon is a group of hollow tubes of bone matrix. containing small blood vessels and nerves Perforating canals (or Volkmann’s canals) lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect the blood supply of the periosteum to those of the central canal and medullary cavity These canals are lined with endosteum Osteocytes occupy lacunae at the junctions of lamellae. No osteons are present.Four main cell types populate bone: osteogenic cells. are thusly formed The canaliculi tie all the osteocytes in an osteon together. and osteoclasts. permitting nutrient and wastes to be relayed from one osteocyte to the next throughout the osteon. osteoblasts. It also permits cell-to-cell relays through its gap junctions to allow bone cells to be well-nourished Osteocytes maintain the bone matrix and act as stress or strain sensors in cases of bone deformation or other damaging stimuli. osteocytes. each one placed outside the next Each matrix tube is called a lamella (compact bone is often called lamellar bone) In each lamella. opposite to the direction of the adjacent lamella.

persist internally and its vascular tissue becomes red marrow Endochondral Ossification Bone development by replacing hyaline cartilage. break easily on impact to dissipate energy and prevent the bone from fracturing Hydroxyapatites (mineral salts): largely calcium phosphates present in the form of tiny crystals in and around collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix. Bone matrix (osteoid) is secreted by osteoblasts within the fibrous membrane and calcifies. the underlying mesenchyme cells specialize into osteoblasts. forming and ossification center 2. just deep to the periosteum. Vascularized mesenchymal condenses on the external face of the woven bone and becomes periosteum 4. Spongy bone (diploë). Now ossification can begin. Red marrow appears. Accumulating osteoid is laid down in a random manner between embryonic blood vessels. consisting of distinct trabeculae. Lamellar bone replaces woven bone. . converting in into a vascularized periosteum. forming compact bone plates. Account for the bone’s exceptional hardness which allows it to resist compression Bone Development Ossification (osteogenesis): the process of bone formation Formation of the Bony Skeleton The skeleton of a human embryo before week 8 is constructed entirely from fibrous membrane and hyaline cartilage Bone tissue eventually replaces most of the fibrous or cartilage structures Structure (membranes and cartilage) that are flexible and resilient are able to accommodate mitosis so make growth easier Intramembranous Ossification Developed from a fibrous membrane and results in the formation of the skull and the clavicles (membrane bones). Ossification centers appear in the fibrous connective tissue membrane. forming a network of trabeculae called woven bone. Selected mesenchymal cells cluster and differentiate into osteoblasts. Trapped osteoblasts become osteocytes 3. Woven bone and periosteum form. Begins in the centre of the hyaline cartilage at a region called the primary ossification centre First. the perichondrium covering the hyaline cartilage “bone” in infiltrated with blood vessels. As a result of this. Trabeculae just deep to the periosteum thicken and are later replaced with mature lamellar bone. most bones formed by this process are flat bones Four steps: 1. essentially all bones of the skeleton below the base of the skull are formed like this.Sacrificial bonds: between collagen molecules.

red marrow elements. the cartilage grows briskly. chondrocytes within the shaft enlarge and signal the surrounding cartilage matrix to calcify. Elsewhere. and osteoclasts. hyaline cartilage remains only on the epiphyseal surfaces as articular cartilage and at the junction between the epiphysis and the diaphysis (the epiphyseal plate) Postnatal Bone Growth Long bones lengthen entirely by interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plate cartilage and its replacement by bone. nerve fibers. The bony trabeculae form. 5. As the primary ossification enlarges. encasing it with bone. Osteoclasts secrete osteoid against the hyaline cartilage diaphysis. osteoclasts break down the newly formed spongy bone and open up a medullar cavity in the centre of the diaphysis. and the hyaline cartilage models continue to elongate by the division of viable cartilage cells at the epiphysis. All bones grow in thickness by appositional growth. A bone collar is laid down around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage model. The rapidly growing epiphysis still contains only cartilage. 2. Cartilage in the centre of the diaphysis calcifies and then develops cavities. The diaphysis enlarged and a medullar cavity forms. Ossification “chases” cartilage formation along the length of the shaft as cartilage calcifies. Resting or quiescent zone: the relatively inactive part of the cartilage facing the epiphysis . Most bones stop growing in adolescence Growth in Length of Long Bones Longitudinal bone growth mimics endochondral ossification. The periosteal bud contains a nutrient vein and artery. causing the cartilage model to elongate 3. The osteoclasts partially erode the calcified cartilage matrix and the osteoblasts secrete osteoid around the remaining fragments of hyaline cartilage. As the bone collar forms. The periosteal bud invades the internal cavities and spongy bone forms. The cartilage in the centre of the epiphysis calcifies. is eroded. This is called the periosteal bone collar. The chondrocytes deteriorate due to lack of nutrients diffusing from the blood and this deterioration opens up cavities. After secondary ossification. forming bone-covered cartilage trabeculae (the earliest version of spongy bone) 4. After birth. just like in the diaphysis. Secondary ossification is almost the exact same as primary ossification. lymphatic vessels.1. osteoblasts. The epiphysis ossifies. opening up cavities that allow a periosteal bud to enter. secondary ossification centers appear in one or both epiphyses and the epiphyses gain bony tissue. except the spongy tissue is retained and no medullar cavity is formed in the epiphysis. and then is replaced by bony spicules on the epiphyseal surfaces facing the medullar cavity.

Remodeling units: packets of adjacent osteoblasts and osteoclasts that couple and coordinate bone remodeling Bone deposit: occurs wherever bone is injured or added bone strength is required Osteoid seam: an unmineralized band of gauzy looking bone matrix. The spicule tips are eventually digested by osteoclasts so the medullar cavity also grows longer as the bone lengthens. pushing the diaphysis way from the epiphysis thus allowing the whole bone to lengthen. stronger bone Hormone Regulation of Bone Growth Regulated by growth hormone released by the anterior pituitary gland.Proliferation or growth zone: cells abutting the diaphysis. Hypertrophic zone: older chondrocytes close to the diaphysis hypertrophy. Growth in Width (Thickness) Growing bones widen as they lengthen by appositional growth Osteoblasts beneath the periosteum secrete bone matrix while osteoclasts on the endosteal surface of the diaphysis remove bone There is slightly less breaking down than building up. and by male and female sex hormones (in puberty. dividing rapidly. marking the presence of new matrix deposits by osteoblasts Calcification front: an abrupt transition between the osteoid seam and the older mineralized bone The trigger for calcification of the osteoid seam is the local concentrations of phosphate ions and calcium ions and the presence of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase Bone resorption: accomplished by osteoclasts as they digest the bone’s surface . Calcification zone: area where the cartilage surrounding the hypertrophic zone calcify so the chondrocytes die and deteriorate Long. The two processes constitute bone remodeling. leading to a growth spurt and masculinization/femininization of certain parts of the skeleton) Bone Homeostasis: Remodeling and Repair Bone Remodeling Bone depositing and bone resorption occurs at the surface of the periosteum and the endosteum. ending longitudinal bone growth in a process called epiphyseal plate closure. The epiphysis and the diaphysis fuse. Longitudinal growth is accompanied by remodeling of the epiphysis to maintain proper bone proportions As adolescence ends. the epiphyseal plate stops dividing and eventually gets replaced by bone tissue. creating a thicker. slender spicules of calcified cartilage is left at the epiphysis-diaphysis junction Ossification or osteogenic zone: the area where the calcified spicules are partly eroded then quickly covered by new bone (woven bone) and ultimately replaced by spongy bone. by thyroid hormones. leaving large interconnecting spaces.

transverse run perpendicular to it. In an open (internal) reduction. transported across the osteoclasts by transcytosis. and inflamed 2. A bone’s anatomy reflects the common stresses in encounters As a result of bending caused by weight bearing down on a bone. the physician coaxes it into position with his hands. It is then immobilized by a cast Repair in a simple fracture involves four main stages: 1. They may be classified by: Position of the bone ends after fracture: nondisplaced fractures vs. Whether the bone end penetrates the skin: open (compound) fractures vs. A hematoma (a mass of clotted blood) forms at the fracture site. bone cells deprived of nutrition die and the area becomes swollen. the bone ends are secured together surgically with pins or wires. fibroblasts and osteoblasts invade the fracture site . Capillaries grow into the hematoma and phagocytic cells invade the area begin cleaning up debris. incomplete: whether the bone is broken through or not Orientation of the break relative to the long axis of the bone: linear fractures run parallel to the long axis. long bones are thickest midway along the diaphysis where the stress is the greatest.Osteoclasts secrete lysomal enzymes to digest the organic matrix and hydrochloric acid to convert calcium salts into soluble forms The dissolved matrix end products. Fibrocartilaginous callus forms. Meanwhile. growth hormones. and released into the blood by way of the interstitial fluid Control of Remodeling Regulated by two control loops: a negative feedback hormonal loop that maintains Ca2+ levels in the blood and another that involves responses to mechanical and gravitational forces acting upon the skeleton Hormonal Controls Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin regulate the amount of calcium in the blood PTH secretion is stimulated by decreased calcium levels in the blood to cause osteoclasts to resorb bone and boost blood calcium levels Increased blood calcium causes PTH to stop being secreted in a negative feedback cycle Response to Mechanical Stress Wolff’s law: a bone grows strong or remodels in response to the demands placed upon it. closed (simple) fractures Reduction: realignment of the broken ends of a bone. painful. and dissolved minerals are endocytosed. Soon. displaced fracture: whether bones are in their original alignment or not Completeness of the break: complete vs. Both compression and tension are minimal towards the center of the bone so a bone can hollow out for lightness Bone Repair Bones are susceptible to fractures. In a closed (external) reduction.

now called the fibrocartilaginous callus. . Some differentiate into chondroblasts and begin secreting cartilage matrix. The fibroblasts create collagen fibers that connect the broken bone ends. Bony callus (the new bone trabeculae that appear in the fibrocartilaginous callus to convert it to spongy bone) forms. The bony callus is remodeled so the excess material on the diaphysis exterior is removed and compact bone is laid down to reconstruct the shaft walls. splint the bone 3. weight-bearing exercise. especially women Treated by calcium and vitamin D supplements.and begin reconstructing the bone. Bones are soft and weak because calcium salts are not deposited in the osteoid Rickets is the analogous disease in children Both are caused by insufficient calcium in the diet or by a vitamin D deficiency Osteoporosis Refers to a group of diseases in which bone resorption outpaces bone deposit. The newly formed Pagetic bone is hastily made and has an abnormally high ratio of spongy bone to compact bone. Occurs most often in the aged. This entire mass of repair tissue. The composition of the bone matrix is reduced and the bones become porous and light. and certain drugs that mimic estrogen or otherwise decrease osteoclasts activity Paget’s Disease Characterized by excessive and haphazard bone deposit and resorption. Bone remodeling occurs. 4. Drug therapies have shown success in preventing bone breakdown. The bones become excessively fragile and break very easily. The final structure of the remodeled area looks like the original unbroken bone because it withstands the same mechanical stressors Homeostatic Imbalances of Bone Osteomalacia and Rickets Osteomalacia includes a variety of disorders in which the bones are inadequately mineralized.