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The Gastrointestinal Tract

Outline

] Overview of GI Tract
] Movement of GI Tract
] Nutritional requirements
] Exocrine GI secretions
] Digestion, absorption, assimilation
] Endocrine control
Overview of GI tract

] Receiving
] Conducting, storing
] Digestion, absorption
] absorbing water, defecating
The Pharynx- receiving

] Mechanical breakdown of food.


] Lubrication of food.
] Initial digestion of polysaccharides
(complex sugars).
] Salivary glands:
\ parotid (par= ear, otid=ear)
\ submandibular
\ submaxillary
Initial carbohydrate
digestion

] Parotid gland -large exocrine gland,


releases water, mucous, and α-amylase.
] Esophagus- conducting and storage.
Muscular, skeletal muscle in anterior part,
smooth muscle as near stomach.
] Crop is a pouch off of the esophagus, acts
as a storage organ in birds.
Stomach- protein digestion

] Stomach- cardiac region, fundus, pylorus


] Big washing machine, mechanically breaks up food
] 3 exocrine cell types
\ chief cells- secrete pepsinogen (inactive form pepsin)
\ parietal cells, secrete HCl, causes very low pH(~2 in
adult)
• Also produce a protein called intrinsic factor, which helps
vitamin B12 absorption.
\ mucous cells
] Stomach contents very acidic, aids in protein digestion
] Therefore both chemical and mechanical digestion
Parietal cells:
HCl and
intrinsic
factor

Chief cells:
pepsinogen
(converted to
active
enzyme,
pepsin)
Small intestine- digestion
and absorption
] Receives secretory products from pancreas, liver
(via gallbladder)
] most absorption of nutrients and water takes
place here
] mostly alkaline digestion of proteins, fats,
carbos, because bicarbonate (HCO-3 from
pancreas) neutralizes stomach acid
Small intestine- digestion
and absorption

] duodenum- receives liver and pancreas


secretions, secretes digestive enzymes
] jejunum and ileum-digestion and absorption
] secretion- transport away from body;
absorption, transport toward bloodstream
Small intestine
Brush border
Glycocalyx

] Protein rich coat that covers microvilli.


Contains dipeptidases, enzymes that
breakdown disaccharides, mucous.
Intestinal surface area
Large intestine

] Most water reabsorbed in small intestine,


but-
] the principal role of the large intestine is
reabsorption of remaining water- 8 L of
water may be secreted by GI tract in the
course of a day.
] Consolidation of waste.
Movement of GI tract

] Your gut is 25 feet long.


] Three main functions for movement
\ translocation of food from point A to B
\ mechanical breakdown of food
\ mix food for enzymatic digestion
3 types of movement

] Peristalsis- traveling wave of constriction


] segmentation-asynchronous constriction
of gut tube- breaks down large food
particles
] regurgitation- reverse peristalsis
Control of motility

] PSNS stimulates
] SNS inhibits. Exception- irritable bowel
syndrome- SNS stimulates movement of
colon
] hormonal control
\ gastrin(stomach)- stimulates motility
\ secretin (duodenum) inhibits motility
Cellular basis for motility
] Smooth muscle throughout GI tract
] GI smooth muscle is myogenic- contracts 12-3
times per minute
] GI smooth muscle acts as a functional
syncytium- nexus or gap junctions connect
muscle cells
] neuronal and hormonal cues are not required
for contraction, but are important for changing
rate of contraction
Nutritional Requirements
Figure 4.1 The composition of the adult human
body
Figure 4.2 Amino acid
chemistry (Part 1)
Figure 4.2 Amino acid chemistry (Part 2)
Aminoacids
Glycine Alanine Serine Threonine Cysteine Proline Valine

Histidine Methionine Leucine Isoleucine Aspartate Asparagine Glutamate

Glutamine Lysine Arginine Phenylalanine Tyrosine Tryptophan


Figure 4.3 Fatty acids and triacylglycerols (Part 1)
Figure 4.3 Fatty acids and triacylglycerols (Part 2)
Figure 4.4 Carbohydrate chemistry
Exocrine Secretions

] Salivary glands
] Stomach
] Pancreas
] Liver and gall bladder
] Small intestine
Stomach

] Chief cells
\ Pepsinogen (inactive) converted to pepsin
(active) form of a proteolytic enzyme.
] Parietal cells
\ Intrinsic factor- required for vitamin B12
absorption
\ Hydrochloric acid
] Mucous cells
Small intestine

] Brunners glands (duodenal glands)


\ Found only in duodenum, watery mucous
secretion
] Crypts of Lieberkuhn
\ Secrete lots of water, and bicarbonate
] Brush border
\ mucous and digestive enzymes- peptidases,
enterokinase, lipases, disaccharidases
Disaccharide breakdown

] Starches broken down into disaccharides by


salivary amylase (30%) and pancreatic amylase
(70%)
] Maltase- breaks down maltose to two glucose
molecules.
] Lactase- breaks down lactose into galactose and
glucose
] Sucrase- breaks down sucrose into fructose and
glucose.
Peptides and carbohydrates are broken down by enzymatic
hydrolysis
Pancreatic secretions

] Endoproteases
] Cleave internal peptide bonds
] Trypsin- trypsinogen converted to trypsin by
enterokinase. Attacks on carboxyl side of
arginine or lysine.
] Chymotrypsin- chymotrypsinogen converted to
chymotrypsin in small intestine by trypsin.
Attacks on carboxyl side of tyrosine,
phenylalanine, tryptophan, leucine or
methionine.
Pancreatic secretions
(con’t)

] Carboxy- and aminopeptidases- cleave outside


amino acids.
] Lipases- break down triglycerides into fatty
acids and monoglycerides
] Trypsin inhibitor- stored in pancreatic secretory
granules. Prevents early intracellular activation
of trypsin.
] Also lots of water and bicarbonate ions to
neutralize and dilute acids in S.I.
Liver and bile

] Bile is produced in the liver, stored in gall


bladder.
] Bile salts- one of the most important
components of bile, required for fat digestion.
] Bile is very alkaline, neutralizes acid in S.I.
] Bile transports waste products from liver,
cholesterol, bilirubin, drugs, steroids, and
vitamins.
Bile salts

] Bile salts are amphipathic, help solubilize


fatty acids for uptake.
] Fatty acids and monoglycerides have a
strong tendency to re-associate after
lipolysis- bile salts prevent fatty acids and
monoglycerides from reassociating.
Cholic acid
Digestion, absorption, and
assimilation

] Carbohydrate digestion and absorption.


] Fat digestion and absorption.
] Protein digestion and absorption.
SGLT- sodium
dependent
glucose
transporter.

Glut- facilitated
diffusion
transporter
GLUT family of proteins
Glut 1 Brain, RBC High affinity
glucose transport
Glut 2 Small intestine Low affinity
glucose transport

Glut 3 Brain High affinity


glucose transport
Glut 4 Muscle, Insulin dependent
adipose
Glut 5 jejunum Fructose transport
Fat digestion

] Emulsification- breaking up large lipid


droplets so that enzymes can digest them.
] Enzymatic digestion (hydrolysis) of
triglycerides- pancreatic lipase
] Micelle formation-hydrolysis products form
with bile salts to make micelles.
] FAs and glycerol and monogycerides
absorbed.
ApoC
Ap
o
Ap B o o Ap
B Ap
A B o

Apo
VLDL

B
LDL

Apo
B
Apo
B
Ap
o
B
Apo
o C B
Ap

oC Ap
Ap o
A

HDL

Apo
A

C
Apo

o
Albumin

Ap
A

ApoC
Ap
B o
B o
Ap

ApoC
Apo
A

CHYLO
Apo
Apo
B

Apo
A C
Apo o
Ap
A

The Fate of Dietary Lipids


Protein digestion

] Pepsin –responsible for about 20% of all


protein digestion.
] Pancreatic proteases and peptidases-
chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxy- and
aminopeptidases.
] Amino acids and di- or tripeptides uptake
by specific transporters in the enterocyte.
Virtually all of the water
secreted from exocrine
glands is reabsorbed in the
GI tract.
Hormonal control of
digestion

] Phases of digestion.
] Cephalic phase-sensory input from food.
] Gastric phase-food enters stomach.
] Intestinal phase-chyme enters duodenum.
Cephalic phase

] Increase acid secretion in stomach


] Increase enzyme secretion, but low fluid
volume from pancreas.
] Small increase in bile secretion and
contraction of gall bladder.
Hormonal and neuronal control of stomach secretions

+ Parietal HCl
-
Sensory stimuli
cell +
+
+ ECL
cell Histamine

Vagus ACh
nerve +
+ G cell
Gastrin

- D cell Somatostatin
(SS)
ECL, enterochromaffin-like cell
Gastric hormones

] Gastrin-stimulates HCl secretion,


stimulates stomach motility
] Somatostatin- inhibits HCl secretion;
\ inhibits gastrin and histamine secretion; and,
inhibits gastric emptying.
Gastric phase

] Identical to cephalic phase, but stimulus is


stomach distention
Cerebral
cortex

Cephalic phase
Brain stem
gastric phase

Stomach
distention
Vagus
nerve

Acid
secretion
Stomach gastrin
Intestinal phase

] Chyme enters the duodenum-2 subphases


] Early intestinal phase
\ pH > 3.0, gastrin from duodenum stimulates
HCl secretion
] Late intestinal phase
\ pH < 2, acid stimulates secretin release
from the duodenum
\ Fatty acids, amino acids, stimulate
cholecystokinin secretion from duodenum
Intestinal phase

Late intestinal phase


\ Fatty acids and sugars stimulate gastric
inhibitory peptide (GIP)
\ Fatty acids, amino acids, stimulate
cholecystokinin secretion from duodenum
\ Vagus nerve releases the neuropeptide
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)
Summary

] CCK, Secretin, GIP, and VIP all inhibit acid


secretion: They stimulate SS release.

] CCK and Secretin integrate the function of


the stomach, pancreas, and gall bladder.
Ulcer formation

] Acid-rebound theory
\ Acid and mucous production shuts down during
stress. When recovery occurs, acid starts before
mucous production.
] Acid secretion hypothesis
] Bacterial hypothesis
\ Stress decreases immune system function, allows for
an increase in stomach bacteria, specifically
Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that has been
associated with ulcer formation.