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UNIT 1
PRONOUNS
Subje
ct

Objec
t

I
You
They
We
He
She
It
You

Me
You
Them
Us
Him
Her
It
You

Possessi
ve
Adjective
My
Your
Their
Our
His
Her
Its
Your

Possessi
ve
Pronoun
Mine
Yours
Theirs
Ours
His
Hers
ø
Yours

Reflexive
Pronoun
Myself
Yourself
Themselves
Ourselves
Himself
Herself
Itself
Yourselves

Example:
When you see the African lions in the park, you see them in their true
environment.
Pronoun you is in the subject position. The pronoun them is the object
pronoun and refers to the lions. The pronoun their is in the possessive adjective
form because the environment discussed in sentence is that of the lions.
Possessive pronouns or adjectives are usually used with reference to parts
of the body.
Example:
1. She puts the shawl over her shoulder
2. She lifted the boy and put the shawl in his shoulder.
3. She puts a red hair on her head and a green one on his.
Observe the following example. Does the pronoun or possessive adjective agree
with the word it refers to?
Example:
The little girl put on her hat, and the little boy put on his hat.
If the hat girl put on belongs to the girl, the possessive adjective must agree with
the word girl. If the hat the boy put on belongs to the boy, the possessive
pronoun must agree with the word boy. If something in the sentence indicates
that the hats they put on belong to someone else, agreement must be made
between the possessive pronoun or adjective and that other person.
Exercise
A. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect.
1. When he comes back from vacation, Bob and me plan to look for another
apartment.
When he comes back from vacation, Bob and I plan to look for another
apartment.
2. The bus leaves Ted and she at the corner
The bus leaves Ted and her at the corner

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B.

Choose the Correct Answer

1. The jaw structure of a snake permits it to eat and digest animals much larger
than ____
(A) it
(C) itself
(B) its
(D) it has
2. Sports medicine experts agree that ice should be applied immediately when
an athlete suffers an injury to______ leg.
(A) its
(C) the
(B) an
(D) his
3. One property of radioisotopes is that _______decaying occurs in half-lives over
a long period of time.
(A) they
(C) they’re
(B) them
(D) their
4. Since the earth’s crust is much thicker under the continents, equipment
would have to be capable of drilling through 100,000 feet of rock to
investigate the mantle ______
(A) beneath them
(C) beneath its
(B) beneath their
(D) beneath they
5. There are ten children playing in the yard near my house, but your child is
not______
(A) among them
(C) among their
(B) among us
(D) among theirs
6. The policemen ordered the suspect not to remove _______ from the hood of
the car.
(A) their hands
(C) them hands
(B) his hands
(D) him hands
7. It was ________ who came running the into the classroom
(A) I
(C) mine
(B) me
(D) my
8. The company has so little money that ________ cannot hardly operate
anymore.
(A) it
(C) its
(B) their
(D) they
9. The students were interested in taking a field trip to The National History
Museum, but _______ were not able to raise enough money.
(A) them
(C) they
(B) their
(D) theirs
10. His father does not approve of _______ to the banquet without dressing
formally.
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(A) his going
(B) him to go

(C) he goes
(D) him going

C. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct
1.

According to the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, no person
should be
A
B
compelled to be a witness against him own.
C
D

2.

According to the theory of natural selection, the man who was able to use
the hands
A
and feet most freely to walk and grasp was the one who survived and
evolved.
B
C
D
3.

Although Barney Clark lived only a few months with that artificial heart,
doctors were
A
able to learn a great deal from him having used it.
B
C
D

4.

According to Amazon legends, men were forced to do all of the household
tasks for
A
B
the women warriors who governed and protected the cities for they.
C
D

5. After she had bought himself a new automobile, she sold her bicycle.
A
B
C
D
6. Before my parents went home, she had bought me some food.
A
B
C
D
7. Peter and Tom play tennis every morning with Mary and I.
A
B
C
D
8.

A mosquito’s wings move about one hundred times per second. Their wing
A
B
C
movement is the sound we hear when a mosquito is humming in our ears.
D

9.

The only teachers who were required to attend the meeting were George,
Betty,

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will would could better may might must . possible. had Modal auxiliaries generally express a speaker’s attitude. Must that is followed by be . shall. Because Sam and Michelle had done all of the work theirselves. permissible. should. For example. A. D UNIT 2 MODAL AUXILIARIES The modal auxiliaries in English are: can. they were unwilling A B C to give the results to Joan. or probable and addition.Page 19 A B C and me. MUST Must is also a modal. Only are some modals discussed in this chapter. There are three speculations. advisable. as follows: PAST EVIDENCE Subject Must Past have Particip le My must called friend have PRESENT EVIDENCE Subject Must Present For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 Past time last night Present Must followed by the verb word have and a participle expresses a logical conclusion based on evidence that happened in the past. D 10. We use must to make speculations when we make conclusion based on evidences. modals can express that a speaker feels something is necessary. ought to. or “moods”. they can convey the strength of these attitudes.

the preference is for present or future time. Although the verb is past tense. in the country C. now REPEATED ACTION Subject Must Verb word My friend must call Repeated time often Must followed by a verb word expresses a logical conclusion based on evidence. Avoid using should and a verb instead of a past verb. Avoid using should or can instead of must. Subje Would That Subject Verb (past) ct rather would I that you drove rather For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . Avoid using a present verb or a verb word instead of a past verb. The other person or thing is the subject of the clause. Be used to with an –ing form means to be accustomed to. would rather that introduces a clause. WOULD RATHER Subject Would rather I I would rather would rather not Simple verb sleep sleep Would rather expresses preference in present and future time. When the preference is for another person or thing. USED TO/ BE USED TO V-ING Subje ct He Used to used to Verb word live Subjec t b e Used to He is used to Phrase/ Noun in the country Present participl e living Phrase/ Noun Used to with a verb means that a custom in the past has not continued.Page 20 be My friend Particip le calling must be tense and an –ing form or an adjective expresses a logical conclusion based on evidence that is happening now. B. HAD BETTER Subjec t You had better had better simple verb study Had better indicates advice for the future D.

(A) grow up (C) growing up (B) to grow up (D) have grown up 5. without the help of an adult. If you don’t mind. because prices are beginning to decrease. languages. I can to go by myself. he should. He was used to drink too much. (A) know (C) knows (B) known (D) knowing 6. I’d rather not serve on the committee. You had better to hurry if you don’t want to miss the bus. The general public________ a large number of computers now. Choose the correct answer! 1.Page 21 I would rather that you didn’t drive Exercises! A. 4. 5. Diane would rather that her husband didn’t work so hard. about half of the children in America must _______ in single parent homes. it is assumed that graduates will ______ about English. You had better hurry if you don’t want to miss the bus. (A) to be able to (C) able to (B) to be able (D) be able to 2. _______sit up or even stand up. In a liberal arts curriculum. (A) was used (C) used to be For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . He used to drink too much. After you show me the way. I’d rather not to serve on the committee. and the other social sciences. Since more than 50 percent of all marriages in the United States end in divorce. By the time a baby has reached his first birthday. (A) must have been buying (B) must have bought (C) must be buying (D) must buying 4. serving as many women as men. 3. Diane would rather that her husband doesn’t working so hard. Harvard________ a school for men. literature. I can go by myself 2. history. The theory of Continental Drift assumes that there _______ long term climatic changes in many areas during the past. (A) must have been (C) must be (B) must have (D) must 3. but now it is coeducational. After you show me the way. 1. B. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. If you don’t mind.

_______. Somebody ______entered the house while we were away. the Big Horn Medicine Wheel. (A) must have (C) ought to have (B) would have (D) should have C. The Amish people. (A) would rather living (C) would rather live (B) would rather they live (D) would rather lived 9.in groups. a generally peaceful species. (A) must have lived (C) might be living (B) ought to be lived (D) should be living 10. He told me a lot about the Philippines. C D 2. He ________ there for a long time. Because doctors are treating more people for skin cancer. we found the front door open. 4.When we got home. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. it is widely believed that A B changes in the protective layers of the earth’s atmosphere must produced harmful C D effects. (A) use (C) to use (B) to use (D) useful 8. To check for acidity. must have serve as sighting points for B C D observations of the sun. For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . descended from the Germans and Swiss. Some astronomers contend that in ancient times. would rather using A horses than machines for transportation and farm work because they believe that a B C simple life keeps them closer to God. an A arrangement of stones in Wyoming. 3. It is said that the American flag has five-pointed stars because Betsy Ross told A B General Washington she would rather that he changing the six-pointed ones. one had better _______litmus paper. The great apes.Page 22 (B) was used to (D) was used to be 7.

even for trained professionals who A B are used to move about in a lessened gravitational field. D 10. there are still problems. Sheep must have mate in fall since the young are born in early spring every year. A B C D 9.We had better to review this chapter carefully because we will have some questions on A B it.Page 23 D 5. C D 6. D are used to use color in order to B C 8. C D 7. The Impressionists like Monet and Manet create an A image of reality rather than reality itself. even small businesses had better to advertise A B on TV and radio in order to gain a share of the market. D UNIT 3 SINGULAR-PLURAL FORMS For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 C . In today’s competitive markets. When the weather becomes colder we know that the air mass must originated A B C in the Arctic rather than over the Gulf of Mexico. As television images of the astronauts showed.

Some nouns have the same singular and plural form (e. and –x For words that end in –y: In (d): if –y proceeded by a vowel. -z.beliefs (g) Deer fish sheep (h)Criterion – criteria (i) cactus – cacti (j) Formula – formulae (k) basis – bases (l) Index – indices (m) datum . as in (e)  –f simply add –s to form the plural. simply a final –s is added to spell the word correctly. as in (f) . the –y is changed into –i and –es is added B..Some nouns that English has borrowed from other languages have foreign plurals. -ch. (l).data For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 The nouns in (a) have irregular plural forms Some nouns that end in :  –o add –es to form the plural. as in (h) . (m) . only –s is added.Page 24 COUNT-NONCOUNT A. (j). -s. as in (c)  –o add either –es or end –s to form the plural. as in (b)  –o add only –s to form in the plural. (i). (k).) . SINGULAR AND PLURAL (a) NOUN + -s: Friends are important NOUNS + -es: I like my classes SPELLING : FINAL -s vs –es (b) Song songs (c) Glass glasses (d) Toy toys (d) Baby babies A final –s or –es is added to make a noun plural Friend : a singular noun Friends: a plural noun For most words (whether a verb or a noun).g. Final –es is added to words that ends in – sh. PLURALS (a) Man – men Mouse – mice Child – children Foot – feet (b) echoes (c) photos (d) Mosquitoes heroes pianos / mosquitos potatoes videos volcanoes /volcanos (e) Knife . as in (d) Some nouns that end in :  –e or –fe are changed to –ves in the plural. One deer is… Two deer are ….knives (f) Belief . In (e): if –y is preceded by a consonant .

In (b): sugar and coffee (b) I put some sugar in my represent whole masses made up coffee of individual particles or elements In (c): luck is an abstract (c) I wish you luck concept. I need to buy some furniture for my new apartment. A. are frequently used cheerful as noncount nouns. State whether the statements are correct or incorrect. does not take a final –s/-es D.Page 25 C. It has no physical form: you can’t touch it. an abstract “whole”. Some churches in our country are old buildings. chairs are items bought three chairs. COUNT NOUN AND NONCOUNT NOUNS: (a) I bought a chair. such (d) Sunshine is warm and as sunshine. you can’t count it. whole group of things that is necklaces. bought some jewelry. There are many mice in our house. I need to buy some furnitures for my new apartment. In (d): phenomena of nature. grammar furniture cannot be counted INCORRECT: We bought a furniture INCORRECT: We bought some furnitures SINGULAR COUNT NOUN a chair one chair NONCOUNT NOUN furniture some furniture PLURA L chairs two chairs some chairs A count noun: (1) May be preceded by a/an in the singular (2) Takes a final –s/-es in the plural A noncount noun: (3) Is not immediately preceded by a/an (4) Has no plural form. I items. 3. Some churchs in our country are old buildings. 2. For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . 1. Sam Chair is account noun. rings and made up of similar but separate bracelets. NONCOUNT NOUNS Notice in the following: Most noncount nouns refer to a “whole” that is made up of different parts In (a): jewelry represents a (a) I bought some earrings. In other words. In furniture. There are many mouses in our house. that can be counted (b) We bought some Furniture is a noncount nount.

(A) rains (C) rain (B) rained (D) raining 7. The trousers you bought for me _____ fit me. sleet. (A) is not (C) not does (B) are not (D) do not 5. (A) is not (C) does not (B) are not (D) do not 6. _____ usually inherit some characteristics from their father and some from their father. If you derink too much coffee. My scissors _____ sharp enough. (A) steak (C) steakes (B) steakoes (D) steaks 9. (A) having (C) have (B) has (D) is had 3. (A) is not (C) does not (B) are not (D) do not 2. (A) childrens (C) children (B) childes (D) childs 10. Mathematics _____ my best subject at school. you will feel dizzy.Page 26 4. Hendra Wijaya is such an honest boy. thunder. (A) waters (C) watering (B) water (D) watered B. (A) want (C) wants (B) are wanting (D) were wanted 4. fog. There was not much__________ in the pool so we did not swim. I am going to buy a new one. My hometown has _____. B. and snow in the winter months. (A) mailing (C) mail (B) mails (D) my 8. The police _____ to interview Fred about robbery. If you drink too much coffees. you will feel dizzy. Hendra Wijaya is such a honest boy. 5. We are going to cook these _____ on the barbeque. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . Choose the Correct Answer 1. England _____ lot all their football matches this season. It would be better to check your _____ if you go to the post office.

Homeworks are not only given to the pupils in Junior high school but also to the children in A B C D elementary school. George had a good luck when he first came to State University. To make a yummy fruit salad we need some apples. you should clarify it soon. cloth made of A B C natural fibers is more fashionable today. I had a pair of knifes on the table. A B C D 2. In 1959 it was naively predicted that eight or ten computer would be sufficient to handle all A B of the scientific and business needs in the United States. A B C D 10. D 4. and papayas. A B C D 3. tomatos. which I was going to use later for dinner. I know I always feel great in bright sunshines. Although polyester was very popular and is still used in making clothing. C D 8. The informations you gave to the detective was very misleading. A B C D 7. he is now writing a book about A B C his experiences. D 9. during the summer months. . D 6. Art of colonial America was very functional. water melons. A B C D For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 .Page 27 1. consisting mainly of useful objects such as A B C furnitures and household utensil. After spending most of his life travelling round the world. 5.

subject verbs For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 indirect Nou n bowl s bags . WORD ORDER IN ADJECTICE Det . direct place time Word order in a negative sentence. Opinio n A silly Two Siz e Age youn g hug e sma ll Som e Sha pe Fact Colo Origi r n Englis h roun d Materi al Purpo se man metal red sleepin g B.Page 28 UNIT 4 WORD ORDER A. WORD ORDER IN SENTENCE Word order for a simple and affirmative sentence. subject I I verb(s) speak can speak object English English subject verb indirect object direct object place time I will tell you the story at school tomorrow .

play tennis. these adverbs are put behind the direct object or the verb . been abroad. then. y carefull y adver b 3) Adverb of Manner verb(s) direc t obje ct adver b I didn't see him here He stayed subje ct 4) Adverbs of Time For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 behin d Like adverbs of manner. alway s usuall y never here in summer. yesterday. now. place or time often go swimming in the evenings. D. POSITION OF ADVERBS 1) Adverb of Frequency These are usually put before the main verb (except for 'be' as a main verb). C. POSITION OF TIME EXPRESSION subject verb I will tell indirect object you direct object time the story tomorrow. 2) Adverb of Manner subje ct verb( s) He drove He drove direct objec t the car These adverbs are put behind the direct object (or behind the carefull verb if there's no direct object). subje ct auxiliary/ be I He doesn't We are I have adver b main verb object.Page 29 I object you will not tell object the story at school tomorrow . recently.

Sonya goes always to school on foot because her school is very close to her house. I am interested in buying an old wonderful Italian clock. and he _____ (A) always gets angry (B) gets always angry (C) always angry gets For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . Only after the car crash they have become careful drivers. After seldom. nor : so do I. Never I have seen such a great movie. I am interested in buying a wonderful old Italian clock. when one thing all started to argue happens after another (e) Only after the meeting did I realize After adverbial expressions beginning with 'only' the importance of the subject After exclamations with here (f) Here comes the winner! and there A. My husband really wants to have some French slim new trousers. Never have I seen such a great movie.Page 30 subje ct verb( s) indire ct object direct object time I will tell you the story tomorro w Adverbs of time are usually put at the end of the sentence E. neither. (d) No sooner had I arrived than they After hardly. no sooner. as well as in a very formal style. inversion is used : ► to make questions : does he? can you? ► after so. State whether the statements are correct or incorrect. SUBJECT AUXILIARY WORD INVERSION In normal everyday English. B. Only after the car crash have they become careful drivers. 3. In written English. My husband really wants to have some slim new French trousers. rarely. Sonya always goes to school on foot because her school is very close to her house. inversion is used in the following cases : After negative adverbial (a) At no time did she say she would expressions come. 4. Choose the correct answer. 5. 1. 2. scarcely. never (c) Seldom have I seen such a beautiful view. neither do I. 1. After adverbial expressions of (b) On the doorstep was a bunch of place flowers. Tom is very temperamental.

was the new dance (C) twist. (A) The pungent unpleasant odor of burning plastic (B) The unpleasant pungent odor of burning plastic (C) The pungent unpleasant odor of plastic burning (D)The unpleasant odor pungent of burning plastic 7. (A) an incredibly rare beautiful artifact (B) a rare incredibly beautiful artifact (C) a beautiful artifact incredibly rare (D)an incredibly beautiful rare artifact For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . _____ appeared to be coming from the science lab next door. One of Farah’s favorite subjects in school is drama because _____ lots of fun and enjoys being part of it all (A) has really she (B) she really has (C) she really is (D)is she really 8. (A) new dance. (A) did they ask to begin (B) did they begin to ask (C) they did begin to ask (D)to ask did they begin 9.Page 31 (D) angry always gets 2. I think Jane deserved to be fired for her _____ (A) totally behavior irresponsible (B) behavior totally irresponsible (C) irresponsible totally behavior (D)totally irresponsible behavior 6. the new dance (D)new dance is the twist 5. Only after they had completed the analysis to that degree ___ how to apply technology to the needs of our enterprise. The archeologists were astonished to find such _____ at that particular site. Where are you considering In 1961 the entertainer Chubby Checker introduced a _____ to New York’s rock’ n ‘ roll fans. He likes his new job very much and _____. My younger brother plays _____ (A) the piano very well (B) very good the piano (C) very well the piano (D) the piano very good 4. (A) works hardly (B) hard works (C) hardly work (D) works hard 3. the twist (B) twist.

5. There are some importance points that they are going to discuss tomorrow. production keeps going often day and night. Choose the incorrect answer 1. Overtime the young students will perfect the art of piano playing. I know I always feel great in bright sunshines during the summer months. A B C D 6. B C D When my brother was studying abroad he got married to a small Canadian thin lady A B C D 8. 2. In that particular department of the company.Page 32 10. A D 3. Young mothers like cooking with microwave because it can cook fastly. For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . A 7. A B C D 9. B C The tenants were asked to throw all recyclable trash into the green big plastic bag A B C D 4. A B C D Bella is a beautifully girl who always goes to campus by car every day. After all such a tuned finely A B C D instrument need delicate handling. _____ explorers the nature of guilt and responsibility and builds to a remarkable conclusion. George gave his wife a beautiful blue boat sailing as a birthday present. (A) The written beautifully novel (B) The beautifully written novel (C) The novel beautifully written (D) The written novel beautifully C.

a.Page 33 A B C D 10. A B C D UNIT 5 DETERMINERS A. . c) with musical instruments. even if it has not been mentioned before. and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose. (C) Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin (D) I was born on a Thursday 3. to refer to something for the first time 2. it was a very strange car For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 1. e) They have their honeymoon in the Yacht the Caribbean f) she grew up in the seventies e) with names of geographical areas and oceans. b) Could you open the door. d) The sun sets in the west. 3. please? c) My house is the one with a blue door. d) with names of days. b) When both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about. An elephant and a mouse fell in love. Uncle Jim walks with shakily because he is getting old and once he got a tremor. to refer to a kind of. or example of something. b) with nationalities and religions. f) with decades. d) to refer to objects we regard as unique. a) with names of jobs. to refer to a particular member of a group or class. a) To refer to something this has already been mentioned. 2. c) in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object. DEFINITE AND INDENFINITE ARTICLES ARTICLE “THE” a) An elephant and a mouse fell in love. or groups of years. ARTICLE “A/ AN” 1. John is a doctor (B) John is an Englishman. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk.

lakes and islands mountain in Alaska. k) Victoria Station is in the centre of streets. stations and airports London 1.in some fixed expressions. g) with professions g) Engineering is a useful career h) with years h) 1948 was a wonderful year. after the words 'what' and 'such': 5. that. those show where an object or person is in relation to the speaker. j) with the names of individual j) Mount McKinley is the highest mountains. For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . d) with people's names (if d) George King is my uncle. (But: the Queen of England. with singular nouns. b) with the names of languages c) with the names of meals. singular): (But: we're having lunch with the John's coming to the party Morgans tomorrow. DEMONSTRATIVES The demonstratives this. these..) f) After the 's possessive case f) His brother's car.Page 34 4. referring to a single object or person: EXPLANATION NO ARTICLE a) Germany is an important economic power (But: I'm visiting the United States next week. meaning 'one'. the Pope. The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting 5. k) with most names of towns.) e) President Kennedy was e) with titles and names assassinated in Dallas. b) English uses many words of Latin origin c) Breakfast is the first meal of the day. i) with uncountable nouns i) Rice is the main food in Asia.) a) with names of countries (if singular). She's such a beautiful 4. for example: by car on foot at school in prison by train on holiday at work in bed by air on air at University in church B.

Page 35 this (singular) and these (plural) refer to an object or person near the speaker. I’ve been able to save a little money this month. the amount/the number smaller. Some with either count or noncount nouns USING A FEW AND FEW. (positive idea: I have save some money instead of spending all of it) few a few I am very sorry for her. A LITLLE AND LITTLE a few (a) She is a new students but she a few and a little give a positive idea. little) may precede a noun. 1. I have almost no money) For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 few and little (without a) give a negative idea. few. QUANTIFIERS An expression of quantity (many. some only with noncount nouns. she has almost no friends) I have very little money. very (+few/little) makes the negative idea stronger. It can be a physical closeness or distance as in the following examples. I don’t even have enough money to buy food for dinner. C.This old world keeps turning round 3. is (positive idea: she has made present. (Negative idea: she does not have many friends. 4.This car looks cleaner than that one. Pay attention that some expressions of quantity are used only with count nouns.These dolls on the table here are very old. that something exists. as in (a) and (b) some friends) a little (b) I’m very pleased.I would like some of those cookies on that shelf. they indicate has made a few friends. 2. much. that (singular) and those (plural) refer to an object or person further away. She has very few friends. . they indicate that something is largely absent. (negative idea: I do not have much money.

A. (We want to know if (We don't know how (The bowl is empty) the bowl contains many. I can lift it. as in (c) Enough may precede a noun.Page 36 USING MUCH AND MANY much (a) I don’t have much money (b) How much water do you consume every day? many much and many mainly used in negative sentences as in (a) and (c) and questions. He gave too many different reasons for his actions. We took a new routes to the beach house. or follow a noun as in (c) Choose the Correct Answer 1. 2. For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTEROGATIVE There are some There aren't any Are there any apples? apples. 4. Enough follows an adjective. 5. He gave too many different reason for his actions. There were not much people came to his birthday party. (b) I have enough strength to lift that box. There are any children playing in the park. We tool a new route to the beach house. You need to show a few kindness then she will be yours. 3. (c) I have strength enough to lift that box. You need to show a little kindness then she will be yours. apples. as in (b) and (d) (c) There aren’t many new species here. (d) How many cigarettes do you smoke in a day? USING SOME AND ANY Some: we some in affirmative sentences Any: we use any in negative sentences and most in questions (but not all). There are some children playing in the park. as in (d). There were not much people came to his birthday party. but the bowl apples) is not empty) USING ENOUGH (a) I am strong enough to lift that box.

We (A) (B) (C) (D) saw quite _____ wild animals while on vacation a few much many some 8. I am familiar with that product.Page 37 B. Do you have _____ to do today? We could have a long lunch if not. In __________. (A) much funds (B) many funds (C) many money (D) much money 6. the team has begun to show some form again and has won some big games. George Washington once said that _______ have virtue enough to withstand the highest bidder. beautiful scenery that is much many beautiful landscapes many beautiful sceneries much beautiful scenery 4. (A) few men (B) the few men (C) few are the men (D) the men are few 3. (A) many work (B) much work (C) many works (D) much works 5. (A) a (B) an (C) the For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . Our company didn't pay _____ for that banner advertisement. There is an island near ___ Pacific Ocean. (A) how many (B) how often (C) how much (D) many often 7. Choose the correct answer! 1. We (A) (B) (C) (D) were fortunate enough to visit the Grand Canyon. I don't know _____ times I've seen it advertised on TV. It has _____. (A) few weeks (B) few past weeks (C) the past few weeks (D) a few weeks since 2.

but A B few serious action has been taken against it. A B C D For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . D 6. (A) enough food (B) food as enough (C) food enough (D)enough the food C. just one daughter and one son. it cannot make the glucose it needs. any writers claimed that lists of wonders of the world A B C have existed during the Middle Ages. Lisa wants to drink a water because she is very thirsty. Many heavy work that was once done by hand can now be done more easily with the help A B C D of compressed air. _____ is currently available to researchers and physicians who study and treat acromegaly. is the largest in Asia A B C D 4. a glandular disorder characterized by enlargement and obesity. A B C D 2. Thailand's new international airport. The Suvarnabhumi airport. A B C D 5. In the 19th and early 20th centuries. (A) The little information (B) Few information (C) Little information (D) A few information 10.When your body do not get _____. Serbian conduct in Bosnia has been strongly condemned by the civilized world. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. 7. C D 3. Peter and Carol don’t have much children. Sperm whale is a unique organism in that it is the largest mammal on earth.Page 38 (D) on 9.

A B C D 9. A B C D 10.Grand Canyon National Park is said to be one of the first National Parks in the United States A B C and attracts more than five million visitors a year. His score on the exam was enough good to qualify him for a graduate program. This trees will grow very tall if you water them every day.Page 39 8. D UNIT 6 TENSES For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 .

(d) It is also used to indicate two actions occurring at the same time in the past. have existed in the past. the simple present expresses events or situations that exist always. (he still lives there) For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 Meaning In general. Past progressive is used to indicate an action which was occurring in the past and was interrupted by another action. (c) John has lived in the same house for twenty years. (b) George has seen this movie three times. (e) Meaning The present perfect is used to indicate an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past (a) It is also used to indicate an action that happened more than once in the past (b) It is also used to indicate an action . and probably will exist in the future. habitually. THE PERFECT TENSE Tense Examples Present (a) John has travelled around Perfect the world. This present progressive is used to indicate present time (now) with all (c). (b) Bob bought a new bicycle yesterday. (c) Maria washed the dishes last night (a) (d) When Mark came home. It began and ended in the past. They exist now. usually. Meaning The simple past is used for a completed action that happened at one specific time in the past. Martha was watching television. (e) Martha was watching television while John was reading a book. It is also used to indicate future time (d).Page 40 THE SIMPLE TENSE Tense Examples Simple (a) It snows in Alaska Present (b) I read newspaper every morning Present Progressive (Continuous) Tense Simple Past Past Progressive (Continuous) (c) John is eating dinner now (d) We are leaving for the theater at seven o’clock. Examples John went to Spain last year.

I am trying to concentrate. there usually are two actions in the sentence.Page 41 Present Perfect Continuous (a) I have been waiting for her since you left Tense Past Perfect Examples (a) John had gone to the store before he went home. 3. She will probably attends the meeting. (A) is still reading (C) has been reading (B) will still read (D) still reads 3. 4. somebody ______it. Exercise A. I called Mary last night. A: ”How long has she been the principal of our school?” B: “Since I _____this school. be quiet. 2. Kathy is always washing her hair every other day. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. “ Oh dear! I forgot to bring my dictionary”. I have never see snow. “ That’s all right. Meaning Past perfect is used to indicate an action that happened before another action in the past. my sister ______it. (C) am going to lend (B) will lend (D) will be lending 4. B.” “Perhaps. began in the past and is still occurring in the present (c). Please.” (A) was entering (C) have entered (B) would entered (D) entered 2. A: “ Can I borrow your magazine?” B: “ I’ am sorry. Present perfect continuous is used to indicate an action that began in the past and still occurring in the present (present perfect rules).” (A) am lending. 1. 5. I ______you mine.” (A) takes (C) has taken (B) is taking (D) had taken 5. Choose the correct answer! 1. Political demonstrations on American campuses have abated_______ (A) after 1970 (C) in 1970 (B) for 1970 (D) since 1970 For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . “Where is my dictionary? It was on my desk. It is also possible to use the present perfect progressive. In her whole life time.

A B C D 3. (A) since (C) until (B) before (D) after 10. Before the Angles and Saxons ______to England. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. (A) came (C) comes (B) had come (D) has come 8. Two of the players from the Yankees has been chosen to participate in All Star A B C D game. My nephew______ working for me about ten years ago.The internal Revenue service ______their tax forms by April 15 every year. (A) begun (C) begin (B) have begun (D) began 9. (A) learn (C) learning (B) learned (D) learns have______ to 7. Andrew Jackson’s daughter. A B C D For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . Before she died. the Ibarians had lived there. Robert E. plant life is very different on earth. Lee surrenders the Confederate army to General Grant in 1865 at the A B C D Appomattox 5. used A B C to take tourists through her home. The United Stated will purchased Alaska from the Russians for $7. Before dinosaurs became extinct. Doctoral students who are preparing to take their qualifying examinations have been studying in the library every night _______the last three months. (A) makes (C) make (B) is making (D) has made C.2 million. D 2. People who have very little technical background understand computer language. 4. In 1867.Page 42 6. who lives in the family mansion.

The professor had already given the homework assignment when he had A had remembered that Monday was a holiday.Page 43 6. the average life A B expectancy for people born during year is 72.4 years. Nerve impulses will send sensation to the brain at a speed of about one hundred A B C yards per second. C D 9. A B C D For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 .John lived in New York since 1990 to 2000. D 7. but he is now living in Detroit. he thought that he had reached the East A B C Indies by way of a Western route. according to the National Center for Health Statistics. When Columbus seen the new world. D 8. B C D 10. In 1970.

For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . Form We make passive verb forms with the verb TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE To be includes: am. A toy is played by Jim. A toy is going to be played by PRESENT PERFECT Jim has played a toy. was. PAST PERFECT Jim had played a toy. FUTURE PERFECT Jim will have played a A toy will have been played MODAL toy. A toy will be played by Jim. Uses TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE SIMPLE PRESENT Jim plays a toy. SIMPLE PAST Jim played a toy. Jim may play a toy. B. be. PRESENT CONTINOUS Jim is playing a toy. by Jim. PAST CONTINOUS Jim was playing a toy. and been. SIMPLE FUTURE Jim will play a toy. BE GOING TO Jim is going to play a toy. A toy was played by Jim. were. A toy may be played by Jim. A toy had been played by Jim. A toy has been played by Jim. are. Jim. is. A toy was being played by Jim. A toy is being played by Jim.Page 44 UNIT 7 PASSIVE A.

If more than five thousand dollars in monetary instruments is transported into the United States. The famous architect. a report needs ________with the customs office. Most of us are sponsored from our parents Most of us are sponsored by our parents 4. (A) were developing (C) were developed (B) are developing (D) are developed 6. For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . Need a. (A) It is generally believed that (C) Generally believed it is (B) Believed generally is (D) That is generally believed 5. 1. ________ Java Man. The car was inspected for customs The car was inspected by customs 5. Her watch needed repaired Her watch needed repairing B. My wedding ring made of yellow and white gold My wedding ring is made of yellow and white gold 2. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. the toners _______ by planting a bow across a set of strings that may be made of wire or gut. who lived before the first Ice Age. who wanted him to study architecture. was greatly _______. 1. 3. (A) influenced by his mother (C) from his mother’s influence (B) his mother influenced him (D) influencing for his mother. (A) they produce (C) producing (B) are produced (D) that are producing 4. My computer needs to be repaired b.. My computer needs repairing Verb need may be followed by to be +V-3 or V-ing without any differences in meaning Exercise A. Laura was born in Iowa Laura born in Iowa 3. Frank Wright.Page 45 C. (A) file (C) file (B) to file (D) to be filed 2. In the stringed instruments. Hundreds of houses and other buildings ________ by the raging tropical storms which later developed into a hurricane. The biology class will _______into two sections to prevent overcrowding in his classroom. is the first manlike animal. Choose the Correct Answer.

C D 4. (A) has been advertised (C) have been advertised (B) had been advertised (D) is advertised 8. D 3. some new equipment _______ by the company to increase the production. Work A is often measure in units called foot pounds. gases have been partly ionize for high frequency radiation from A B C the sun and other sources. (A) should be signed (C) was signed (B) is signed (D) signed C. Because the interstate highway system linking roads across the country was built A B about thirty-five years ago. A great deal of property _______ by hurricanes each year.Page 46 (A) be divided (B) divide (C) be divide (D) be dividing 7. D 5. most of the roads in the system now need repaired. C D For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 .These contracts _______ by the manager in the next meeting. With special enzymes that are call restriction enzymes. We arrived at the store to purchase the dishwasher which _________ in the local newspaper. In the ionosphere. It is believe that most of the earthquakes in the world occur near the A B C youngest mountain ranges-----the Himalayas. (A) will be ordered (C) was ordered (B) is ordered (D) ordered 10. it is possible to spilt off A B segments of DNA from the donor organism. (A) is destroyed (C) was destroyed (B) destroyed (D) destroy 9. and the Sierra Nevada. B C D 2. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. Next week. the Andes.

A B C D 10. USING EXPRESSION OF QUANTITY (BE AS VERB) SINGULAR VERB PLURAL VERB (a) Some of the book (c) Some of the books is good. The house were renovated by some workers several weeks ago. A B C D 7. D UNIT 8 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT In all patterns. . are good. Avoid using a verb that agrees with the modifier of a subject. there must be an agreement of subject and verb. (b) A lot of the (d) A lot of my friends equipment is new. Notice in (a) and (c) Some of + singular noun + singular verb Some of + plural noun + plural verb EXCEPTION: one of. are here. We should have been informed Janis about the change in plans regarding our A B C weekend trip to the mountains. We are suppose to read all of the chapter seven and answer the questions for A B C tomorrow’s class D 9. He is sent an e –mail last week to inform him about the new schedule A B C D 8. each of.Page 47 6. (e) One of friends is here my For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 The verb is determined by the noun (or pronoun) that follows of in most expressions of quantity. All the participants of the seminar have been informing by the committee.

(c) The child usually (f) The children sleeps at 9 am. Several pets. we will have to reschedule our work. need to be taken care of while we are gone. each of. the largest of the state-supported schools. The facilities at the new research library. two dogs and a cat. including an excellent microfilm file. meaning “a lot of. COMPARE: In (j) the number is the subject. usually sleep at 9 am. The facilities at the new research library. for class every one of singular verbs. 2. every one of + plural noun + singular verb Subjects with none of are considered singular in very formal English. 1. 2. For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . 1. Several pets. Since the shipment of supplies for our experiments was delayed. In (k) a number of is an expression of quantity. Exercise: State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. including an excellent microfilm file. we will have to reschedule our work. is among the best in the country. If a main verb is used: Singular noun + main verb+ s/es Plural noun + main verb (without s/es) Exercise: State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. (informal) ((9 The number of (k) A number of students in the class students were late is fifteen. are among the best in the country. (b) The book has a (e) The books have good story. book. but plural verbs are often used in informal speech and writing. two dogs and a cat. State University. USING MAIN VERB SINGULAR VERB PLURAL VERB (a) The student (d) The students always borrows the always borrow the book. Since the shipment of supplies for our experiments were delayed.Page 48 (f) Each of my friends is here (g) Every one of my friends is here (h) (j) None of the boys (i) None of the is here boys are here.” It is followed by a plural noun and a plural verb.000 students on main campus. take one of. needs to be taken care of while we are gone. good story. have more than 50.

that end is -ics take singular verbs. Spanish. -ese. Note: Fields of study. the handicapped. the old. the singular pronoun it is used (not the plural pronoun they). Sometimes a noun that ends in –s is singular. (e) Eight hours of sleep is enough. the deaf. the dead. Japanese. too. Portuguese. For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 In (j): English – language In (l): the English – people from England Some nouns of nationality that end in –sh.g. and distance usually take a singular verb. E. (o) The rich get richer. French A few adjectives can be preceded by the and used as a plural noun (without final –s) to refer to people who have this quality. . the largest of the state-supported schools. as in (b).000 students on main campus SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: SOME IRREGULARIES SINGULAR VERB (a) The news is interesting. (m) The Chinese have an interesting history (n) The poor have many problems.Page 49 State University. People and police do not end in –s but are plural nouns and take plural verbs SINGULAR-PLURAL VERB SINGULAR VERB (j) English is spoken in many countries. money. PLURAL VERB (h) Those people are from Canada (i) The police have been called. the living. has more than 50. (g) Five thousand miles is too far to travel. (d) The United Nations has its headquarters in New York City. Physics is easy for her. English. (f) Ten dollars is too much too pay. (c) Ghosts is the best film I have ever watched. Chinese. Vietnamese. the blind. Other examples: the young. and –ch can mean either language or people. (b) Mathematics is easy for her. Notice the examples: If the noun is changed to a pronoun. (k) Chinese is his native language PLURAL VERB (l) The English drink tea. Expression of time.

3. The average temperature of rocks on the surface of the earth ____55 degrees F. Statistics is a difficult subject for me. Cupid. I think there was ten people in line. Nine of every ten people in the world ____in the country in which they were born. ____ in the human body (A) it makes up the organs (C) they make up the organs (B) make up the organs (D)makes up the organs 2. Statistics are a difficult subject for me B. Choose the correct answer! 1. 2. (A) be (B) are (C) is (D)been For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . are Here Verb Subject Here is the result of discussion Avoid using a verb that does not agree with the subject the EXERCISES A. The Palo Verde tree ____ in spring. each with its own function. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. ____ (A) were a little winged child (B) representing as a little winged child (C) was represented as a little winged child (D)a little winged child 3. There has been very little rain this summer. A group of tissues. (A) there is two towers on it (C) two towers there are (B) there are two towers (D)towers there are two 4. (A) living (C) lives (B) they are living (D)live 6. one of the ancient Roman gods.Page 50 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: USING THERE + BE There and here introduce verb-subject order. There There Verb Subject a lot of people in the park. 1. In a suspension bridge ____ that carry one or more flexible cables firmly attached at each end. There have been very little rain this summer. (A) has beautiful yellow blossoms (B) beautiful yellow blossoms (C) having beautiful yellow blossoms (D)with beautiful yellow blossoms 5. The verb agrees with the subject following it. I think there were ten people in line.

All of the people at the AAME conference are ____ (A) mathematic teachers (C) mathematics teacher (B) mathematics teachers (D)mathematic’s teachers 8. ____ more salt in the deeper water. (A) having (B) has (C) being (D)with 9. (A) is known as the ecliptic (C) it is known to be ecliptic (B) known as the ecliptic (D)knowing as the ecliptic For Internal Use Only Pusat Bahasa Unesa @ 2011 . In the ocean. ____ a wavy.Page 51 7. (A) is there (C) there is (B) it may be (D)it is 10. Oscillatona. gliding motion. one of the few plants that can move about. The yearly path of the sun around the heavens ____.

C. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct
1. Columbus, Ohio, the capital of the state, are not only the largest city in
Ohio but also a
A
B
C
typical metropolitan area, often used in market research.
D
2. There is about 600 schools in the United States that use the Montessori
Method to
A
B
C
encourage an individual initiative.
D
3. A thunderhead, dense clouds that rise high in the sky in huge columns,
produce hail,
A
B
C
D
rain, or snow.
4. Not one in one hundred children exposed to the disease are likely to
develop
B
B
C
D
symptoms of it.
5. Both a term paper and a final exam is required for Chemistry 320.
A
B
C
D
6. Studies of job satisfaction are unreliable because there is so many
variables and because
A
B
C
the admission of dissatisfaction may be viewed as a personal failure.
D
7. The popularity of soccer in the United States were increased significantly
by the playing
A
B
C
of the World Cup in cities throughout the country in1994.
D
8. Two of the players from the Yankees has been chosen to participate in the
All Star
A
B
C
D
game.
9. The information officer at the bank told his customers that there was
several different
A
B
C
D
kinds of checking accounts available.
10.Never before has so many people in the United States been interested in
soccer.
A
B
C
D

UNIT 9
PARALLEL STRUCTURE
One use of a conjunction is to connect words or phrases that have the same
grammatical function in a sentence. This use of conjunctions is called parallel
structure. The conjunctions used in this pattern are and, but, or nor.
(a) Steve and Joe are coming to
dinner.
(b) Susan raised her hand and
snapped her fingers.
(c) He is wearing his arms and
(is) shouting at us
(d) These shoes are old but
comfortable
(e) He wants to watch TV or (to)
listen to some music
(f) They must put the book on
the table or the chair
(g) We know where he went and
what he did
(h) Both my brother and my
sister are doctors
(i) Neither Paul nor Linda lives
in New York
(j) You can either sit there or
wait here
(k) Jane went to the post office
not only to buy stamps but
also to send letters.
(l) Steve, Joe, and Alice are
coming to dinner
(m)
Susan raised her hand,
snapped her fingers, and
asked a question.
(n) The colors in that fabric are
red, gold, black, and green.

In (a): noun + and + noun
In (b): verb + and + verb
In (c): verb + and + verb ( The
second auxiliary may be omitted if
it is the same as the first auxiliary
In (d): adjective + but + adjective
In (e): infinitive + or + infinitive
(the second to may be omitted)
In (f): phrase or phrase
In (g) clause + and + clause
In (h): both ……..and ………….
In (i): neither ………nor …………
In (j): either …………..or ……………
In (k): not only ……….but also
……….

A parallel structure may contain
more than two parts. In a series,
commas are used to separate each
unit. The final comma that
precedes
the
conjunction
is
optional but is customarily used.
(No commas are used if there are
only parts to a parallel structure).

Exercises
A. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect.

1. We learned to read the passage carefully and underlying the main idea.
We learned to read the passage carefully and to underline the main idea.
2. She is not only famous in the United States, but also in Indonesia.
She is famous not only in the United States, but also in Indonesia.
3. The students are obliged to write and reporting the results of their field study.
The students are obliged to write and report the results of their field study.
4. He is neither helpful nor polite.
He is neither help nor polite.
5. He is still confused both the first question and the second one.
He is still confused both the first question or the second one.
B. Choose the correct answer
1. A hot and sunny climate can be neutralized by eating less, drinking more
liquids, and ________ wearing lighter clothing
(A) wears lighter clothing
(C) to wear lighter clothing
(B) wearing lighter clothing
(D) wear lighter clothing
2. Both historically and _______, Ontario is the heartland of Canada
(A) in its geography
(C) also its geography
(B) geographically
(D) geography
3. He knows where she lives and ________
(A) what she does
(B) her address

(C) she does
(D) her job

4. Peter is not reading a novel but ________
(A) to wait her
(B) writing a letter

(C) type a report
(D) wash his car

5. A vacuum will neither conduct heat nor ________.
(A) transmit sound waves
(C)
transmitted
(B) transmitting sound waves
(D)
sound waves

sound
the

waves
transmission

are
of

6. North Carolina is well known not only for the Great Smoky Mountains National
Park ________.for the Cherokee Indian settlements.
(A) also
(C) but also
(B) and
(D) because of
7. To generate income, magazine publishers must decide whether to increase the
subscription price or ________.
(A) to sell advertising
(C) selling advertising
(B) if they should sell advertising
(D) sold advertising
8.

When teenagers finish high school, they have several choices: going to
college, getting a job, or ___________.
(A) joining the army
(C) joins the army

The books and the magazine might be the bag or under the chair. and _______ beautiful butterflies are Derrick’s hobbies. a well-written report. A B C D 5. A B C D 4. A B C D 6. A B C D 9. and barked A B C D . A B C D 2. and B to abolish trust and cartels. The aims of the Common Market are to eliminate tariffs member countries. welfare. (A) that they work hard (C) working hard (B) hard work (D) work hard C. The essay which Paul wrote is rather short but impressively. wagged its tail. C D 10. labor. I think they can explain clearly neither when they go nor they do. A B C D 7. Both Linda or Mary usually go to the cinema on Saturdays. (A) to mount (C) mounting (B) mounts (D) mount 10. and _______. developing A common policies for agriculture. blinking its eyes. Either Elisa nor Eriana really wanted to see them last week. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. They can go there either at the end of July or they can go there at the end of August. Collecting stamps. My friend is interested not in books but in watching films. playing chess.(B) to join the army (D) join the army 9. A B C D 8. They want to know where she went and did two days ago. and transportation. A B C D 3. trade. The chief of police demanded from his assistants an orderly investigation. The puppy stood up slowly.

:  Gery got Tom to clean the floor.. or forcing the person..... (Tom cleaned the floor)  I get my husband to buy me a new car.  I have my husband buy me a new car.. :  Gery had Tom clean the floor.. (any tense) (usually person) e.... (1)ACTIVE S + have / make* + complement + verb in simple form .. asking.. (Tom cleaned the floor).. It has stronger sense than have and get. It means force (2)ACTIVE S + get + complement + to infinitive .. get.. It means that he can cause another person to do something for him by paying.. (any tense) (usually person) e. * The causative verb make can be followed only by a clause in the active voice.  The robber made the teller give him the money.. make..)  The president is making his cabinet members sign this document. g. The causative verbs commonly used are: have... . g.UNIT 10 CAUSATIVE VERBS Causative verbs are used to show that one person causes second person to do something for the first person. (The robber forced the teller to give him the money..

4. Nadia will have her friend______ her essay assignment next week. (A) change (C) to change (B) changing (D) changed 3. Ellen got Marley paint the wall.. 2. 3.(3)PASSIVE S + have / get + complement + V 3 (past participle) . The lecturer had the students hand in the term paper on time.. (A) emphasize (C) to emphasize (B) emphasizing (D) emphasized 5... The lecturer got the students to hand in the term paper on time. The attorney had his client_______ the possibility of winning the case. The students are getting the lecturer _______ the schedule. 1. Dick is getting his sister to make the bed. . The instructor had the trainees _______a project report.. Exercise A... State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect.. (The floor was cleaned by somebody)  I have/get the new car bought. Choose the correct answer! 1.:  Gery got (had) the floor cleaned. We have to have our children to study hard. Maria had Gene prepare the meal. Dick is getting/having the bed made. 2. 5. (A) submit (C) submitting (B) submitted (D) to submit 2. All people make the new leader _______the need for justice and equality. The policeman made the robber lie on the ground. Dick is having his sister make the bed. (any tense) (usually thing) e. Other examples: 1. g.. B. The teacher made John to leave the class. (A) consider (C) to consider (B) considering (D) considered 4... The lecturer got/had the term paper handed in.

(A) open (C) opening (B) to open (D) opened 7. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. The speaker is getting the audience ______to his speech. The test administrator made us not _______our books until h told us to do so. Why don’t you make her doing it herself. A B C D 5. Jack always gets me _______beside him.The new government will have the budget of education_______. The principal always has the students _______the school rules.(A) making (B) make (C) made (D) to make 6. The director had them to work in committees to plan advertising A B C campaign for a new product. D 4. (A) increased (C) increase (B) to increase (D)increasing C. A B C D 6. James’ lecturer had him to rewrite his thesis many times before allowing him to A B C present it to the committee. (A) obey (C) to obey (B) obeying (D) obeyed 10. Hendry always gets the room cleanly every day. (A) listen (C) listening (B) listened (D) to listen 9. I always go to the hairdresser’s to have my hair to cut every month. (A) not to smoke (C) not smoking (B) no smoking (D) not smoke 8. Luis got his sister read his class assignment. C D 2. A B C D . and then asked her to write the report A B for him because he did not have enough time. D a more effective 3.

past. A B C D UNIT 11 SUBJUNCTIVE Subjunctive is used in a noun clause that follows certain verbs and expressions. Passive: simple form of be + past participle. Nadine usually gets the woman sweep the floor in the morning. (b) I insisted that he pay me the money (c) I recommended that she not go to the concert (d) It is important that they be told the truth (e) I suggested that she see a doctor (f) I suggested that she should see a doctor    In (a): be is a subjunctive verb. A B C D 8. as in (d) Should is also possible after suggest and recommend Common verbs and expressions followed by the subjunctive in the noun clause Verbs It + is (other form of be) + adjective demand ask it is important it is urgent insist urge it is necessary it is vital suggest advise it is essential it is recommend propose imperative . as in (c).Father will have the room clean before the guests arrive. A B C D 9. A B C D 10. The sentences generally stress importance. or future form. (a) The teacher demands that we be on time.7. Father will have the mechanic repaired my car before I use it tomorrow. They do not have present. Negative: not + simple form. Subjunctive verbs are used only in their simple form. they are neither singular nor plural. The police officer had the suspect to fill the form.

It is imperative that he_____ home immediately. (A) returns (C) will return (B) return (D) shall return 2. (A) return (C) returned (B) returning (D) returns 7. It is imperative that the government _____ poverty. 3. It is vital that no one else know about the secret government operation. The government proposed that a new highway _____. (A) eradicate (C) not eradicate (B) eradicates (D) does not eradicate 5.request Exercise A. 2. B. 5. It is necessary that calcium ______for the development of strong bones and teeth. Congress had recommended that the gasoline tax _______ abolished (A) be (C) was (B) is (D) to be 9. Her advisor recommended that she takes five courses. It is imperative that the committee ________ discussion on this issue (A) suspended (C) suspend (B) suspending (D) suspends 10. (A) be used (C) is used (B) will be used (D) used 6. I requested that I permit to change my class. (A) taking (C) take (B) took (D) are taking 8. (A) takes (C) take (B) took (D) to take . She specifically asked that I ______anyone else about it. Mr. Adams insisted that we be careful in our writing. (A) not tell (C) will not tell (B) does not tell (D) do not tell 4. Choose the correct answer! 1. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. 1.It is advised that you ________ the prerequisites before registering for this course. The university requires that all its students _______ this course. The judge insisted that the jury ________ a verdict immediately. (A) is built (C) builds (B) will be built (D) be built 3. It is essential that no one will be admitted to the room without proper identification. 4.

A B C D 6. A B C D 4. It is most important that he speaks to the dean before leaving for his vacation. The instructor recommended that everyone takes the placement test.The director suggested that his staff to plan a more effective advertising campaign A B C for the new product. A B C D 7. It is essential that the temperature is not elevated to a point where the substance A B formed may become unstable and decompose into its constituent elements.C. When a patient’s blood pressure is much higher than it should be. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. The government urged that all citizens will vote in the next election. A B C D 10. a doctor usually A B C insists that he will not smoke. He insisted that the food is canned for later consumption. C D 8. D 9. C D 2. The doctor advised Mr. D 3. It was suggested that Pedro studies the materials more thoroughly before A B attempting to pass the exam. Andrew that he lies in bed for a few days as a precaution A B C against further damage to the tendons. D . It is urgent that the committee will study the proposals before making a decision. A B C D 5.

UNIT 12 COMPARATIVES 1. DEGREES OF COMPARISON subject + verb An essay test is more(less) + adjective adjectives+-er more difficult harder than noun than an objective test .

Noun This coat Noun This coat Noun (plural) These coats Be is And and The same as the same as Noun that one Be are Be are Noun that one the same the same The same the same Avoid using like instead of as. Avoid using the same between the two nouns compared.easier subject +verb the An essay test is the most(least) + adjective adjectives + –est most difficult hardest *more (less) or most (least) is used when the adjective has two syllables. and the same is used after the two nouns or a plural noun. EXACT COMPARISON The same as and the same have the same meaning. but like is used between the two nouns compared. GENERAL SIMILARITY AND GENERAL DIFFERENCE The words like and alike have the same meaning. but the same as is used between the two nouns compared. 2. – er or -est is used when the adjective has only one syllable or two syllables ending in –y. 4. DOUBLE COMPARISON the comparati ve S V the comparative S V The hotter it is the the more miserable I feel 3. . And avoid using as instead of like and avoid using like after the two nouns compared. and alike is used after the two nouns or a plural noun.

but it costs three times as much as the other one. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. “speed” is not always _______”velocity”. The watch in the window is a little different than this one. She is most prettiest of all the girls in our class.Noun This coat Noun This coat Be is And and Like like Noun that one Noun (Plural) These coats Noun that one Be are Alike alike Be are Noun This coat Be is Alike alike Different From different from Noun that one 5. COMPARATIVE ESTIMATE Subject +Verb Fresh fruit costs We have Multiple As twice as Many/ Many much half as many as Noun/Clau se canned fruit as we need As Subject +Verb More (Less) Than Number Noun/Clause Steve has more than a thousand coins in his collections Subject/Verb We should have As Many As as many as Number five hundred Noun applications Exercise: A. 4. Choose the correct answer. (A) alike (C) the same as . 5. B. 1. 3. 1. This field is larger than the other one. This one is better. Although we often use “speed” and “velocity” interchangeably. The car is almost the same like mine 2. in technical sense.

chipmunks are_______ most other ground squirrels. Although they are smaller. (A) the largest than the ones in (C) larger than the ones in (B) larger the ones in (D) the largest of the ones 9. The greater the demand. There are ______fifteen thousand students attending summer school. advertising can influence the public’s A B C D choice. 2. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. (A) more as (C) more than (B) most than (D) least than 6. (A) the same as (C) the same with (B) same like (D) the same with C. A nursery school is ______ a day care center. (A) than (C) as many as (B) as much as (D) from 5. _______the price. The first living structure to appear on earth thousands of years ago were alike A B C D viruses. (A) like to (C) like with (B) like as (D) like 3. The teacher gave Mike a failing grade on her term paper because it was______ Ardian’s. The bill which we received was________ than the estimate. (A) different from (C) different than (B) different (D) different as 4.(B) similar (D) as 2. (A) most higher (C) higher (B) the higher (D) more higher 8. When two products are basically the same as. (A) higher (C) high (B) the higher (D) the high 10. The rent at College Apartment is only half ________ you pay here. (A) as many as (C) as many (B) as much as (D) as much 7. The Disney amusement park in Japan is _______Florida or California. The main library has_______ one millions volumes. .

a most significant results are in A B C D the abstract. The diesel engine that runs on oil is efficient than most other engines because it A B C converts the useful energy stored up in the fuel. A B C D 9. farming A B C is different other industries. The more important theorem of all in plane geometry is the Pythagorean Theorem. D 7. The books for my engineering course are expensive than the books for my other A B C courses. A manufacturers are beginning to use fructose blended with pure sugar. A B C D .3. With American prices for sugar at three times as much the world price. Although business practices have been applied successfully to agriculture. B C D 5. 10. D 8.The climate here is more milder than that of New England. D 6. or sucrose. Although there are a number of interesting findings. D 4. It is generally accepted that the common cold is caused by as much as forty strains A B C of viruses that may be present in the air at all times.

UNREAL CONDITIONS (NOT TRUE) PRESENT OR FUTURE TIME → type 2 If + subject + simple past tense. 1. subject + would (could) + (verb in simple form) e. Fact: ( I don’t have the time) (I’m not going to the beach with you) 2. Fact: (He won’t tell you about it. PAST TIME → type 3 If + subject + past perfect. you could understand him.) (He’s not here) 3. He would tell you about it if he were here. g. If he didn’t speak so quickly. g.: .UNIT 13 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 1. subject + will (can) + (verb in simple form) +V-1(s/es)(to indicate a fact) e. subject + would (could) + have + (verb in past participle) e. 1. If I had the time. it becomes cool 2. g. Fact: (He speaks very quickly.) (You can’t understand him). If I have enough time. REAL CONDITIONS (POSSIBLY TRUE) FUTURE TIME → type 1 If + subject + simple present tense. I will write to my parents every week 2. If water is kept in a refrigerator. I would go to the beach with you this weekend.

I wish I knew French. told you. please In (a): Were I you = If I were you In (b): Had I known = If I had known take a message. Fact: (She didn’t sell the house.) 3.) (She didn’t find the right buyer. I wish it weren’t raining right now. we would have arrived sooner. The I wish John had used of that is come. Usually it I wish Mary could is omitted in have come. … (a) Were I you.* optional. we would have written you a letter. (c) Should anyone call. She would have sold the house if she had found the right buyer. (g) John didn’t come. (f) I can’t speak Japanese. I would have VERB FORMS FOLLOWING WISH A wish about the future A wish about the present A wish about the past VERB FORM IN VERB FORM “TRUE” SENTENCE FOLLOWING WISH (a) She will not tell I wish (that) she me. Wish is followed by a noun clause. * Sometimes in very informal speaking: I wish John would have . (b) Had I known. Fact: (We didn’t know that you were there. INCORRECT: Hadn’t I seen it with my own eyes. I wish he were going (b) He isn’t going to be here. I wouldn’t do that. to be exactly the opposite. Wish is used when the speaker wants reality to be different. If we had known that you were there. not follows the subjects. speaking. and should. sometimes if is omitted and the subject and verb are inverted. In (c): Should anyone call = If anyone should call * In the negative. to be here. (d) I don’t know French. (h) Mary couldn’t come. I wouldn’t have believed it. Notice the examples. It is not contracted with the auxiliary verb: CORRECT: Had I not seen it with my own eyes.1. I wish she could (c) She can’t come come tomorrow. I wish I could speak Japanese. had (past perfect). Fact: (We lost our way) (We didn’t arrive sooner) OMITTING IF With were. If we hadn’t lost our way.) 2. tomorrow. Verb forms similar to those in conditional sentences are used. would tell me. (e) It is raining right now.) (We didn’t write you a letter.

As if or as though is preferred. Notice in (a): like is following by a noun object. I wish you would hurry. I wish you would come. they learn to walk at about eighteen months old. examples. the rainstorm. (b). In (c) an (d): I wish you would …. Notice in (d): like is followed by a clause.  He acted as though he similar to that (h) She will be here. If water freezes. If water freezes. (a). (I want it to stop raining. (I want you to hurry. verb usage is her clothes on. (I want the phone to ring) (c) It’s going to be a good party. (d) It looks like it is going to rain.) (b) I’m expecting a call.) B.come. (c).. I wish the phone would ring. USING WOULD TO MAKE WISHES ABOUT THE FUTURE (a) It is raining. and (d) all have the same meaning. sentences. it becomes a solid 2. a. A. The wish may or may not come true (be realized). (I want you to come. “TRUE” STATEMENT VERB FORM AFTER AS IF/AS THOUGH (e) He is not a child. a. (g) He has met her. This use of like is common in informal English but is not generally considered appropriate in formal English. (c) It looks as though it is going to rain. USING AS IF/AS THOUGH (a) I looks like rain. (f) She did not take a shower  When she came in from if/as though is with her clothes on. . it has become a solid b. Notice in (b) and (c): as if and as though are followed by a clause. (b) It looks as if it is going to rain. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. 1. If children are healthy. Exercises A. I wish it would stop. (informal) Would is usually used to indicate that the speaker wants something to happen in the future.) (d) We’re going to be late.  She talked to him as if Usually the idea following as he were a child. in conditional had never met her. is often used to make a request. she untrue looked as if she had taken a shower with In this case.  She spoke as if she Notice the wouldn’t be here.

We will wait if you wanted to go b. a. If American ate fewer foods with sugar and salt. If services are increased. If I were Jane. a. we would have bought a new stereo system b. if Napoleon had not invaded Russia. I _____her. ______ either the National or the American Conference (A) they win (C) they win (B) they will win (D) they have won 7. we would have bought a new stereo system B. (A) would experience (C) would have experienced (B) experience (D) had experienced 6. If footballs teams play in the Super bowl Championship. If you made your bed in the morning. If you made your bed in the morning. taxes________ (A) will probably go up (C) probably go up (B) probably go up (D) going up probably 3. they _______. If children be healthy. they learn to walk at about eighteen months old. I ______visit you. a. I ______leave the man (A) am (B) would (C) have (D) will 9. If I had known her address. he ______the rest of Europe. (A) had conquered (C) would conquer (B) would have conquered (D) conquered 5. anxiety. 3. According to some historians.hallucinations. your room would look better when you got back in the afternoon 5. and eventually death.b. (A) could see (B) would visit (C) would have visited (D) will visit 8. their general health ______better (A) be (C) is (B) will be (D) would be 4. We will wait if you want to go 4. (A) would (B) will (C) would have (D) would be . Choose the Correct Answer! 1. If humans were deprived of sleep. If we had had the money. If I have time. coma. If we had the money. your room looks better when you got back in the afternoon b. If water is heated to 212 degrees F ______as team (A) it boiled and escape (C) it is boiling and escaping (B) it boils and escape (D) it would boil and escape 2.

whom she had not seen in years. If drivers obeyed the speed limit. A B C D 6. (A) had set (C) has set (B) have set (D) set C. If dinosaurs would have continued roaming the earth. it is very confusing. C D .If Monique had not attended the conference. If you don’t register before the last day of regular registration. you might finished it in time. If you start doing it now. you paying a late fee. Boys can become Cub Scouts if they completed the second grade A B C D 2. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. D 3. A B C D 10. A B C D 8. the leaves would not have burned. you may get a cramp in your leg.10. because even an object at rest is B C D moving as the earth turns. We would have bought a new car if we have had a lot of money A B C D 9. A B C D 5. 4. If biennials were planted this year. she never would meet her old friend A B Dan. If you sat in that position for too long. fewer accidents occur. they will be likely to bloom next year. A B C D 7. If we were to consider all of the different kinds of motion in discussing the A movement of an object. If you _______ the plant in a cooler location. man would have evolved quite A B C differently.

or gives further information about a noun/noun phrase. Mobile phones are kept in the customs office b. It describes. An adjective clause commonly uses relative pronouns such as who. where. The vendors sell on the main street c. whom. a.UNIT 14 ADJECTIVE CLAUSE & ADJECTIVE PHRASE An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun or noun phrase. which. when. THAT. Who : used for people as subject Which : used for things as subject or . The vendors who (that) sell on the main street will be relocated to the central park a. An adjective clause is also called a relative clause. A. identifies. The vendors will be relocated to the central park b. WHICH. USING SUBJECT PRONOUNS: WHO. that. Mobile phones were smuggled to Indonesia Clauses (a) and (b) make up a sentence with an adjective clause (clause c) The italic clauses are adjective clause which modifies the noun “the vendor” and “mobile phone” respectively.

The man (who)m the new boss fired was a chronically late employee. Whose may not be omitted. b.c. The man was a chronically late employee b. d. Like the adjective pronouns. The new boss fired him c. USING WHOSE AND OF WHICH a. her. Whose is used to show possession. In clause: the object pronoun is omitted from the adjective clause without changing the meaning. The italic clause is an adjective clause Notice: the adjective clause pronoun (clause c and d) is put as close as possible to the noun it modifies. Audience applauded the The italic clause is an adjective clause speaker using whose. WHICH. The man that the new boss fired was a chronically late employee. USING OBJECT PRONOUNS: WHO(M). Mobile phones which (that) were object smuggled to Indonesia are kept in the That : used for both people and customs office things B. Audience applauded the whose is linked with a noun: speaker whose presentation was very his presentation becomes whose excellent presentation a. . and their. e. Both whose and the noun it is connected to are placed at the beginning of the adjective clause. THAT a. The man the new boss fired was a chronically late employee. its. C. It has His presentation was very the same meaning as other possessive excellent pronouns used as adjectives: his. (Subject pronouns may not be omitted). The clauses (a) and (b) make up a sentence with an adjective clause using object pronouns. c.

D. month.that can be reduced to modifying adjective phrases. USING WHERE a. There are two ways to change an adjective clause into an adjective phrase. the preposition must be used. town. omit the pronoun and the be form. CLAUSE: The arguments which are presented in the paper are convincing PHRASE: The arguments presented in the paper are convincing c. it is PHRASE: English has an alphabet sometimes possible to omit the consisting 26 letters subject pronoun and change the verb to its -ing form. year.) If where is used.) m e t CHANGING AN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE TO AN ADJECTIVE PHRASE. date. etc. E. that. a preposition is not included in the adjective clause. (a) and (b) have the same meaning. (a) The girl who is helping my mom is my sister. school. etc. The apartment where my family live is near my dad’s office Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place (city. I will never forget when we first When is used in an adjective clause to modify time(hour. as in (c) . USING WHEN a. My family live there c. The apartment is near my dad’s office b. which. (b) The girl helping my mom is sister a. as in examples (a) and (b) b. day. CLAUSE: The man who is sitting next to me is from Korea PHRASE: The man sitting next to me is from Korea The adjective clause in (a) can be reduced to the adjective phrase in (b). room. (1) If the adjective clause contains the be form of a verb. house. We first met on the day c. CLAUSE: English has an alphabet (2) If there is no be form of a verb in which consists of 26 letters the adjective clause. I will never forget the day b. country. Only adjective clauses that have a subject pronoun – who. And if where is not used.

Edward bought a car_________. Let ABC be a triangle ________. The film that we are watching is really scary. The man ________ was the manager of the supermarket. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. At the party there were many people I did not know. A crystal is a piece of matter_______ are naturally formed plane surface. was a wealthy colonist and a general in the army. 1. (A) which hired Robert (C) hiring Robert (B) hired Robert (D) who was hired Robert 4. is an exciting city. (A) which sides are of equal length (C) that sides are of equal length (B) whose sides are of equal length (D) where sides are of equal length 3. 5. (A) which was struck the town (C) struck the town (B) that was being struck the town (D)whose town was struck 5. the adjective phrase also requires commas. (C) of which Alice kept her sheets. 4. a famous American author. (D) when Alice kept her sheets. (A) which was awarded the Nobel prize (C) whose award the Nobel prize (B) awarded the Nobel prize (D) that the Nobel prize awarded 7. My sister who living in Paris is a biologist. which boundaries (B) that boundaries (D). as in (e) Adjective phrases in which a noun follows another noun. The students who had taken the test today are tired. The tornado ________ destroyed several homes. 3. The bed that I slept on was very soft. (A) whose boundaries (C). The scientist ________ was from Sweden. (e) PHRASE: George Washington. If the adjective clause requires commas as in (d). who was the first president of the United States. (A) that Fred had previously sold to Susan (B) in which Fred had previously sold to Susan (C) where Fred had previously sold to Susan . the first president of the United States.(d) CLAUSE: George Washington. the capital of France. was a wealthy colonist and a general in the army. when boundaries 2. are called "appositives. (B) which Alice kept her sheets. B. (A) where Alice kept her sheets." Exercises A. (f)Paris. 6. Choose the Correct Answer! 1. as in (f) and (g ). John admired the dresser ________. (g) I read a book by Mark Twain. 2.

It is believed that any man. The T-shirt the colors and sizes which are determined by the athletic department are on sale A B C at a store on campus. The actor who last three movies I had seen and enjoyed gave a surprisingly bad performance A B C D in this play. A B C D 8. Sir Andrew is considered to be a prophet which is descended from heaven. A foreign investor bought stock in a cigarette manufacturer which profits had increased A B C dramatically for the last three quarters. (A) we bought last night books last night (B) that we bought the books last night night 9. whose loves children and dogs. The archeologist found an ancient manuscript the last few pages which had several beautiful A B C D illustrations. D 5. 3. Senators were familiar with details of the proposal believe that it has a good chance of A B C passing. would make a good husband. D 7. The books ________ was very helpful. (A) whose car is engaged to Joan to Joan (B) by which car is engaged to Joan (C) which we bought the (D) whose we bought last (C) in which car is engaged (D) who car is engaged to Joan 10. (A) that Ted bought the car (C) which Ted bought (B) by which Ted bought (D) when Ted bought C. A B C D 6. The guy _________ owns a big house. The car ________ has a very powerful engine. 4.(D)to whom Fred had previously sold Susan 8. Choose the letter of the underlined word that is not correct 1. The bills when were passed by the House yesterday died in the Senate. D 2. A B C D .

who books have sold well. A B C D 10. are few and far between.The research report on urban life in which submitted and published was far from the fact A B C and criticized. The author. D .9. who I like.

whom. It is the object of the verb understand WORDS USED TO INTRODUCE NOUN CLAUSES (1)question words: when. In (c) and (d): The word order is the same in both the question and the noun clause because who and what are the subjects in both. Notice: does and did are used in questions but not in noun clauses. (a) Her presentation was convincing (b) What she presented was convincing In (a): presentation is a noun. The noun clause has its own subject she and verb presented (c) I cannot understand her complaint In (c): complaint is a noun. who. –s and is) NOUN CLAUSES WHICH BEGIN WITH WHETHER OR IF . In (g) and (h): What you gave and How she behaved are the subjects of the sentences. why. which. what. You may not use question word order in a noun clause. if (3)that NOUN CLAUSES WHICH BEGINS WITH A QUESTION WORD QUESTION NOUN CLAUSE Where does he (a) I do not know where he work? works What time did she (b) Did you know what come? time she came Who helped you? (c) Tell me who helped What was wrong? you (d) I do not know what was wrong Who are you? Whose book is that? (e) I know who you are (f) I know whose book that is What did you give? (g) What you gave makes me offended (h) How she behaved is embarrassing How did she behave? EXPLANATION In (a) where he works is the object of the verb know. where. It is the (d) I cannot understand what she object of the verb understand complained In (d): what she complained is a noun clause. whose (2)whether. so they must be placed in front of the verb are and is in the noun clauses. a noun clause is also used as a subject or an object. It is used as the subject of the sentence In (b) what she presented is a noun clause. a noun clause is a clause used in the same ways as a noun. In other words. It is also used as the subject of the sentence. how. In (e) and (f) you and that are the subjects.g.UNIT 15 NOUN CLAUSE Like a noun. Notice: a noun clause takes a singular verb (e.

In (d): the noun clause is used as the object of the sentence. They are the objects of the verb think The word that. especially in speaking. Whether is more acceptable in formal English. whether or if is used to introduce the noun clause. In (c): the noun clause is used as the subject of the sentence. It may be omitted. when used to introduce noun clauses. EXPLANATION In (a) and (b): that Ted is a great artist and that) he is a successful teacher are noun clauses. has no meaning in itself.YES/NO QUESTIONS Will she study? Did he come? NOUN CLAUSES (a) I do not know whether she will study (b) I wonder if he came NOUN CLAUSES WHICH BEGIN WITH THAT STATEMENT NOUN CLAUSES Ted is a great artist (a)I think that Ted is a He is a successful great artist teacher (b)I think (that) he is a successful teacher She is good at mathematics (c)That she is good at mathematics is surprising (d) It is surprising that she is good at mathematics EXPLANATION When a yes/no question is changed to a noun clause. . but if is quite common.

(A) that Anna Winlock (B) Anna Winlock. It is unfortunate that the meal is not ready yet. We never know whether we will get paid or not. 7. 2. 5. (A) Ecologists use the term “gallery forest” (B) What do ecologists call a “gallery forest” (C) “Gallery forest” is the term ecologists use (D) What ecologists call a “gallery forest” 4. which is 5. 6. We could not believe what he did to us. 3. State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect. The manager explained how wanted the work done. Can you tell me why was the mail not delivered today? B. 8. Scientists cannot agree on ____________ related to other orders of insects. ___________ is a narrow strip of woods along a stream in an open grassland. 10. (A) That makes the monarch butterflies’ migration (B) The migration of the monarch butterflies is (C) What makes the monarch butterflies’ migration (D) The migration of the monarch butterflies. ________ so incredible is that these insects successfully migrate to places that they have never even seen. She told me when should I pick up the children. This evening you can decide what do you want to do. It was in 1875 _________________ joined the staff of the astronomical observatory at Harvard University. 9. Choose the correct answer! 1. I want to know if is it going to rain tomorrow. gardeners must know _______________. In order to grow vegetables properly. 4. The map showed where the party would be held.A. (A) that fleas are (B) how fleas are (C) how are fleas (D) fleas that are 2. who (C) as Anna Winlock (D) Anna Winlock then 3. For many years people have wondered ___________ exists elsewhere in the universe. (A) what the requirements for each vegetable are (B) that the requirements for each vegetable (C) what are each vegetable’s requirements (D) that is required by each vegetable 6. 1. The instructor explained where was the computer lab located. .

1. ______________ was caused by breathing impure air was once a common belief. (B) what it happened in front of the building. A B C D . Exactly when was the wheel invented is not known. The new student is not sure which it is the most important course in the program. (C) what does it happen in front of the building. (A) who's painting was the best (B) whose painting was the best (C) painting who was the best (D) the best painting was who 10. (A) Malaria (B) That malaria (C) Why malaria (D) Because malaria 8. (A) what did it happen in front of the building. We thought about whom would we choose as the best vice president of our company. (D)what happened in front of the building. Choose the incorrect answer. The judges had an extremely hard time deciding _______ . One basic question psychologists have tried to answer is __________________ . A B C D 5.(A) that life (B) life which (C) whether life (D) life as it 7. A B C D 4. (A) people learn (B) how do people learn (C) people learn how (D) how people learn 9..No one is sure ……. C. A test pilot tries out new kinds of aircraft to determine if are they safe A B C D 2. Art critics do not all agree on what are the qualities that make a painting great A B C D 3.

The people of the town protested why were they given no warning of the approaching A B C D tornado.6. Don had an elaborate excuse for being late for his class. There are several reasons why are millions of students studying English in the world. That many people in the world live in intolerable poverty concern all of us. It is obvious that is English the principal language of the business community A B C throughout much of the world. A B C D 9. D 8. . A B C D 10. D 7. but the lecturer did not believe A B C what did he explain.

Therefore. SUMMARY LIST OF WORDS USED TO INTRODUCE ADVERB CLAUSES TIME After before when while as by the time since until as soon as whenever every time (that) the first time (time) the last time (that) the next time CAUSE AND EFFECT Because now that since as as/so long as inasmuch as so that in order that OPPOSITION CONDITION even though although though whereas while if unless only if whether or not even if providing (that) provided (that) in case (that ) in the event (that) REDUCTION OF ADVERB CLAUSES TO MODIFYING PHRASES Some adverb clauses may be changed to modifying phrases if the subject of the adverb clause and the subject of the main clause are the same.UNIT 16 ADVERB CLAUSES & REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSES Adverb clauses are clauses which serve as adverb. A modifying phrase. it cannot stand alone and must be connected to an independent clause. as presented below. It is a dependent clause. There are two ways to change adverb clauses into modifying phrases 1. a comma is used to separate the clauses. modifies the subject of the main clause. If there is no be form of a verb. (a) When we were Jakarta. I was listening to a music 2. a reduction of an adverb clause. as in (a). Omit the subject of the dependent clause and the be form of the verb (a) ADVERB CLAUSE : While I was reading a novel. opposition. and condition. cause and effect. we attended a seminar (b) We have to study hard because we will have an exam next week When we were Jakarta is an adverb clause. When an adverb clause precedes an independent clause. I was listening to a music (b) MODIFYING CLAUSE: While reading a novel. omit the subject and change the verb to –ing . They may be preceded by words showing time.

B. Jane’s contact lens popped out _____________. (C) until she was playing basketball. I had breakfast A. ___________ a married man. I had breakfast (b) MODIFYING CLAUSE: Before leaving for work. We stayed there until we finish our work 3. I have many responsibilities (A) Being (B) To be (C) Due to (D)Because of 3. 2. We will have a big party providing that I had had much money. (B) as soon as she was playing basketball. (A) I will already be here for four months (B) so I will already have been here for four months (C) as I will already have been here for four months (D)I will already have been here for four months 4. Before I went to bed. State whether the sentences are correct or incorrect. 1. __________. By the time he comes. ____________ his nose gets red (A) By the time James gets angry (B) Before James gets angry (C) After James gets angry (D) Whenever James gets angry 5. 6. Choose the correct answer. (D)although she was playing basketball. 1.(a) ADVERB CLAUSE : Before I left for work. the children were bored. I read a novel. (A) while she was playing basketball. 5. (A) To have nothing to do (B) Having nothing to do (C) Have nothing to do (D)Because nothing to do 2. I put the book on my desk. we will already have leave 4. (A) Before the semester is finished (B) Now that the semester is finished (C) By the time the semester is finished (D)Though the semester is finished . Before stolen this morning. __________. __________ I am going to rest a few days and then take a trip. By the time I leave this city.

7. (D)while we have to make a decision. 2. (A) unless they complete the fifth grade (B) if they completed the fifth grade (C) unless they completed the fifth grade (D)if they complete the fifth grade C. 5. (A) unless they win (B) but they win (C) unless they will win (D) but to have won 8. Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource in order to we must do whatever we can in order to A B C D conserve it. While live in Burma last year. Football teams don't play in the Super Bowl championship _________ either the National or the American Conference. (A) they will have bought the tickets (B) they will buy the tickets (C) they bought the tickets (D)they are buying the tickets 9. A B C D 4. Many young people move to the cities in search of employment because of there are few jobs A B C D available in the rural areas. 10. Point to the sentence on the whiteboard. (B) as long as we have to make a decision. 3. Choose the incorrect answer 1. While I was walking down the street a car swerved to avoid a dog and almost drove onto the A B C D sidewalk. . (A) after we have to make a decision.__________. I learned many things about Burmese customs. (C) as we have to make a decision. Usually boys cannot become Boy Scouts ___________. We will have gotten an answer to our letter ____________. Before we can tell them about the discount. the teacher explained the meaning of modifying A B C D Phrases.

10. Peter Mc Kay worked as a sales A B C D representative.6. Because having already spent all of his last paycheck. The political situation in Sudan will continue to deteriorate unless if there is an agreement A B C D between the opposition and government. 8. He tapped his fingers loudly on the desk top. Andrew does not have any more money A B C to live on for the rest of the month. A B C D 9. Before became vice-president of marketing and sales. D . You are eligible for the low-cost health insurance provides that you are students or teachers. he made his impatience and dissatisfaction A B C known. D 7.

to speak. to play). They are used as the subject of the sentences.. In (c) and (d): the words reading and seeing are gerunds which are used as objects of verbs enjoy and avoid respectively A gerund is often used as the object of a preposition In (e). In (g): for negative form. understanding.g.g. as a subject and an object of both a verb or a preposition. (f) and (g): to and about are prepositions. to understand.. speaking. so a gerund follows. playing) which is used as a noun.UNIT 17 GERUNDS & INFINITIVES A gerund is the –ing form of a verb (e. GERUNDS (a) Climbing is challenging (b) Jogging makes me healthy (c) I enjoy reading novels (d) He always avoids seeing me (e) I am looking forward to studying overseas (f) I object to changing my plan (g) I talked about not taking this topic. i. not part of an infinitive form.e. In (a) and (b): climbing and jogging are gerunds. not precedes a gerund COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS enjoy appreciate mind quit (give up) finish (get through) stop avoid . An infinitive is to + the simple form of a verb (e.

postpone (put off) delay (talk about) mention keep (keep on) consider (think about) discuss suggest COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES VERB + INFINITIVES (a) I want to buy a new notebook (b) I promise not to disturb you VERB + (PRO)NOUN + INFINITIVES (c) Mr Ted allowed me to use his car (d) The teacher always encourages us to study hard (e) I was told to be here at nine o’clock (f) The thief was ordered not to move (g) I expect to visit my grandma (h) I expect Susan to help me Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive. may or may not be followed by a (pro)noun object. as in (a) and (b). as in (e) and (f). Negative form: not precedes the infinitive Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun and then an infinitive. GROUP A: VERB +INFINITIVES OR GERUND (WITH NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING begin like hate start love can’t stand can’t bear continue prefer . Compare: (i) I think I will pass the exam (j) I think Susan will help me GROUP A: VERB+INFINITIVES hope to promise to seem to ask to plan to agree to appear to expect to intend to offer to pretend to would like to decide to refuse to need to want to GROUP B: VERB+(PRO)NOUN + INFINITIVE tell someone to invite someone to require someone to ask someone to advise someone to permit someone to order someone to expect someone to encourage someone to allow someone to force someone to would like someone to remind someone to warn someone to want someone to need someone to COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER INFINITIVES OR GERUNDS Some verbs may be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund. would like. want. expect. These verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive when used in the passive. and need. Ask. sometimes with no difference un meaning and sometimes with a difference in meaning. as in (c) and (d).

Alice is not interested to look for a job 2. Choose the correct answer 1. The teacher reminded the students __________. 1. Sometimes teenagers get into trouble with their parents by_________. 5. Would you mind ___________ the window? (A) opening (B) to open (C) opens (D) opened 2. Mary went to a ball game with some of her friends. Fred keeps researching learning strategies. (c) Kim will never forget to clean his room (d) Kim often forgets lending me money A. I enjoy___________ the newspaper every morning while I am having my first cup of tea. State which sentences are correct and incorrect. (b) Jane remembers seeing the In (b) and (d): remember and forget strange man something that happened in the past. Simon objected to work with me. 4. B. Instead of studying. duty. Where are you considering ___________ for vacation? (A) going (B) to go (C) to be going (D)went 5. I am accustomed to have a big breakfast 3. (A) disobeying what their parents want (B) disobey what their parents want (C) disobeys what their parents want (D) to disobey what their parents want 4. or task. (A) submitting their assignment on time (B) to submit their assignment on time . It is hot here.(a) It began to rain (c) It started to work (b) It began raining (d) It started working GROUP A: VERB +INFINITIVES OR GERUND (WITH A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING remember forget regret try (a) Jane always remembers to lock In (a) and (c): remember and forget the door to perform responsibility. (A) reading (B) to read (C) read (D)to read 3.

A B C D . so he decided __________. the wolf threatened eating a girl named Little Red Riding Hood. After a brief interruption. 3. (A) not to look up (B) not looking up (C) do not look up (D)not look up 9. (A) to take a job (B) taking a job (C) he takes a job (D)he took a job 7. Choose the incorrect answer 1. (A) lecturing (B) lecturer (C) to lecture (D)to be lecturing C. Fred did not have any money. All applicants are required __________ an entrance examination.(C) submitted their assignment on time (D)to be submitted their assignment on time 6. In the fairy tale. (A) taking part in the seminar (B) to take part in the seminar (C) they take part in the seminar (D)they took part in the seminar 8. Liza encouraged me throwing away my old running shoes and to buy a new pair without holes A B C D in the toes. A B C D 2. (A) to take (B) taking (C) takes (D)take 10. The students were expected ___________. the professor continued ____________. Sometimes students avoid to look at the teacher if they do not want to answer a question. Our teacher encourages the students ___________ a dictionary when they find unfamiliar words.

When a student asks a question. my mother reminded me write a letter at least once A B C D a week. Jane and David were considering to get married in June. A B C D 6. D 8. A B C D . the teacher always tries explaining the problem as clearly as A B C D possible.I am looking forward to eat my mother’s cooking and sleeping in my own bed. How many times does your mother have to remind you hanging up your coat when you get A B C D home from school? 5. but they finally decided to postpone A B C D it until August. I cannot ever forget to watch our team score the winning goal in the last seconds of the game A B C to capture the national championship. 9. 10. Before I left home to go away to college. 7. I finally managed persuading Jane to stay in school and finish her degree.4.