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**Free Vibration Characteristics of Elastically Supported Pipe
**

Conveying Fluid

Ali H.Al-Hilli

Mechanical Eng. Dept.

Nahrain University

Abstract

In this study, the effect of support values on

the natural frequency and critical flow velocity

of a straight pipe conveying laminar flowing

fluid is studied. The aim of this work is

deriving a new analytical model to perform a

general study to investigate the dynamic

behavior of a pipe under general boundary

conditions by considering the supports as

compliant material with linear and rotational

springs. This model describes both the

classical (simply support, free, built, guide)

and the restrained boundary condition and it is

not required to derive a new frequency

equation if the boundary conditions is changed

,also the result will be near to reality by

knowing the physical parameters for the

compliant material and the pipe.

**Keywords:Pipe conveying fluid, Natural
**

frequency,

support

Critical

velocity,

and

Elastic

1.Introduction

The study of the dynamic behavior of a fluid

conveying pipe, started in 1950, despite the

great importance of this subject in pumps, heat

exchanger, discharge lines, marines risers,

etc.., the first observation of this phenomena

was made by Ashley and Havilland [1], when

examining the above ground Trans-Arabian oil

pipe line. They considered the problem as a

simply supported pipe.

The free vibrations of pipes conveying fluid

was studied by Huang [2], taking into account,

the effects of rotary inertia on both the fluids

and the pipes, the shear deformation of the

pipes and the leteral inertia force due to the

moving fluids. The theory of dynamics

of pipes containing flowing fluid has been of a

great interest for engineers in various fields.

The results showed that the fluid forces and the

pipe forced will interact with each other. Singh

and Mallik [3] investigated the effect of

harmonic fluid on stability using bolotin,s

concept, it was concluded that, the same

regions of instability also exist in continuous

NUCEJ Vol.16 No1

Thaier J.Ntayeesh

Mechanical Eng. Dept.

University of Baghdad

**pipe when it was parametrically exited and the
**

phenomenon was like that of a beam subjected

to an axial harmonic forces. The mass ratio did

not have any significant effect on the regions

of

instability within the range of parametric

values considered. With the increase in the

pressure and the velocity of the fluid, the

instability regions became wider and were

shifted to lower frequencies, damping in the

pipe reduced the extent of the instability

regions and a finite value of the excitation

parameters was required to start the instability.

Abraham [4] studied the vibration and stability

of straight pipe systems conveying fluid, either

steady or fluctuating flow. The supports

considered are different in type and positions,

this work perfferent a general study to

investigate the dynamic behavior for a pipe

with N-spans and general boundary conditions

and that by considering the supports as

compliant boundary material with linear and

rotational springs and dampers. It was

concluded that the support position and values

had a significant on dynamic characteristics of

the pipe.

Dian etal [5] analyzed the free lateral vibration

of thin annular with variable thickness and

circular plates. Study was adopted the finite

element method to obtain the natural

frequencies and mode shapes of the

axisymmetric and non axisymmetric thin

annular. The results showed that the finite

element method was an efficient and

convenient tool for analyzing the lateral

vibration of annular and circular composite

plates with variable thickness.

The effect of induced vibration of a simply

supported pipe conveying fluid with a

restriction, investigated theoretically and

experimentally by

Alaa [6], where transfer

matrix approach was implemented to described

the dynamic response of a pipe conveying fluid

and a numerical technique for solving twodimensional incompressible steady viscous

flow

for

the

rang

of

Reynolds

number(5<Re<1000). It was concluded that the

fluid flow through a pipe with restriction

Al-Hilli, Ntayeesh

9

The discrtized dynamical equations using spatial finite-difference schemes in the case of steady flow and pulsatile flow.1 Free Vibration Characteristics 10 .For a single-span pipe conveying fluid. 4. subharmonic or to chaotic states. showed that the outer pipe length is a more important design factor than gravity and friction. Wang and Bloom [7] studied the static and dynamic instabilities of submerged and inclined concentric pipes conveying fluid mathematically. Derivation of the equation of motion for stright pipe with steady flow are available in the literature Ref.(1) Stiffness term Curvature term Coriolis force term Inertia force term NUCEJ Vol. 3. 7. Neglecting the effect of gravity. All motion considered small. The pipe is inextensible. 5. it will be considered that the pipe is supported at the two end points.section of the pipe. The convergence study is based on the numerical values. Neglecting the material damping. Shintaro and Masaki [8] studied experimentally the three-dimension dynamics of hanging tube conveying fluid with varying the length of the tube. In the numerical examples.the equation based on beabeam theory is given by. Neglecting the shear deformation and rotary inertia.affected the dynamic behavior of the pipe in addition to the flow field structure due to induced vibration. The pipe considered to be horizontal. 2. In the present study. the free vibration of elastically supported pipe conveying fluid is analyzed under general boundary conditions by considering the supports as compliant material with linear and rotational springs.16 No.Ref [11]……………. 6. the first three eigenvalues of the Timoshenko beam are calculated for various values of stiffness of translational and rotational springs 2.[10]. were found depending on boundary conditions. where the parameters and are taken to have the same values at all the supports Figure (1) Considered Timoshenko beams with (a) the first type and (b) the second type of translational and rotational springs The following assumptions are considered in the analysis of the system under consideration [9]: 1. plane or rotating pendulum. The result was obtained.Theoretical approach Consider a straight uniform single-span pipe conveying fluid of length L where and are the translational and rotational spring constant. (a) denoted by and .. 1 …. Instabilities to static buckling. Neglecting the velocity distribution through the cross.

The equation of motion Eq. To solve the problem of free vibration for a structure.(1) can be written in the following non-dimensional form: 5 2 Substituting Eq.Evaluating Natural Frequency The flexible-flexible boundary condition may be written as:- NUCEJ Vol. (5) gives: where the boundary 1-at x=0. . where + + + =0 : dimensionless rotational stiffness at x=0 : Non-dimensional mass ratio. The parameter of this material will be represented by linear and rotational spring. To describe the classical boundary conditions impedance values are taken to be zero or infinity values. Substituting Eq. 2-at x=0. The general solution to Eq. The method of solution consists of formulating the support condition of a pipe in terms of the compliant boundary material. where : dimensionless rotational stiffness at x= 4-at x=l. (3) into conditions Eq.The Coriolis force is a result of the rotation of the system element due to the system lateral motion. . (2) is given by: . (3) into Eq.16 No1 where : dimensionless longitudinal stiffness at x= These four equations can be written in matrix form as follows: Al-Hilli. a relationship is obtained between the wave numbers and the where : dimensionless longitudinal stiffness at x=0 3-at x=l.1. Ntayeesh 11 . … 3 where Cj is amplitudes of vibrations and is the wave numbers. + + + =0 4 From these relationships four wave numbers can be determined as functions of Ω and the pipe parameters. ( . . (2). since each point in the span rotates with angular velocity [12]. eigenvalues Ω. . first its boundary conditions must be known. : Non-dimensional fluid pressure. . 2.

When the flow velocity is equal to the critical velocity the pipe bows out and buckles. so deleting time dependent term from equation (2) yields: … This matrix can be written as follows: 6 whose its solution takes the form where =1. 2. The non-dimension natural frequency is evaluated by setting term equal to zero For non trivial solution: i. where :dimensionless longitudinal stiffness at x=0 3. the Therefore the frequency can be written as. 2-at x=0. dimensionless . The solution is done by trial and error procedure.Therefore the mechanism underlying instability may be illustrated by static method [13].at x=l. A MATLAB computer program was built for this purpose. where : rotational stiffness at x=0.e. where and are constant and can be evaluated by using the boundary conditions as following: 1. the value of Ω that makes the determinant vanish can be found which will represent the non dimensional natural frequency. the flow velocity in this case is called critical flow velocity. .at x=0. because the forces required to make the fluid deform to the pipe curvature are greater than the stiffness of the pipe.2. This is determinant function to :dimensionless rotational stiffness at x= 4.but function to therefore determinant can be written as. . .1 where :dimensionless longitudinal stiffness at x= These four equations can be written in matrix form as follows: This matrix can be written as follows: where =1. . Evaluating Critical Velocity If the natural frequencies of the pipe reach to zero.4 Trial and error procedure is used to find the value of that makes the determinant Free Vibration Characteristics 12 .at x=l. NUCEJ Vol.3.2.1. where .16 No. .4 .3.

000 38.[14] present work 39.579 2. 3. and the results are given in tables 1 and 2.[14] 9. the first three eigen values of the pipe at with the two types of translational and rotational springs as shown in Figure (1) are calculated and three dimensional plots in Figures. Results and Discussions. Therefore.864 9. The stiffness parameters and are taken as having the values at all the supports denoted by . It is possible to simulate infinite support stiffness by setting the translational or rotational stiffness coefficient equal to at all the supports for comparing the obtained results with the existing results of the classically supported pipe. From the non-dimensional critical velocity is obtained. Also. .347 8. . and by . Effect of the Numerical Value of Support Stiffness.652 7.583 35. Ntayeesh 13 . for the pipe with the first type of the springs.865 9.898 present work 39.400 37.013 38.424 37.579 2.354 Al-Hilli.474 39.Vanish. 3.3460 8.075 88.728 86.899 Ref. In order to investigate the influence of stiffness of the supports on the free vibration characteristics of a pipe conveying fluid. (6) and (7) respectively to illustrate how the frequency parameters change with the spring constants. by setting the translational and rotational stiffness coefficients equal to zero at all the supports.340 87.822 88.478 39.1.1 1 1. f or the beam with the second type of the springs.652 7.16 No1 present work 9. (3).865 84.569 34. (4).5 2 3 NUCEJ Vol. (2). comparative study of the pinned-pinned and clamped-clamped pipe with the classical solutions given in the Ref. u 0. A MATLAB computer program was built for this purpose.946 Ref. [14] is carried out. (5). . a completely free pipe situation can be obtained. Table (1) Comparison study of the first two dimensionless frequencies parameter of the pinned-pinned pipe conveying fluid for various values of u at .

613 60. ..670 61.598 21.510 1.185 19.921 120. NUCEJ Vol.300 117.010 2 3 21.16 No. Free Vibration Characteristics 14 .183 19. .371 Ref.280 Figure(2)The first frequency parameter of the pipe with .328 61.711 21.1 Figure (4) The third frequency parameter of the pipe with .370 present work 61.Table (2) Comparison study of the first two dimensionless frequencies parameter of the Clamped-Clamped pipe conveying fluid for various values of u at .712 60. .900 60.900 1 22.564 60.301 58.340 120. Figure (3) The second frequency parameter of the pipe with .330 58.081 61.5 21.[14] 22. u Ref.1 present work 22.669 present work 120. .604 119.[14] 0. Figure (5) The first frequency parameter of the pipe with .082 22.

The effect of the fluid flow velocity and mass ratio will be discussed. Ntayeesh 15 . there is no remarkable change in the frequency parameters. the value of transverse displacement decreasing when the value of linear stiffness is increasing.87 but. Effect of Fluid Velocity and Mass Ratio. namely.226 to 21. For instance..096 to 7.351 . this tends to increasing in natural frequency. This force is essentially a negative damping mechanism Al-Hilli. the frequency changes from 4. . . when the parameters and are both changed from to Figure (6) The second frequency parameter of the pipe with . (2) to (7).096 to 39. The reason of this behavior. Also. and mass ratio) have direct effects on the dynamic characteristics of the system under consideration. value of and the parameter to is changed from . then the case will be a normal beam system and when the flow velocity equal the critical velocity the pipe bows out and buckles. and is always in phase with the velocity of the pipe. the first frequency parameter changes from 1.. When the values of and are greater than and .2. this tends to small increasing in natural frequency.16 No1 and the parameter 3. for the pipe with the first type of the springs. Figure (7) The third frequency parameter of the pipe with . Mathematically the buckling instability arises from the mixed derivative term(Coriolis) in equation (4) which represents a forces imposed on the pipe by the flowing fluid that is always 90o of phase with the displacement of the pipe. when the parameters and are taken as . The fluid parameters (velocity. becomes 17 times greater in this change. pressure. If the velocity of the flow in the pipe equal zero. But the value of slope is small decreasing when the value of rotational stiffness increasing. because the forces required to make the fluid deform to the pipe curvature is greater than the stiffness of the pipe. the frequency parameter changes from 4.is changed from parameter to . when the spring parameter is taken constant. This situation can be observed from the flat area of Figures. then. it is evident from the obtained values of frequency parameters that. In general the natural frequencies for steady flow decrease with increasing the fluid flow velocity.243. the pipe can be considered as a pipe fixed at the both ends. in Figure (3). respectively in the considered change. Increment in the values of parameters and are more effective on the first frequency parameter of the pipe than the second and third frequency parameters.For example. while the parameter is taken as NUCEJ Vol. Because the value of natural frequency in the first mode is small and any increasing in and strong effect in the value of natural frequency but the natural frequency in the second and third modes is high and the increasing in and small effect in the value of natural frequency. It is seen from the figures that translational springs are much more effective on the frequency parameters than rotational springs. and increase approximately 14 and 5 times. On the other hand.

such as cantilever pipe. there is no difference in the frequency parameter for any value of . vibration. 12and 13) show the variation of the frequency parameter with flow velocity parameter the mass ratio Figure (8) Variation of with for various values of for Clamped. The more effect happen when the value of stiffness is small and this effect decreasing when the value of stiffness is increasing.1 Figure (9) Variation of with for various values of for pinned.16 No. For intermediate values of . Free Vibration Characteristics 16 . For and for . Many studies indicate that the natural frequencies of a pipe with both ends stationary. are strongly affected by the mass ratio [15].which extracts energy from the fluid flow and inputs energy into the bending pipe to encourage initially. Figures (8) and (9) shows the variation of the frequency parameter with flow velocity parameter for different values of the mass ratio for the clamped –clamped and pinnedpinned boundary condition respectively. and ultimately buckling [15]. such as the clamped-clamped or clampedpinned ends. Figures (10. are nearly independent of the mass ratio while the natural frequencies of pipes with one end free to move.pinned pipe. 11. NUCEJ Vol. The effect of mass ratio on the natural frequency depended on the value of rotational and translational impedance of support. for the pinned-pinned and clampedclamped cases. There is very good agreement in the values of with those obtained by Païdoussis and Issid [16]. so less effect happens at the value of stiffness is large. there is a slight decrease in the frequency parameter for increasing values of in classical boundary condition [16].Clamped pipe for different values of for four types of flexible support.

4-The values of linear and rotational impedance are more effective on the first frequency parameter of the pipe than the second and third frequency parameters. =100 Figure (13) Variation of with for various values of at =5. there is no difference in the frequency parameter for any value of mass ratio.16 No1 Following the main summarized conclusions raised by this research: 1-The technique used for modeling the compliant boundary material in terms of linear and rotational impedance allows the designer to describe both the classical and restrained boundary conditions. The reason of this behavior. =180 . Al-Hilli.When flow velocity equal zero or critical value. 7. =175 . But the value of slope is small decreasing when the value of rotational stiffness increasing. there is decrease in the natural frequency parameter with increasing values of mass ratio. =520. =130 . 5-When the values of linear and rotational impedance are greater than . =450. this tends to small increasing in natural frequency. =380 3. this tends to increasing in natural frequency. 2-The natural frequency of a pipe increases with the increasing of the linear and rotational impedance. for intermediate values of flow velocity. =250 NUCEJ Vol. Ntayeesh 17 . there is no remarkable change in the frequency parameters. =10. =170. 3-The linear impedance is much more effective on the frequency parameters than rotational impedance. the value of transverse displacement decreasing when the value of linear stiffness is increasing. =10 . =90 [[[[[ Figure (12) Variation of with for various values of at =750. Conclusions Figure (11) Variation of with for various values of at =110.Figure (10) Variation of with for various values of at =100. 6-The natural frequency of a pipe increases with the increasing of the linear and rotational intermediate impedance.

” An investigation into the vibration and stability of pipe conveying fluid with multi compliant N-span boundary condition”. Stein and M.1973.A.E. J. Japan (July. [3] K. [5] Dian-Yunchen and Bao-sheng Ren.1 Free Vibration Characteristics 18 .” The effect of induced vibration on a pipe with arestriction conveying fluid”.and structures. Baghdad university.transactions of the ASME. Ph.240. A.” Stability issues of concentric pipes containing steady and pulsatile flows”. [8] Shintaro kuronuma & Masaki Sano.thesis.S Weaver and T.Sc.2005. 1977. Liu Yong-shou. M.M. graduate school of science.A. [7] X.1950. Tobriner . [14] R.S. and acoustics. Vol.H." Vibration of Pipes Containing Flowing Fluids ". “Dynamics stability of pipes conveying fluid”. J. [12]Zena Kkalefa. “Vibrational analysis of an annulus pipe flow with presence of uniform heat flux”. September.Journal of sound and vibration Vol.University of Technology . AL-Rajihy “Out-of-plane vibration and stability of intermediately supported curved-straight tube conveying fluid”. 1970 [11] Huang Yi-min.” Stability and bifurcation’s of tube conveying flow”. Van Nostrad Reinhold.”vibrations of pipes containing flowing fluids according to Timoshenko theory”.V.A. J.Issid. [4] Raed abo bakier Abraham.mallik. 1979. “Flow Induced Vibration”. 1998.A.P.W. J.M. July 1998. A. Blevins.” Finite element analysis of the lateral vibration of thin annular and circular plates with variables thickness”. Stein and M.33. [1] H.D Thesis.References.Singh and A.bloom. J. R. [10] R. 2001. university of Tokyo.K. Li Yan-jiang andYue Zhu-feng “Natural frequency analysis of fluid conveying pipeline with different Boundary conditions” Journal of Nuclear engineering and design. 1970 NUCEJ Vol.V.Journal of Applied Mechanics.Journal of applied mechanics . [6] ALAA.1974. Sc thesis 1990. Ph. New York. M.Haviland “Bending vibration of a pipe line containing flowing fluid”. pp 461-467. Tobriner .wang and F. 2001.Paidoussis and N.thesis. 2010. 1974. 1." Vibration of Pipes Containing Flowing Fluids ".16 No. Li Baohui.W.T.Unny “On the Dynamic stability of fluid conveying pipe”.F.huang. [13] D. 2002) [15] D.M.c. university of technology. [2] C. [16] M.Ashley and G.D. [9] A.” Parametric instabilities of periodically supported pipe conveying fluid”.

٤.٠٨ ٢ ٥٨. .٠٩ ٢ ٥٨.٨٨٣ ٩.٨١ ٢ ٤٧.١٤ ٣ ٦٠.٧٩ ٩ ٥٧.٤٨ ٧ ٥٩.٨٧ ٧.٩٣ ٢٠.١٦ NUCEJ Vol.٨٧ ٨ ٣٨.٠٩ ١ ٥٦.٠١ ٦ ٦٠.٣١ ٥ ٣٩.١٢ ١ ٦٠.٧٧ ٣ ٥٩.٦٩ ٣ ٥٩.١٣ ٥ ٢٠.Appendix (A): parameters of Figure (3) Table (A1) Variation of the second frequency parameter of the pipe with .٣٠ ١ ٤٨.٩٨ ٨ ٣٩.١٤ ٥ ٦٠.٨١ ٢ ٤٧.٥٤ ٤ ٤٨.٨٧ ٧.٨٦٩ ٧.١٤ ٦ ٦٠.١٦ ٢٠.٩١ ٧ ٥٧.١٥ ٩ ٦٠.٩١ ٤ ٥٩.٠٩٦ ٦.٨٢ ٢ ٤١.٧١ ٦ ٦٠.16 No1 Al-Hilli.٨٨٤ ٩.٣٠ ٨ ٤٨.٢٨ ٤ ٤٧.٣٠ ٩ ٢٠.٨٨٤ ٩.٨٧٥ ٩.٨٨٤ ٢٠.٣٥ ١ ٣٩.٨١ ٣ ٤٦.٠٩ ١ ٥٨.٧١ ٤ ٦٠.٨٣ ٨ ٣٥.٧٩٨ ٩.٩٨ ٤ ٥٨.٨٨٤ ٩.٧٣١ ٧.١٣ ٤ ٦٠.٣٤ ٧ ٣٩.٧١ ٦ ٦٠.٠٩ ٢ ٥٨.٢٣١ ٩.٨١ ٤ ٤٦.٨٥٦ ٧.٧١ ٦ ٦٠.١٦ ٢٠.٨١ ٢ ٤٧.١٤ ٦ ٦٠.٦١ ٩ ٥٧.٨٧ ٧.٣٥ ١ ٢٠.١٥ ٧ ٢٠.٠٩ ٢ ٥٨.٠١ ٤ ٦٠.٩٩ ٢ ٦٠.٨١ ٢ ٤٧.٨١ ٢ ٤٧.٢٣ ٢ ٤٨.٩٠ ٢ ٥٩.٨٧ ٧.١٥ ٦ ٦٠.٧٦٧ ٧.١٥ ٨ ٦٠.٩٢ ٩ ٥٧.٩١ ٦ ٢٠.١٥ ٩ ٦٠.٠١ ٦ ٦٠. Ntayeesh 19 .٩٣٧ ٩.٠١ ٦ ٦٠.

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