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"Hung Out to Dry" Howard Kurtz, Washington Post, March 12, 2008 "Mars and Venus Dissect the Spitzer Scandal on the TV Talk Shows" Alessandra Stanley, The New York Times, March 12, 2008 "Spitzer disappoints on tube, too" David Hinckley, New York Daily News, March 12, 2008 "ABC News specials mark Iraq war anniversary" Reuters, March 12, 2008 "The Touchable" John Koblin, The New York Times, March 11, 2008 "Charting 4-Year Circ Plunge at Major Papers" Jennifer Saba, Editor and Publisher, March 11, 2008 "Nielsen Will Get Data From New Channel" Stephanie Kang, The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2008 "Tribune hires innovation chief" Thomas S. Mulligan, Los Angeles Times, March 12, 2008 "AP Legend John Roderick Dies at 93" Associated Press, Editor and Publisher, March 11, 2008 RSS Feed RSS Feed Latest from PewResearch.org The Project for Excellence in Journalism is one of eight projects that make up the Pew Research Center. Mar 12, 2008 Presidential Calendar Boosts '08 Govs' Races Mar 12, 2008 Awareness of Iraq War Fatalities Plummets Mar 07, 2008 Voting Religiously Mar 07, 2008 Hispanics Give Clinton Crucial Wins Mar 06, 2008 Public Sees Fair Fight Today's Lead lead image Year in News Coming March 17 What did the year in news look like in 2007? In its most comprehensive study of news coverage to date, PEJ analyzed more than 70,000 stories from 48 separate news outlets in five

media sectors in 2007 to uncover what was on the media’s agenda last year. The study is coming as part of the 2008 State of the News Media report on March 17. Read More lead image Why Local TV Loves the Presidential Campaign The bounty from political advertising is expected to set a new record in the current election cycle. And even with news consumers migrating to new media outlets, the overwhelming majority of those dollars will end up in the coffers of an “old media” platform. * * * * * * Cable News Daytime Audience, Jan-Dec 2007 Cable News Prime Time Audience, Jan-Dec 2007 Newspapers Try to Count Readers Differently Newsmagazine Ad Pages 2007 vs. 2006 J-School Jobs Hit A Plateau U.S. Daily Newspaper Circulation: 1990-2006

lead image PEJ Annual Report Coming Soon The 2008 State of the News Media report will be released on March 17. The fifth edition of the PEJ annual report will assess the health of U.S. journalism, including a review of developments in eight different media sectors. Also this year it features a survey of journalists, a look at the year in news, new tools to track key indicators and more. * The Portrait from Iraq - How the Press Has Covered Events on the Ground * New Hampshire Teaches National News Media a Lesson * The Media Verdict on the Iowa Caucuses is Loud and Clear * Terrorism, Tight Credit, and Tragedies Emerge in the News in Third Quarter lead image Media Admire Clinton’s Resilience, Question Obama’s Toughness: March 3 - 9, 2008

With wins in Ohio and Texas, Hillary Clinton was the top campaign newsmaker last week. The media’s first verdict was that her aggressive attacks succeeded in stopping Barack Obama’s momentum. Their next question was whether Obama was capable of responding in kind. * Campaign Coverage Index, Press Takes a Harder Look at Obama—and Itself: February 25 - March 2, 2008 * Campaign Coverage Index, Clinton Battles the Obama Boom, McCain Battles the Times: February 18 - 24, 2008 * Campaign Coverage Index, Media Narrative Vaults Obama into Frontrunner Slot: February 11 - 17, 2008 RSS Feed RSS Feed RSS Feed RSS Feed RSS Feed RSS Feed Also Worth Noting Journalists in Iraq - A Survey of Reporters on the Front Lines In a PEJ survey, journalists reporting from Iraq say the conditions are the most dangerous they've ever encountered. 90% say most of Baghdad remains too dangerous. Nearly 60% of news organizations had at least one Iraqi staff member killed or kidnapped. PEJ’s State of the News Media 2007 The fourth Annual State of the News Media report released March 12. This year, it includes a unique topographical analysis of journalism Web sites. It also reveals changes ahead for the blogosphere, cable news, and in the ambitions of news organizations generally. A New Updated Edition of the Elements of Journalism The latest edition of Elements is completely updated and includes a new 10th principle--the rights and responsibilities of citizens-flowing from new power conveyed by technology to citizens as consumers and editors of their own news and information. Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology

Analysis: Our Studies This section, Studies, contains PEJ's major empirical research studies, including our annual reports on the state of journalism divided into searchable subchapters. They are listed below in chronological order. Or you can use the menus on the left to filter our entire archive and find exactly what you want. * PEJ Annual Report Coming Soon March 6, 2008 The 2008 State of the News Media report will be released on March 17. The fifth edition of the PEJ annual report will assess the health of U.S. journalism, including a review of developments in eight different media sectors. Also this year it features a survey of journalists, a look at the year in news, new tools to track key indicators and more. * New Hampshire Teaches National News Media a Lesson January 9, 2008 It wasn’t quite “Dewey Defeats Truman,” but after the Jan. 8 Granite State primary confounded many of the pollsters and pundits, one of the key story lines that emerged in coverage of the McCain and Clinton victories was the media’s proclivity to predict and pre-analyze the results. * The Portrait from Iraq - How the Press Has Covered Events on the Ground December 19, 2007 What image of war did journalists—challenged with reporting events from Iraq—portray to the American public in the first 10 months of 2007? What role did violence play in the coverage? Who did reporters rely on for information? A new study of Iraq war coverage addresses these questions. * Terrorism, Tight Credit, and Tragedies Emerge in the News in Third Quarter December 6, 2007 The Iraq policy debate re-emerged as the No. 1 story, replacing the campaign, in the third quarter, according to a detailed analysis of PEJ’s News Coverage Index. But terror fears, a troubled economy, and man-made disasters also grabbed the media’s attention. So too, did the three top newsmakers who ran

afoul of the law. * Journalists in Iraq - A Survey of Reporters on the Front Lines November 28, 2007 In a new PEJ survey, journalists reporting from Iraq say the conditions are the most dangerous they've ever encountered. Ninety percent say most of Baghdad remains too dangerous to visit. Nearly 60% of the news organizations have had at least one Iraqi staff member killed or kidnapped in the last year. The survey is of 111 journalists from 29 news organizations reporting from Iraq. * THE INVISIBLE PRIMARY—INVISIBLE NO LONGER: A First Look at Coverage of the 2008 Presidential Campaign October 29, 2007 How have the news media covered the early months of the 2008 presidential election? Which candidate enjoyed the most exposure, which the best, and which the worst? With the race starting so early, did the press leap to horse race coverage from the start? A study by PEJ and Harvard’s Shorenstein Center has answers. * The Latest News Headlines—Your Vote Counts September 12, 2007 What would a world in which citizens set the news agenda rather than editors look like? A new PEJ study comparing usernews sites, like Digg, Del.icio.us,and Reddit, with mainstream news outlets provides some initial answers. The snapshot suggests both a drastically different set of topics and information sources. * Fred Thompson's Campaign Web Site Was Already in Full Swing September 4, 2007 Now that Fred Thompson has formally announced his candidacy for President, his live campaign can begin to match the vigorous cyberspace campaign he's been running for months. In a follow-up to a July 12 report on the Web sites of the other Presidential hopefuls, PEJ finds that Thompson’s full-service site is among the most sophisticated of anyone running--even before he

had declared. * Campaign for President Takes Center Stage in Coverage: Quarterly Report on the News August 20, 2007 In the second quarter of 2007, the presidential campaign supplanted the debate over Iraq as the No. 1 story in the media. Barack Obama overtook Hillary Clinton as the candidate getting the most attention. And Republicans began to catch up with Democrats in exposure. PEJ offers a 2nd quarter report on the media. * Election 2008: Candidate Web Sites, Propaganda or News? - A PEJ Study July 12, 2007 The presidential hopefuls are using their web sites for unprecedented two-way communication with citizens. But what are voters learning here? Is it more than a way to bypass the media? A new PEJ study of 19 campaign sites finds Democrats are more interactive, Republicans are more likely to talk about “values,” and neither wants to talk about ideology. 123456789…next ›last » Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology Analysis: Our Studies This section, Studies, contains PEJ's major empirical research studies, including our annual reports on the state of journalism divided into searchable subchapters. They are listed below in chronological order. Or you can use the menus on the left to filter our entire archive and find exactly what you want. * A Media Mystery: Private Security Companies in Iraq - A PEJ Study

June 21, 2007 The 30,000 employees of Private Security Companies currently operating inside Iraq represent a new element in modern-day warfare. They are armed, suffer casualties, are paid by the U.S. government, and perform tasks once done by the nation’s military. But a new study by PEJ reveals that for the most part, these forces have operated below the media radar. * Iraq Dominates PEJ’s First Quarterly NCI Report May 25, 2007 The war in Iraq eclipsed all other news in the first three months of 2007. The 2008 presidential race was the next biggest story, and most of that was about Democrats. These are among the findings in PEJ’s first quarterly report of its News Coverage Index, which allows us to probe the data more deeply than we can on a weekly basis. * Anna Nicole Smith - Anatomy of a Feeding Frenzy: PEJ Special Index Report April 4, 2007 How did the sad saga of the Playmate/heiress become one of the biggest stories in America in the 23 days from her death to her burial? A PEJ report on the media’s role in the Smith episode finds that the coverage wasn’t as widespread as you might think. Still, some outlets couldn’t seem to get enough of the tabloid tale. * PEJ’s State of the News Media 2007 March 12, 2007 The fourth edition of the Project’s Annual State of the News Media report released March 12. This year, the report includes a unique topographical analysis of journalism Web sites. The report also reveals changes ahead for the blogosphere, cable news, and in the ambitions of news organizations generally. * 2007 State of the News Media Report - Cable TV March 12, 2007 The Cable TV chapter from the fourth edition of the Project’s

Annual State of the News Media report * 2007 State of the News Media Report - Digital Journalism March 12, 2007 The topography of news websites from the fourth edition of the Project’s Annual State of the News Media report * 2007 State of the News Media Report - Local TV March 12, 2007 The Local TV chapter from the fourth edition of the Project’s Annual State of the News Media report * 2007 State of the News Media Report - Newspapers March 12, 2007 The Newspaper chapter from the fourth edition of the Project’s Annual State of the News Media report. * 2007 State of the News Media Report - Online March 12, 2007 The Newspaper chapter from the fourth edition of the Project’s Annual State of the News Media report. * 2007 State of the News Media Report - Radio March 12, 2007 The Radio chapter from the fourth edition of the Project’s Annual State of the News Media report. « first‹ previous123456789…next ›last » Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology Analysis: Our Studies This section, Studies, contains PEJ's major empirical research studies, including our annual reports on the state of journalism

divided into searchable subchapters. They are listed below in chronological order. Or you can use the menus on the left to filter our entire archive and find exactly what you want. Election Night 2006: An Evening in the Life of the American Media November 27, 2006 How did the news media fare on Nov. 7? A PEJ study of 32 different media outlets on Election Day offers “five lessons” about the coverage of major breaking- news events in the multi-media era, and a “sector-by-sector” breakdown. While some outlets struggled to find their role, those that combined both speed and interactivity seemed the most useful destinations. * Alternative Media Audience Trends: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Alternative Media Economics and Ownership: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. * Blogs, A Day in the Life: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the 2006 State of the News Media report. Cable TV Audience: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Cable TV Content Analysis: 2006 Annual Report: A Day in the Life of the News March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report * * *

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Cable TV Economics: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media Report. Cable TV Newsroom Investment: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report.

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Cable TV Ownership: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Cable TV Public Attitudes: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report.

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« first‹ previous123456789…next ›last » Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology Analysis: Our Studies This section, Studies, contains PEJ's major empirical research studies, including our annual reports on the state of journalism divided into searchable subchapters. They are listed below in chronological order. Or you can use the menus on the left to filter our entire archive and find exactly what you want. * Ethnic Media Audience Trends: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report.

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Ethnic Media Content Analysis: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. * Ethnic Media Economics: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Ethnic Media Overview: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. * Ethnic Media Ownership: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Local TV Audience: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. * Local TV Content, A Day in the Life: Annual Report 2006 March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Local TV Economics: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. * Local TV Newsroom Investment: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Local TV Ownership: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006

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From the annual State of the News Media report. « first‹ previous123456789…next ›last » Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology Analysis: Our Studies This section, Studies, contains PEJ's major empirical research studies, including our annual reports on the state of journalism divided into searchable subchapters. They are listed below in chronological order. Or you can use the menus on the left to filter our entire archive and find exactly what you want. * Local TV Public Attitudes: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Magazine Audience: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Magazine Content: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. * Magazine Economics: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Magazine Newsroom Investment: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report.

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Magazine Ownership: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Magazine Public Attitudes: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media Report

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Network TV Audience Trends: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the 2006 Annual Report. Network TV Content, A Day in the Life: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report.

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Network TV Economics: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the 2006 Annual Report.

« first‹ previous123456789…next ›last » Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology Analysis: Our Studies This section, Studies, contains PEJ's major empirical research studies, including our annual reports on the state of journalism divided into searchable subchapters. They are listed below in chronological order. Or you can use the menus on the left to filter our entire archive and find exactly what you want. *

Network TV Newsroom Investment: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the 2006 Annual Report. * Network TV Ownership: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the 2006 Annual Report. Network TV Public Attitudes: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the 2006 Annual Report Newspaper Audience - 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. * Newspaper Content, A Day in the Life: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Newspaper Economics: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. * Newspaper Newsroom Investment: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. Newspaper Ownership - 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the annual State of the News Media report. * Newspaper Public Attitudes - 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006

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From the annual State of the News Media report. Online Audience - 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the 2006 Annual Report

« first‹ previous…2345678910…next ›last » Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology Analysis: Our Studies This section, Studies, contains PEJ's major empirical research studies, including our annual reports on the state of journalism divided into searchable subchapters. They are listed below in chronological order. Or you can use the menus on the left to filter our entire archive and find exactly what you want. * Radio Public Attitudes: 2006 Annual Report March 13, 2006 From the 2006 State of the Media report. EXTRA! EXTRA! December 12, 2005 A new PEJ study takes an in-depth look at tabloids and compares them to traditional broadsheet newspapers. * Box Scores and Bylines: A Snapshot of the Newspaper Sports Page August 22, 2005 A new PEJ study finds sports newspaper fronts markedly different from other section fronts. * The Gender Gap: Women Are Still Missing as Sources for

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Journalists May 23, 2005 A new PEJ study of the news media finds men are cited as sources much more often than women on a wide range of topics * 2005 Annual Report - Alternative Media Economics March 15, 2005 * From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Alternative Media Outlook March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. * 2005 Annual Report - Cable TV Audience March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Cable TV Content Analysis March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. * 2005 Annual Report - Cable TV Economics March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Cable TV Newsroom Investment March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. « first‹ previous…456789101112…next ›last » Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology

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Analysis: Our Studies This section, Studies, contains PEJ's major empirical research studies, including our annual reports on the state of journalism divided into searchable subchapters. They are listed below in chronological order. Or you can use the menus on the left to filter our entire archive and find exactly what you want. * 2005 Annual Report - Cable TV Ownership March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Cable TV Public Attitudes March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. * 2005 Annual Report - Ethnic Media Audience March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Ethnic Media Content Analysis March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. * 2005 Annual Report - Ethnic Media Newsroom Investment March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Ethnic Media Ownership March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. * 2005 Annual Report - Local TV Audience March 15, 2005

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From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Local TV Content Analysis March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report.

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2005 Annual Report - Local TV Economics March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Local TV Newsroom Investment March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report.

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« first‹ previous…5678910111213…next ›last » Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology Analysis: Our Studies This section, Studies, contains PEJ's major empirical research studies, including our annual reports on the state of journalism divided into searchable subchapters. They are listed below in chronological order. Or you can use the menus on the left to filter our entire archive and find exactly what you want. * 2005 Annual Report - Local TV Ownership March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Local TV Public Attitudes March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Magazine Audience March 15, 2005

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From the annual State of the News Media report. * 2005 Annual Report - Magazine Content Analysis March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Magazine Economics March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. * 2005 Annual Report - Magazine News Investment March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Magazine Ownership March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. * 2005 Annual Report - Magazine Public Attitudes March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. 2005 Annual Report - Network TV Audience March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. * 2005 Annual Report - Network TV Content Analysis March 15, 2005 From the annual State of the News Media report. « first‹ previous…67891011121314…next ›last » Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us

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Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: Phase2 Technology Principles of Journalism In 1997, an organization then administered by PEJ, the Committee of Concerned Journalists, began a national conversation among citizens and news people to identify and clarify the principles that underlie journalism. After four years of research, including 20 public forums around the country, a reading of journalism history, a national survey of journalists, and more, the group released a Statement of Shared Purpose that identified nine principles. These became the basis for The Elements of Journalism, the book by PEJ Director Tom Rosenstiel and CCJ Chairman and PEJ Senior Counselor Bill Kovach. Here are those principles, as outlined in the original Statement of Shared Purpose. A Statement of Purpose After extended examination by journalists themselves of the character of journalism at the end of the twentieth century, we offer this common understanding of what defines our work. The central purpose of journalism is to provide citizens with accurate and reliable information they need to function in a free society. This encompasses myriad roles--helping define community, creating common language and common knowledge, identifying a community's goals, heros and villains, and pushing people beyond complacency. This purpose also involves other requirements, such as being entertaining, serving as watchdog and offering voice to the voiceless. Over time journalists have developed nine core principles to meet the task. They comprise what might be described as the theory of journalism: 1. Journalism's first obligation is to the truth Democracy depends on citizens having reliable, accurate facts put in a meaningful context. Journalism does not pursue truth in

an absolute or philosophical sense, but it can--and must--pursue it in a practical sense. This "journalistic truth" is a process that begins with the professional discipline of assembling and verifying facts. Then journalists try to convey a fair and reliable account of their meaning, valid for now, subject to further investigation. Journalists should be as transparent as possible about sources and methods so audiences can make their own assessment of the information. Even in a world of expanding voices, accuracy is the foundation upon which everything else is built--context, interpretation, comment, criticism, analysis and debate. The truth, over time, emerges from this forum. As citizens encounter an ever greater flow of data, they have more need--not less--for identifiable sources dedicated to verifying that information and putting it in context. 2. Its first loyalty is to citizens While news organizations answer to many constituencies, including advertisers and shareholders, the journalists in those organizations must maintain allegiance to citizens and the larger public interest above any other if they are to provide the news without fear or favor. This commitment to citizens first is the basis of a news organization's credibility, the implied covenant that tells the audience the coverage is not slanted for friends or advertisers. Commitment to citizens also means journalism should present a representative picture of all constituent groups in society. Ignoring certain citizens has the effect of disenfranchising them. The theory underlying the modern news industry has been the belief that credibility builds a broad and loyal audience, and that economic success follows in turn. In that regard, the business people in a news organization also must nurture--not exploit--their allegiance to the audience ahead of other considerations. 3. Its essence is a discipline of verification Journalists rely on a professional discipline for verifying information. When the concept of objectivity originally evolved, it did not imply that journalists are free of bias. It called, rather, for a consistent method of testing information--a transparent

approach to evidence--precisely so that personal and cultural biases would not undermine the accuracy of their work. The method is objective, not the journalist. Seeking out multiple witnesses, disclosing as much as possible about sources, or asking various sides for comment, all signal such standards. This discipline of verification is what separates journalism from other modes of communication, such as propaganda, fiction or entertainment. But the need for professional method is not always fully recognized or refined. While journalism has developed various techniques for determining facts, for instance, it has done less to develop a system for testing the reliability of journalistic interpretation. 4. Its practitioners must maintain an independence from those they cover Independence is an underlying requirement of journalism, a cornerstone of its reliability. Independence of spirit and mind, rather than neutrality, is the principle journalists must keep in focus. While editorialists and commentators are not neutral, the source of their credibility is still their accuracy, intellectual fairness and ability to inform--not their devotion to a certain group or outcome. In our independence, however, we must avoid any tendency to stray into arrogance, elitism, isolation or nihilism. 5. It must serve as an independent monitor of power Journalism has an unusual capacity to serve as watchdog over those whose power and position most affect citizens. The Founders recognized this to be a rampart against despotism when they ensured an independent press; courts have affirmed it; citizens rely on it. As journalists, we have an obligation to protect this watchdog freedom by not demeaning it in frivolous use or exploiting it for commercial gain. 6. It must provide a forum for public criticism and compromise The news media are the common carriers of public discussion,

and this responsibility forms a basis for our special privileges. This discussion serves society best when it is informed by facts rather than prejudice and supposition. It also should strive to fairly represent the varied viewpoints and interests in society, and to place them in context rather than highlight only the conflicting fringes of debate. Accuracy and truthfulness require that as framers of the public discussion we not neglect the points of common ground where problem solving occurs. 7. It must strive to make the significant interesting and relevant Journalism is storytelling with a purpose. It should do more than gather an audience or catalogue the important. For its own survival, it must balance what readers know they want with what they cannot anticipate but need. In short, it must strive to make the significant interesting and relevant. The effectiveness of a piece of journalism is measured both by how much a work engages its audience and enlightens it. This means journalists must continually ask what information has most value to citizens and in what form. While journalism should reach beyond such topics as government and public safety, a journalism overwhelmed by trivia and false significance ultimately engenders a trivial society. 8. It must keep the news comprehensive and proportional Keeping news in proportion and not leaving important things out are also cornerstones of truthfulness. Journalism is a form of cartography: it creates a map for citizens to navigate society. Inflating events for sensation, neglecting others, stereotyping or being disproportionately negative all make a less reliable map. The map also should include news of all our communities, not just those with attractive demographics. This is best achieved by newsrooms with a diversity of backgrounds and perspectives. The map is only an analogy; proportion and comprehensiveness are subjective, yet their elusiveness does not lessen their significance. 9. Its practitioners must be allowed to exercise their personal

conscience Every journalist must have a personal sense of ethics and responsibility--a moral compass. Each of us must be willing, if fairness and accuracy require, to voice differences with our colleagues, whether in the newsroom or the executive suite. News organizations do well to nurture this independence by encouraging individuals to speak their minds. This stimulates the intellectual diversity necessary to understand and accurately cover an increasingly diverse society. It is this diversity of minds and voices, not just numbers, that matters. Home | Numbers | Analysis | News Index | Daily Briefing | State of the News Media | Journalism Resources | About PEJ | Contact Us Copyright 2006 Project for Excellence in Journalism. Privacy Policy | Site Map Powered by: PhasAdvice for Students Interested in a Career in Journalism Bill Kovach, Senior Counselor of the Project for Excellence in Journalism A curious mind and a broad liberal arts education are by far the best qualifications for a career in journalism. The best foundation begins with an undergraduate liberal arts education that exposes you to a wide range of disciplines of study and helps you supplement your native curiosity with a habit of critical thinking. Whatever course of study you follow, be sure to include a strong foundation in ethics. Then consider study at a university that offers a graduate degree in journalism. You can begin to develop your skill in the "craft" of journalism by working on a college newspaper or radio station; a television station that features a college report; or working as a college correspondent for a local, regional or national news organization. As for experience while still in school and immediately after graduation, think about immersing yourself in a local experience. Working in a community in which you must look the people in the eye about whom you report before and AFTER you have reported on them can provide very important lessons.

And, throughout all this, read. Read everything you can, including classics in fiction that can help you begin to understand human nature and the human condition. Develop a habit of critically following the work of other journalists and find models for your own work. Good luck. e2 Technology