Amplifiers
Vout
Vin
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Supply
Vout
Common Ground
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Amplifiers
Typically, amplifiers have two supplies: One is positive (+Vcc)
and one is negative (Vcc).
+Vcc
+
Vin
+
Vcc
Vout

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Saturation
A practical limitation for amplifiers (at least the ones that we will
see in this course) is that the magnitude of their output voltage
cannot exceed the supply, that is:
Vcc Vout +Vcc
If the output wants to go beyond the supplies (for example when
the input is positive and large) then it will be clipped at +Vcc :
Vout = +Vcc
If the output is so negative then it will be limited by Vcc:
Vout = Vcc
Saturation
+Vcc
Vin
+Vcc
Vout
Vcc
Vcc
+Vcc
Vin
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Vout
Vcc
5
Vout = AVin
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Ideal Amplifier
What do you think the input and output resistance of an ideal
amplifier should be?
Lets look at a example:
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Ideal Amplifier
What if we insert an amplifier between the source and the load.
In order to maximize the signal at the output can you guess what
should be the values for Rin and Rout?
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Ideal Amplifier
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Buffer
An amplifier with the gain of one is typically referred to as
buffer.
Buffers are very useful when one wants to drive a low
resistance with a signal source that has a large series
resistance.
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Differential Amplifier
An amplifier that has two inputs and amplifies the potential
difference between its input nodes (that is, it amplifies the
difference between the voltages of its two inputs)
inverting input
V2
+
noninverting input

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Vout=A(V1V2)
V1

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Differential Amplifier
For ideal differential amplifier
Ri and Ro 0
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Operational Amplifier
Operational amplifier (or op amp for short) is a differential
amplifier whose gain is very large.
Ideal op amp is an ideal differential amplifier with infinite gain!
With Ri and Ro 0
and A
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Operational Amplifiers
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Operational Amplifiers
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Op Amp
What is the relationship between Vp and Vn in an op amp with
negative feedback?
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Op Amp
What is the relationship between Vp and Vn in an op amp with
negative feedback?
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Op Amps
Op amps were designed to performed mathematical operations
such as subtraction, addition, multiplication, division, integration,
and differentiation (therefore the name operational amplifier!).
Note that in all these cases we should make sure that we have a
negative feedback. Why?
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Op Amps
Strategy to analyze opamp circuits (assuming ideal op amps):
Check to see if there is a negative feedback
If so, then use: Vp=Vn. If there is no negative feedback then we
cant assume anything about Vp and Vn.
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Inverting Amplifier
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Example
What is the gain of this circuit, that is, what is vo/vi?
If vi=0.5V what is the output voltage? What is the current in the
10k resistor?
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Noninverting Amplifier
Find the gain (vo/vi) of the following circuit?
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Buffer
Also known as voltage follower or unity gain amplifier
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Example
In the following circuit, find the output voltage.
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Summing Amplifier
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Difference Amplifier
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Example
Design an op amp circuit with inputs v1 and v2 such that
vo= 2v1+1.5v2
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Differentiator
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Integrator
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Logarithm!
Lets assume that for a diode (a component that we will see
later) we have
D
V
i
I e T
D
s
In the following circuit, find the relationship between vo and vi .
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Exponential
In the following circuit, find the relationship between vo and vi .
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Example
The following circuit is an electronic ammeter. It operates as
follows: the unknown current, I, through RI produces a voltage,
VI. VI is amplified by the opamp to produce a voltage, Vo, which
is proportional to I. The output voltage is measured with a
simple voltmeter. We want to find the value of R2 such that 10 V
appears at Vo for each milliamp of unknown current.
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Example
There is a requirement to design a noninverting opamp
configuration with two resistors under the following conditions:
the gain must be +10, the input range is 2 V, and the total
power consumed by the resistors must be less than 100 mW.
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Comparators
A comparator, a variant of the opamp, is designed to compare
the noninverting and inverting input voltages. When the noninverting input voltage is greater, the output goes as high as
possible, at or near VCC. On the other hand, if the inverting input
voltage is greater, the output goes as low as possible, at or near
VEE.
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Comparators
A common comparator application is the zerocrossing detector,
as shown here:
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Design Example
We wish to design a weightedsummer circuit that will produce
the output The design specifications call for use of one opamp
and no more than three resistors. Furthermore, we wish to
minimize power while using resistors no larger than 10 k.
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Summary
Inverting amplifier
vo
R2
vi
R1
Noninverting amplifier
R2
vo 1 vi
R1
Buffer (voltage follower)
vo vi
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Summary
Summer (adder)
Rf
Rf
Rf
vo
v1
v2
v3
R2
R3
R1
Difference Amplifier
vo
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R2
v2 v1
R1
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Summary
Differentiator
vo RC
dvi
dt
Integrator
1
vo
vi dt
RC
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Summary
Taking natural logarithm
vi
vo VT ln
R Is
Raising to the power of e
vo R I s e
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vi
VT
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Instrumentation Amplifier
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