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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter provides the framework for the problem that is being studied and a context
for the statement of the purpose of the study. Sufficient information and justification on
why the researcher considered the problem worthy to be investigated is the ultimate goal
of this major section.

Introduction

This portion aims to acquaint the reader of the problem to be dealt with by describing the
facts, personal concerns, or actual conditions and situations in the environment, which
become the basis for selecting the research problem.

The introduction should not exceed three pages and may include the following:

 Gaps in knowledge
 Need to clarify conflicting practices in a specific field
 Need for data base in evaluating practices and policies
 Development of new or better research procedures for scholarly work
 Validation of certain theories/principles

Review of Related Literature

The purpose of reviewing the past literature on the topic is to expand the context of the
study, to help further define the problem, and to provide an empirical basis for the
hypotheses. This section cites references of significant publications and current journal
articles related to the problem.

In summarizing related studies, avoid non-essential details; emphasize major findings and
methodological issues. This section should be terminated with a coherent and systematic
synthesis of all information reviewed.

It includes the following:

Related Literature
Foreign Studies
Local Literature
Local Studies
Relationship of the Study to the Literature Reviewed

But the organization is thematic.


Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

Explains in narrative form, the main dimensions to be studied – the key factors or
variables – and the presumed relationships among them. Theoretical or conceptual
scheme is developed from the review of related literature and is usually presented in a
diagram. Conceptual or theoretical framework is not necessary in qualitative research.

Getting the framework in a single diagram forces the researcher to find the general
constructs that hold the phenomena, to map relationships, to divide the variables that
conceptually or functionally distinct, and to work with all the information at once.
General constructs come from theories and previous empirical research. As a general
rule, the more parsimonious the framework, the better it is.

A conceptual framework is tentative theoretical scheme that the researcher has developed
for his/her research problem. It is introduced by a discussion of the theoretical
orientation used by the researcher.

Theoretical framework on the other hand, presents an integrated set of propositions


espoused by an individual or group of individuals, which has generally been recognized.

Statement of the Problem

This portion should state the problem clearly as a main problem, written either as a
declarative statement or as a question broken down to specific sub-problems, usually also
written in the form of questions.

Hypothesis

Qualitative research does not test hypothesis.

Guidelines in stating hypothesis:

 It should be stated in testable form.


 Level of significance (alpha level) is usually set at .05 before testing.
 It is recommended that hypothesis should be stated in its expected
outcome or finding rather than in the null form. However, in a highly
quantitative study, the null hypothesis is to be preferred.

Significance of the Study

It describes the theoretical and practical values derived from the study. It includes
potential contributions to various fields, to knowledge, or to research literature. This
section may also be presented in terms of who will benefit from the investigations and in
what ways.
Scope and Delimitation

It specifies the precise boundaries of the study. It indicates what the study will include
and what it will not include.

Scope would refer to the parameters of the study, its coverage, method, and subjects.

Delimitation refers to the limiting aspects of the study as well as restrictions to


generalizability of results.

Definition of Terms

It lists and defines principal terms used, particularly where the terms have different
meanings to different people. It includes both a conceptual and operations or behavioral
definitions, that is, how the variables are manipulated or measured in the study.
Chapter 2

METHOD

This chapter describes how the study is conducted. This information is reported in
sufficient detail so that anyone can refer to this section and replicate the study.

The components included in this chapter are:

Research Design

This portion describes the overall plan for the investigation. The design may be
descriptive or experimental.

Respondents of the Study

The researcher should describe the population or sample population used in the study.
He/She should mention how the sample is drawn, the method of sampling and the
rationale for the sampling method.

Instrumentation

It describes each of the instruments used for data gathering in terms of process of
preparation, information about administration, scoring, and interpretation, evidences of
reliability and validity.

Data Gathering Procedure

This portion discusses in detail the procedures, techniques, and strategies employed in
data gathering. Detailed discussion is required to enable another researcher to replicate
the method.

Data Analysis

It identifies the statistical designs used to analyze data including level of significance
employed and mode of analysis. It specifies which variables were used in the analysis.
Statistical formulas should be included in the discussion. For complex statistical designs
(e.g. regression analysis, factorial analysis, etc.), there is a need to include a step-by-step
procedure in using them.
Title Case

Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Single space ALL
CAPS
Introduction A
Title Case, Underline

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Review of the Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature
(topical arrangement)
(synthesis of the literature review)

Related Studies

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
(synthesis for each study)

Conceptual Framework

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
(introduce paradigm)

(synthesis of the reviewed related studies)

Figure 1. The Paradigm of the Study


xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Title Case , Center

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxx.

Statement of the Problem

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xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Specifically,xxxxxxxxxxxxxx:
1.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
2.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
3.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
4.Is there a significant difference between x1 and x2?
5. Is there a significant relationship between x and y?

Hypothesis/Hypotheses
Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxx at 0.05 significance level.
1. There is no significant difference between x1 and x2.
2. There is no significant relationship between x and y.

Significance of the Study

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxx.(hierarchial)
Administrator. The results of the studyxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Teachers. This results of the studyxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Students. The results of the study provides….

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

Definition of Terms

Xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxx (alphabetize)
Academic Performance. The scores of the students in the achievement test.

Beliefs. This is the students’ views, perceptions and attitudes towards the subject.
Chapter 2
METHOD

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xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

Research Design

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xxxxxxxxxxx.

Respondents/Subjects of the Study

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xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.

Instrumentation

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xxxxxx.
Questionnaire. This is used to……..
Documentary Analysis. This is used to ………
Interviews Inventories. This is used to ….

Data Gathering Procedures

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xxxxxx.

Data Analysis

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxx.
Frequency and Percentage. This is used toxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Mean. This is used to xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
T Test for Independent Means . This is used to….xxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
ANOVA. This is used to…..
Chi-Square . This is used to….

(to be continued)
Chapter 3
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

(An introductory statement is made in this part of the thesis.)

Results

This subsection reports the findings objectively without interpretation. Modes of


presentation includes:

 Tabular
 Graphical
 Qualitative

The presentation can be done by first, briefly stating the main results or findings. Then,
report the data in sufficient detail to justify the conclusions. Mention all relevant results
including those that run counter to the hypothesis. Do not include individual scores or
raw data, with the exception of single-case studies or illustrative samples.

Tables provide exact values and can efficiently illustrate main effects, figures of
professional quality attributes of a test, the degrees of freedom, the probability level, and
the direction of the effect. Be sure to include descriptive statistics (e.g. mean); where
means are reported, always include an associated measure of variability, such as standard
deviations, variances, or mean square errors.

Commonly used alpha levels are .05 and .01. Before you begin to report specific results,
you should routinely state the particular alpha level you selected for the statistical tests
you conducted.

Discussion

It begins with a summary of salient findings. Then, evaluate and interpret their
implications, especially with respect to the original hypothesis. In here, the researcher is
free to examine, interpret, and qualify the results, as well as draw inferences from them.
Emphasize any theoretical consequences of the results and validity of the conclusions.
The literature review may again be cited to explain the results. Procedural limitations are
also discussed.

Guide questions for the researcher to come up with an understandable and integrated
discussion are:

 What have I contributed in this study?


 How has my study helped in this study?
 What practical and theoretical implications can I draw from my study?
Chapter 4
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

(An introductory statement is made in this part of the thesis.)

Summary

Briefly summarize the findings of the study; wording of the summary and abstract should
not be exactly the same; summary is usually longer than the abstract presented at the
beginning of the report.

Conclusions

General statements or conclusions should be logically inferred from the results.


Generalizations should be clearly delimited. Conclusions may either support or not
support the hypotheses.

Recommendations

It includes suggestions, which may involve change in policies, practices, etc.

APPENDIX

It includes questionnaires, checklists, interview protocols developed for the study;


computer printouts of statistical tests, and other supplementary materials.
REFERENCES

 The list of references is always started on a new page.

 The word “References” should be centered on top of the page.

 All sources cited in the manuscript must be listed in alphabetical order in the
reference list.

 References are not bibliographies. Bibliographies refer the interested reader to


additional sources for further reading that were not specifically cited in the
manuscript, and are not used in the APA-style manuscript.

 Each reference is typed double-spaced. The first line of each reference is


indented 5, 6, or 7 spaces (the same spacing used in the paper to indent paragraph).
For purpose of uniformity, the SPUP Behavioral Science Department will use 5
spaces for indention.

A. Books

(Alphabetically arranged)

Gannon, T.A., (2004). Psychology principles and applications (3rd ed.). New

York; Bantam Books.

B. Journal

Hummel, J.H. (1991). Teaching students to analyze examples of classical

conditioning. The Behavioral Analyst, 14, 241-246.

C. Conference Paper

Hummel, J.H., Hutt, W.G., & Walters, L. (1994, April). What you measure is

what you get. A data –based presentation made at the annual meeting of the Southeastern

Psychological Association, New Orleans, L.A.

D. Electronic Media

Kerka, S. (1992). Family literacy programs and practices. (CD-

ROM).
E. ERIC Document

Kerka, S. (1992). Early literacy summer school: Final evaluation report.

Columbus, OH: Columbus public schools. (ERIC Documentation Reproduction Service

No. ED 350 585)

F. Unpublished Materials

Almeida, D.E. (1989). Father’s participation in family work: Consequences for

father’s stress and father-child relations. Unpublished master’s thesis. University of

Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.


Essential Guidelines in Using the APA Writing Style

 Make margins uniform.

Left margin - 1.5”


Right margin – 1”
Top margin – 1”
Bottom margin - 1”

 Use 12-point type standard font such as Geneva, Times New Roman, or Courier.
Do not use special type styles such as Script or Italics.

 Typed and word-processed manuscripts should be left justified.

 Do not hyphenate words at the end of the sentence; end each line of text with a
complete word.

 Double-space all lines including references.

 Every page should be assigned a number. On the title page and on the half-title
pages introducing major sections, the page numbers are not shown.

 Lower case Roman numerals are used for the preliminary parts. The title page is
assigned “ i ” although this numeral is not written. The numbering begins with “ ii ”
on the next page of the preliminaries. The body of the text, the references, and the
appendices are numbered continuously with Arabic numerical. Page numbers are
located in the upper-right hand corner of each page, one (1) inch from the top and
right margins.

 In general, words and phrases are not emphasized through the use of bold print,
underlining, italic, single/double quotation marks, or all uppercase characters. Instead
writers must construct sentences so that emphasis is understood.
Citations

 Each quotation is accompanied by a parenthetical citation that includes the


name(s) of the authors(s), the publication date, and the page(s) where the quotation is
located.

 Follow the “5-word” rule: If 5 or more words from the source are used and in the
same order in your paper, the rules for quoting need to be followed.

 All paraphrased works must also be cited parenthetically within the body of the
paper with one exception: If summarizing/critiquing a single article, paraphrasing
does not have to be referred.

 Always paraphrase accurately.

 Citations for paraphrased works require the surnames of the authors and date.
When a work has multiple authors, the citation should link the last author’s name
with the others using the ampersand symbol (&) if the citation is in parenthesis;
otherwise, the work “and” is used.

 Use only the source that you have directly accessed.

 Obtain permission to quote when necessary. APA copyrighted works require


written permission before using a total of over 500 words from that work. Quotations
from a single source should be limited to fewer than 500 words.

 A complete quotation of less than 40 words should be incorporated within the


paper’s text, begun and ended with double quotation (“ ”) marks, and must be
followed by a parenthetical reference citing the author, date of publication, and the
page where the quotation is printed.

 Quotations of 40 or more words must be:

a) Indented (5 spaces from the left margin)


b) Without quotation marks
c) Followed by a parenthetical reference that cites the page(s) where the quoted
materials are located in the original work

 Quotations that cite or quote another copyrighted work should be avoided.


 The use of ellipsis (…..) points are not recommended. These are used when one
omits part of an original source (when not quoting an entire sentence). Quotations
out of context can be misinterpreted.

 Footnotes are not recommended.


Examples of Citations

 Typical In-text Citation

(Sample 1)

Although many behavioral scientists feel that punishment should never be used, Deitz
and Hummel (2000) offer two situations where it may be ethical use the procedure.

(Sample 2)

There are two situations where punishment procedures may be warranted: When all
other deceleration methods have failed or when the behavior is a clear procedure.

 In-text Citation for Short Direct Quotation

(Sample 1)

Using punishment instead of other procedures to decelerate behavior is problematic.


“Punishment should be reserved only to very serious misbehaviors and should be
used only when other alternatives have been exhausted” (Deitz & Hummel, 2000, p.
81).

(Sample 2)

Using punishment to decelerate behavior is problematic. According to Deitz &


Hummel (2000), “Punishment should be reserved only to very serious misbehaviors
and should be used only when other alternatives have been exhausted” (p. 81).

 In-text Citation for Direct Quotation Longer Than 39 Words

Punishment is one of the most widely used procedures to decrease behavior in school
settings because teachers are not familiar with other deceleration procedures, and
because it works quickly and effectively. Still, Deitz and Hummel (2000) do not
advocate the reliance of punishment. The decision to use punishment should be made
carefully. Special consideration should be given to whether or not the procedure can
be implemented correctly; punishment will diminish misbehavior faster and most
efficiently than any other reductive technique. However, in many cases, once the
procedure is stopped, there is high probability that the misbehavior will return to its
original level unless the child has been taught alternate, desirable behavior that can be
done instead of the misbehavior (p. 96).
ii

APPROVAL SHEET

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in

Psychology, this thesis entitled, “THE EFFECT OF FEAR ON THE ACQUISITION

OF RESPONSES ON MICE”, has been prepared and submitted by CRISTALIE

PARAS, JANICE ACCAD, and LOIDA MACAPIA, who are hereby recommended

for Oral Examination.

Name of Adviser
Adviser

Approved by the Tribunal of Oral Examination with a grade of _____.

Panel of Examiners

Name of Chairman
Chairman

Name of Panel Member Name of Panel Member


Member Member

Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of

Science in Psychology.

Name of Program Coordinator Name of Dean


Program Coordinator Dean
Behavioral Science School of Arts and Sciences
v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Title Page …………………………………………………………………….. i

Approval Sheet …….. ………………………………………………………..

ii

Dedication ……………………………………………………………….. iii

Acknowledgement ……………………………………………………….. iv

Table of Contents ……………………………………………………….. v

List of Tables ………………………………………………………………. vi

List of Figures ………………………………………………………………. vii

Chapter

1 THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF


RELATEDLITERATURE..…………………………………… 1

Introduction ………………………………………………… 1

Related Literature and Studies ……………………………….. 3

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework ………………………….. 21

Statement of the Problem …………………………………….. 23

Significance of the Study ………………………………. 23

Scope and Delimitation ……………………………………… 24

Definition of Terms ………………………………………... 25


vi

2 METHOD …………………………………………………… 26

Research Design ……………………………………….. 26

Respondents of the Study …………………………………… 27

Instrumentation ……………………………………….. 27

Data Gathering Procedure ………………………………….. 28

Data Analysis ……………………………………………….. 29

3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ……………………………. 30

Results……………………………………………………….. 30

Discussion ……………………….………………………. 40

4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND


RECOMMENDATIONS ……………………………….. 45

Summary ……………………….………………………. 45

Conclusions ……………………….………………………. 47

Recommendations……………………………………………. 49

APPENDIX ……………………….……………………….………………. 50

REFERENCES ……………………….……………………………………… 55

CURRICULUM VITAE ……………………….……………………………. 60


vi

List of Tables

Table No. Title of Table Page

1 Respondents …………………………………………… 15

2 Correlation of Variables ………………………………. 25


Appendix D
Sample List of Figures

vi

List of Figures

Figure No. Title of Figure Page

1 Paradigm ………………………………………….. 10