657670,1988
Printedin Great Britain. All rightsreserved
03605442/88$3.00+ 0.00
Copyright0 1988Pergamon Press plc
AbstractWe
describe a methodology for determining
a simplified overall thermal
transfer value (OTIV) equation for airconditioned
buildings in Singapore. The OTTV
equation was formulated by modelling a generic commercial building and using results
from DOE2 computer simulations as a database of heat gains. The new equation
increases the weight of the solar heat gain as compared to the currently used OTTY
equation. This change yields an improved relation between the OTTV and the total heat
gain through the building envelope
INTRODUCTION
Since 1979, under the Singapore building control regulations, a design parameter for building
envelopes known as the overall thermal transfer value (OITV)2 has been adopted as a
mandatory standard. The OlTV requirement, which applies only to airconditioned buildings,
is aimed at achieving adequately designed building envelopes so as to cut down external heat
gains and hence reduce the cooling load of airconditioning systems. The OTTV concept takes
into consideration the basic modes of heat gains through the external walls of a building,
namely, heat conduction through opaque walls and glass windows, and solar radiation through
glass windows. The building control regulations stipulate that all airconditioned buildings must
be designed to have an OTTV below 45 W/m2. For Singapore, the OTTV definition and design
calculation methodology are contained in a handbook3 published in 1979 by the Development
and Building Control Division, Public Works Department, to assist engineers and architects in
meeting the design requirements.
In 1985, a study4 conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory using input data for
Singapore revealed that the total cooling energy use of a building having the same OTTV can
vary by as much as 35% for different parametric simulations using the DOE2 computer
program. Furthermore,
it was found that the existing OTTV equation (given in Ref. 3 and
described in the next section) does not properly account for the relative contributions of the
different heat gain components through the building envelope. The study then recommended
that the OTIV equation be redefined to correlate the cooling energy use better with the OTTV
of a building. This approach has resulted in the reformulation
of the OTTV equation
containing only the component of radiation transmitted through windows. The basis of the
approach is the aim of correlating the OITV only with the cooling energy use of a building.
Consequently,
by using only the radiative component, better regression of results can be
obtained.
In this study, we extend the investigations to look first into the influence of building
orientation and aspect ratio on energy performance.
A generic multistorey commercial
building is modelled and the DOE2.1A computer program is used as the simulation tool. The
OTTV for various building orientations and aspect ratios are calculated using the present
OTTV equation given in Ref. 3. Pairs of the OTTV and simulated annual cooling
energyconsumption
data are examined to check the adequacy of the present OTTV
a methodology
for obtaining a revised OTTV equation is
formulation.
Subsequently,
attempted, with the objective of correlating the OTTV with the total heat gain through the
t To whom all correspondence
should be addressed.
S. K. CHOU and Y. K.
658
LEE
building envelope while retaining the three basic components of the OTTV equation. Also, the
new equation will provide a more direct estimation of the annual cooling load due to the heat
gain through a building envelope.
METHODOLOGY
The OTTV
The OTTV formulation takes into account the following three basic heatgain components
through the external walls of a building: (i) heat conduction through opaque walls, (ii) heat
conduction through glass windows, and (iii) solar radiation through glass windows. The OTTV
equation for an external wall is given as
OTT&*
xU,xTD,,)+(A,xU,xAT)+(A,xSCxSF)
>
A0
(1)
(4
Aol+Am+*+Ao,,
For a square building with four identical walls, Eq. (2) reduces to
OlIV = TD,, (1  WWR)(U,)
+ AT(WWR)(U,)
+ [Afl x SF1 + Aa x SF2 + An x SF3 + 4,
*,,I + A,2 + 43
Equation
x SF,](SC)
c3j
+ *w
 WWR)(Q,)
+ [(*,,)(SF)(CF,
+ AT(WWR)(Q)
(4)
since Afl = A= = AB = Af4, Aol = A, = Ao3 = Aw, and SF, = SF x CF,, where the solar correction factor CF takes into account the orientation of the facade and the pitch angle of the
fenestration component.
A set of solarcorrection factors, extracted from Ref. 3, is listed in Table 1. The correction
factors for other orientations and pitch angles may be found by interpolation. It is seen that,
for vertical walls of a square building, the sum of the correction factors for the four orientations
is very close to 4. As an illustration, in the case of a square building that has its four walls
facing North, East, South, and West, the sum of the correction factors is 0.72 + 1.25 + 0.74 +
1.25 = 3.96. Hence, Eq. (4) may be further simplified to
OTTV = TD,,(l  WWR)(U,)
+ AT(WWR)(CJ,) + SF(WWR)(SC).
(5)
NE
SE
SW
70
1.32
1.63
1.89
1.65
1.32
1.65
75O
1.17
1.48
1.75
1.50
1.18
80
1.03
1.33
1.59
1.35
1.04
85
0.87
1.17
1.42
1.19
9o
0.72
1.00
1.25
1.02
NW
1.89
1.63
1.50
1.75
1.48
1.35
1.59
1.33
0.89
1.19
1.42
1.17
0.74
1.02
1.25
1.00
659
To comply with mandatory regulations in Singapore, the authors of Ref. 3 recommend that,
for a wall mass per unit area ~195 kg/m2, TD,, = 10, AT = 5, and SF = 130. Hence, for such a
square building,
OTTV = lO(1  WWR)( U,,,) + S(WWR)( U,) + 130(WWR)(SC).
(6)
Equation (6) has been in use in Singapore since 1979. It has been found that, in the design or
retrofitting of a building envelope,
a reduction in the OTTV is not indicative of a
corresponding reduction in the annual cooling energy use. Furthermore, it was reported in Ref. 4
that Eq. (6) gives far too much weight to heat conduction through opaque walls and glazings,
and underestimates the contribution of solar gains through fenestrations. This procedure led to
the use of a single term in redefining the OTIV as
OTTV = 215 (WWR)(SC).
(7)
In this study, ?he original form of the OTTV equation [Eq. (5)] has been retained. Values of
TD,, 7 AT, and SF are obtained by determining, through computer simulations, the actual
contributions to the envelope heat gain due to the three heatgain components. Thus, this
methodology revises the OTTV equation to better reflect the total heat gain through a building
envelope under local weather conditions. Also, it provides the advantage of retaining the
flexibility of designing to account for heat conduction through opaque walls and glazings.
The OTTV may be considered as the average heat transfer rate through the building
envelope. In this study, we divide the annual heat gain per unit area of the building envelope
by the total operating hours of the airconditioning system. This has the effect of averaging the
loads accumulated during nonoperating hours over the operating hours of the airconditioning
system. Thus, the normalized OTTV is larger than the average value based on 8760 h in a year.
Thus, the OTTV may be expressed as
OlTV
area)
(8)
For a generic office building in Singapore, the number of hours of operation is 2816 annually
based on 5.5 working days /week.
To reflect the actual contributions due to the three heatgain components, the following
relations may be written:
T&,(1
AT(WWR)G=
OTTV
SF(WWR)SC =
OTTV
Referencebuilding
(9)
gain
(10)
(11)
description
A 7storey reference office building has been modelled for simulation. Construction
characteristics and operating schedules of the reference building are given in Tables 2 and 3,
respectively. The elevation and plan of the building are shown in Fig. 1. The building has a
total conditioned area of 3675 m2. On each floor, it has a central unconditioned zone of 100 m2
which is assumed to be thermally insulated from the core area. The floortofloor height of the
building is 3.05 m and the windowtowall ratio is 0.44. The lighting power density is 20 W/m*
in occupied areas and 80% of the heat from lights is assumed to enter the conditioned space.
The airconditioning system uses variable air volume with an inlet guidevane controlled
fan having a minimum airflow rate ratio of 0.5. A hermetic centrifugal chiller with a coefficient
of performance of 4.5 is used in the model to provide chilled water to the air handling units.
The fan operating schedule is the inverse of the infiltration schedule as the building is treated as
being pressurized when the fans are in operation. When the fans were not operating, however,
660
S. K. CHOU
and Y. K. LEE
MATERIALS
Walls
External:
Internal:
Roof
1.27 cm roof gravel, 0.95 cm built up roofing, R5 polystyrene
insulation, 15.2 cm concrete, lo22 cm air layer, 1.3 cm
acoustic tile, Total R = 1.585 I *K/W
Floors
15.2 cm concrete floors, Total R = 0.236 m*.K/W
SOLAR ABSORPTIVITY
Walls
Roof
:
:
0.45
0.30
=
=
=
0.44
0.30
3.2 w/m* *K (double glazing)
=
=
Heatoflight
to space ratio
SYSTEMS
Outside air
Cooling setpoint
Night setback
Economizer
Chiller COP
=
=
=
=

7 cfmlperson
25'C
37C
None
4.5
the infiltration is taken to be 0.6 air changes/h. The above specifications for the airconditioning system, plant and internal loads are meant only for the purpose of comparing the
cooling energy use due to the change in the OTTV.
Computer simulations
The DOE2.1A computer program5 has been used in this study to generate an energy
database for use in Eqs. (8)(11). The program accepts input data such as the building
description, operating schedules, secondary systems and primary plant equipment. DOE2
simulations can yield information on energy consumption, load contributions, interior space
conditions, plant operating hours and partload operation of equipment. In this study, DOE2
preprogrammed libraries are used to specify the airconditioning system, control strategies and
building materials with associated thermal properties.
HOW
l5
6
7
a
912
13
1417
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
to
Friday
Fans
Inf
OCC
Light
Cool
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0.20
0.95
0.50
0.95
0.30
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.10
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.10
0.10
0.30
0.90
0.80
0.90
0.50
0.30
0.30
0.20
0.20
0.10
0.05
37
37
37
25
25
25
25
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
37
37
37
25
25
37
37
37
37
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
37
37
37
0
0
0
Saturday
l5
6
7
a
912
1317
la
19
2024
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0.10
0.90
0.10
0.05
0.05
0
0.05
0.05
0.10
0.10
0.90
0.15
0.05
0.05
0.05
Sunday
l6
l18
1924
1
1
1
0
0.05
0
0.05
0.10
0.05
25m
ELEVATION
PLAN
Fig. 1. Elevation and plan of reference building.
662
Climatic data
The tropical oceanic climate of Singapore is characterized by the lack of seasonal variations
in temperature and relative humidity. Diurnal changes of the drybulb temperature are small
with mean daily maximum and minimum values of approx. 31C (65% r.h.) and 24C (95%
r.h.), respectively. No heating is required and, owing to high relative humidity ratios, the latent
heat extraction from outside air is significant.
In the simulations, the Singapore climatic data for the year 1979 are used. The DOE2
weather tape contains hourly data on drybulb and wetbulb temperatures, wind velocity, and
measured direct and diffuse solar radiation.
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
Energy
Use
Percentage
Lights
211.3
46.3
Cooling
161.6
35.4
83.9
18.3
456.8
100.0
Fans,
Pumps
Total
Cooling
Load
Percentage
Solar
182. I
25.4
Lights
166.3
23.2
Infiltration
133.1
18.6
Occupants
117.7
16.4
Walls
55.7
7.8
Glass
35.3
4.9
Others
26.3
3.7
716.5
100.0
Total
663
215
37
38
39
LO
42
OTTV
consumption predicted by DOE2 and the OTTV are then compared. Figure 2 shows the
relationship between the annual cooling energy consumption and the OTTV. The buildings are
orientated from the NorthSouth
to the EastWest direction based on the surface azimuth of
the broader front. As the OITV is intended to represent the total heat gain through the
building envelope, and when other loads are kept constant in the simulations, the annual
cooling energy consumption is expected to increase with increasing OTTV. It may be observed
that the annual cooling energy consumption does not always increase with increasing OITV.
This suggests that the OTIV equation does not properly account for the total heat gain
through the building envelope. Hence, we establish the need to revise the existing OTTV
equation.
Revision of OTTV equation
In all simulations, four heattransfer parameters of the building envelope have been varied.
The four parameters are: windowtowall ratio (WWR), shading coefficient of fenestration
(SC), and window and wall Uvalues (Uf and I!&,). The following ranges of values have been
used: WWR, 0.200.95; SC, 0.160.95; U,, 0.204.21 W/m*K; and Uw, 1.492.44 W/mK.
The total number of hours of operation of the building and the envelope area have been kept
constant at 2816 h and 2135 m2, respectively, in the simulations.
Using the database of heatgain components with Eqs. (8)(ll), values of OTTV, TD,,, AT,
and SF have been calculated for the cases shown in Table 6. As heat gains eventually appear as
loads, the correlation of the OTTV with heat gains is achieved through the use of annual
loads. The heatgain components are extracted from the DOE2 loads summary report as
heatload components summed over an entire year. The heatload components account for the
conduction gain through walls, conduction gain through windows and radiation gain through
windows during operating and nonoperating
hours of the building. For the purpose of
comparison, the OTIVs calculated using the present standard3 have been included. Inspection
shows that TD,, and SF have values which are approximately constant. However, AT varies
between 4.52 and 5.38. By rounding off the values, we obtain TD,, = 11 and SF = 230. The
corresponding average value of AT is 4.8. Hence, the revised OTTV equation for a square
building may be expressed as
OTTV = ll(1
(12)
It should be noted that the above procedure can readily be employed for walls of different
construction and mass.
It can be seen that Eq. (12) provides an increase in the weight of the solar heat gain component relative to the conductive heatgain components across the windows and opaque walls.
Table
Ccontinued
OTTV
cases
(froo
Eq. 8
SF
AT
TDeq
OTTV
(Ref. 3)
WWR = 0.40
"f = 1.29
SC = 0.50
"W = 2.24
63.2
230.0
4.92
11.0
42.0
WWR = 0.50
"f = 1.52
SC = 0.40
UW  2.44
62.9
229.9
4.87
11.0
42.0
WWR = 0.60
"f = 4.21
SC = 0.30
"W = 1.49
57.8
229.6
4.64
11.1
42.0
WR
Uf
= 0.70
= 2.44
SC = 0.30
"W = 2.06
62.4
230.0
4.74
11.0
42.0
WWR = 0.80
"f = 2.88
SC = 0.25
Uw = 2.24
60.4
229.8
4.66
10.9
42.0
WWR = 0.90
"f = 2.29
SC J 0.25
Uw = 2.44
63.2
230.0
4.69
10.9
42.0
WWR = 0.95
"f = 3.49
SC  0.20
"W = 1.49
57.6
2X9.5
4.58
10.8
42.0
WWR = 0.85
"f = 1.29
SC = 0.30
"W = 2.24
67.3
230.1
4.80
10.8
42.0
WWR = 0.44
"f = 3.20
SC  0.47
"W  2.44
68.6
229.9
4.95
10.9
47.6
WWR = 0.50
"f = 3.06
SC = 0.50
"W = 1.49
72.4
230.2
4.89
11.1
47.6
WWR = 0.52
Uf = 3.40
SC  0.40
"W = 2.44
68.1
230.2
4.78
11.0
47.6
WWR  0.60
"f  3.80
SC  0.35
"W = 2.24
67.4
230.1
4.69
11.1
47.6
WWR = 0.65
"f = 1.84
SC  0.40
"W = 2.24
73.9
230.2
4.88
11.0
47.6
WWR  0.80
"f = 3.80
SC  0.27
"W = 2.24
66.7
230.1
4.64
11.0
47.6
!JWR = 0.90
"f = 4.00
SC = 0.23
uw = 2.44
64.2
229.8
4.57
10.8
47.6
WWR = 0.70
"f = 4.00
SC = 0.32
uw = 1.49
67.6
230.0
4.69
11.0
47.6
WWR = 0.50
"f = 2.46
SC = 0.45
"W = 2.44
70.6
230.0
4.90
11.0
47.6
WWR = 0.55
"f = 2.14
SC = 0.43
Uw = 2.44
71.8
230.1
5.36
11.1
47.6
WWR = 0.55
"f = 2.91
SC = 0.46
"W = 1.49
72.6
230.4
4.86
11.0
47.6
Table
7. OTTO
cases
9: increase
in total
gain through
envelope
666
Table
8. OTTV
CaSeS
Reference
total
through
273.1
case
10% increase
in
OTTV
298.9
15% increase
in
OTTV
313.5
25% increase
in
OTTV
339.2
352
in OTTV
366.9
increase
in
gain
:,:: 1
This has resulted in an increase in the OTIV of between 40 and 60% over that calculated by
following the present standard.
In an attempt to test the revised OTTV equation, further simulations have been performed
to enable the comparison between the percentage increase in OTTV and the corresponding
percentage increase in total heat gain through the building envelope. The OTIVs calculated
using Eqs. (6) and (12) are tabulated in Tables 7 and 8, respectively. Upon inspection of Table
7, it can be seen that, by using Eq. (6), the percentage increase in the OTIV does not
correspond to the percentage increase in the total heat gain through the building envelope.
Comparison between Tables 7 and 8 shows that, for the various cases studied, the percentage
increase in total heat gain through the envelope is almost equal to the percentage increase in
OTW calculated by the revised OTTV equation. In other words, the revised equation is better
able to correlate the OTIV
and the total heat gain through the building envelope.
Additionally, the cooling energy consumption of the building has been predicted for various
OTTVs calculated by Eq. (12). This result is shown in Fig. 3. It can be seen that better
correlation between the annual cooling energy consumption and the OTTV is obtained. It
should be noted that this improvement in correlation is secondary compared to the primary
objective of correlating the OTIV with the total heat gain through the building envelope.
Moreover, the correlation of heat gains or cooling loads with the cooling energy use is greatly
dependent on the specifications of the airconditioning system, plant and control strategy used.
Thus, this study does not attempt to correlate the OTTV with cooling energy use.
In a further attempt to validate the revised OITV equation, DOE2 simulations have been
made on rectangular buildings having aspect ratios of 4.1, 2.62, and 1.82. This is intended to
show that although the revised OTW equation has been formulated from simulations on a
square building, the equation is equally applicable to rectangular buildings. The buildings are
215
0 AS =LlO
AS = 262
. AS r 182
d
2
210
205
3
"':
;
L5 0
45 5
460
L65
L70
L75
OTTV
Fig. 3. Cooling
energy variation
with OITV.
LB0
parameters
Building
(8)
(2)
AS
T o(2)
OnvAV
by Eq.
by Eq. (17)
(3)
100x
(2)
= 4.1, AN  152.5
AE = 37.21
WWRN=mE=0.44
42.0
41.2
 1.9
43.2
42.5
 1.6
43.9
43.7
 0.5
63.6
61.4
 3.5
65.5
63.6
 2.9
66.6
65.8
 0.5
76.5
74.4
 2.7
A5 = 2.62, AN = 121.7
AE = 46.4
WWRN = WWRE = 0.44
SC = 0.30, Uf = 3.2
IJw = 1.49
AS = 1.82, AN = 101.3
A E = 55.8
WWQ=
WWRE = 0.44
AS = 4.1, AN = 152.5
A E = 37.21
mN
= WWRE = 0.65
SC = 0.35, Uf = 3.2
Uw = 2.058
AS = 2.62, AN  121.7
AE  46.4
MN
 WWRE  0.65
SC = 0.35, Uf  3.2
"W = 2.058
AS = 1.82,
AN 101.3
AE * 55.8
WWRN = WWRE  0.65
SC  0.35, Uf  3.2
uw = 2.058
AS = 4.1, AN = 152.5
AE = 37.21
WWRN = WWRE = 0.70
SC = 0.40, Uf = 4.0
"W = 2.237
conrinuedoverleaf
668
Table
9continued
T
Building
parameters
AS = 2.62,
OTTVAV
by Eq. (8)
(2)
by Eq. (17)
(3)
(3)(2)
x
(2)
100%
AN = 121.7
AE = 46.4
WWRN= WWRE = 0.70
SC = 0.40,
UW = 2.237
AS = 1.82,
AE 
78.9
77.0
2.4
80.1
79.7
0.5
49.5
50.8
+ 2.6
40.7
49.5
+ 1.6
4.0
AN = 101.3
55.8
Uf = 4.0
W = 2.237
AS = 4.1,
AN = 37.21
AE = 152.5
WWRN= WWRB= 0.44
SC = 0.30,
Uf = 3.2
W = 1.49
AS = 2.62,
AN = 46.4
AE = 121.7
WWRN= WWRg = 0.44
SC = 0.30,
uf = 3.2
W = 1.49
AS = 1.82,
AN = 55.8
AE = 101.3
Ww$
47.5
= WwRE = 0.44
SC = 0.30,
uf
+ 1.7
40.3
= 3.2
uw = 1.49
conveniently orientated such that their four vertical walls face the North, East, South, and
West. In order to apply Eq. (12) to a rectangular building, the following equations are used for
each side of the building:
OTTVN = ll(1  WWR,)Uw
+ 4.8(WWR,)U,
+ 230 x CFN(WWRN)SC,
(13)
+ 4.8(WWR&
+ 230 x CFE(WWRE)SC,
(14)
(15)
(16)
A,(OITVN)
+ AE(OTTV~) + As(O=Vs)
A,+A,+As+Aw
+ %v(OIIVw)
(17)
where the subscripts N, E, S, and W represent North, East, South, and West, respectively.
Also, AE = Aw, AN = As, WWRN = WWRs and WWRE = WWRw.
669
X increase
in total
gain through
envelope
In each case, two values of the OTTV are calculated. One value is calculated by applying
Eq. (8) and the other by using Eqs. (13)(17). The values are tabulated in Table 9. It can be
seen that the differences are within f 4% for all the cases considered. Also, differences are
larger for buildings with larger aspect ratios.
A final comparison is made between the OTTV equation formulated by the present study
and the one recommended
in Ref. 4, which reported on a study conducted under the
ASEANUS
Energy Project supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development.
This comparison is based on the commercial building shown in Fig. 1. In Ref. 4, Turiel et al
have recommended that the OTTV equation for an external wall be redefined by a single term
taking into account only the radiative component of the heat gain as
OlTV=215xWWRxSC.
(18)
Using data obtained from DOE2 simulations and Eq. (18), the percentage increase in
OTTV and the corresponding percentage increase in total heat gain through the building
envelope have been calculated and presented in Table 10. It can be seen that, by using Eq.
(18), the percentage increase in the simulated total heat gain through the envelope is less than
the corresponding percentage increase in the OTTV. That is, Eq. (18) tends to overemphasize
any corrective measure to achieve a reduction in the heat gain through the envelope by a
reduction in the OTIV. This result contrasts (see Table 7) with the use of Eq. (6), which tends
to underestimate the effects of conservation measures applied to building envelope design.
Comparing values in Tables 8 and 10, we may conclude that Eq. (12) provides a better
correlation for the heat gain than Eq. (18). It should be noted, however, that Eq. (18) is
obtained by a regression of the cooling energy use. Thus, it is not intended to present the
proportional contributions of the envelope heat gain components.
In order to understand the contributions of the three heatgain components better, the total
gain through the building envelope has been subdivided and presented in Table 11. It may be
seen that the two conductive heatgain components (through walls and windows) contribute
about 30% of the total heat gain through the building envelope. Thus, their contributions
appear too large to be disregarded.
Cases
solar
radiation
(1)
glass
conductance
(2)
wall
conductance
(3)
(2)+(3)
(1)+(2)+(3)
198.6
36.2
54.7
0.31
207.0
40.1
49.7
0.30
227.8
47.9
39.7
0.28
241.1
21.7
74.7
0.29
S. K.
670
CHOU and Y.
K.
LEE
CONCLUSION
It has been shown that the OITV equation presently used in Singapore is inadequate in
correlating the total heat gain through a building envelope. For the purpose of upgrading
existing building energy conservation standards in Singapore, a more accurate formulation of
the OTTV equation has been attempted. The methodology adopted applies the definition of
the OTTV and makes use of computer simulation results to obtain the three basic heatgain
components of the equation.
The revised equation [Eq. (12)] is applicable to most buildings and has been tested against
the existing equation [Eq. (6)] and the one recommended in Ref. 4 [Eq. (l&3)]. Results show
that the revised equation gives the best correlation between the OTTV and the total heat gain
through a building envelope. The equation is found applicable to buildings having an aspect
ratio from 1.0 to 4.1. For other classes of buildings, types of construction or locations, the
methodology
can readily be applied to obtain the OTIV equation. Furthermore,
the
methodology ensures that the equation obtained by applying the OTTV definition [Eq. (S)]
directly gives a more accurate estimate of the total heat gain through a building envelope.
REFERENCES
1. Building Control Regulations,
1979, Development
and Building Control Division, Ministry of
National Development, Singapore 0106, Singapore (1979).
2. Energy Conservation for New Building Design, ASHRAE Standard 9075, American Society of
Heating, Refrigerating, and AirConditioning
Engineers, Atlanta, GA 30329 (1975).
3. Handbook on Energy Conservation in Buildings and Building Services, Development and Building
Control Division, Ministry of National Development, Singapore 0106, Singapore (1979).
4. I. Turiel, R. Curtis, and M. D. Levine, Energy 10,95 (1985).
5. DOE2 Reference Manual, Parts 1 and 2 (Version 2.1), U.S. Department of Commerce, National
Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161 (1980).
NOMENCLATURE
Af = Area of fenestration
(m)
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