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You are on page 1of 27

Concept of Stress

Contents

Concept of Stress

Review of Statics

Structure Free-Body Diagram

Component Free-Body Diagram

Method of Joints

Stress Analysis

Design

Axial Loading: Normal Stress

Centric & Eccentric Loading

Shearing Stress

Shearing Stress Examples

Problem Examples 1-4

Reference: Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, Jr. & John T. DeWolf,

"Mechanics of materials" 5th edition, McGraw-Hill, 2005. (Textbook).

10/12/2011

Concept of Stress

The main objective of the study of the mechanics of

materials is to provide the future engineer with the means

of analyzing and designing various machines and load

bearing structures.

Both the analysis and design of a given structure involve

the determination of stresses and deformations. This

chapter is devoted to the concept of stress.

Review of Statics

The structure is designed to support a 30 kN load

(Fig. 1.1)

The structure consists of a boom and rod joined by

pins (zero moment connections) at the junctions and

supports

force in each structural member and the reaction

forces at the supports

Structure is detached from supports

and the loads and reaction forces are

indicated

Conditions for static equilibrium:

MC

Ax

40 kN

Fx

0 Ax

Cx

Ax

Cx

40 kN

Fy

Ay

Cy

Ay

Cy

30 kN

30 kN

these equations

6

In addition to the complete structure, each

component must satisfy the conditions for

static equilibrium

Consider a free-body diagram for the boom:

MB

Ay

Ay * 0.8m

equation

Cy

30 kN

Results:

A

40 kN

Cx

40 kN

Cy

30 kN

boom and rod

7

Method of Joints

The boom and rod are

2-force members, i.e.,

the members are

subjected to only two

forces which are

applied at member

ends

For equilibrium, the

forces must be parallel to

an axis between the force

application points, equal

in magnitude, and in

opposite directions

8

Joints must satisfy the

conditions for static

equilibrium which may be

expressed in the form of a

force triangle:

FB

FAB

4

FBC

5

FAB

40 kN

30 kN

3

FBC

50 kN

Stress Analysis

Can the structure safely support the

30 kN load?

From a statics analysis

FAB = 40 kN (compression)

FBC = 50 kN (tension)

At any section through member BC, the

internal force is 50 kN with a force

intensity or stress of

dBC = 20 mm

BC

P

A

50 103 N

314 10-6 m 2

159 MPa

allowable stress is

all

165 MPa

adequate

10

Design

appropriate materials and component

dimensions to meet performance requirements

For reasons based on cost, weight, availability,

etc., the choice is made to construct the rod

from aluminum (sall= 100 MPa). What is an

appropriate choice for the rod diameter?

11

The resultant of the internal

forces for an axially loaded

member is normal to a section

cut perpendicular to the

member axis.

The force intensity on that

section is defined as the

normal stress.

F

lim

A 0 A

ave

P

A

12

The normal stress at a

particular point may not be

equal to the average stress but

the resultant of the stress

distribution must satisfy

ave A

dF

dA

A

stress is statically

indeterminate, i.e., can not

be found from statics alone.

13

A uniform distribution of stress in a

section infers that the line of action

for the resultant of the internal

forces passes through the centroid of

the section.

A uniform distribution of stress is

only possible if the concentrated

loads on the end sections of twoforce members are applied at the

section centroids. This is referred

to as centric loading.

14

If a two-force member is

eccentrically loaded, then

the resultant of the stress

distribution in a section

must yield an axial force

and a moment.

The stress distributions in

eccentrically loaded

members cannot be

uniform or symmetric.

15

Shearing Stress

Forces P and P are applied transversely to the member

AB (Figs. 1.15&16).

Corresponding internal forces act in the plane of section C

and are called shearing forces.

The resultant of the internal shear force distribution is

defined as the shear of the section and is equal to the load

P.

The corresponding average shear stress is,

ave

P

A

16

from zero at the member

surfaces to maximum values

The shear stress

that may be much larger than

distribution cannot be

the average value.

assumed to be uniform.

17

Single Shear:

ave

P

A

F

A

18

Double Shear:

ave

P

A

F

2A

19

Problem Example 1

Three solid cylindrical bars AB, BC, and CE of cross-sectional

areas AAB, ABC , ACE , respectively, are welded together at B and C,

and subjected to axial forces P, 6P, 4P, P, 2P as shown in Fig. 1.

Determine the normal stress in each bar. Given: Load P = 20 kN.

Fig. 1

20

21

Problem Example 2

A stepped cylindrical bar of the cross-sectional areas AAB, ABC,

and ACE, carries five axial forces as illustrated in Fig. 2. What is

the maximum value of P for the stresses not to exceed 100 MPa

in tension and 140 MPa in compression?

Fig. 2

22

From solution of problem 1

23

Problem Example 3

A cylindrical rod ABC of diameters dAB and dBC for parts AB and

BC, respectively, is fixed at the upper and supports an axial load P

at the free end (Fig. 3). Calculate the normal stress in portion AB.

Requirement: that the normal stress in part BC is not to exceed 40

MPa.

Fig. 3

24

25

Problem Example 4

The wing of a monoplane is approximated as depicted in Fig. 4.

Determine the normal stress in rod AC of the wing, if it has a

uniform cross section of 20 * 10-5 m2. Assumptions: the air load

is uniformly distributed along the span of the wing as shown in

the figure.

Fig. 4

26

27

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