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Design

and Analysis of a Shaft and Bearings



Project 2
Mechanical Design II
Spring 2013

Background and Requirements:




The goal of this project is to design and analyze a shaft and bearings for use
in a simple power transmission mechanism. To show that the design is acceptable
an analysis must be completed to show that the shaft will not fail under static
loading or fatigue, and that the bearings have an acceptable lifetime under the given
loading conditions. All assumptions made for the design have been stated in the
written analysis (Appendix A), but will be repeated in the body of this document for
completeness.


Below is a list of the given items for this project, which have been adapted
from the Project II assignment description.


Given items and Shaft Requirements:

Use Pillow blocks containing bearings to ease the design analysis
A flexible coupling attaches the designed shaft to a shaft of a driving motor.
The motor shaft has a diameter of 0.4997 +0.0000 / -0.0005.
The sheave should have a diameter of about 150mm.
The shaft rotates at 1200 RPM while transmitting approximately 50 W of
power.
The Tensions on the slack side of the belt is 15% of that on the tight side.
The bearings should have a lifetime of at least 20000 hours of operation at a
reliability of 0.90.
The distance between the centers of each bearing is 300mm.


Figure 1: Given Layout of Assembled Shaft (Reproduced from MEMS1029 Project #2
PDF with permission from the ME Dept., University of Pittsburgh)

Analysis:


The first part of the analysis will look at the loads acting on the beam. In
Figure 2 below, a drawing of the beam is shown with relevant forces shown.


Figure 2: Drawing of Beam with Relevant Forces


By using the information about the total power transmitted through the
shaft, the total torque on the shaft can be determined and thus the forced denoted P
in Figure 2 can be evaluated. Equation 1 relates the power (P) transmitted to the
shaft, to the applied torque (T) and angular velocity (). Equation 1a calculates the
torque applied to the shaft using the given information from the Background and
Requirements section.

! = ! !
(1.)
!=

!
50 !"##$
50 !"##$
=
=
= .4 !"
!!
! !"#
!
1200 !"#
(1200 !"#)( )(
)
!"#

(1a.)

!" !"#



The total torque depends on the pulley diameter. We will assume that the
pulley diameter is 150mm. The torque transmitted to the pulley is given by equation
2 below where P is the force on the pulley.

! = .4 !" = ! .15! (.075 !)
(2.)
!=

(.4 !")(100)
= 6.3 !
(.075 !)(85)

(2a.)


From Equation 2a and the given information, the forces on the slack and tight
side of the pulley can be determined.


!!"#!! = ! = 6.3 !!!"#$% = .15! = .945 !



Assuming that the coupling weight, bearing weights, sheave weight, and all
applicable fastener weights are negligible, a FBD of the shaft can be created. It is also
assumed that the Pulley forces act completely horizontally (-z direction as denoted
by Figure 2). Figure 3 shows the FBD of the shaft. It is also important to note that
for this analysis the coupling is assumed to not transmit any transverse or axial
forces. This assumption eases the analysis but can cause the analysis to lose
conservatism.


Figure 3: Shaft FBD


Appendix A shows the analysis of the FBD, and applicable shear and bending
moment diagrams. The analysis returned these results.

!!" = 0
!!" = 0
!!" = 2.415 !
!!" = 9.66 !
!!"# = 7.245 ! (!" !"#$%&' !)

!!"# = .7245 !" (!" !"#$%&' !)



This information allows the calculation of the minimum safe shaft diameter
under static loading. Equation 3 shows the minimum diameter calculation where ns
is the factor of safety, y is the yield strength of the material, M is the maximum
bending moment, and T is the maximum torque.

!

!!"#

32!!
3
=
!! + ! !
!!!
4

(3.)



By choosing a factor of safety of 4, and using 1018 CD steel for the shaft
material (y=370 MPa); the minimum diameter can be calculated. The location of

bearing b is analyzed since it experiences the highest bending moment. We assume


that this is the most critical spot to analyze on the shaft and that the minimum
diameter calculated applies to each location on the rest of the beam.

!!"# = 4.45!!


With this small of a diameter, deflection of the shaft should be check to make
sure that the minimum diameter does not cause a deflection that can effect the life
of the bearings. As given by Table 7-2 inShigleys (Ref 1), for Deep-groove ball
bearings, the maximum slope at the bearings is between .001 and .003 radians. We
will assume that the maximum slope can be .003 radians.


Appendix A shows the derivation of the deflection and slope equation of the
beam by use of singularity functions. The resulting equation for the slope of the
beam is given in Equation 4 below where E is the modulus of elasticity of the
material and I is the second moment of inertia of the shaft.

1
(4.)
! ! = ! = (1.2075! ! + 4.83 ! .3 ! + .036225)
!"
! ! ! = 0 = .0092 !"#$"%&

! ! ! = .3! = .0184



These results show that the slopes at each bearing are unacceptable.
However, the slope at bearing b is greater than that at the location of bearing a. To
determine the new minimum diameter of the shaft required the following relation in
Equation 5 will be used.

!!"#
!!"#

64 !!"#
=
!
! !!"# !"#

64 .0184
=
(1.925(10!!! )
! . 003

(5.)

= 7.003 !!



The minimum diameter of the shaft must be 7.003mm to accommodate the
maximum allowable slope of the bearing. However, even though the minimum
diameter for the shaft is approximately 7mm. Bearings with a bore diameter of 7mm
are not readily available. What also needs to be taken into consideration is how the
components will be mounted to the shaft. A general drawing of the shaft is shown in
Figure 4 below.

Figure 4: General Shaft Design




To get an idea of what the diameters of the shaft should be, we will look at
the lifetime requirements of the bearings under the given loads. It is assumed that
there are no axial loads on the bearings and therefore the design forces are as
follows.

!!" = !!" = 2.415 !

!!" = !!" = 9.66 !



The C10 load ratings for the bearings are calculated from Equation 6 below.
Where FD is the design force, LD is the design life of the bearing, and LR is the lifetime
rating (millions of revolutions).

!!" = !!

!!
!!

(6.)

!!",! = 27.27 !

!!",! = 109.08 !



As given in Table 11-2 of Shigleys (Ref 1), the C10 load ratings for any of
specified bore diameter bearings will work for the design.


It is known that the motor shaft has a diameter of .4997 + 0.000/-.005
(approximately 12.7 mm). We will design the left end of our shaft where the
coupling is placed so that it has an end equal to the diameter of the motor shaft.
Knowing that a typical D/d ratio at a shoulder is D/d = 1.2, we can calculate the
other diameters of the shaft.

!! = 12.7 !!

!! = 1.2!! = 15.24 !!

!! = 1.2!! = 18.28 !!



Using the above diameters calculated, and information on what bore size for
bearings are available. We can further refine the selected diameters.
!! = 12.7 !!

!! = 17 !!

!! = 1.2!! = 21 !!


Figure 5: Final Diameter Dimensions of shaft

Figure 5 above shows the final dimensions of the diameters of the shaft. With
these diameter dimensions determined, we will now check to see if the 17mm
diameter at bearing B is acceptable under fatigue. We will check this location
because this location has the highest bending moment and the addition of a fillet
causes a stress concentration.

The calculation of stress concentration factors is shown in Appendix A and
produces the following results.

!! = 1.7

!!" = 1.5

!! = 181.304 !"!

!! = .8987

!! = .917

!! = !! = !! = 1


For a rotating shaft, the constant bending moment will create a completely
reversed bending stress. Therefore, we can define the midrange bending
moment (Mm), the alternating bending moment (Ma), midrange torque (Tm) and
alternating torque (Ta) as follows.

!! = !!"# = .7245 !"

!! = ! = .4 !"

!! = !! = 0


The minimum diameter required at location B can then be calculated using
Equation 7, where Sut=440 MPa and n =4.

!!"#

16!
=
!

2(!! !! )
+
!!

!
(3(!!" !! )! ) !

!!"

= 6.87!!

(7.)


From Equation 7 we can see that the diameter at the location of bearing b
being 17mm is sufficient so that fatigue failure will not occur under the given
conditions.



Using this design information, the following bill of materials was created and
is included in Appendix B. From the available components and sizes the final
dimensions of the shaft were determined and are shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: Final Shaft Dimensions





Final Design:

Discussion:


After the components were selected and the shaft diameters chosen, the
issue with mounting the components to the shaft is of importance. With the fillets in
the shaft at the locations of bearings A and B, this will prevent the shaft from moving
axially. Since the bearings are mounted in pillow blocks, this further secures the
bearings because the pillow blocks will be fastened to a surface. From the pillow
blocks selected, we can also see that a setscrew will also be available to secure the
bearings in place. As for the pulley, a key and keyway will be used to secure the
pulley to the rotating shaft. The dimensions of the key way were determined from
Table 7-6 in Shigleys (Ref 1).


Throughout this analysis many assumptions were made to simplify the
design process. However it is important to note that many of these assumptions may
affect the results from this analysis. Two assumptions that should remain as open
items for continuation of this design are the assumptions that the coupling does not
produce any transverse or axial forces, and the assumption that the component
weights are negligible. With a relatively low load on the shaft, the weight of the
components may become significant. As for the assumption about the coupling, this
has been the area where many shafts fail because of incorrect analysis of the
coupling; a further analysis of this may be needed. As a last check to verify the
design, the Solidworks FEA tool was used to analyze the stresses at the location of
bearing B an image of the FEA is shown in Figure 7 below.


Figure 7: FEA analysis of shaft with applied force


Given the design requirements for this project, and the analysis completed,
the final shaft design meets the criteria requested. A detailed hand analysis, as well
as a bill of materials has been attached as appendices for reference.

References:

1. Budynas, Richard G., and J. Keith Nisbett. Shigleys Mechanical
Engineering Design. 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011. Print

Appendix A

Hand Calculations and Analysis

Appendix B

Bill of Materials

Bill of Materials:

Part

Dimensions

Vendor/ #

Price

Cast Iron V-Belt


Pulley

5.95 OD
.5 bore

McMaster Carr
6204K32

$27.95

.5 x .5 bore
1.5 total length

Grainger
2AME6

$58.20

17mm bore with


set screw

VXB Ball Bearings


FYH UCP203

$34.90

$121.05

Ruland
Manufacturing
Coupling
Pillow Block
Bearing Mounted
Bearings
(2x)
Total: