Design and Selection of Bearings for a shaft

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Design and Selection of Bearings for a shaft

© All Rights Reserved

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Project 2

Mechanical Design II

Spring 2013

The goal of this project is to design and analyze a shaft and bearings for use

in a simple power transmission mechanism. To show that the design is acceptable

an analysis must be completed to show that the shaft will not fail under static

loading or fatigue, and that the bearings have an acceptable lifetime under the given

loading conditions. All assumptions made for the design have been stated in the

written analysis (Appendix A), but will be repeated in the body of this document for

completeness.

Below is a list of the given items for this project, which have been adapted

from the Project II assignment description.

Given items and Shaft Requirements:

Use Pillow blocks containing bearings to ease the design analysis

A flexible coupling attaches the designed shaft to a shaft of a driving motor.

The motor shaft has a diameter of 0.4997 +0.0000 / -0.0005.

The sheave should have a diameter of about 150mm.

The shaft rotates at 1200 RPM while transmitting approximately 50 W of

power.

The Tensions on the slack side of the belt is 15% of that on the tight side.

The bearings should have a lifetime of at least 20000 hours of operation at a

reliability of 0.90.

The distance between the centers of each bearing is 300mm.

Figure
1:
Given
Layout
of
Assembled
Shaft
(Reproduced
from
MEMS1029
Project
#2

PDF
with
permission
from
the
ME
Dept.,
University
of
Pittsburgh)

Analysis:

The
first
part
of
the
analysis
will
look
at
the
loads
acting
on
the
beam.
In

Figure
2
below,
a
drawing
of
the
beam
is
shown
with
relevant
forces
shown.

Figure
2:
Drawing
of
Beam
with
Relevant
Forces

By
using
the
information
about
the
total
power
transmitted
through
the

shaft,
the
total
torque
on
the
shaft
can
be
determined
and
thus
the
forced
denoted
P

in
Figure
2
can
be
evaluated.
Equation
1
relates
the
power
(P)
transmitted
to
the

shaft,
to
the
applied
torque
(T)
and
angular
velocity
().
Equation
1a
calculates
the

torque
applied
to
the
shaft
using
the
given
information
from
the
Background
and

Requirements
section.

! = ! !

(1.)

!=

!

50 !"##$

50 !"##$

=

=

= .4 !"

!!

! !"#

!

1200 !"#

(1200 !"#)( )(

)

!"#

(1a.)

!" !"#

The
total
torque
depends
on
the
pulley
diameter.
We
will
assume
that
the

pulley
diameter
is
150mm.
The
torque
transmitted
to
the
pulley
is
given
by
equation

2
below
where
P
is
the
force
on
the
pulley.

! = .4 !" = ! .15! (.075 !)

(2.)

!=

(.4 !")(100)

= 6.3 !

(.075 !)(85)

(2a.)

From
Equation
2a
and
the
given
information,
the
forces
on
the
slack
and
tight

side
of
the
pulley
can
be
determined.

!!"#!! = ! = 6.3 !!!"#$% = .15! = .945 !

Assuming
that
the
coupling
weight,
bearing
weights,
sheave
weight,
and
all

applicable
fastener
weights
are
negligible,
a
FBD
of
the
shaft
can
be
created.
It
is
also

assumed
that
the
Pulley
forces
act
completely
horizontally
(-z
direction
as
denoted

by
Figure
2).
Figure
3
shows
the
FBD
of
the
shaft.
It
is
also
important
to
note
that

for
this
analysis
the
coupling
is
assumed
to
not
transmit
any
transverse
or
axial

forces.
This
assumption
eases
the
analysis
but
can
cause
the
analysis
to
lose

conservatism.

Figure
3:
Shaft
FBD

Appendix
A
shows
the
analysis
of
the
FBD,
and
applicable
shear
and
bending

moment
diagrams.
The
analysis
returned
these
results.

!!" = 0

!!" = 0

!!" = 2.415 !

!!" = 9.66 !

!!"# = 7.245 ! (!" !"#$%&' !)

This
information
allows
the
calculation
of
the
minimum
safe
shaft
diameter

under
static
loading.
Equation
3
shows
the
minimum
diameter
calculation
where
ns

is
the
factor
of
safety,
y
is
the
yield
strength
of
the
material,
M
is
the
maximum

bending
moment,
and
T
is
the
maximum
torque.

!

!!"#

32!!

3

=

!! + ! !

!!!

4

(3.)

By
choosing
a
factor
of
safety
of
4,
and
using
1018
CD
steel
for
the
shaft

material
(y=370
MPa);
the
minimum
diameter
can
be
calculated.
The
location
of

that this is the most critical spot to analyze on the shaft and that the minimum

diameter calculated applies to each location on the rest of the beam.

!!"# = 4.45!!

With this small of a diameter, deflection of the shaft should be check to make

sure that the minimum diameter does not cause a deflection that can effect the life

of the bearings. As given by Table 7-2 inShigleys (Ref 1), for Deep-groove ball

bearings, the maximum slope at the bearings is between .001 and .003 radians. We

will assume that the maximum slope can be .003 radians.

Appendix A shows the derivation of the deflection and slope equation of the

beam by use of singularity functions. The resulting equation for the slope of the

beam is given in Equation 4 below where E is the modulus of elasticity of the

material and I is the second moment of inertia of the shaft.

1

(4.)

! ! = ! = (1.2075! ! + 4.83 ! .3 ! + .036225)

!"

! ! ! = 0 = .0092 !"#$"%&

! ! ! = .3! = .0184

These
results
show
that
the
slopes
at
each
bearing
are
unacceptable.

However,
the
slope
at
bearing
b
is
greater
than
that
at
the
location
of
bearing
a.
To

determine
the
new
minimum
diameter
of
the
shaft
required
the
following
relation
in

Equation
5
will
be
used.

!!"#

!!"#

64 !!"#

=

!

! !!"# !"#

64 .0184

=

(1.925(10!!! )

! . 003

(5.)

= 7.003 !!

The
minimum
diameter
of
the
shaft
must
be
7.003mm
to
accommodate
the

maximum
allowable
slope
of
the
bearing.
However,
even
though
the
minimum

diameter
for
the
shaft
is
approximately
7mm.
Bearings
with
a
bore
diameter
of
7mm

are
not
readily
available.
What
also
needs
to
be
taken
into
consideration
is
how
the

components
will
be
mounted
to
the
shaft.
A
general
drawing
of
the
shaft
is
shown
in

Figure
4
below.

To get an idea of what the diameters of the shaft should be, we will look at

the lifetime requirements of the bearings under the given loads. It is assumed that

there are no axial loads on the bearings and therefore the design forces are as

follows.

!!" = !!" = 2.415 !

The
C10
load
ratings
for
the
bearings
are
calculated
from
Equation
6
below.

Where
FD
is
the
design
force,
LD
is
the
design
life
of
the
bearing,
and
LR
is
the
lifetime

rating
(millions
of
revolutions).

!!" = !!

!!

!!

(6.)

!!",! = 27.27 !

!!",! = 109.08 !

As
given
in
Table
11-2
of
Shigleys
(Ref
1),
the
C10
load
ratings
for
any
of

specified
bore
diameter
bearings
will
work
for
the
design.

It
is
known
that
the
motor
shaft
has
a
diameter
of
.4997
+
0.000/-.005

(approximately
12.7
mm).
We
will
design
the
left
end
of
our
shaft
where
the

coupling
is
placed
so
that
it
has
an
end
equal
to
the
diameter
of
the
motor
shaft.

Knowing
that
a
typical
D/d
ratio
at
a
shoulder
is
D/d
=
1.2,
we
can
calculate
the

other
diameters
of
the
shaft.

!! = 12.7 !!

!! = 1.2!! = 15.24 !!

!! = 1.2!! = 18.28 !!

Using
the
above
diameters
calculated,
and
information
on
what
bore
size
for

bearings
are
available.
We
can
further
refine
the
selected
diameters.

!! = 12.7 !!

!! = 17 !!

!! = 1.2!! = 21 !!

Figure
5:
Final
Diameter
Dimensions
of
shaft

Figure
5
above
shows
the
final
dimensions
of
the
diameters
of
the
shaft.
With

these
diameter
dimensions
determined,
we
will
now
check
to
see
if
the
17mm

diameter
at
bearing
B
is
acceptable
under
fatigue.
We
will
check
this
location

because
this
location
has
the
highest
bending
moment
and
the
addition
of
a
fillet

causes
a
stress
concentration.

The
calculation
of
stress
concentration
factors
is
shown
in
Appendix
A
and

produces
the
following
results.

!! = 1.7

!!" = 1.5

!! = 181.304 !"!

!! = .8987

!! = .917

!! = !! = !! = 1

For
a
rotating
shaft,
the
constant
bending
moment
will
create
a
completely

reversed
bending
stress.
Therefore,
we
can
define
the
midrange
bending

moment
(Mm),
the
alternating
bending
moment
(Ma),
midrange
torque
(Tm)
and

alternating
torque
(Ta)
as
follows.

!! = !!"# = .7245 !"

!! = ! = .4 !"

!! = !! = 0

The
minimum
diameter
required
at
location
B
can
then
be
calculated
using

Equation
7,
where
Sut=440
MPa
and
n
=4.

!!"#

16!

=

!

2(!! !! )

+

!!

!

(3(!!" !! )! ) !

!!"

= 6.87!!

(7.)

From
Equation
7
we
can
see
that
the
diameter
at
the
location
of
bearing
b

being
17mm
is
sufficient
so
that
fatigue
failure
will
not
occur
under
the
given

conditions.

Using
this
design
information,
the
following
bill
of
materials
was
created
and

is
included
in
Appendix
B.
From
the
available
components
and
sizes
the
final

dimensions
of
the
shaft
were
determined
and
are
shown
in
Figure
6.

Final
Design:

Discussion:

After
the
components
were
selected
and
the
shaft
diameters
chosen,
the

issue
with
mounting
the
components
to
the
shaft
is
of
importance.
With
the
fillets
in

the
shaft
at
the
locations
of
bearings
A
and
B,
this
will
prevent
the
shaft
from
moving

axially.
Since
the
bearings
are
mounted
in
pillow
blocks,
this
further
secures
the

bearings
because
the
pillow
blocks
will
be
fastened
to
a
surface.
From
the
pillow

blocks
selected,
we
can
also
see
that
a
setscrew
will
also
be
available
to
secure
the

bearings
in
place.
As
for
the
pulley,
a
key
and
keyway
will
be
used
to
secure
the

pulley
to
the
rotating
shaft.
The
dimensions
of
the
key
way
were
determined
from

Table
7-6
in
Shigleys
(Ref
1).

Throughout
this
analysis
many
assumptions
were
made
to
simplify
the

design
process.
However
it
is
important
to
note
that
many
of
these
assumptions
may

affect
the
results
from
this
analysis.
Two
assumptions
that
should
remain
as
open

items
for
continuation
of
this
design
are
the
assumptions
that
the
coupling
does
not

produce
any
transverse
or
axial
forces,
and
the
assumption
that
the
component

weights
are
negligible.
With
a
relatively
low
load
on
the
shaft,
the
weight
of
the

components
may
become
significant.
As
for
the
assumption
about
the
coupling,
this

has
been
the
area
where
many
shafts
fail
because
of
incorrect
analysis
of
the

coupling;
a
further
analysis
of
this
may
be
needed.
As
a
last
check
to
verify
the

design,
the
Solidworks
FEA
tool
was
used
to
analyze
the
stresses
at
the
location
of

bearing
B
an
image
of
the
FEA
is
shown
in
Figure
7
below.

Figure
7:
FEA
analysis
of
shaft
with
applied
force

Given
the
design
requirements
for
this
project,
and
the
analysis
completed,

the
final
shaft
design
meets
the
criteria
requested.
A
detailed
hand
analysis,
as
well

as
a
bill
of
materials
has
been
attached
as
appendices
for
reference.

References:

1.
Budynas,
Richard
G.,
and
J.
Keith
Nisbett.
Shigleys
Mechanical

Engineering
Design.
9th
ed.
New
York:
McGraw-Hill,
2011.
Print

Appendix
A

Hand
Calculations
and
Analysis

Appendix
B

Bill
of
Materials

Bill
of
Materials:

Part

Dimensions

Vendor/ #

Price

Pulley

5.95
OD

.5
bore

McMaster
Carr

6204K32

$27.95

.5
x
.5
bore

1.5
total
length

Grainger

2AME6

$58.20

set screw

FYH UCP203

$34.90

$121.05

Ruland

Manufacturing

Coupling

Pillow
Block

Bearing
Mounted

Bearings

(2x)

Total:

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