Analysis of Flow rates for a commercial radiator system.

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Analysis of Flow rates for a commercial radiator system.

© All Rights Reserved

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The first part of the analysis included determining the required heat for each

zone. By using the room dimensions given in Reference #, and a design specification of

40 BTUH/ft2 given by Runtal(Ref#), the necessary radiator and length of radiator can be

determined. It is important to note that to ease in the analysis and choice of radiator

selection, the temperature difference across each radiator in each path was assumed to

be 10F. By assuming the first radiator has an inlet temperature of 190F, the

documentation on the Runtal website for R-Type Radiator Heating Capacities will be

sufficient to analyze the flow paths chosen above in the Design Option Section.

The required BTUH for each zone is calculated by using equation # below.

Included in Table # below is the required Heating Capacity for each zone.

#

Table #: Required BTUH Per Room

Zone

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Utility Room

BTUH Required

14000

20000

34000

10000

12000

14000

22000

16000

The next piece of information needed for the analyses are which zones are in

each path. Figures # and # below show the flows paths for both design options.Table #

below shows which zones occur in which paths for each of the two design options

considered.

Design Choice

1 (Denoted Loop 1)

2 (Denoted Loop 2)

Path

A

B

A

B

C

Zones Included

5,6,7, Utility

1,2,3,4

5,6,7,Utility

3,4

1,2

Now that the respective paths are defined for each loop, radiators can be chosen

based on the BTUH needed for each zone, and the assumed operating temperatures of

each radiator. By using the information from the Runtal website (Ref #), the length of

radiator needed (Rounded up to the nearest unit) and model type of each radiator can

be determined by equation # below.

#

Table # below shows the model type, required length, and operating temperature

of each radiator for its respective zone.

Table #: Radiator Types and Lengths Needed for Each Respective Zone

Design Choice

Zone

Operating

Temperature

1 (Denoted Loop 1)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Utility

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Utility

195F - 185F

185F - 175F

175F - 165F

165F - 155F

195F - 185F

185F - 175F

175F - 165F

165F - 155F

195F - 185F

185F - 175F

195F - 185F

185F - 175F

195F - 185F

185F - 175F

175F - 165F

165F - 155F

2 (Denoted Loop 2)

Average

Operating

Temperature

190F

180F

170F

160F

190F

180F

170F

160F

190F

180F

190F

180F

190F

180F

170F

160F

Radiator

Length

Needed

23 ft

29 ft

25 ft

30 ft

16 ft

20 ft

22 ft

21 ft

23 ft

29 ft

24 ft

24 ft

16 ft

20 ft

22 ft

21 ft

Model

Type

R-4

R-5

R-11

R-3

R-5

R-5

R-8

R-7

R-4

R-5

R-8

R-3

R-5

R-5

R-8

R-7

Having the average operating temperature defined, the flow rate needed for each

radiator can be calculated. Using the Runtal Website and the flow rate calculation

document (Ref #), the flow rates required for each radiator were determined by

equation # below (where T is the operating temperature difference) and are tabulated

in Table # below.

(

Design Choice

Zone

Model Type

BTUH

Required

T (F)

1 (Denoted Loop 1)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Utility

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Utility

R-4

R-5

R-11

R-3

R-5

R-5

R-8

R-7

R-4

R-5

R-8

R-3

R-5

R-5

R-8

R-7

14000

20000

34000

10000

12000

14000

22000

16000

14000

20000

34000

10000

12000

14000

22000

16000

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

2 (Denoted Loop 2)

Flow

Rate

Needed

(GPM)

2.8

4

6.8

2

2.4

2.8

4.4

3.2

2.8

4

6.8

2

2.4

2.8

4.4

3.2

Since there are multiple paths, Table # above has been analyzed to determine

the minimum flow rate needed for each path. This minimum flow rate will be the

prescribed flow rate for the respective path. Table # below lists the required flow rate for

each designs respective flow paths.

Table #: Minimum Flow Rates Required for Each Path

Design Choice

Path

1 (Denoted Loop 1)

A

B

A

B

C

2 (Denoted Loop 2)

Required (GPM)

4.4

6.8

4.4

6.8

4

Since both design options consists of a two-branch piping network, the minimum

flow rates required for each design will be simplified even further. For design one the

minimum flow rate for the system will be 6.8 GPM, for design two, the minimum flow

rate of the two-branch piping section will be 6.8 GPM, the single path in design two will

still use a flow rate of 4.4 GPM.

With the flow rates defined, the next step before being able to analyze the

pressure drops and head loss across the systems is to define what fittings will be

included in the flow paths for each design. Tables # and # list the components in each

path for each design with their respective loss coefficients and lengths when applicable.

Table #: Design Choice One Components and Fittings

Component

Pipe

Pump

Pipe

Pipe Tee

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Radiator (R-5)

Pipe

Radiator (R-5)

Pipe

Radiator (R-8)

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Radiator (R-7)

Pipe Tee

Pipe

Pipe

Radiator (R-11)

Pipe

Radiator (R-3)

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Radiator (R-5)

Pipe

Radiator (R-4)

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Path A

Loss Coefficient

N/A

Negligible

N/A

2

N/A

0.9

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0.9

N/A

0.9

N/A

N/A

2

N/A

Path B

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0.9

N/A

0.9

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0.9

N/A

Length (Feet)

1

Negligible

29

Negligible

15

Negligible

7

16

18

20

21

22

11

Negligible

45

Negligible

19

21

Negligible

1

12

25

25

30

13

Negligible

15

Negligible

12

29

23

23

10

Negligible

15

Component

Pipe

Pump

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Radiator (R-5)

Pipe

Radiator (R-5)

Pipe

Radiator (R-8)

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Radiator (R-7)

Pipe

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Radiator (R-11)

Pipe

Radiator (R-3)

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Pipe

Pump

Pipe

Pipe Tee

Pipe

Radiator (R-4)

Pipe

Radiator (R-5)

Pipe

Pipe Tee

Pipe

Pipe Elbow

Pipe

Path A

Loss Coefficient

N/A

Negligible

N/A

0.9

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0.9

N/A

0.9

N/A

N/A

N/A

Path B

N/A

0.9

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

0.9

N/A

Path C

N/A

Negligible

N/A

2

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

2

N/A

0.9

N/A

Length (Feet)

1

Negligible

44

Negligible

7

16

18

20

19

22

11

Negligible

45

Negligible

15

21

5

15

Negligible

12

25

24

24

13

Negligible

15

1

Negligible

14

Negligible

10

23

22

29

13

Negligible

15

Negligible

20

the head loss for each path can be calculated. To ease in the analysis of two-branch

systems, a MATLAB script was used as a tool to expedite the calculation process. The

MATLAB script written as a tool is included in Appendix #.

Also needed for the analysis are the expected piping material, the overall

average operating temperature (and the associated properties at that temperature), and

the flow paths pipe diameters. Tables # and # below list the data for each design

choice and flow path. The material properties in Tables # and # below were taken from

Cengel and Cimbala (Reference #).

Table #: Material Properties and Physical Dimensions for Design Choice 1

Design Choice 1

Property/Dimension

Path A

Pipe Material

Relative Roughness of Pipe Material

Overall Average Operating Temperature

(OAOT)

Density () at OAOT

Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT

Flow Path Pipe Diameter

Path B

Pipe Material

Relative Roughness of Pipe Material

Overall Average Operating Temperature

(OAOT)

Density () at OAOT

Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT

Flow Path Pipe Diameter

Value

Copper

5*10-6 ft

175F

60.57 lbm/ft3

2.31*10-4 lbm/ft*s

0.0416 ft

Copper

5*10-6 ft

175F

60.57 lbm/ft3

2.31*10-4 lbm/ft*s

0.0416 ft

Design Choice 2

Property/Dimension

Value

Path A

Pipe Material

Relative Roughness of Pipe Material

Overall Average Operating Temperature

(OAOT)

Density () at OAOT

Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT

Flow Path Pipe Diameter

Path B

Pipe Material

Relative Roughness of Pipe Material

Overall Average Operating Temperature

(OAOT)

Density () at OAOT

Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT

Flow Path Pipe Diameter

Path C

Pipe Material

Relative Roughness of Pipe Material

Overall Average Operating Temperature

(OAOT)

Density () at OAOT

Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT

Flow Path Pipe Diameter

Copper

5*10-6 ft

175F

60.57 lbm/ft3

2.31*10-4 lbm/ft*s

0.0416 ft

Copper

5*10-6 ft

185F

60.35 lbm/ft3

2.169*10-4 lbm/ft*s

0.0416 ft

Copper

5*10-6 ft

185F

60.35 lbm/ft3

2.169*10-4 lbm/ft*s

0.0416 ft

Using the Moody chart from Cengal and Cimbala (Reference #) to assume

friction factors for each path in each design, an iterative process using the MATLAB

script provided in Appendix # was used to determine the true friction factor by checking

the assumed friction factor against the determined Reynolds number. The Reynolds

number for each flow path was determined by finding the velocity of each flow path. The

velocity of each flow path was determined by using the MATLAB Script which contains a

two-branch analysis to solve for the velocities. Table # below shows the resulting friction

factors, velocities, and Reynolds number for each path. It is important to note that the

head loss due to the radiators in the system were assumed to be a frictional loss due to

the total length of pipe in the radiator, this is because a loss coefficient for the radiators

was unable to be obtained from the manufacturer.

Table #: Calculated Velocities, Friction Factors, Reynolds Numbers for Design Choice 1

Design Choice 1

Path A

Velocity

Final Friction Factor

Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity

Reynolds Number Determined by Friction Factor

Path B

Velocity

Final Friction Factor

Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity

Reynolds Number Determined by Friction Factor

5.47 ft/s

.021

59,581

~ 60,000

5.66 ft/s

.021

61,651

~ 60,000

Table #: Calculated Velocities, Friction Factors, Reynolds Numbers for Design Choice 2

Design Choice 2

Path A

Velocity

Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity

Friction Factor

Path B

Velocity

Final Friction Factor

Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity

Reynolds Number Determined by Friction Factor

Path C

Velocity

Final Friction Factor

Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity

Reynolds Number Determined by Friction Factor

7.21 ft/s

78,534

.019

5.76 ft/s

.021

66,777

~ 60,000

5.38 ft/s

.021

62,372

~ 60,000

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