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Analysis

The first part of the analysis included determining the required heat for each
zone. By using the room dimensions given in Reference #, and a design specification of
40 BTUH/ft2 given by Runtal(Ref#), the necessary radiator and length of radiator can be
determined. It is important to note that to ease in the analysis and choice of radiator
selection, the temperature difference across each radiator in each path was assumed to
be 10F. By assuming the first radiator has an inlet temperature of 190F, the
documentation on the Runtal website for R-Type Radiator Heating Capacities will be
sufficient to analyze the flow paths chosen above in the Design Option Section.
The required BTUH for each zone is calculated by using equation # below.
Included in Table # below is the required Heating Capacity for each zone.
#
Table #: Required BTUH Per Room
Zone
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Utility Room

BTUH Required
14000
20000
34000
10000
12000
14000
22000
16000

The next piece of information needed for the analyses are which zones are in
each path. Figures # and # below show the flows paths for both design options.Table #
below shows which zones occur in which paths for each of the two design options
considered.

Table #: Zones Included in Respective Flow Paths

Design Choice
1 (Denoted Loop 1)
2 (Denoted Loop 2)

Path
A
B
A
B
C

Zones Included
5,6,7, Utility
1,2,3,4
5,6,7,Utility
3,4
1,2

Now that the respective paths are defined for each loop, radiators can be chosen
based on the BTUH needed for each zone, and the assumed operating temperatures of
each radiator. By using the information from the Runtal website (Ref #), the length of
radiator needed (Rounded up to the nearest unit) and model type of each radiator can
be determined by equation # below.
#
Table # below shows the model type, required length, and operating temperature
of each radiator for its respective zone.

Table #: Radiator Types and Lengths Needed for Each Respective Zone
Design Choice

Zone

Operating
Temperature

1 (Denoted Loop 1)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Utility
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Utility

195F - 185F
185F - 175F
175F - 165F
165F - 155F
195F - 185F
185F - 175F
175F - 165F
165F - 155F
195F - 185F
185F - 175F
195F - 185F
185F - 175F
195F - 185F
185F - 175F
175F - 165F
165F - 155F

2 (Denoted Loop 2)

Average
Operating
Temperature
190F
180F
170F
160F
190F
180F
170F
160F
190F
180F
190F
180F
190F
180F
170F
160F

Length
Needed
23 ft
29 ft
25 ft
30 ft
16 ft
20 ft
22 ft
21 ft
23 ft
29 ft
24 ft
24 ft
16 ft
20 ft
22 ft
21 ft

Model
Type
R-4
R-5
R-11
R-3
R-5
R-5
R-8
R-7
R-4
R-5
R-8
R-3
R-5
R-5
R-8
R-7

Having the average operating temperature defined, the flow rate needed for each
radiator can be calculated. Using the Runtal Website and the flow rate calculation
document (Ref #), the flow rates required for each radiator were determined by
equation # below (where T is the operating temperature difference) and are tabulated
in Table # below.
(

Table #: Flow Rates Required

Design Choice

Zone

Model Type

BTUH
Required

T (F)

1 (Denoted Loop 1)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Utility
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Utility

R-4
R-5
R-11
R-3
R-5
R-5
R-8
R-7
R-4
R-5
R-8
R-3
R-5
R-5
R-8
R-7

14000
20000
34000
10000
12000
14000
22000
16000
14000
20000
34000
10000
12000
14000
22000
16000

10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

2 (Denoted Loop 2)

Flow
Rate
Needed
(GPM)
2.8
4
6.8
2
2.4
2.8
4.4
3.2
2.8
4
6.8
2
2.4
2.8
4.4
3.2

Since there are multiple paths, Table # above has been analyzed to determine
the minimum flow rate needed for each path. This minimum flow rate will be the
prescribed flow rate for the respective path. Table # below lists the required flow rate for
each designs respective flow paths.
Table #: Minimum Flow Rates Required for Each Path
Design Choice

Path

1 (Denoted Loop 1)

A
B
A
B
C

2 (Denoted Loop 2)

Minimum Flow Rate

Required (GPM)
4.4
6.8
4.4
6.8
4

Since both design options consists of a two-branch piping network, the minimum
flow rates required for each design will be simplified even further. For design one the
minimum flow rate for the system will be 6.8 GPM, for design two, the minimum flow
rate of the two-branch piping section will be 6.8 GPM, the single path in design two will
still use a flow rate of 4.4 GPM.

With the flow rates defined, the next step before being able to analyze the
pressure drops and head loss across the systems is to define what fittings will be
included in the flow paths for each design. Tables # and # list the components in each
path for each design with their respective loss coefficients and lengths when applicable.
Table #: Design Choice One Components and Fittings
Component
Pipe
Pump
Pipe
Pipe Tee
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe Tee
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe

Path A
Loss Coefficient
N/A
Negligible
N/A
2
N/A
0.9
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.9
N/A
0.9
N/A
N/A
2
N/A
Path B
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.9
N/A
0.9
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.9
N/A

Length (Feet)
1
Negligible
29
Negligible
15
Negligible
7
16
18
20
21
22
11
Negligible
45
Negligible
19
21
Negligible
1
12
25
25
30
13
Negligible
15
Negligible
12
29
23
23
10
Negligible
15

Component
Pipe
Pump
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe
Pipe
Pump
Pipe
Pipe Tee
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe
Pipe Tee
Pipe
Pipe Elbow
Pipe

Path A
Loss Coefficient
N/A
Negligible
N/A
0.9
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.9
N/A
0.9
N/A
N/A
N/A
Path B
N/A
0.9
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.9
N/A
Path C
N/A
Negligible
N/A
2
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
2
N/A
0.9
N/A

Length (Feet)
1
Negligible
44
Negligible
7
16
18
20
19
22
11
Negligible
45
Negligible
15
21
5
15
Negligible
12
25
24
24
13
Negligible
15
1
Negligible
14
Negligible
10
23
22
29
13
Negligible
15
Negligible
20

Knowing the components, component lengths and respective loss coefficients,

the head loss for each path can be calculated. To ease in the analysis of two-branch
systems, a MATLAB script was used as a tool to expedite the calculation process. The
MATLAB script written as a tool is included in Appendix #.
Also needed for the analysis are the expected piping material, the overall
average operating temperature (and the associated properties at that temperature), and
the flow paths pipe diameters. Tables # and # below list the data for each design
choice and flow path. The material properties in Tables # and # below were taken from
Cengel and Cimbala (Reference #).
Table #: Material Properties and Physical Dimensions for Design Choice 1
Design Choice 1
Property/Dimension
Path A
Pipe Material
Relative Roughness of Pipe Material
Overall Average Operating Temperature
(OAOT)
Density () at OAOT
Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT
Flow Path Pipe Diameter
Path B
Pipe Material
Relative Roughness of Pipe Material
Overall Average Operating Temperature
(OAOT)
Density () at OAOT
Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT
Flow Path Pipe Diameter

Value
Copper
5*10-6 ft
175F
60.57 lbm/ft3
2.31*10-4 lbm/ft*s
0.0416 ft
Copper
5*10-6 ft
175F
60.57 lbm/ft3
2.31*10-4 lbm/ft*s
0.0416 ft

Table #: Material Properties and Physical Dimensions for Design Choice 2

Design Choice 2
Property/Dimension

Value
Path A

Pipe Material
Relative Roughness of Pipe Material
Overall Average Operating Temperature
(OAOT)
Density () at OAOT
Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT
Flow Path Pipe Diameter
Path B
Pipe Material
Relative Roughness of Pipe Material
Overall Average Operating Temperature
(OAOT)
Density () at OAOT
Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT
Flow Path Pipe Diameter
Path C
Pipe Material
Relative Roughness of Pipe Material
Overall Average Operating Temperature
(OAOT)
Density () at OAOT
Dynamic Viscosity () at OAOT
Flow Path Pipe Diameter

Copper
5*10-6 ft
175F
60.57 lbm/ft3
2.31*10-4 lbm/ft*s
0.0416 ft
Copper
5*10-6 ft
185F
60.35 lbm/ft3
2.169*10-4 lbm/ft*s
0.0416 ft
Copper
5*10-6 ft
185F
60.35 lbm/ft3
2.169*10-4 lbm/ft*s
0.0416 ft

Using the Moody chart from Cengal and Cimbala (Reference #) to assume
friction factors for each path in each design, an iterative process using the MATLAB
script provided in Appendix # was used to determine the true friction factor by checking
the assumed friction factor against the determined Reynolds number. The Reynolds
number for each flow path was determined by finding the velocity of each flow path. The
velocity of each flow path was determined by using the MATLAB Script which contains a
two-branch analysis to solve for the velocities. Table # below shows the resulting friction
factors, velocities, and Reynolds number for each path. It is important to note that the
head loss due to the radiators in the system were assumed to be a frictional loss due to
the total length of pipe in the radiator, this is because a loss coefficient for the radiators
was unable to be obtained from the manufacturer.

Table #: Calculated Velocities, Friction Factors, Reynolds Numbers for Design Choice 1
Design Choice 1
Path A
Velocity
Final Friction Factor
Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity
Reynolds Number Determined by Friction Factor
Path B
Velocity
Final Friction Factor
Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity
Reynolds Number Determined by Friction Factor

5.47 ft/s
.021
59,581
~ 60,000
5.66 ft/s
.021
61,651
~ 60,000

Table #: Calculated Velocities, Friction Factors, Reynolds Numbers for Design Choice 2
Design Choice 2
Path A
Velocity
Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity
Friction Factor
Path B
Velocity
Final Friction Factor
Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity
Reynolds Number Determined by Friction Factor
Path C
Velocity
Final Friction Factor
Calculated Reynolds Number Using Velocity
Reynolds Number Determined by Friction Factor

7.21 ft/s
78,534
.019
5.76 ft/s
.021
66,777
~ 60,000
5.38 ft/s
.021
62,372
~ 60,000