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Composite Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

with piezoelectric ber reinforced composite actuators

Hui-Shen Shen

School of Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, Peoples Republic of China

State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, Peoples Republic of China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Available online 23 June 2009

Keywords:

Functionally graded materials

Smart materials

Temperature-dependent properties

Buckling

Postbuckling

a b s t r a c t

Compressive postbuckling under thermal environments and thermal postbuckling due to a uniform temperature rise are presented for a simply supported, shear deformable functionally graded plate with piezoelectric ber reinforced composite (PFRC) actuators. The material properties of functionally graded

materials (FGMs) are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law

distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents, and the material properties of both

FGM and PFRC layers are assumed to be temperature-dependent. The governing equations are based

on a higher order shear deformation plate theory that includes thermo-piezoelectric effects. The initial

geometric imperfection of the plate is taken into account. A two step perturbation technique is employed

to determine buckling loads (temperature) and postbuckling equilibrium paths. The numerical illustrations concern the compressive and thermal postbuckling behaviors of perfect and imperfect, geometrically mid-plane symmetric FGM plates with fully covered or embedded PFRC actuators under different

sets of thermal and electric loading conditions. The results for monolithic piezoelectric actuator, which

is a special case in the present study, are compared with those of PFRC actuators. The results reveal that,

in the compressive buckling case, the applied voltage usually has a small effect on the postbuckling load

deection curves of the plate with PFRC actuators, whereas in the thermal buckling case, the effect of

applied voltage is more pronounced for the plate with PFRC actuators, compared to the results of the

same plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators.

2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The laminated composite plates comprised of two different

materials have been widely used to satisfy high performance demands. However, stress singularities in such composites may occur

at the interface between two different materials. A functionally

graded material (FGM) is a new class of a two-component composite, in which the material properties are graded but continuous

particularly along the thickness direction. By gradually varying

the volume fraction of constituent materials, their material properties exhibit a smooth and continuous change from one surface to

another, thus eliminating interface problems and mitigating thermal stress concentrations. FGMs are now developed for general

use as structural components in extremely high temperature environments. Another recent advance in material and structural engineering is in the eld of smart structures which incorporates

adaptive materials. Therefore, the use of hybrid plate where a substrate made of FGMs is coupled with surface-bonded piezoelectric

actuator and/or sensor layers may become an important issue for

0263-8223/$ - see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2009.06.005

developing advanced structures. Early work in this eld was focused on the vibration control of such plate structures [13].

Many studies have been reported on the postbuckling analysis

of FGM plates subjected to mechanical or thermal loading. Among

those, Yang and Shen [4] studied the postbuckling behavior of FGM

thin plates under fully clamped boundary conditions. This work

was then extended to the case of shear deformable FGM plates

with various boundary conditions and various possible initial geometric imperfections by Yang et al. [5]. Woo et al. [6] studied the

postbuckling behavior of FGM plates and shallow shells under edge

compressive loads and a temperature eld based on the higher

order shear deformation theory. Wu et al. [7] studied the postbuckling of FGM rectangular plates under various boundary conditions

subjected to a uniaxial compression or uniform temperature rise

based on the rst order shear deformation plate theory. In the

above studies, however, the materials properties were virtually assumed to be temperature-independent. Park and Kim [8] studied

thermal postbuckling and vibration of simply supported FGM

plates with temperature-dependent materials properties by using

nite element method. Prakash et al. [9] studied thermal postbuckling of FGM skew plates based on the shear deformable nite element approach. In their analysis the MoriTanaka scheme was

376

studied the postbuckling of clamped FGM rectangular plates subjected to thermo-mechanical loads. In their analysis the temperature-dependent materials properties was considered and the

analytical approach was based on fast converging Chebyshev polynomials. It has been pointed out in Shen [11], that the governing

differential equations for an FGM plate are in identical forms as

those for unsymmetric cross-ply laminated plates, and applying

in-plane compressive edge loads to such plates will cause bending

curvature to appear. Consequently, the bifurcation buckling did not

exist due to the extension-bending coupling effect, as previously

proved by Leissa [12], Qatu and Leissa [13], and Aydogdu [14],

and the solutions are physically incorrect for simply supported

FGM rectangular plates subjected to in-plane compressive edge

loads and/or temperature variation.

Since this eld is relatively new, there have been few studies on

the compressive and/or thermal buckling response of FGM plates

containing piezoelectric layers. Liew et al. [15] studied thermal

postbuckling behavior of piezoelectric FGM plates with different

kinds of boundary conditions. In their analysis the material properties were assumed to be temperature-independent. They conrmed that the FGM plates with all four edges simply supported

(SSSS) have no bifurcation buckling temperature, even for the loading case of uniform temperature change. Obviously, when the FGM

plate is geometrically mid-plane symmetric, as reported in Birman

[16], and Feldman and Aboudi [17], a bifurcation buckling load under in-plane compressive edge loads and/or temperature variation

does exist. Shen [18] presented a postbuckling analysis for simply

supported, mid-plane symmetric FGM plates with fully covered or

embedded piezoelectric actuators subjected to the combined action of mechanical, thermal and electric loads. In his study, the

material properties were considered to be temperature-dependent

and the effect of temperature rise and applied voltage on the postbuckling response was reported. It is found that the applied voltage

has a small effect on the postbuckling loaddeection curves of

FGM hybrid laminated plates with immovable unloaded edges,

and it has almost no effect on the postbuckling loaddeection

curves of the same plate with movable edges. Moreover, buckling

of FGM plates with piezoelectric layers subjected to various nonuniform in-plane loads, along with heat and applied voltage, was

performed by Chen et al. [19] using the rst order shear deformation theory.

The commonly used piezoceramics are brittleness and usually

use as patched actuators and sensors. Piezoelectric composite

materials have emerged as the new class of smart materials. Mallik

and Ray [20] developed a new piezoelectric ber reinforced composite (PFRC). The constructional feature of this PFRC material is

that the monolithic piezoelectric bers are longitudinally reinforced in the conventional epoxy matrix material. They found that

when the ber volume fraction exceeds a critical value, the effective piezoelectric coefcient e31 of this PFRC material, which quanties the induced normal stress in the ber direction due to the

applied electric eld in the direction transverse to the ber direction, is signicantly large than the corresponding coefcient of

the piezoelectric material of the ber. This PFRC material may also

be used as actuators and sensors. When bonded with or embedded

in exible structures, these materials provide the structures with

self-monitoring and self-controlling capabilities. The nonlinear static and dynamic analyses of FGM plates with a distributed PFRC

actuator were performed by Ray and Sachade [21], Panda and

Ray [22], and Xia and Shen [23]. Note that if the transverse direction electric eld component EZ is applied, the buckling control

of FGM hybrid plates mainly depends on the piezoelectric coefcients e31 and e32. It is still not clear if the applied voltage has

the same effect on the postbuckling behavior of shear deformable

FGM plates with PFRC actuators.

case of shear deformable FGM plate with PFRC actuators. Since

for an FGM plate with all four edges simply supported, no bifurcation buckling could occur when the plate is subjected to in-plane

compressive edge loads or a uniform temperature rise. For this reason, we consider here geometrically mid-plane symmetric FGM

plates with fully covered or embedded PFRC actuators. In such a

case, the extension-bending coupling is zero-valued. On the other

hand, even for the mid-plane symmetric plate the extension-bending coupling is still existed when the plate is subjected to heat conduction [24], and the postbuckling path for geometrically perfect

plates is no longer of the bifurcation type, hence only uniform temperature eld is considered. The electric eld considered only has

non-zero-valued component EZ. The material properties of FGMs

are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to

a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions

of the constituents, and the material properties of both FGM and

PFRC layers are assumed to be temperature-dependent. Both compressive postbuckling under thermal environments and thermal

postbuckling due to a uniform temperature rise are considered.

The postbuckling analysis of FGM plates is based on a higher order

shear deformation plate theory with von Krmn-type of kinematic nonlinearity. The thermo-piezoelectric effects are also included. The initial geometric imperfection of the plate is taken

into account but, for simplicity, its form is assumed to be the same

as the initial buckling mode of the plate.

2. Theoretical development

We are now in a position to consider two types of hybrid laminated plate, referred to as (PFRC/FGM)S and (FGM/PFRC)S, which

consists of 4 plies and is mid-plane symmetric, as shown in

Fig. 1. The length, width and total thickness of the hybrid laminated plate are a, b and t, respectively. The thickness of the FGM

layer is tF, while the thickness of the PFRC layer is tp. We assume

that the PFRC layer is made of piezoelectric ber and matrix which

is assumed to be isotropic. The key issue is rst to determine the

effective material properties of PFRC. In terms of a micro-mechanical model, the effective Youngs modulus, shear modulus and Poissons ratio can be expressed as

E11 V f Ef11 V m Em

1a

f

2 m

f E =E22

2m Ef22 =Em

V f Ef22 V m Em

m

m

Vf

1

Vm

Vf Vm

E22 Ef22 Em

Vf Vm

1

ij 12; 13 and 23

Gij Gf Gm

2m

1b

1c

ij

m12 V f mf V m mm

1d

where

and m are the Youngs moduli, shear

moduli and Poissons ratio, respectively, of the piezoelectric ber,

and Em, Gm and mm are corresponding properties for the matrix. Vf

and Vm are the ber and matrix volume fractions and are related

by Vf + Vm = 1. The thermal expansion coefcients in the longitudinal and transverse directions may be written by [25]

a11

V f Ef11 af11 V m Em am

2a

V f Ef11 V m Em

f

11 ;

f

22

2b

and matrix, respectively, and the piezoelectric moduli e31 and e32

can be expressed by [20]

n

h

f

m

f

e31 V f ef31 V m V f =H C f13 C m

13 V m C 22 V f C 22 e33

i

h

f

m

f

f

V m C f23 V f C m

23 e31 C 12 C 12 V m C 33

io

f

m

f

f

3a

V f C m

33 e31 V m C 23 V f C 23 e33

n h

i

f

m

f

f

e32 ef31 V m =H C f22 V m C f23 V f C m

23 e33 V m C 33 V f C 33 e31

h

io

f

m

f

f

C f23 V m C f22 V f C m

3b

22 e33 V m C 23 V f C 23 e31

in which

f

m

f

m 2

H V m C f22 V f C m

22 V m C 33 V f C 33 V m C 23 V f C 23

ef31

ef33

3c

C fij

and

and

are the piezoelectric coefcients of ber, and

and

Cm

ij are the elastic constants of ber and matrix, respectively. The

relation between C fij (i, j = 16) and Ef11 ; Ef22 ; Gf12 ; Gf13 and Gf23 can be

found in Reddy [26] and other textbooks.

It is assumed that the material property of matrix C m

ij (i, j = 16)

is a function of temperature, so that all effective material properties of PFRC are functions of temperature.

The substrate FGM layer is made from a mixture of ceramics

and metals, the mixing ratio of which is varied continuously and

smoothly in the Z direction. This is achieved by using a simple rule

of mixture of composite materials. We assume that the composition is varied from the top to the bottom surface, i.e. the top surface

(Z = t1) of the FGM layer is ceramic-rich whereas the bottom surface (Z = t2) is metal-rich. In such a way, the effective material

properties PF, like Youngs modulus EF or thermal expansion coefcient aF, can be expressed as

PF Pt V t Pb V b

the ceramic and metal, respectively, and Vt and Vb are the ceramic

and metal volume fractions and are related by Vt + Vb = 1. The volume fraction Vb follows a simple power law

Vb

Z t1

t2 t1

N

5

377

variation prole through the FGM layer thickness.

Since functionally graded structures are most commonly used

in high temperature environment where signicant changes in

mechanical properties of the constituent materials are to be expected [27], it is essential to take into consideration this temperature-dependency for the accurate prediction of the mechanical

responses. Thus, the effective Youngs modulus EF, and thermal

expansion coefcient aF are assumed to be functions of temperature, so that EF, and aF are both temperature and position dependent. The Poissons ratio mF depends weakly on temperature

change [27] and is assumed to be a constant. From Eqs. (4) and

(5), one has

N

Z t1

EF Z; T Eb T Et T

Et ;

t2 t1

N

Z t1

aF Z; T ab T at T

at T

t2 t1

where Et and at are the Youngs modulus and the thermal expansion

coefcient of the ceramic, and Eb and ab are corresponding properties for the metal. Note that Eqs. (5) and (6) are valid for the (PFRC/

FGM)S plate and denitions for the (FGM/PFRC)S plate can be made

analogously.

The plate is assumed to be geometrically imperfect, and is subjected to mechanical, thermal and electric loads. As usual, the coordinate system has its origin at one corner of the plate. Let U, V and

W be the plate displacements parallel to a right-hand set of axes (X,

Y, Z), where X is longitudinal and Z is perpendicular to the plate. Wx

and Wy are the mid-plane rotations of the normals about the Y and

X axes, respectively. Denoting the initial geometric imperfection by

W (X, Y), let W (X, Y) be the additional deection and F (X, Y) be

the stress function for the stress resultants which are dened by

N x F;YY , N y F;XX and N xy F;XY , where a comma denotes partial differentiation with respect to the corresponding coordinates.

For hybrid laminated plates, layerwise approaches [2830] are

usually proposed for which their kinematic and electric potential

variations through the plate thickness is smooth enough within

each layer and the continuity conditions at the layer interface are

also ascertained. Layerwise models incorporate the local electromechanical responses of each layer of the laminate. On the other

hand, Reddy [31] presented a theoretical formulation of laminated

plates with piezoelectric layers as sensors or actuators using the

classical and shear deformable laminated plate theories. This kind

of model is usually referred as to equivalent single-layer piezoelectric plate theory which can accurately predict the global structural

responses (deection, buckling and vibration) of the laminates. In

the present study the formulations are based on Reddys higher order shear deformation plate theory [32]. This theory assumes that

the transverse shear strains present a parabolical distribution

across the plate thickness. The advantages of this theory over the

rst order shear deformation theory are that the number of independent unknowns (U; V; W; Wx and Wy ) is the same as in the rst

order shear deformation theory, and no shear correction factors are

required. From Reddys higher order shear deformation plate theory and including thermo-piezoelectric effects [31,32], the governing differential equations for an FGM hybrid laminated plate can be

derived in terms of a stress function F, two rotations Wx and Wy ,

and a transverse displacement W [33]. They are

~L11 W ~L12 Wx ~L13 Wy ~L14 F ~L15 N p ~L16 Mp ~LW W ;F 7

~L21 F ~L22 Wx ~L23 Wy ~L24 W ~L25 N p 1 ~LW 2W ;W

8

2

~L31 W ~L32 Wx ~L33 Wy ~L34 F ~L35 N p ~L36 Sp 0

9

~L41 W ~L42 Wx ~L43 Wy ~L44 F ~L45 N p ~L46 Sp 0

10

378

given in terms of ~L () in Eqs. (7) and (8), and the other linear operators ~Lij () are dened as in Shen [18].

In the above equations, the equivalent thermo-piezoelectric

loads are dened by

NP

NT

NE

6 MP 7 6 MT 7 6 ME 7

6

7 6

7 6

7

6 P 76 T 76 E 7

4P 5 4P 5 4P 5

Sp

ST

11

SE

higher order moments caused by the elevated temperature and

electric eld, respectively.

Plate is considered to be at an isothermal state. Therefore, the

temperature eld is assumed to be uniformly distributed over

the plate surface and through the plate thickness.

For the plate type piezoelectric material, only the transverse

direction electric eld component EZ is dominant, and EZ is dened

as EZ = U,Z, where U is the potential eld. If the voltage applied to

the actuator is in the thickness only, then [31]

EZ

Vk

tp

12

The forces and moments caused by elevated temperature or

electric eld are dened by

NTx

M Tx

PTx

Ax

Z

6 T

7 X tk 6

7

3

6 Ny M Ty PTy 7

A

4

y 5 1; Z; Z DTdZ

4

5

t k1

k1

Axy k

NTxy M Txy PTxy

2

3 2

3

2

3

T

Sx

M Tx

PTx

6 T 7 6 T 7

6

7

6 Sy 7 6 M y 7 4 6 PTy 7

4

5 4

5 3t2 4

5

M Txy

PTxy

STxy

13a

13b

13c

Ax

Q 11

6

7

6

4 Ay 5 4 Q 12

Axy

Q 16

2

3

2

Bx

Q 11

6

7

6

4 By 5 4 Q 12

Bxy

Q 16

Q 12

13d

Q 22

Q 26

Q 12

Q 22

Q 26

32

3

1 0

76

7 a11

Q 26 54 0 1 5

a22

0 0

Q 66

32

3

1 0

Q 16

76

7 d31

0

1

5

4

5

Q 26

d32

0 0

Q 66

Q 16

14a

14b

where a11 and a22 are the thermal expansion coefcients measured

in the longitudinal and transverse directions for kth ply, in particular for an PFRC layer they are given in detail in Eq. (2), and for an

FGM layer, a11 = a22 = aF is given in detail in Eq. (6). d31 and d32

are the piezoelectric strain constants of kth ply, and can be obtained

by [31]

0 0 e31

0 0 d31

32

Q 11

6

76

6

7

4 0 0 e32 5 4 0 0 d32 5 4 Q 12

0 0 0 k

0 0 0 k 0

Q 12

Q 22

0

7

0 5

Q 66 k

Q 16 Q 26 0;

Q 66

Q 12

mF EF Z; T

;

1 m2F

EF Z; T

21 mF

16

where EF is also given in detail in Eq. (6), and varies in the thickness

direction.

Two cases of compressive postbuckling under thermal environments and of thermal postbuckling due to a uniform temperature

rise are considered. All four edges of the plate are assumed to be

simply supported. It has been reported [18] that the applied voltage has almost no effect on the postbuckling loaddeection

curves of the plate with movable in-plane boundary condition.

Therefore, only immovable in-plane boundary condition (i.e.

two unloaded edges being immovable in the Y direction) is considered for compressive buckling case, and for thermal buckling case

all four edges are assumed to be simply supported with no in-plane

displacements.

For both cases the associated boundary conditions can be expressed by X = 0, a:

W Wy 0

17a

Mx Px 0

Z b

Nx dY P 0 for compressive buckling

17b

17c

W Wx 0

17d

15

17e

My Py 0

17f

V 0

17g

the bending moments and Px and Py are the higher order moments

as dened in [32].

The average end-shortening relationships are

Dx

1

ab

a

in which

EF Z; T

;

1 m2F

Y 0; b :

2

3

NEx M Ex PEx

B

X Z tk 6 x 7

6 E

7

3 Vk

6 Ny M Ey PEy 7

4 By 5 1; Z; Z dZ

4

5

tp

t k1

k1

Bxy k

NExy M Exy PExy

2

3 2

3

2

3

SEx

MEx

PEx

6 E7 6 E7

6

7

6 Sy 7 6 My 7 4 6 PEy 7

4

5 4

5 3t2 4

5

M Exy

PExy

SExy

Q 11 Q 22

which there are no thermal strains and

in which e31 and e32 are given in detail in Eq. (3), and Q ij are the

transformed elastic constants with details being given in [32]. Note

that for an FGM layer, Q ij Q ij in which

@U

dXdY

0

0 @X

Z b Z a ("

1

@2F

@2F

4

@ Wx

A11 2 A12 2 B11 2 E11

ab 0 0

@X

3t

@Y

@X

!#

2

2

4

@ Wy

4

@ W

@ W

B12 2 E12

E12

2 E11

@Y

3t

3t

@X 2

@Y 2

!2

)

1 @W

@W @W

18a

A11 NPx A12 NPy dXdY

2 @X

@X @X

Z aZ b

Dy

1

@V

dYdX

ab 0 0 @Y

b

Z a Z b ("

1

@2F

@2F

4

@ Wx

A22 2 A12 2 B21 2 E21

ab 0 0

@X

3t

@X

@Y

!#

2

2

4

@ Wy

4

@ W

@ W

B22 2 E22

E21

E22

@Y 3t 2

3t

@X 2

@Y 2

!2

)

1 @W

@W @W P

18b

A12 Nx A22 NPy dYdX

2 @Y

@Y @Y

where Dx and Dy are the plate end-shortening displacements in the

X and Y directions, and for compressive buckling case Dy must be

zero-valued, and for thermal buckling case both Dx and Dy are

zero-valued.

379

Table 1

Temperature-dependent coefcients for ceramics and metals, from Reddy and Chin [27].

Materials

Silicon nitride

EF

aF

Stainless steel

EF

aF

P0

P1

P1

P2

P3

348.43e+9

5.8723e6

201.04e+9

12.330e6

0

0

0

0

3.070e4

9.095e4

3.079e4

8.086e4

2.160e7

0

6.534e7

0

8.946e11

0

0

0

Aij ; Bij ; Dij ; Eij ; F ij and Hij are functions of T and Z, determined

through relationship [11]

both FGM and PFRC layers are assumed to be functions of temperature, but the temperature must not reach the Curie temperature.

A A1 ;

B A1 B;

1

E A E;

D D BA1 B;

1

F F EA B;

H H EA1 E

19

XZ

k1

Aij ;Dij ;F ij

XZ

k1

tk

t k1

20a

tk

t k1

20b

It is evident that the above equations involve the extensionbending coupling, as predicted by Bij and Eij. Since the FGM hybrid

plate is assumed to be geometrically mid-plane symmetric and the

applied loads are assumed to be uniform, the extension-bending

coupling is now zero-valued, i.e. Bij = Eij = 0. As a result,

~

L15 ~L22 ~L23 ~

L24 ~L25 ~L34 ~

L35 ~

L44 ~L45 0.

L14 ~

Eqs. (7)(10) can be solved by means of a two step perturbation

technique, for which the small perturbation parameter has no physical meaning at the rst step, and is then replaced by a dimensionless deection at the second step. The solution methodology may

be found in [33]. The solutions are obtained in the same forms as

previously reported in [18,24], and then the buckling loads (temperature) and postbuckling equilibrium paths can be solved numerically. The effect of temperature-dependency, transverse shear

deformation and the plate geometric parameter on the postbuckling

behavior of FGM hybrid plates has been performed in the previous

studies [18,24], and does not repeat herein. In the present study

we focus on the effect of applied voltage on the postbuckling behavior of FGM plates with PFRC actuators under different sets of thermal

environmental and loading conditions. The major difference herein

is that the PFRC stiffness are determined based on a micro-mechanical model and the stiffness matrixes of FGM hybrid plates are

Table 2

2

Comparisons of buckling loads Nx cr b =Et t3 for a square FGM plate subjected to

uniaxial compression under two special cases of isotropy (b/t = 40).

Plate

Wu et al. [7]

Present

Alumina

Aluminum

3.6498

0.67

3.6025

0.6636

Table 3

Comparisons of buckling temperatures DTcr for a square FGM plate subjected to a

uniform temperature rise under one special case of isotropy (alumina plate).

b/t

Present

10

20

40

60

80

100

1617.5

421.52

106.49

47.424

26.693

17.088

1618.7

421.54

106.49

47.423

26.694

17.089

imperfect, geometrically mid-plane symmetric FGM plates with

fully covered or embedded PFRC actuators. PZT-5A are selected

for the piezoelectric ber and the material properties of which

are [34]: C f11 C f22 121 GPa, C f33 111 GPa, C f12 75:4 GPa,

C f13 C f23 75:2 GPa, C f44 C f55 21:1 GPa, C f66 22:6 GPa, ef31

ef32 5:4c=m2 , ef33 15:8c=m2 , and af11 af22 1:5 106 =K.

The material properties of matrix are assumed to be

m

m

Cm

11 C 22 C 33 5:4015 0:000385T GPa, in which T = T0 + DT

m

m

m

and T0 = 300 K (room temperature), C m

12 C 13 C 23 0:515C 11 ,

m

m

m

m

6

/K. The monolithic

Cm

44 C 55 C 66 0:242C 11 and a = 45.0 10

piezoelectric layer is also considered as a comparator, the corresponding material properties are in a xed value of ber volume

fraction Vf = 1 in Eqs. (1)(3), i.e. E11 = E22 = 61.5 GPa, G12 =

22.6 GPa, G13 = G23 = 21.1 GPa, a11 = a22 = 1.5 106/K, m12 = 0.35,

and d31 = d32 = 2.39 1010 m/V. Silicon nitride and stainless

steel are selected for the substrate FGM layers, referred to as

Si3N4/SUS304. The material properties PF, such as Youngs modulus

EF, and thermal expansion coefcient aF, can be expressed as a nonlinear function of temperature as (see Touloukian [35])

PF P 0 P1 T 1 1 P1 T P2 T 2 P3 T 3

21

(in K) and are unique to the constituent materials. Typical values for

the Youngs modulus EF (in Pa), and the thermal expansion coefcient aF (in /K) of these materials are listed in Table 1 (from Reddy

and Chin [27]). Poissons ratio mF is assumed to be a constant, and

mF = 0.28.

As argued before, for an FGM plate with all four edges simply

supported, no bifurcation buckling could occur when the plate is

subjected to in-plane compressive edge loads or a uniform temperature rise, the comparison studies herein are only for two special

cases of N = 0 and/or N = /. We rst examine the buckling loads

2

N x cr b =Et t 3 for a square FGM plate (b/t = 40) subjected to uniaxial

compression under two special cases of isotropy, i.e. pure aluminum and pure alumina plates. The material properties adopted,

as given in [7], are: Et = 380 GPa, at = 7.4 106/C, mt = 0.3 for alumina; and Eb = 70 GPa, ab = 23 106/C, mb = 0.3 for aluminum.

The results are listed in Table 2 and compared with those of Wu

et al. [7] based on the rst order shear deformation plate theory.

As a second example, the buckling temperatures DTcr for a square

FGM plate with different values of plate width-to-thickness ratio b/

t subjected to a uniform temperature rise under one special case of

isotropy, i.e. pure alumina plate, are compared in Table 3 with

those of Javaheri and Eslami [36] based on a higher order shear

deformation plate theory. In addition, the thermal postbuckling

load-deection curves of an alumina/aluminum thin plate (b/

t = 100) subjected to a uniform temperature rise under two special

cases of isotropy, i.e. pure aluminum and pure alumina plates, are

compared in Fig. 2 with the nite element method results of

380

50

30

1: Pure alumina

2: Pure aluminum

Present

Prakash et al. [9]

T ( C)

40

Alumina/Aluminum Plate

= 1.0, b/t = 100

(m, n)=(1, 1)

20

2

10

0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

W/t

Fig. 2. Comparisons of thermal postbuckling loaddeection curves of an alumina/

aluminum plate.

Prakash et al. [9]. These comparisons show that the results from

present method are in good agreement with existing results for

the limiting case. Note that in these three examples the material

properties are assumed to be independent of temperature.

A parametric study has been carried out and typical results are

shown in Tables 46, and Figs. 38. For these examples, the plate

width-to-thickness ratio b/t = 40, and the thickness of the FGM

layer tF = 1.0 mm whereas the thickness of PFRC layers tp = 0.1 mm,

so that the total thickness of the plate t = 2.2 mm. It should be

appreciated that in all gures W =t denotes the dimensionless

maximum initial geometric imperfection of the plate.

Tables 4 and 5 present, respectively, the buckling loads Pcr (kN)

for perfect, (PFRC/FGM)S and (FGM/PFRC)S hybrid laminated plates

Eq. (5) and taken to be 0.0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0) subjected to uniaxial

compression under two thermal environmental conditions

(DT = 0 and 100 K). The buckling mode is found to be

(m, n) = (1, 1), which determine the number of half-waves in the

X and Y directions. As mentioned before, the maximum value of

the effective piezoelectric coefcient e31 of the PFRC is not at

Vf = 1.0. For this reason, the ber volume fraction Vf is taken to

be 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.95. The monolithic piezoelectric layer, i.e.

Vf = 1.0, as previously used in [15,18,19], is included for direct comparison. The control voltages with the same sign are also applied to

the upper, lower or middle PFRC layers, and are referred to as VU, VL

and VM. Three electric loading cases are considered. Here

VU = VL = 0 V (or VM = 0 V) implies that the buckling occurs under

a grounding condition. The differences in brackets show the effect

of applied voltages on the buckling loads of the plate with PFRC

layers and monolithic piezoelectric layers, respectively. It can be

found that the buckling load of (PFRC/FGM)S plate is lower than

that of (FGM/PFRC)S one. This is due to the fact that the (PFRC/

FGM)S plate has lower stiffness than the (FGM/PFRC)S plate. It

can also be found that the buckling load of (PFRC/FGM)S plate with

PFRC actuators is lower than that of the plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators. In contrast, the result is inversed for the (FGM/

PFRC)S plate at DT = 0 K, when the PFRC actuators were used. It can

be seen that the effect of applied voltage on the buckling load of a

plate with PFRC actuators is less than that of the plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators, except for the (PFRC/FGM)S plate under DT = 100 K and Vf = 0.6. In the present example, the negative

applied voltage increases, whereas positive applied voltage decreases the buckling load, when the ber volume fraction Vf = 0.4,

0.6 and 0.8. In contrast, for the cases of Vf = 0.95 and 1.0, the result

is inversed. It can be seen that the buckling load has a maximum

value at DT = 0 K, but has a minimum value at DT = 100 K for the

Table 4

Comparisons of buckling loads Pcr (kN) for perfect (PFRC/FGM)S square plates (b/t = 40) under thermal environments and three sets of electric loading conditions (T0 = 300 K).

PFRC layer

DT (K)

Vf

VU = VL (V)

N=0

N = 0.2

N = 2.0

N = 5.0

1.0

100

1.0

200

0

+200

200

0

200

57.37(0.8%)a

57.82

58.26(+0.8%)

10.73(0.4%)

11.18

11.62(+0.4%)

65.74(0.7%)

66.18

66.63(+0.7%)

19.17(2.2%)

19.62

20.06(+2.2%)

83.37(0.5%)

83.82

84.27(+0.5%)

41.62(1.0%)

42.06

42.51(+1.0%)

85.77(0.5%)

86.22

86.66(+0.5%)

46.52(0.9%)

46.96

47.41(+0.9%)

0.4

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

53.80(+0.5%)

53.52

53.25(0.5%)

54.35(+0.7%)

53.96

53.56(0.7%)

54.87(+0.4%)

54.62

54.36(0.5%)

55.85(0.3%)

56.02

56.19(+0.3%)

6.61(+4.4%)

6.35

6.05(4.4%)

7.05(+5.9%)

6.66

6.26(6.0%)

7.54(+3.6%)

7.28

7.02(3.6%)

8.74(2.0%)

8.91

9.08(+2.0%)

62.18(+0.4%)

61.9

61.62(0.4%)

62.73(+0.6%)

62.34

61.94(0.6%)

63.25(+0.4%)

63.00

62.74(0.4%)

64.22(0.3%)

64.4

64.57(+0.3%)

15.10(+1.9%)

14.82

14.54(1.9%)

15.56(+2.6%)

15.16

14.77(2.6%)

16.05(+1.6%)

15.79

15.53(1.6%)

17.23(1.0%)

17.4

17.57(+1.0%)

79.82(+0.3%)

79.55

79.27(0.3%)

80.38(+0.5%)

79.98

79.59(0.5%)

80.90(+0.3%)

80.65

80.39(0.3%)

81.87(0.2%)

82.04

82.21(+0.2%)

37.68(+0.7%)

37.4

37.12(0.7%)

38.16(+1.0%)

37.76

37.37(1.0%)

38.66(+0.7%)

38.4

38.14(0.7%)

39.78(0.4%)

39.96

40.13(+0.4%)

82.21(+0.3%)

81.93

81.67(0.3%)

82.76(+0.5%)

82.37

81.97(0.5%)

83.29(+0.3%)

83.03

82.77(0.3%)

84.25(0.2%)

84.43

84.60(+0.2%)

42.60(+0.7%)

42.32

42.04(0.7%)

43.09(+0.9%)

42.69

42.30(0.9%)

43.60(+0.6%)

43.34

43.08(0.6%)

44.71(0.4%)

44.88

45.05(+0.4%)

0.6

0.8

0.95

100

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.95

381

(FGM/PFRC)S plate with Vf = 0.8. It can also be seen that the buckling loads are increased with increase in volume fraction index N,

but are decreased with increase in temperature. The percentage

58.9% for the (FGM/PFRC)S one from temperature changes from

DT = 0 K to DT = 100 K under the same volume fraction Vf = 0.6

Table 5

Comparisons of buckling loads Pcr (kN) for perfect (FGM/PFRC)S square plates (b/t = 40) under thermal environments and three sets of electric loading conditions (T0 = 300 K).

PFRC layer

DT (K)

Vf

VM (V)

N=0

N = 0.2

N = 2.0

N = 5.0

1.0

100

1.0

200

0

+200

200

0

200

69.25(0.6%)a

69.7

70.14(+0.6%)

22.36(1.9%)

22.81

23.25(+1.9%)

79.84(0.5%)

80.29

80.73(+0.5%)

32.96(1.3%)

33.41

33.85(+1.3%)

102.99(0.4%)

103.44

103.89(+0.4%)

60.75(0.7%)

61.19

61.64(+0.7%)

106.57(0.4%)

107.02

107.46(+0.4%)

66.79(0.6%)

67.23

67.68(+0.6%)

0.4

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

70.19(+0.4%)

69.91

69.64(0.4%)

70.36(+0.5%)

69.97

69.58(0.5%)

70.25(+0.3%)

70.00

69.75(0.3%)

69.73(0.3%)

69.9

70.08(+0.3%)

22.75(+1.2%)

22.48

22.20(1.2%)

22.82(+1.7%)

22.43

22.03(1.8%)

22.68(+1.1%)

22.42

22.16(1.1%)

22.38(0.8%)

22.55

22.73(+0.8%)

80.79(+0.3%)

80.52

80.24(0.3%)

80.97(+0.5%)

80.58

80.19(0.5%)

80.86(+0.3%)

80.61

80.35(0.3%)

80.33(0.2%)

80.5

80.68(+0.2%)

33.40(+0.8%)

33.12

32.84(0.8%)

33.49(+1.2%)

33.09

32.69(1.2%)

33.34(+0.8%)

33.08

32.83(0.7%)

33.02(0.5%)

33.2

33.37(+0.5%)

103.95(+0.3%)

103.68

103.40(0.3%)

104.13(+0.4%)

103.74

103.35(0.4%)

104.03(+0.2%)

103.77

103.52(0.2%)

103.49(0.2%)

103.67

103.84(+0.2%)

61.32(+0.4%)

61.04

60.76(0.4%)

61.43(+0.6%)

61.03

60.64(0.6%)

61.30(+0.4%)

61.04

60.78(0.4%)

60.93(0.3%)

61.1

61.27(+0.3%)

107.53(+0.3%)

107.25

106.97(0.3%)

107.70(+0.4%)

107.31

106.92(0.4%)

107.60(+0.2%)

107.34

107.08(0.2%)

107.06(0.2%)

107.24

107.41(+0.1%)

67.39(+0.4%)

67.11

66.83(0.4%)

67.51(+0.6%)

67.11

66.71(0.6%)

67.38(+0.4%)

67.12

66.86(0.4%)

66.99(0.3%)

67.17

67.34(+0.3%)

0.6

0.8

0.95

100

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.95

Table 6

Comparisons of buckling temperatures DTcr (K) for perfect hybrid FGM square plates (b/t = 40) under uniform temperature rise and three sets of electric loading conditions

(T0 = 300 K).

Vf

VU(VM) (V)

N=0

N = 0.2

N = 2.0

(PFRC/FGM)S

Monolithic piezoelectric layer

1.0

200

0

+200

45.15(2.1%)a

46.12

47.08(+2.1%)

51.91(1.8%)

52.87

53.84(+1.8%)

73.64(1.4%)

74.71

75.78(+1.4%)

80.61(1.4%)

81.74

82.88(+1.4%)

PFRC layer

0.4

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

41.28(3.0%)

42.55

43.82(+3.0%)

40.97(4.4%)

42.86

44.74(+4.4%)

41.48(4.3%)

43.37

45.25(+4.3%)

48.02(2.6%)

49.3

50.57(+2.6%)

47.72(3.8%)

49.61

51.49(+3.8%)

48.23(3.8%)

50.12

52.00(+3.7%)

69.30(2.0%)

70.71

72.12(+2.0%)

68.96(2.9%)

71.05

73.15(+2.9%)

69.53(2.9%)

71.63

73.72(+2.9%)

75.98(1.9%)

77.48

78.98(+1.9%)

75.63(2.8%)

77.85

80.07(+2.8%)

76.24(2.8%)

78.46

80.68(+2.8%)

0.6

0.8

N = 5.0

(FGM/PFRC)S

Monolithic piezoelectric layer

1.0

200

0

+200

54.29(1.7%)

55.25

56.20(+1.7%)

62.71(1.5%)

63.67

64.62(+1.5%)

90.08(1.1%)

91.14

92.19(+1.1%)

99.03(1.1%)

100.14

101.26(+1.1%)

PFRC layer

0.4

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

200

0

+200

53.88(2.3%)

55.14

56.39(+2.3%)

53.28(3.4%)

55.15

57.01(+3.4%)

53.30(3.4%)

55.17

57.03(+3.4%)

62.29(2.0%)

63.54

64.79(+2.0%)

61.69(2.9%)

63.55

65.41(+2.9%)

61.71(2.9%)

63.57

65.43(+2.9%)

89.56(1.5%)

90.95

92.33(+1.5%)

88.91(2.3%)

90.97

93.02(+2.2%)

88.94(2.3%)

91.00

93.05(+2.2%)

98.46(1.5%)

99.93

101.39(+1.5%)

97.78(2.1%)

99.95

102.12(+2.1%)

97.81(2.2%)

99.98

102.16(+2.2%)

0.6

0.8

382

(a) 100

60

I: Piezoelectric layer

II: PFRC layer (Vf =0.6)

100

I

3,2,1

80

P (kN)

P (kN)

80

(a) 120

(PFRC/FGM)S

= 1.0, b/t = 40

(m, n)=(1, 1), N=0.2

T= 50 K

II

40

(PFRC/FGM)S

PFRC layer (Vf=0.6)

= 1.0, b/t = 40, (m, n)=(1, 1)

T = 50 K

1,2,3

W /t = 0.0

I: N = 0.2

II: N = 2.0

III: N = 5.0

20

W /t = 0.05

0

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.5

W /t = 0.05

1.0

1.5

W (mm)

1: VU =VL = -200 V

2: VU =VL = 0 V

3: VU =VL = +200 V

1: VU =VL = -200 V

2: VU =VL = 0 V

3: VU =VL = +200 V

2.0

(b) 120

(PFRC/FGM)S

= 1.0, b/t = 40, (m, n)=(1, 1)

T= 50 K, N=0.2

I: Piezoelectric layer

II: PFRC layer (Vf=0.6)

100

II

80

60

40

0.1

1

*

20

W /t = 0.05

0.0

II

I: N = 0.2

II: N = 2.0

III: N = 5.0

W /t = 0.0

20

III

(PFRC/FGM)S

PFRC layer (Vf=0.6)

= 1.0, b/t = 40, (m, n)=(1, 1)

T = 50 K

0

-0.1

W /t = 0.0

W (mm)

P (kN)

P (kN)

0

0.0

2.0

(b) 100

40

60

20

60

II

40

1,2,3

80

III

0.2

0

-0.1

W /t = 0.0

W /t = 0.05

0.0

0.1

x (mm)

x (mm)

1: VU =VL = -200 V

2: VU =VL = 0 V

3: VU =VL = +200 V

1: VU =VL = -200 V

2: VU =VL = 0 V

3: VU =VL = +200 V

0.2

PFRC and monolithic piezoelectric actuators: (a) loaddeection; (b) load

shortening.

FGM)S plates with PFRC actuators: (a) loaddeection; (b) loadshortening.

and N = 0.2. Then Table 6 gives the buckling temperatures DTcr (K)

for the same two FGM hybrid plates subjected to a uniform temperature rise. Note that, for the thermal buckling problem, since

the material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent,

an iterative numerical procedure is necessary, as previously reported in [24]. Now the effect of applied voltage on the buckling

temperature of a plate with PFRC actuators is larger than that with

monolithic piezoelectric actuators. Unlike in the compressive

buckling case, the negative applied voltage decreases, whereas positive applied voltage increases, the buckling temperature for both

(PFRC/FGM)S and (FGM/PFRC)S plates under various values of ber

volume fraction Vf. This is because, in the present example, PZT-5A

material presents negative values for ef31 and ef32 , so that an extension occurs when the negative voltage is applied and an additional

edge compressive stress is caused by edges restrained. It is also

found that the increase in buckling temperature is about 1.7% for

the (PFRC/FGM)S plate, and about 0.05% for the (FGM/PFRC)S one,

from Vf = 0.4 to Vf = 0.8 under the same volume fraction index

N = 0.2.

and load-shortening curves for (PFRC/FGM)S square plates

(N = 0.2) with two different kinds of piezoelectric actuators under

environmental condition DT = 50 K and three electric loading cases

VU = VL = 200, 0, +200 V. It can be found that the buckling load as

well as postbuckling strength of a plate with PFRC actuators

(Vf = 0.6) is lower than that of the plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators. It can be seen that negative applied voltages increase

the buckling load and decrease the postbuckled deection at the

same temperature rise, whereas the positive applied voltages decrease the buckling load and induce more large postbuckled deections, when the PFRC actuators are used. Even though the applied

voltage only has a small effect on the postbuckling behavior of the

plate. In contrast, the result is inversed for the plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators.

Fig. 4 shows the effect of the volume fraction index N (=0.2, 2.0

and 5.0) on the postbuckling behavior of (PFRC/FGM)S square plate

with PFRC actuators (Vf = 0.6) subjected to uniaxial compression

and three sets of electric loading, and under DT = 50 K. It can be

383

100

(a) 100

80

= 1.0, b/t = 40, (m, n)=(1, 1)

T= 50 K, N=0.2

II

80

T (K)

60

1,2,3

60

40

3,2,1

II

1,2,3

40

0

0.0

0.5

20

I: (PFRC/FGM)S

II: (FGM/PFRC)S

20

W /t = 0.0

W /t = 0.0

W /t = 0.05

W /t = 0.05

1.0

1.5

0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.8

1.0

W (mm)

1: VU =VL = -200 V

2: VU =VL = 0 V

3: VU =VL = +200 V

1: VU =VL = -200 V

2: VU =VL = 0 V

3: VU =VL = +200 V

square plates with PFRC and monolithic piezoelectric actuators.

100

80

60

II

= 1.0, b/t = 40, (m, n)=(1, 1)

T= 50 K, N=0.2

150

I: (PFRC/FGM)S

II: (FGM/PFRC)S

100

40

1

*

W /t = 0.0

20

0

-0.1

0.0

0.1

III

II

I

50

W /t = 0.05

(PFRC/FGM)S

PFRC layer (Vf =0.6)

= 1.0, b/t = 40, (m, n)=(1, 1)

T0 = 300 K

1 2 3

T (K)

P (kN)

0.6

2.0

W (mm)

(b)

I: Piezoelectric layer

II: PFRC layer (Vf =0.6)

I

P (kN)

(PFRC/FGM)S

= 1.0, b/t = 40

(m, n)=(1, 1), N=0.2

I: N = 0.2

II: N = 2.0

III: N = 5.0

0.2

x (mm)

0

0.0

0.5

1: VU =VL = -200 V

2: VU =VL = 0 V

3: VU =VL = +200 V

1.0

W /t = 0.0

*

W /t = 0.05

1.5

2.0

W (mm)

1: VU =VL = -200 V

2: VU =VL = 0 V

3: VU =VL = +200 V

plates with PFRC actuators: (a) loaddeection; (b) loadshortening.

deection curves of (PFRC/FGM)S plates with PFRC actuators.

seen that the increase of the volume fraction index N yields an increase of the buckling load and postbuckling strength.

Fig. 5 compares the compressive postbuckling loaddeection

and loadshortening curves for (PFRC/FGM)S and (FGM/PFRC)S

plates (N = 0.2) with PFRC actuators (Vf = 0.6) under environmental

condition DT = 50 K and three electric loading cases. It can be

found that the buckling load as well as postbuckling strength of

a (PFRC/FGM)S plate is much lower than that of the (FGM/PFRC)S

plate under the same environmental and loading conditions.

Figs. 68 are thermal postbuckling results for the (PFRC/

FGM)S and (FGM/PFRC)S plates analogous to the compressive

postbuckling results of Figs. 35, which are for the postbuckling

loaddeection curves only. Similar to the compressive buckling

case, the buckling temperature as well as postbuckling strength

of the plate with PFRC actuators (Vf = 0.6) is lower than that of

the plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators. Unlike in the

compressive buckling case, the effect of applied voltage is more

pronounced for the plate with PFRC actuators, compared to the

results of the plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators.

Figs. 35.

4. Concluding remarks

A fully nonlinear compressive postbuckling and thermal postbuckling analyses for FGM hybrid plates with PFRC actuators have

been presented. Numerical calculations have been made for perfect

and imperfect, geometrically mid-plane symmetric FGM plates

with fully covered or embedded PFRC actuators subjected to uniaxial compression or uniform temperature rise combined with electric loads. The new nding is that in the present example the

buckling load of (FGM/PFRC)S plate with PFRC actuators at

DT = 0 K is higher than that of the plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators, and the buckling load has a maximum value at

DT = 0 K, but has a minimum value at DT = 100 K for the

384

120

100

= 1.0, b/t = 40, (m, n)=(1, 1)

T0= 300 K, N=0.2

T (K)

80

I: (PFRC/FGM)S

II: (FGM/PFRC)S

II

1 2

3

I

60

40

*

W /t = 0.0

20

W /t = 0.05

0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

W (mm)

1: VU =VL = -200 V

2: VU =VL = 0 V

3: VU =VL = +200 V

Fig. 8. Comparisons of thermal postbuckling loaddeection curves of (PFRC/FGM)S

and (FGM/PFRC)S plates with PFRC actuators.

compressive buckling case the negative applied voltages increase

the buckling load and decrease the postbuckled deection,

whereas the positive applied voltages decrease the buckling load

and induce more large postbuckled deections, when the plate

with PFRC actuators and Vf = 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. In contrast, the result

is inversed for the same plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators. The results reveal that, in the compressive buckling case, the

applied voltage usually has a small effect on the postbuckling load

deection curves of the plate with PFRC actuators, whereas in the

thermal buckling case, the effect of applied voltage is more pronounced for the plate with PFRC actuators, compared to the results

of the same plate with monolithic piezoelectric actuators.

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