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BSS overview

BSS overview (Review)


RG20(BSS)

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BSS overview

Objectives
After this module the participants should be able to:
Label a diagram of the elements and interfaces
used within the BSS
Describe the functions of the BSS elements
Describe RG20 transport features

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BSS overview

GSM subsystems
OSS

PSTN
PSPDN

BSS

NSS

Mobile Station

PLMN
CSPDN
ISDN

PSTN
PSPDN
PLMN
CSPDN

Public Switched Telephone Network


Packet Switched Public Data Network
Public Land Mobile Network
Circuit-Switched Public Data Network

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network

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Control flow
User data flow

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The GSM network is functionally divided into four elements. Base Station Subsystem
(BSS) is one of the main functional elements of the GSM network. The other elements
in the GSM network are the network switching subsystem (NSS), GPRS core network
to SGSN and network service and management subsystem (provided by NetAct).
The main function of the BSS is to connect the mobile subscriber's mobile station (MS)
to the GSM network and provide connections to the mobile switching centre (MSC), and
to GPRS core network, serving GPRS support node (SGSN). The BSS also takes care
of the mobility management of the cellular network including, for example, handover
management and various measurements.

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BSS overview

GSM subsystems
NSS
Network Switching Subsystem
Switching
Mobility Management
Connection
BSS
Base Station Subsystem
Radio Resource Management
Radio Link Management

OSS

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Operation and Support System


Fault Management
Configuration Management
Performance Management

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BSS overview

Circuit-switched/Packet-switched services
PCN

Internet

OSS

SCN

PSTN

BSS
Mobile Station

PLMN

SCN
PCN

Control flow
User data flow

Switching Core Network


Packet Core Network

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The Switching Core Network (SCN) comprises network elements that implement CS
services (e.g. voice calls), like Multimedia Gateway (MGW), Mobile switching centre
server (MSS).
Packet Core Network (PCN), on the other hand, supports PS data connections to
external networks (e.g. Internet).

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BSS overview

BSS Network Elements


OSS

BSS
BTS

MSC or
MGW/MSS

BSC

TCSM

BTS

MS

BTS

SGSN

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Transcoder, TCSM2
- considered as part of the BSC
- normally at the MSC site
- used for converting the bit rate of
traffic channels between 64 and 16
kbit/s
- speech activity detection
- framing and synchronisation of the
vocoder block
- interfaces to the MSC / BSC

Base Station Controller, BSC


- terrestrial channel management
- configuration and management of traffic
channels
- frequency hopping control
- paging
- BTS and MS power control
- idle channel quality monitor
- quality and field strength control for active
channels
- handover control
- maintenance of BTS / BSC / TC
- interfaces to the NMS / BTS / TC / SGSN

Base Transceiver Station, BTS


- timing Broadcast Control Channels (BCCH) and Common Control Channels
(CCCH)
- forwarding MS and BTS measurements to the BSC
- detecting RACHs (Random Access Channels) from the MS
- channel coding and decoding on the radio path
- interleaving and deinterleaving on the radio path
- encryption and decryption on the radio path
- performing frequency hopping
- GMSK modulation, demodulation, up / down conversion and power amplifying
- transmitter RF signal combining
- receiver RF signal filtering, amplifying and multicoupling
- reporting idle traffic channel quality to the BSC
Transmission Unit TRU
- provides Abis interface
- reallocates the Traffic and signalling channels in the BTS

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BSS overview

BSS interfaces

SGSN

Gb
MSC

MGW

BSC

TCSM

Ater

BTS

Abis

MS

Um

AoIP
(TC in MGW)
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A interface
The interface between the mobile switching centre (MSC) or Multimedia Gateway
(MGW) and the base station controller (BSC) is implemented according to the GSM
specifications.
The Transcoder Submultiplexer (TCSM) is located normally at the MSC site, because
of the superior transmission savings possible with submultiplexing between the TCSM
and the BSC. A physical A interface used to consist of PCM lines or optical lines
between network elements. But with the introduction of the AoIP feature in RG20(BSS),
the A-interface between BSS and MGW can also be based on IP/Ethernet. There are
two scenarios for AoIP functionality:
1. AoIP Transcoder in BSS
The transcoder function is located in the BSS. The transcoder is the A over IP termination
point. The G.711/RTP/IP protocol is employed
The benefit for this configuration is that it utilizes existing transcoder capacity when
IP-connections in A-interface are used.
2. AoIP Transcoder in Core Network (MGW)
The transcoder function is located in the core network (that is, the 3G network architecture).
The BSC is the A over IP termination point. At the same time, the BSC
hides the mobility from the core network. The CODECx/RTP/IP protocol is
employed

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BSS overview

IP/Eth E2E Connectivity - Evolution Overview


Before

BSS13

RG10

RG20

BSC
SMLC

Lb+

TCSM /
TRAU

BSC-BSC

MGW
MSC
HLR

BSC
Ater

BTS

Abis

Sigtran
O&M

NetActTM

Gb

SGSN

Integrated IP/ETH interfaces for Gb, BSC-BSC, LB+, Sigtran and O&M available today
Abis IP available today
Ater /Abis IP integrated for BSC3i and TCSM3i available today; external for legacy
Standardized AoIP with RG20

All interfaces are capable for IP/ETH connectivity with todays plans
Packet Abis coming on TOP offering additional advantages
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BSS overview

Abis/A/Ater over IP/Ethernet for Installed Base

RG10EP

Packet transport convenience and cost

Supports CESoPSN (PWE3) functionality


Multiple synchronization methods available
Media conversion from TDM to IP/Eth
A-2200 can also be applied to A/Ater-interface

Legacy BSC

E1/T1

2G BTS

A-2200

E1/T1

A-1200

Packet Switched
Network

IP /
Ethernet

IP /
Ethernet

ETIP
BSC3i 1000/2000
Flexi BSC
Feature ID(s): BSS21481
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Note: See alternative IP / Ethernet evolution in RG20:


using Flexi EDGE System module (BSS21443)

A-1200 and A-2200 supports Synchronous Ethernet, Timing Over Packet IEEE 15882008

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BSS overview

RG20

A over IP
Simplified Multipoint A configuration
Greater transport efficiency
The A-interface between BSS and MGW will be based on IP / Ethernet
Several scenarios are under discussion in 3GPP standardisation:
Transcoder in the BSS (G.711 / RTP / IP protocol)
Transcoder in MGW (CODECx / RTP / IP protocol)
Simplifies the system configuration in Multipoint A / Flexible A scenarios
Improved transport efficiency for the Transcoder in the MGW scenario through
standardising TrFO for GSM/EDGE

A over IP introduces new interface plug-in unit in the BSC and TCSM
ETP-A Exchange Terminal for Packet transport over A interface
ETP-A is responsible for IP processing and packet-PCM conversion for interfacing with
the BSC switching network

Available for Flexi BSC, BSC3i 1000/2000 and TCSM3i


Flexi BSC and BSC3i 2000 (two cabinets): 4 ETP-A cards
BSC3i 1000 (one cabinet): 2 ETP-A cards
TCSM3i RG20: 5 cards per cabinet, TCSM3i RG10 or older: 3 cards per cabinet

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When ETP-A is used for A over IP in stand alone TCSM3i, IP/Ethernet connection is needed between BSC and
TCSM3i for control functions

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Feature ID(s): BSS21341, BSS30380

Benefits for the Operator: The key benefit arises from the CAPEX / OPEX savings
that can be derived through employing IP networking. The flexibility of the solution is
also increased. Further, configuration is also simpler in Multipoint A type network
scenarios.
With Transcoder in the BSS, the existing transcoder capacity can be used along with
the new IP-connectivity at the A-interface.
With Transcoder in the Core Network, voice quality is enhanced since tandem coding
is no longer necessary and latency is also improved. A reduced transcoding capacity
is required in the BSS (realised in the Core Network).
Functional Description: There are two architecture options:
1. The Transcoder function is located in the BSS (that is, the standard GSM
architecture). The Transcoder is the A over IP termination point.
The G.711 / RTP / IP protocol is employed.
2. The Transcoder function is located in the Core Network (that is, the 3G
network architecture). The BSC is the A over IP termination point. At the
same time, the BSC hides the mobility from the Core Network.
The CODECx / RTP / IP protocol is employed.
For the Transcoding in BSS scenario, the ETP-A module is required for the TCSM3i,
which is managed from the BSC via Ethernet. For this configuration both A over TDM
and A over IP are supported within the same TCSM3i. The Abis interface may be
either Packet Abis (requiring both the ETS2 and ETP modules) or Legacy Abis.
When transcoding is performed within the Core Network, then the Abis interface
must be a Packet Abis type. Calls to Handsets on Packet Abis are routed on A over
IP directly to the Core Network transcoder. Calls to Handsets on a Legacy Abis are
routed via the TCSM3i to the Core Network (as normal). A handover between a
Packet Abis BTS and a Legacy Abis BTS is managed by the Core Network as an
Internal Handover.

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BSS overview

RG20

A over IP implementation scenarios


- Transcoder in BSS
Available with RG20

Packet Abis
TDM

IPoTDM
IPoTDM

BSC

Flexi EDGE

TCSM

TDM/ETS2+ETP

Ater

Packet Abis
Eth

IPoEth
IPoEth

Eth/ETP

TDM

TDM

PWE

PWE

AoIP
Eth/ETP-A

Flexi EDGE

Legacy Abis
TDM

TDM
TDM

(G.711)
TC in BSS

TDM

Flexi BSC
BSC3i 1000/2000

MGW

MGW 1)
TCSM3i
Packet / TDM conversion
Alternative interface

Note:
UltraSite, BTSplus, MetroSite support legacy Abis
Flexi EDGE supports both legacy Abis and Packet Abis
1) Support availability needs to be confirmed from MGW-supplier

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Feature ID(s): BSS21341

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BSS overview

RG20

Available with RG20

A over IP implementation scenarios


- Transcoder in MGW
Packet Abis
TDM

IPoTDM
IPoTDM

Flexi EDGE

BSC
TDM/ETS2+ETP

Packet Abis
Eth

IPoEth
IPoEth

TC
Eth/ETP
Eth/ETP-A

RG30
candidate
BSS101407

Flexi EDGE

Legacy Abis
TDM

AoIP
(CodecX )
TC in MGW

MGW

TDM

Any vendors
MGW

TDM
TDM
Flexi BSC
BSC3i 1000/2000

Note:
BTS must be connected via Packet Abis to BSC
BTS connected through legacy Abis to BSC is not supported until RG30. Prior
availability of Legacy Abis support with AoIP and TC in MGW following options exist:
Parallel use of AoIP (TC in MGW) for Packet Abis traffic and Ater/AoIP (TC in BSS) for legacy
Abis. Ater can utilize TDM or integrated IP/Ethernet (PWE3 CESoPSN).

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Feature ID(s): BSS30380

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BSS overview

Packet Abis over IP/Ethernet

RG20

Significant OPEX Savings


combining optimized Abis and low cost Transport Media
Bandwidth savings

Full BSS integrated Abis Optimization

EDGE Phase II and OSC optimized


up to ~50%
Compared to traditional TDM Abis
(for typical traffic scenario)

Cost efficient transport media (Ethernet)

Packet Abis
IP

Packet Abis
IP
Ethernet

Ethernet

Packet Switched
Network

Eth

Eth

Flexi EDGE

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BSC

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Feature ID(s): BSS21454

Summary:
This fully integrated feature enables the transport of Abis information using native IP
over Packet Switched Networks (via Ethernet).
Benefits for the Operator:
The operator is able to employ Packet Switched Networks in order to provide the
transport backhaul for the Abis traffic, offering significant OPEX savings due to the
more cost effective physical media (Ethernet) and the simplified operation and
maintenance of the network that can then be derived. In addition to the physical
media benefit, Packet Abis also offers significant bandwidth savings in comparison
with traditional TDM- or PWE-based packet transport since it introduces a very
efficient and fully integrated Abis Optimization capability. The integrated Abis
Optimization also facilitates the introduction of high bandwidth features such as
EDGE Evolution and OSC without necessarily increasing the backhaul bandwidth
capacity requirement. Bandwidth can be shared by CS, PS and Signalling traffic.
There are no predefined limitations except the total available bandwidth provided by
the physical link.
Functional Description:
The Packet Abis solution removes the traditional TDM Abis structure, where the
static relationship between the Air and the Abis Interfaces is eliminated. Further, Abis
Optimization through the removal of silence and idle frames, multiplexing and
bandwidth sharing for the CS-Userplane; PS-Userplane; Control-Plane and
Management-Plane achieves significant bandwidth savings. If no data needs to be
sent then no capacity is occupied/utilised.
The Packet Abis U-Plane is transported over UDP/IP and the C-Plane/M-Plane is
transported over SCTP/IP. The physical interface supported is Ethernet.

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BSS overview

Packet Abis over TDM

RG20

Significant OPEX Savings


Optimized Abis while keeping the existing transport infrastructure

Full BSS integrated Abis Optimization

Bandwidth savings

EDGE PhaseII and OSC optimized


up to ~55%

Packet Transport Efficiency on TDM

Packet Abis
IP
MLPPP

Packet Abis
IP
MLPPP

E1/T1/SDH

E1/T1/FB
TDM

TDM Network

Flexi EDGE

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Compared to traditional TDM Abis


(for typical traffic scenario)

TDM

BSC

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Feature ID(s): BSS21440, BSS21539 (related)

Summary:
This fully integrated feature enables the transport of Abis information using native IP over
Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) Networks.
Benefits for the Operator:
The operator can utilise the existing installed TDM Infrastructure, easing the introduction of
the Packet Abis solution.
Packet Abis over TDM offers significant bandwidth savings in comparison with traditional TDM
transport since it introduces a very efficient and fully integrated Abis Optimization capability.
Bandwidth can be shared by CS, PS and Signalling traffic as transmission resources are used
as pools. Pooling results as reduced number of TDM lines or reduced bandwidth with
Microwave radios/SDH transmission. Resource overbooking is possible: TRX number can
exceed transmission line nominal capacity. There are no predefined limitations except the
total available bandwidth provided by the physical links. The integrated Abis Optimization also
facilitates the introduction of high bandwidth features such as EDGE Evolution and OSC
without necessarily increasing the backhaul bandwidth capacity requirement.
Functional Description:
The Packet Abis solution removes the traditional TDM Abis structure, where the static
relationship between the Air and the Abis Interfaces is eliminated. Further, Abis Optimization
through the removal of silence and idle frames, multiplexing and bandwidth sharing for the
CS-Userplane; PS-Userplane; Control-Plane and Management-Plane achieves significant
bandwidth savings. That is, if no data needs to be sent then no capacity occupied/utilised.
The Packet Abis U-Plane is transported over UDP/IP/MLPPP and the C-Plane/M-Plane
transported over SCTP/IP/MLPPP. The physical interface supported is TDM.
Multiple E1 or T1 interfaces effectively provide virtual common bandwidth (larger pool) using
MLPPP. Packet Abis over TDM is supported by all existing Flexi EDGE BTS transport units,
including e.g. FIFA and FIYA/FIQA units. As Packet Abis over TDM allows to reduce
transmission capacity of individual BTS site this allows overbooking. Overbooking means
adding TRXs beyond transmission line nominal capacity.
Packet Abis IP/TDM Aggregation feature (BSS21539) allows to chain multiple BTS-sites and
perform transmission aggregation/optimization (=reduction) at every chained site. This unique
Multistage aggregation technique provides the most cost efficient TDM transmission option
on the market.

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BSS overview

Exercise: Network Elements and interfaces

BSS

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