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Referat

engleza
Depression
Feraru Mihaela amg 2B

Depression
Depression is a disorder of emotional well-being, which lead to a
depierdere of sadness or feelings of hope for a long period of time.
Being more serious than a simple episode of sadness, grief, or just a
temporary feeling of energy, decrease depression can have a significant
impact on your joy of living life, of work, of the capacity of the general
health and people close.Depression manifests itself differently from
one person to another. Some feel "daramati" for long operioada of
time, while others take the depression come and go. If a person has
episodes of mild depression, it may be able to continue their
professional lives and to cope with daily activities. However, if the
person does not follow a form of treatment for depression, it is subject
to the risk of becoming increasingly more depressed or physical decay.
In severe cases of depression, that person can get to the inability to
communicate, the inability to perform routine activities and even
suicide. Inaceste cases, a specialist advice and follow-up treatment are
essential.People with depression may be resistant to the idea of
seeking help because they believe that it is a proof of the fulfilment of
personal weakness or a defect of character or believe they should be
able to go out alone in this State.Today we know that depression, like
any other medical disorder, a biological and chemical basis.Treatment
of depression is usually safe and effective even in the case of people
with severe depression.
What causes causes depression is a subject extensively studied at
present.Experts believe that genetic predisposition, along with stressful
life events, medical conditions, medications or other factors, may result

in an imbalance alanumitor chemicals in the brain, called


neurotransmitters, leading to the occurrence of depression.Situations
that can trigger an episode of depression are:-some drugs such as
narcotic drugs used for pain removal or steroids; commonly depressive
symptoms disappear once the medication is stopped-disorders of
hormonal secretion, such an imbalance of thyroid gland or adrenalchemical imbalances, as well as imbalances of blood levels of calcium,
or low levels of iron (anemia)-long (chronic) disorderssuch as arthritis,
heart disease or cancer-infections such as viral infections or liver or
brain infections-major stress factors, such as the death of a loved onechronic stressors such as poverty, family difficulties, serious medical
problems or of a person close to the elders who are going from an
independent life in a life that depend on others often have depressionpressure on children and adolescentson behalf of the company or those
of the same age-drinking alcohol, illegal substances or problems in
connection with the abuse of a substance-premenstrual syndrome and
chronic-menopause-chronic pain, stress, fatigue, the recent birth.
Symptoms
The person who has depression may feel devoid of hope, sad or no
longer can feel pleasure in almost anything he does. You may feel "rundown" or disheartened, cries easily.May also be anxioasa or loves or
may have a low level of energy. Often the symptoms of depression can
be subtle at first. It can be difficult to recognize as the symptoms can be
related to each other and that person might have depression.The
second most significant symptoms of depression are:-the sadness or
hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in most activities carried out
in daily life.Other symptoms may be:-the loss or weight due to changes
in food-raising appetite or decreasing the need for sleep-feeling of

restlessness and inability to stay quiet or, on the contrary, the feeling
that any movement requires a great effort-permanent fatigue feelingfeelings of guilt or of devaluation without apparent reason-recurrent
death or suicide.If a person shows at least five of these symptoms for a
longer period of 2 weeks and if one of the symptoms is either sadness
or loss of interest, the person is diagnosed with major depression.
However, even if there are fewer than five symptoms, it could be a
depression, and it requires the administration of a treatment.If there
are 2 to 4 symptoms for a period of at least 2 years (1 year in children),
it can be a form of long-term depression, called distimica (distimia)
disorder. Many women may have mood changes before menstruating.
Premenstrual physical and emotional symptoms that interfere with
interpersonal relationships or with your daily responsibilities are known
as premenstrual syndrome (SPM). However, women who have
premenstrual symptoms physical and emotional that seriously interfere
with daily life can have a form of depression called premenstrual
dysphoric disorder premenstrual.Many doctors usually generalist,
consult people who exhibit general symptoms which can be difficult
given a depression. These symptoms, which occur frequently in
depression, may be:-headaches and other aches and pains with various
locations-digestive problems including constipation and diarrhea-loss of
interest in sexual activity or an inability to have an active sex lifefeelings of anxiety or concern without an obvious reason-autoacuzarea
or prosecution of others for the condition of depression or lack of
movement-speaking for hours.Other symptoms of depression can be:overeating and weight gain, which occur more frequently than the loss
of appetite-increasing the duration of sleep, more common than
insomnia-easy, complained craze, bad General State, along with anxiety

and inner tension condition-sometimes a feeling of care of the arms or


legs-excessive sensitivity to rejectie (rejection).
Types of depression:
Reactive depression
It looks like a reactive depression is the most common type of
depression. It is triggered mathurathaki traumatic event, difficult or
stressful life. Affected people feel bad, nervous, anxious or angry. This
type of depression may also occur after a prolonged period of stress
and even long after the end of that period. The causes vary enormously
from one person to the lta, laa sometimes change the House or the loss
of a parent in childhood, to an inability to accomplish anything in a long
time, a tough loss or a divorce.
Endogenous depression
This type of depression is not always caused by a stressful event in life,
but rather may be an imbalance of chemical reactions in the brain. This
type of depression occurs most often because of family issues.
Maniaca depression
At least one person out of a hundred will experience this kind of
depression at least once inviata them. This type of depression-also
known as bipolar depression-it is very different from all the other types
of depression. . Besides the feeling of unhappiness that follows all of
the time, the affected person experiences excessive growth of energy
and moods of exaltation, followed sudden descaderi and terrible
despair. These highs and lows of may last even several months in a
row.In addition, affected individuals may suffer from delusions and

hallucinations-see and hear things that don't exist. . Most of those


affected by this type of suffering from this depression in adolescence
and around the age of 20 years.As with other types of depression, it can
blame a whole mixture of physical factors and environment. It has been
confirmed that there would be any connection with determination of
genetics: If one of the parents suffer from this condition.
Seasonal affective
Disorders such as depression occurs with winter approaching and it
seems that is due to the lack of light of the day in the winter months.
This lack of light restricts the production of serotonin, a hormone of
happiness produced by our brains, causing feelings of unhappiness. This
type of depression can be treated with light therapy.
Recurrence Often reappears depression disorder. If a person has an
episode of depression, the likelihood of depression to return at a
certain time of life, that person is bigger than the rest of the people
that have never had depression.Your risk of a new episode of
depression grows with each episode.
Pathophysiology mechanism
Of depression can begin with symptoms of anxiety (such as an
excessive concern) or with symptoms such as sadness or lack of energy
that lasts several days or months before installation of the
depression.Disturbances may occur in the ability of concentration or
memory, the feeling of loss of pleasure in activities that were once
enjoyable, the feeling of loss of hope, loss of energy, changes in sleep
and appetite. A person with depression may isolate other social and
may lose interest in sexual activity.Evolution of depression varies from

person to person. May be present mild symptoms or severe depression


for a long period of time or for a short period. A small percentage feel
depressive depersoane the vast majority of their lives; they require
maintenance treatment.Most enjoy with depression can be treated
successfully with medication, professional counseling or a combination
of the two.Depressive disorders are classified according to their
severity and duration. Depression of easy, moderate or severe.It can
start suddenly (acute depression) or may take a long time (chronic
depression). For example, distimica, disorder is a chronic mild
depression. Some people can have an episode of major depression that
can override a distimica disorder (depression, double).In case of severe
depression, it may be necessary for an inpatient in a hospital for a short
period of time, especially if suicidal thoughts are present. Because
depression increases the risk of attempted suicide, the person must
immediately follow a treatment if there are ideas of self-destruction.
Investigation
The doctor will do a medical history (IE will ask questions about your
overall health) and will perform a complete physical examination. It can
also recommend making some tests such as:-laboratory tests to see if
the symptoms are not caused by certain diseases, as well as a low
activity of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) or anemia.
-mental health assessment, which involves an interview with a mental
health professional (psychiatrist)-oral or written tests which can detect
depression.Psychiatrist may ask questions to determine how much the
person is affected by depressive condition that, including if there were
or are suicidal ideas. If there was ever a time for merriment abnormal
(excessive, inappropriate), irritability or a sensation of intense energy

that lasted for 4 days or more, the doctor should be informed of this.
Manic episodes, hypomanic episodes or lighter, are part of bipolar
disorder.Some types of antidepressant medications may worsen
symptoms bipolar, so it is very important that the symptoms to be
diagnosed accurately. When the doctor is consulted, it is important to
discuss with him about any symptoms that could be due to depression.
Approximately half of all cases of depression are subdiagnosticate and
subtratate. That's why the doctors and family physicians to routinely
ask questions related to depression, on the occasion of each checkup
performed.
Treatment. Treatment initial
Treatment of depression may include administration of antidepressant
medications, therapeutic counseling, such as cognitive-behavioral
therapy, or a combination of both treatment modalities.Therapeutic
counselling (psychotherapy) may be enough for mild or moderate
depression. If symptoms are severe, debut most likely initial treatment
will include both antidepressant medications and therapeutic
counseling.Hospitalization may be necessary if there were signs of a
suicide, such as thoughts or plans of self-injury or injury to another
person, detachment from reality (psychosis) or excessive alcohol
consumption, or drug use.Sometimes it takes several attempts to find
the type of psychotherapy and medication that are most effective in
person.May be required for a period of 4 to 12 weeks until the drugs to
make their effect, although usually they act more quickly.It is therefore
very important that the person with depression to collaborate with the
doctor in order to find together the best treatment.

Treatment for agravarii disease if the depression gets worse, from a


person who follows the only therapeutic counseling, it can add an
antidepressant medication.Data obtained from experience show that,
in the case of severe depression, adding therapeutic counseling antianxiety drugs is more effective than the use of psychotherapy.
Treatment in the case of agravari disease
If the depression gets worse, from a person who follows the only
therapeutic counseling, it can add an antidepressant medication.Data
obtained from experience show that, in the case of severe depression,
adding therapeutic counseling anti-anxiety drugs is more effective than
the use of psychotherapy.
In people with recurrent depression, you may need treatment with
antidepressant drugs for the rest of my life.If your depression worsens
while that person is already under medication and therapeutic
counseling, you can try other drugs in place of the given date or they
may add to the initial treatment.It has been demonstrated that
electroconvulsivanta therapy (ECT) is an effective way of treatment for
severe depression or depression that other treatments have not been
effective.ECT must be continued with medication and counseling,
because reaparitia symptoms is common.When depressive symptoms
are worse, it is essential that the person you talk with the doctor in
order to find an effective treatment.Major depression can be a risk
factor in the development of heart diseases, such as coronary artery
disease and myocardial infarction.However, the greatest danger of
depression is suicide. About 15% of people with depression die by
suicide.
Treatment at home

While psychotherapy and antidepressant drugs are the most effective


treatments for depression, outpatient treatment is also
important.There are many steps that the person in question can do to
help himself during a depressive episode and to prevent future
episodes:-to establish realistic goals for itself and take a reasonable
part of the responsibility-to share large tasks into smaller ones, to be
carried out gradually, after it established the first priorities-to make as
much as can be doneWhen is able-to postpone major life decisions
(such as changing profession, moving house, high marriage or divorce)
when you are in a period of depression-to try to share their feelings
with someone; It is usually better to isolate or to be secretoasa-to let
the family or friends to help-even if it does not feel motivated to try to
participate in religious activities, or social-type to be dealt with on a
regular basis exercise-to have a balanced diet; If missing, the appetite
to consume rather small quantity snacks than large servings of food-to
have a proper sleep (If sleep disorders are present, it is recommended:to go to bed at the same time every night and, more importantly, to
arise at the same time every morning-a dark bedroom and shielded
from the noise-not to make physical exercise after 17.00-to avoid
drinking caffeinated beverages after noon 17.00
-avoid the use of drugs for medical neprescrise, sleep to avoid drinking
alcohol, as they can cause a non-refreshing sleep and can interact with
antidepressants)-to have patience with yourself: to remember and to
say that depression is not because they can't be topped only by his own
will, as the treatment is necessary in case of depressionjust like in any
other condition-to try to always have a positive, optimistic attitude, to
remember and to say, as it takes time until you begin to feel better and
that disposal will improve gradually, little by little.

Options of drugs Often depression is subdiagnosticata and subtratata.


Most people with depression need antidepressants. Antidepressants
may improve or remove the depressive symptoms.Several options are
available medications.Antidepressants are:-selective serotonin
reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, SSRI), such as Prozac, Zoloft, Fevarin, Seroxat
or Cipralex-tricyclic antidepressants such as Amitriptyline and
tetraciclice, Anafranil (Clomipramine) or Ludiomil (Maprotilina)-atypical
antidepressants like Wellbutrin, Remeron or Efectin-monoaminoxidazei
inhibitors (MAOIS).
Other treatments
Therapeutic counselling is an important part in the treatment of
depression. Complementary therapies such as massage therapy, I can
also help in getting a quick and vindecar imai to continuously improve
the quality of life.Family therapy can be helpful, that person and those
around him, to cope with depression.Electroconvulsivanta therapy
(ECT) may be used for those who cannot take antidepressant
medications that have not responded to other treatments, or who have
a severe depression and psychotic symptoms, suicidal behavior or
inability to feed itself.Psychotherapy is an important part of the
treatment of depression.Types of psychotherapy are most common:
cognitive-behavioral therapy, a type of psychotherapy that teaches a
person how to have a healthier life by modifying certain ways of
thinking and behaving; acesttip therapeutic counseling can be done
individually or in groups of therapy that comprise people with similar
interpersonal therapy, which emphasizes social and interpersonal
relationships and the problems associated with these.
Aspects of taking care of patients with depression

The circumstances of the occurrence): risk factors-genetic factorsconditions during pregnancy


-obstetric trauma
-trauma and infections that cause brain damage-events throughout life
(the death of loved one, divorce, change of employment, retirement
-intellectual overexertion
-critical periods of life
-metabolic diseases, endocrine, neurological, infectious
b) manifestations of addiction (semen and possible symptoms)
-mood disorders-depression
-emotional disorders-apathy, crying
-difficulty in making a decision-impaired activity
-reduction moves, quick exhaustion after mild activity, negativity
-instinctual behavior disorders
-reducing or exaggerating the appetite, decrease maternal instinct, of
the sexual instinct
-diminishing instinct of self-preservation (self harm, suicide attempts)
-organic disorders