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Sheet (6)

6.1

Heat received by the heat engine, Qa =


1500 kJ/min =1500/60 = 25 kJ/s, Work
output, W = 8.2 kW = 8.2 kJ/s

- Thermal efficiency, th =W/Qa= 8.2/25


= 0.328  th = 32.8%
- Rate of heat rejection, Qr = Qa W = 25 8.2
-  Qr = 16.8 kJ/s
6.2

Heat received by the system = 30 kJ, Work done = 60 kJ


Process 1-2:
Q12 - W12= (U2 U1)
(U2 U1) = 30 kJ.
Process 2-1:
Q21-W21 = (U1 U2)
W21 = 30 kJ.
- Thus 30 kJ work has to be done on the system to restore
it to original state, by adiabatic process.

6.3

Q2 = 12000 kJ/h
Power input, W = 0.75 kW (= 0.75 60
60 kJ/h)
C.O.P. = Q2/W
=12000/ (0.75* 60* 60)
 C.O.P. = 4.44
Q1 = Q2 + W = 12000 + 0.75 60 60
 Q1 =14700 kJ/h

6.4

For minimum power requirement (reversed Carnot cycle):


Q2/T2=Q1/T1
Q1 = Q2/T2 T1 =2/261 308
 Q1 = 2.36 kJ/s
W = Q1 Q2
= 2.36 2 = 0.36 kJ/s
W= 0.36 kW

- Hence, least power required to pump the heat continuously


= 0.36 kW

6.5

(I) Heat requirement of the house, Q1 (or heat rejected) =


2 105 kJ/h
Work required to operate the heat pump, W = 3 104 kJ/h
Q1 = W + Q2, Where Q2 is the heat from outside.
2 105 = 3 104 + Q2
Q2 = 2 105 3 104
= 200000 30000  Q2 =170000 kJ/h
(ii) C.O.P.) Heat pump =Q1/W =2 105 /3 104
 C.O.P.) Heat pump = 6.66

6.6

T1 = 2100 + 273 = 2373 K, T2 = 15 + 273 = 288 K


max (= Carnot) = 1 T2/T1= 1 288/2373= 0.878


6.7

max = 87.8%

T1 = 250 + 273 = 523 K, T2 = 15 + 273 = 258 K, Q1 =


90 kJ
(i) carnot = 1 T2/T1= 1 258/523  carnot =50.6%
(ii)

W = carnot Q1 = 0.506 90  W = 45.54 kJ

(iii) Heat rejected to the sink, Q2 = Q1 W = 90 45.54


 Q2 = 44.46 kJ
6.8

T1 = 750 + 273 = 1023 K, T2 = 25 + 273 = 298 K


max (= carnot) = 1 T2/T1= 1 298/1023 = 0.7086
 max = 70.86%
The actual thermal efficiency claimed,
thermal =Work done/Heat supplied
= 75*1000 *60* 60/3.9*74500*1000 thermal = 92.92%
Since thermal > carnot, therefore claim of the inventor is not
valid (or possible).

6.9

Cooling required = 40 tons = 40 210Qc = 8400 kJ/min


Ambient temperature, T1 = 30 + 273 = 303 K
Freezing temperature, T2 = 35 + 273 = 238 K
Performance of plant = 20% of the theoretical reversed
Carnot cycle
C.O.P.)Carnot refrigerator = T2/ (T1- T2) = 238/ (303- 238)
C.O.P.)Carnot refrigerator = 3.66
Actual C.O.P = 0.20 3.66  C.O.P.)Actual = 0.732
C.O.P.)Actual =Cooling reqd. /Work needed
0.732 =8400/WW= 191.25 kJ/s = 191.25 kW

6.10 Source 1:
Rate of supply of energy = 12000 kJ/min, T1 = 320 + 273
= 593 K.
Source 2:
Rate of supply of energy = 120000 kJ/min, T1 = 70 + 273
= 343 K

T2 = 35C + 273 = 308 K


1 = 1 T2/T1= 1 308/593 1 = 48.06%
2 = 1 T2/T1= 1 308/343 2 = 10.2%
The work delivered in the two cases is given by
W1 = 12000 0.4806  W1 = 5767.2 kJ/min
and W2 = 120000 0.102  W2 = 12240 kJ/min.
Thus, choose source 2

6.11 T1 = 700 + 273 = 973 K, T2 = 50 + 273 = 323 K, T3 = 25


+ 273 = 248 K, Q1 = 2500 kJ
W = W1 W2 = 400 kJ.
(I) Maximum efficiency of the heat engine cycle is given
by max = 1 T2/T1= 1 323/973  max = 66.8 %
W1 = 0.668 2500  W1 = 1670 kJ
C.O.P.)Max =T3/ (T2-T3) =248/ (323 - 248)
 C.O.P.)Max = 3.306
C.O.P. =Q4/W2= 3.306, W1 W2 = W = 400 kJ
W2 = W1 W = 1670 400  W2 = 1270 kJ
Q4 = 3.306 1270  Q4 = 4198.6 kJ

Q3 = Q4 + W2 = 4198.6 + 1270  Q3 = 5468.6 kJ


Q2 = Q1 W1 = 2500 1670  Q2 = 830 kJ
Heat rejection to the 50C reservoir = Q2 + Q3 = 830 +
5468.6  Qr = 6298.6 kJ
(ii) Efficiency of actual heat engine cycle, = 0.45 max =
0.45 0.668  = 0.3
W1 = Q1 = 0.3 2500  W1 = 750 kJ
W2 = 750 400  W2 = 350 kJ
C.O.P. of the actual refrigerator cycle,
C.O.P. =Q4/W2 = 0.45 3.306  C.O.P. = 1.48
Q4 = 350 1.48  Q4 = 518 kJ
Q3 = 518 + 350  Q3 = 868 kJ
Q2 = 2500 750  Q2 = 1750 kJ
Heat rejected to 50C reservoir= Q2 + Q3 = 1750 + 868
 Qr = 2618 kJ
6.12

(a)

For the reversed heat engine:


Amount of ice produced per day = 15 tons
 mice = 15 tons / day

The amount of heat removed by the heat pump,


Qp2=15 *1000* 334.5/ (24 *60)  Qp2= 3484.4 kJ/min
C.O.P.)Reversed Carnot =Tc/ (TH Tc) = 273/ (298- 273)
 C.O.P.)Reversed Carnot = 10.92
C.O.P.)Heat pump =Qp2/W W = 319.08 kJ/min
- This work must be developed by the Carnot engine,
W = 319.08/60 = 5.3 kJ/s  W = 5.3 kW
(b)

For the heat engine:


Carnot = 1-TC / TH = 1 298/493 Carnot = 39.6 %

Carnot = W/Qe1 Qe1= 13.38 kJ/s

Qe1 = 13.38 60 60 = 48168 kJ/hr

mf/hour
= Qe1 / calorific value = 48168/44500
 mf = 1.082 kg/h

6.13





  




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(i)

Q1=Q2
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T3 = 400 K.
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= 0.3333 = 33.33%

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