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CHAPTER-1

Introduction

Background of the report


Objectives of the report
Scope of the Report
Methodology of the study
Limitation

Background of the report


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Hartal is not simply incontinence and a naissance, it is tantamount to call for


an economic boycott of our own goods and services by our own politicians
during the period of hartals are in effect. The impact of hartal on the
economy was very or somewhat negative. The most harmful impacts on the
economy were losses to the business sector and harm to the national
economy. Disruption of transportation and exports and imports were also
significance among the adverse effect.

Objectives of the study


Every research study there have must some objectives by which the study
could be search its absolute pathways. So, there are some specific objectives
in our study:
Socio-economic condition of the respondents
Nature of occupation
To know the impact of Hartal on respondents occupation
To know the impact on societies development

Scope of the Study


This report covered the overall economic condition of Bangladesh that is
hampered due to continues hartal. With the help of internet news,
newspapers and so on we have discussed about the amount of losses of
money per day of hartal, the business losses, export import barriers,
detriments of RMG sectors, human life, and rises of price of products and so
on.

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Methodology of the Study


Here we have mainly used secondary information to form out our report on
The Impact of Hortal in Economy of Bangladesh.
Secondary information was collected from:

News from internet


Newspapers
Television News
Through conversation with our parents and seniors

Limitation of the Study


The report was not free from limitations. I have faced some problems during
our study of making report on hortals impact in our economy. The main
limitations that we have faced are difference in statement of report
published in different newspaper, some problems in data collection, and
problems in sort out the huge information in a single form. We have not
figured out the latest information. And as every day we are facing strikes and
blockades that is why information is getting changed day by day. That is why
some data we used as their approximate figure.

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Chapter-2
Overview
Of
Hartal in Bangladesh

Introduction
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The history of Bangladesh as a nation state began in 1971. In the past time politics
was used for the welfare of country. In those days there was no quarrel among the
politicians for money and power but as today most of the politicians are interest is
grown for money and power not for welfare of country. Hartal is used for political
approach. Hartal was not everyday matter in those days but at present time
Bangladeshs political system is feeble. For this purpose opposite party called hartal
frequently. inconvenience or a nuisance as deemed by some people. It is
tantamount to a call for an economic boycott of our own goods and services by
our own politicians during the period hartals are in effect. In stronger words, one
may regard the calls for hartals as an act of constitutionally sanctioned economic
terrorism. Historically, calls for hartals in Bangladesh are made by major political
parties when they lose their grip on positions of power. Obviously, not all politicians
are corrupt. Unfortunately, the honest and the dedicated are few and far between.
Once an opportunity opens up with offering of a new government contract, or some
private entrepreneur taking an initiative for major investment, the ministers and the
entire government machinery including the lending bank officials line up to get a
share of what can be grabbed from the project.

Hartal History in Bangladesh


For Bangladesh the first 'hartal' stemmed from the Language Movement. The
biggest achievement in our history is snatching away our identity as Bangladesh
and Bangladeshi in 1971 liberation movement. The Language Movement of 1952
triggered a number of hartals. In 1952, a 'hartal' was observed for a longer period,
from 22 to 24 February (UNDP, 2005). If we look back at the history we get that 297
hartals took place between 1982 and 1990 and 827 hartals took place between
1991 and 2002(UNDP, 2005). From the period of 2009 to 2012 there were 53 days
hartals observed while in the current year from January to March 16 days hartals
took place in Bangladesh there were 6 days 'hartal' in this month, and more hartals
are likely to come'. Two major political parties namely Bangladesh Nationalist Party
(BNP) and Bangladesh Awami League (AL) called hartals in their alternative tenures.
From 1962 to present lots of Hartal called in Bangladesh by vruos political parties.
Here we show a list of these hartals by term wise.

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Date
Between
1962 and
1971
Between
1972 and
1975
Between
1981 and
1987
Between
1996 and
2001
Between
2001 and
2006
Between
2009 and
2013

Time

Hartal Called By

Total 15 days
then East
Pakistan
Total 59 days

Total 173 days

called by AL

Total 59 days

called by BNP

Total 130 days

Total 80 days

called by AL

called by BNP and Jamat Ismali and other


political parties

Hartals in Recent Days


The year 2013 is the year of political violence. In this year lots of Hartal is
being called BNP and Shibir, Here we focusiong the list and reasons of these
Hartals.
Date

Time

02-04-2013

All day

Hartal
Called
By
Shibir

Reason

Damages

Opposed to
sending Delwar
Hossain
Sayeedi on police
remand for
questioning.
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9-04-2013

All day

BNP

protesting against
courts sending its
top 17 leaders to
jail.

10-04-2013

All day

BNP

protesting against
courts sending its
top 17 leaders to
jail.

11-04-2013

All day

Shibir

to press for the


release of Shibir
President Delwar
Hussen.

-Many injured all


over the country.
-Huge number of
vehicles torched.

23,-04-2013

All day

BNP

demands for
release of top
leaders.

-10 person
injured -5 Buses
torched night
before hartal.

24-04-2013

All day

BNP

demands for
release of top
leaders.

-Vehicles
damaged by
throwing stone.

12,13-082013

48 hours

Shibir

protesting against
courts against the
order which claims
Jamat as a illegal
party

Vehicles
damaged by
throwing stone.
Blocking roads
become trouble
for the Eid holiay
returns
passengers

4,5,6-112013

72 hours

BNP

10,11,12,138-2013

84 hours

BNP

26, 27,28-112013

72 hours

BNP

Vehicle
damaged, manu
injured and
burnt

To make current
Prime Minister to
resign from power
and called for care
taker government

Vehicles
damaged by
throwing stone

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30 November
to 5
December

131 hours

BNP

To make current
Prime Minister to
resign from power
and called for care
taker government

Vehicles and
plats damaged
as well as
human lives

7-12-2013 to
12-12-2013

144 hours

BNP

To make current
Prime Minister to
resign from power
and called for care
taker government

Vehicles and
plats damaged
as well as
human lives

17-12-2013
to 19-122013

72 hours

BNP

To make current
Prime Minister to
resign from power
and called for care
taker government

Vehicles and
plats damaged
as well as
human lives

21-12-2013
to 24-122013

84 hours

BNP

To make current
Prime Minister to
resign from power
and called for care
taker government

Vehicles and
plats damaged
as well as
human lives

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Chapter-3
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Overview
Of

Impact of Hartal

Bangladesh Experience
Historical evidence shows that during the present democratic system
initiated in 1991, the average number of Hartals per year has been more
than three times higher (46 per year) compared to earlier regime.

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Source: Sangbadpatre Hartalchitra by Ajoy Dasgupta (2001); Ahmed, Imtiaz


(2011); Odhikar; ASK and CPD

Numbers of people have lost their live due to the political violence. In 2010,
70 people were killed, in 2011 number of kills were 58, in 2012 numbers
were 58 and in 2013 number of killings are 170 and injured a lot due to
hortal.

Hartals have significant negative impact on economic performance; but


Hartals are hardly called to pursue an economic cause.

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Source: Sangbadpatre Hartalchitra by Ajoy Dasgupta; ASK and CPD


Bangladesh 2013: Assessing Economic
Eight stylized facts about recent Hartal trends in the recent period (2013)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Frequency (incidence) of Hartals have increased significantly


Hartals are now being called even during the weekends
Hartal, for an economic cause, has become more uncommon
Hartalopposing parties are also more active during the Hartal periods
More decentralized Hartals have emerged, e.g. at District, Upazilla level
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6. New actors are entering as Hartal protagonists in addition to the


traditional
Political actors
7. Causalities and violence in Hartals have become more manifest
8. Remarkable number of deaths of members of the law enforcing agencies
in
connection with Hartals

Effects of Hartals in Economy


The continuing use of hartal Bangladesh underscores that in the midst of
transition to democracy experience many difficulties, obstacles and
reversals. The process is inevitably intertwined with the broader process of
modernization, which gives rise to a variety of contradictory social and
political forces. It is difficult to recognize that the pervasiveness of hartal in a
country like Bangladesh is an obstacle to democracy and that their
persistence is related to the way political mobilization takes place and
political demands are articulated.
The mass people are affected very much in hartal. They cant go to their work and
cant earn money. Sometimes they are facing some urgent problem but they cant
go outside. If they go outside, they are victim of hartal. During the period of hartal,
the product cant come in town, for this purpose, market prize of products is
increased. During the hartal period mass people are sufferer.

Hartals affect all section of society. Some of the main impacts cited were:
disruption to mobility, financial losses, hampering of business activities.
Other key impacte were the closing down of educational institution, damage
to vehicles and building, suffering of the general public and prize hikes of
daily essential were cited as additional effects.

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Impact on Economy
Hartal is not simply an incontinent and a naissance, it is tantamount to call
for an economic boycott of our own goods and services by our own
politicians during the period of hartals are in effect. The impact of hartal on
the economy was very or somewhat negative. The most harmful impacts on
the economy were losses to the business sector and harm to the national
economy. Disruption of transportation and exports and imports were also
significance among the adverse effect. A huge amount of liquidity remained
stored at every branch of commercial bank, posting high risks in operating
banking activities during hartal.
Of the sectors most affected by the ongoing political turmoil, traders, both
wholesalers and retailers, lose the highest amount of Tk 600 crore to a days
general shutdown, followed by ready-made garment industry which loses Tk
360 crore, Sabur said quoting the study findings. According to the study
report, the government loses revenue to the tune of Tk 250 crore a day and
Tk 10,000 crore a year to hartal, Sabur said. The manufacturing sector loses
Tk 100 crore, transport and communication Tk 60 crore, education, financial
institution and tourism sectors Tk 50 crore each, insurance Tk 15 crore, and
others Tk 65 crore to a day of general shutdown, the report said. The DCCI
tabled a 12-point set of recommendations to the political parties for resolving
the ongoing crisis and finding political programmes alternative to hartal.

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To generate an overview of how the economy is affected by Hartals, the last


decades amount of hartal days as well as parties responsible for calling
them.The following overall trends can be mentioned:
* Regional and local hartal occurs more frequently and last longer than
nation-wide hartals.
* Both major political parties equally active in using hartal as a means of
political protest. In the ten year period from 1991 to 2000, 61 national hartal
were called by the BNP,while the Awami League called 67.
* There appears to be a bunching of hartals associated with a change of
regimes.
* Recently, there seems to be a trend towards more half-day hartals.
Manufacturers and Exporters Association estimated that it loses US$18
million a day during hartals. These estimates may however be slightly
exaggerated, given that various coping strategies are used to make up for
losses.

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Impact on Society
The impact of hartal on society reflected strongly. Hartal hampered business
and disruptions to everyday life. Especially day laborer and middle lower
income people, who are less financially solvent, are most affected by hartals
due to loss in income and increase of their expenditures. Students were also
affected by hartal.

Impact on Education
Each year, a number of hartals strike the school calendar. Streets become
war zones, forcing students to stay at home, leaving classrooms empty.
Alongside the business community, children also bear the brunt of hartal.
When announcing the results of this years HSC examination Prime Minister
Sheikh Hasina was therefore quick to blame BNP and Jamaat for this years
poor and unexpected results. In the general stream, pass rate went
down from 76.5% in 2012 to 71.3% in 2013. The combined (general,
technical and madrasa education) pass rate also fell by 4.37 percentage
points. According to the PM, more students would have passed if the
opposition had not enforced hartals. Given the timing and frequency of
hartals this year, her accusation doesnt seem unreasonable.
The opposition on the other hand exchanged verbal invectives and blamed
AL for messing with the education system. The acting secretary general of
BNP stated that the dip in pass rate reflected a downfall in education quality.
His remark did not go unnoticed. The education minister stood firmly by the
PM and was prompt to demand an apology from Mirza Fakhrul for mocking
the students. Thankfully, this war of words did not go far. BNP showed
restraints by not retaliating with another hartal over poor HSC results.
Analysis of periodic data on hartals in Bangladesh shows two patterns. First,
we experience more hartals in pre-election years. Second, the overall
number of hartals at the national level increased steeply between 1991 and
2006. However, compared to past political regimes, 2009-2013 has seen
fewer hartals. It may seem that the incumbent government has succeeded in
fighting hartals by introducing additional public exams during its tenure: PSC
and JSC. Together with SSC and HSC, four public exams may have led to a
hartal squeeze. Unfortunately, there is nothing in the data to suggest
sensitisation of hartal timing. According to the education minister, as many
as 32 public examinations had to be rescheduled this year because of
hartal.Year and month-wise information on hartal is hard to come by.
According to a UNDP report published in 2005, both major political parties
BAL and BNP have been equally active in using hartals as a means of
political protest. During 1991-2000, 67 national hartals were called by the
AL, while the BNP called 61. We lost 173 days during 2001-2006 when AL
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was in opposition. During 2009-2011, on the other hand, 17 days were lost to
hartal; the figures for 2012 and 2013 are 29 and 36 days respectively. If AL is
right in blaming this years low pass rate on hartals, we would expect a
higher pass rate in years that were less affected. When combined with data
on hartals, a number of patterns can be detected from an analysis of public
exam results. Through continuous social campaign against hartal, we must
demand an education system from the government that is accountable to
parents and students and functional in two dimensions: (a) enough
classroom time and (b) learning centernd activities inside the classroom.With
the national election around the corner, Bangladeshi parents want to see a
clear commitment to educational reform in the manifesto of all political
parties. The starting point should be a shift of focus away from narrow
indicators such as pass rate in public exam. Issues that need to be prioritised
include implementation of a competency based curriculum, tackling teacher
truancy, reducing double-shift operation of schools/colleges and proper
training of teachers before changing the curriculum and the examination
process (both exam paper formulation and marking of exam scripts). Reform
attempts must not be rushed. Although nearly half a million secondary
school teachers have been trained on creative question method during the
current governments tenure, questions remain over the quality of training
provided. We need to learn from past mistakes (e.g. using multiple-choice
question test bank for SSC exam in the late 1990s) and be prepared to
abandon failed policy measures. Through field research and careful piloting,
effective reform measures should be identified so that students do not suffer
from poorly executed policy experiments.

Effect of hartal on day laborer


Hartal is as means of political activities. The day labor is defined as one who
has worked every day for income and one who earns his livelihood through
applying his/her physical labor like-Rickshaw-puller, small vendors on the
footpath and slum dwellers who are engaged in varieties of income earning
activities on a day-to-day basis without any contractual obligation. The
rickshaw pullers, poor footpath vendors, small shopkeepers have been
mostly affected in hartal. During the period of hartal, they cant go their
work. For this purpose they cant earn money. Their income is very limited
which is not sufficient to maintain their family and they cant teach their
children properly.

Farmers Get Low Prices


Torikul Islam, a farmer in Jessore, said he had stopped selling potatoes since Sunday
as middlemen were offering low prices, citing a lack of transport movement. We
got low prices for vegetables such as beans and gourds as the number of

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wholesalers was low in the market, said Mohammad Shahbuddin, a farmer in


Narsingdi. The quality of vegetables also falls unless we harvest in time, he said.

Prices Go Up in Cities
The prices of essential commodities also went up due to disruption in the
supply chain. The prices of onions, potatoes and some vegetables edged up
amid
inadequate
supply,
according
to
trading
corporation
of
BangladeshStreet vendors, hawkers and roadside retail shops also registered
low sales.Jahangir Alam, who sells cigarettes, betel leaves and candies on a
footpath near Farmgate, said his sales drop to Tk 900 a day during hartal,
from
Tk
1,200
on
a
normal
day.
I do not support hartal. Low sales have eroded my income, he said.

Effect of hartal in personal life and


peoples perception
People are social beings and hartal affect individuals as well as society as a
whole. Disruption in mobility and financial loss in terms of increase in
expenditures and decreases in income are perceived to be the major effect
of hartal on personal life. In general people are more conscious about the
financial impacts of hartal than their other effects on society such as security
concerns or social cost of frequently called hartal. UNDP report on Hartal for
Bangladesh perspective has shown several important findings through
conducting interviews with 3000 respondents around the country. Those
findings can be summarized as following:
Hartals are not only ineffective in changing policy, but have negative impacts
on citizens and society.
Disruption to mobility, business activities, and daily activities are considered
as severe impacts on society.

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Hartal impact on RMG sector


The garment sector incurs production loss worth Tk 200 crore in a day for
shutdown, which is forcing the international buyers to shift their orders to
other destinations. The chain impacts of such losses are more damaging,
said Atiqul Islam, president of Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and
Exporters Association. He was speaking at a joint press conference with the
Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BKMEA) and
Bangladesh Textile Mills Association (BTMA) at the BGMEA office in Dhaka.
According to an estimate by the BGMEA, 32 garment factories lost orders
worth $25.65 lakh, faced discount worth $11.32 lakh, spent $30.47 lakh for
air shipment and delayed shipment worth $92.81 lakh for shutdowns from
January 31 to April 20. This is the estimate of only 32 garment companies.
The stories of the remaining 5,500 garment factories are inferred, Islam
said. This year the first hartal was observed by BNP-led 18-party alliance on
January 31.
The alarming news for Bangladesh is that the exports of clothing items from
Vietnam increased by 22 percent while from Cambodia by 15 percent
recently. It means that we are losing our businesses to our competitors. In
January-March, the garment makers incurred losses worth Tk 390 crore for
expensive air shipment for delayed production.

While differentiating between normal and air shipments, Islam said in sea
routes, it costs only 30 cents to send one kilogram (kg) of goods, but in air
shipment the cost reaches to $4.15 for one kg, a 1,280 percent high. The
businessmen are trying to resolve political crisis through the apex trade body
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the Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry. The


businessmen are scheduled to gather April 26 in Dhaka to form opinions
regarding the current political situation and businesses.
Voicing deep concern at the fresh spell of countrywide shutdown calls,
apparel sectors trade bodies BGMEA and BKMEA on Sunday said the
exporters had to count additional losses of around Tk 250 crore because of
air shipments due to hartals in January and February alone.Export orders
worth US$ 2.2 million of 15 factories have so far been cancelled due to
frequent hartal timely shipments of export goods worth US$ 7.8 million
through seaway have become uncertain also because of shutdowns, they
said in a joint statement.It also said the buyers demanded about US$ 0.7
million discount as the exporters failed to make the shipments timely (due to
hartal) while the exporters had to count air freights worth US$ 1.71 million.
The BNP-led 18-party and Hefajat-e-Islam Bangladesh separately called
hartals for three days from Monday. For the sake of the national economy,
especially to save the RMG sector, BGMEA and BKMEA request the political
parties concerned to call the hartals off, the statement said.
The trade bodies urged the political parties to look for alternative and
peaceful political programmer to hartals. The statement said many exporters
have been facing problems like air freight, discount, cancellation and
deferred payment following the hartals. The exporters said many people
would simply turn jobless overnight if the existence of the countrys
readymade garment sector is endangered for reasons like political instability.
The countrys present economy does not have the strength to endure the
burden of joblessness of a large number of people, they said. Bangladesh
Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) and Bangladesh
Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BKMEA) said hartal will
impede the growth, discourage investment, and slow down export putting
employment at risk. The statement noted that the export-oriented garment
industries in the country have already been affected badly due to the global
economic downtrend and gas and electricity crises. It said the economy will
be hit hard by frequent hartals and it will not be able to overcome the losses
as over 40 lakh people directly and 4 crore indirectly involved in the RMG
sector. The BGMEA and the BKMEA think that Bangladesh is maintaining a
stable economic growth as a stable political environment is essential to
maintain its continuation.

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Chapter-4
Recommendation
and Conclusion

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Recommendation
It is necessary to follow some alternative of hartal as it is bringing detriments
and adverse impact on society.
i) Hunger strike is a non-violent program. Anna Hazare, a renowned person,
through hunger strike realized many demands.
ii) Silent procession can be observed across the country without obstructing
running vehicles on the roads.
iii) Grand rally can be arranged in all divisional towns. The government's
mistakes can be criticized in a democratic way.
iv) The opposition party can go to parliament where they can point out
government's mistakes. If the ruling party does not give any scope to discuss
in parliament, then they can walk out repeatedly, but they should not
boycott parliament. The people would realize that the opposition party wants
to have discussion with the government but they are not given any scope. It
will brighten their image, which will help in the general election late.

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Conclusion
Volatile political environment has often disrupted commodity supply chains
which had an adverse impact on the prices of daily essentials. Robust
remittance inflow, on the other hand, had a positive impact on domestic
consumption demand. Overall, the easing of inflationary pressure was
accompanied by low level of economic activities. One should also be mindful
to the fact that price level has continued to remain high in spite of some
decline in the inflation rate because of past high trends. There are a number
adjustment measures already deployed by both government and non
government agents. One needs to recognize the fact that effective policy
space in this context is extremely limited Indeed, macroeconomic policy
instruments are inadequate as Institutions remain paralyzed due to political
agitations

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Reference

1. http://newagebd.com/detail.php?date=2013-0404&nid=45004
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_hartal_in_Bangladesh
3. http://greenwatchbd.com/hartal-cost-rmg-sectors-tk-250crso-far/
4. http://www.brachrd.org/hartal_view.php?page=1
5. http://archive.thedailystar.net/beta2/news/a-country-ofhartals/
6. http://www.cpd.org.bd/downloads/Bangladesh2013.pdf

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