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is working and simultaneously keeping the track of what consumer thinks about it. Currently there are two technologies on which mobile companies are working. To start with most operators are using GSM (Global System for Mobile) which is very successful in the market. GSM dominates the market as most of the service providers are using this technology to give service to consumers. Another technology is CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) which is radically a new concept in wireless communications. The main difference between
these two technologies is that GSM assigns different frequency to different users at a given point of time while CDMA assigns only one frequency to all its users. All the companies in the market are using one out of the given two technologies to provide service to the consumers. But breaking this trend out Reliance communications is the only company which is working with both GSM as well as CDMA technology simultaneously. Reliance has entered very recently with the GSM service but has taken up the pace pretty well. As Reliance Communications has just entered into GSM market so it is worth noting what consumers feel about it. This report also conveys information about the mobile service
providers like Aircel, Airtel, BSNL, Idea, Reliance, Tata Indicom, Virgin and Vodafone. It contains an overview of current players working in the market with their market shares, policies, different trends and innovations. It clearly tells us that Airtel is leading the chart when it comes to market share followed by Reliance Communications and other companies are also not far behind. Reliance Communications is a part of Anil Dhirubhai Ambani (ADA) Group, an offshoot of the Reliance Group founded by Shri Dhirubhai Ambani (1932-2002), ranks among India’s top three private sector business houses in terms of net worth. The group has other businesses Mutual like Reliance Energy, Life Reliance Fund,
Insurance, Reliance General Insurance and Reliance Portfolio Management. For the above mentioned objective the first and foremost thing which was done that to figure out what consumer thinks about it. Different consumers were asked about the technologies - GSM and CDMA. Most of the consumers were unaware of what these are all about. Next step was to visit the retail shops and take their views and reviews. For this different types of retailers and distributors were asked the same question but more or less responses were the same For achieving the objective survey was conducted through questionnaires by personally interviewing each respondent on a number of queries structured in questionnaire.
The data thus collected through survey was organized in a database, which could be referred for future endorsements. The data thus collected was subjected to analysis by a mixture of common and advanced statistical technique. It was found in the survey that many consumers are using CDMA technology but still it is far behind when we compare it with GSM and consumers are not aware how these technologies are working.
TELECOM OVERVIEW Telecom Industry in India
The Indian telecommunications industry is one of the fastest growing in the world and India is projected to become the second largest telecom market globally by 2010. India added 113.26 million new customers in 2008, the largest globally. In April 2008, India had already overtaken the US as the second largest wireless market. With an average 9.5 million customers added every month. The telecom penetration is over 33%.
This means that 1/3 Indians has a telephone connection. History of Indian Telecommunications Started in 1851 when the first operational land lines were laid by the government near Calcutta (seat of British power). Telephone services were introduced in India in 1881. In 1883 telephone services were merged with the postal system. in Indian 1947, Radio all Telegraph the foreign were Company (IRT) was formed in 1923. After independence telecommunication companies
nationalized to form the Posts, Telephone and Telegraph (PTT), a monopoly run by the government's Ministry of Communications.
Telecom sector was considered as a strategic service and the government considered it best to bring under state's control.
telecommunications sector began to flow in 1980s when the private sector was allowed in telecommunications manufacturing. In 1985, equipment Department of
Telecommunications (DOT) was established. It was an exclusive provider of domestic and long-distance service that would be its own regulator (separate from the postal system). In 1986, two wholly government-owned companies were created: the Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) for international
telecommunications Telephone Nigam
Mahanagar (MTNL) for
service in metropolitan areas. In 1990s, telecommunications sector benefited from the general opening up of the economy. Also, examples of telecom revolution in many other countries, which resulted in better quality of service and lower tariffs, led Indian policy makers to initiate a change process finally resulting in opening up of telecom services sector for the private sector. National Telecom Policy (NTP) 1994 was the first attempt to give a comprehensive roadmap for the Indian telecommunications sector. In 1997, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was created. TRAI was formed to act
as a regulator to facilitate the growth of the telecom sector. New National Telecom Policy was adopted in 1999 and cellular services were also launched in the same year. Telecommunication sector in India can be divided into two segments: Fixed Service Provider (FSPs), and Cellular Services. Fixed line services consist of basic services, national or domestic long distance and international long distance services. Private services focus on the business/corporate sector, and offer reliable, high- end services, such as leased lines, ISDN, closed user group and videoconferencing. Cellular services can be further divided into
two categories: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The GSM sector is dominated by Airtel and Vodafone, while the CDMA sector is dominated by Reliance and Tata Indicom. Opening up of international and domestic long distance telephony services are the major growth drivers for cellular industry. Cellular operators get substantial revenue from these services, and compensate them for reduction in tariffs on airtime, which along with rental was the main source of revenue. The reduction in tariffs for airtime, national long distance, international long distance, and handset prices has driven demand.
Fixed Service Provider
Companies in Telecom Sector
Aircel Airtel Bsnl Idea Reliance Tata Indicom Virgin Mobile Vodafone
Aircel Limited Headquarters Chennai, India Chairman: C Key people Sivasankaran COO : Gurdeep Singh Aircel is a mobile phone service provider in India. venture Aircel between Ltd was founded by NRI businessman C Sivasankaran. Aircel is a joint Maxis of Communications with Maxis Berhad of Malaysia and Apollo Hospital Enterprise India Communications holding a majority stake of 74%. It is India’s seventh largest GSM mobile
service provider with a subscriber base of over 16 million. The company plans to become a pan-India operator by 2009. Aircel are one of the sponsors of the Indian Premier League Cricket Team Chennai Super Kings captained by Mahendra Singh Dhoni.It is also the sponsor for Professional Golf Tour of India from 2009 onwards. VISION: Become the Service Provider of Choice for the Enterprise Segment MISSION:
Entry into top 1,000
corporate as the most agile service provider
Create well differentiated value
offerings for ready adoption by large, medium and small enterprises
Own service offerings, platform and delivery mechanism that keeps ahead of competition now and during technology shifts
Bharti Airtel New Headquarters Delhi, India Chairman: Key people Net Profit 2008-2009 Increase in Net Profit USP Mr. Sunil Mittal Rs. 8470 Crore 26% Network
Bharti Airtel, formerly known as Bharti TeleVentures LTD (BTVL) is India's largest cellular service provider with more than 92 million subscribers as of February 2009. It also offers fixed line services and broadband services. It offers its TELECOM services under the Airtel brand and is headed by Sunil Bharti Mittal. The company also provides telephone services and Internet access over DSL in 14 circles. It also acts as a carrier for national and international long distance communication services. The company has a submarine cable landing station at Chennai, which connects the submarine cable connecting Chennai and Singapore.
The businesses at Bharti Airtel have been structured into three individual strategic business units (SBU’s) - Mobile Services, Airtel Telemedia Services & Enterprise Services. The mobile business provides mobile & fixed wireless services using GSM technology across 23 telecom circles while the Airtel Telemedia Services business offers broadband & telephone services in 95 cities and has recently launched a Direct-to-Home (DTH) service, Airtel digital TV. The company provides end-to-end data and enterprise services to the corporate customers through its nationwide fiber optic backbone, last mile connectivity in fixed-line and mobile circles, VSATs, ISP and international
bandwidth access through the gateways and landing station. Globally, Bharti Airtel is the 3rd largest incountry mobile operator by subscriber base, behind China Mobile and China Unicom. VISION:
By 2010 AIRTEL will be the most admirable brand in India. Loved by more customer Targeted by top talented Benchmark by more business First private telecommunication company to launch long distance services.
We will meet the mobile communication needs of our customer through error free service delivery Innovative product and services Cost efficiency Unified message solution
[ Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited] BSNL Availability Founded Owner Key people India wide except Delhi and Mumbai 19th century, incorporated 2000 The Government of India Kuldeep Goyal (CMD)
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (known as BSNL, India Communications Corporation Limited) is a public sector telecommunication
company in India Its headquarters are at Bharat Sanchar Bhawan, Harish Chandra Mathur Lane, Janpath, New Delhi. It has the status of Mini Ratna, a status assigned to reputed public sector companies in India. BSNL is India's oldest and largest
Communication Service Provider (CSP). It has footprints throughout India except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi which are managed by MTNL.
To become the largest telecom Service Provider in Asia.
Mission: • To provide world class State-of-art technology telecom services to its customers on demand at competitive prices. • To provide world class telecom infrastructure in its area of operation and to contribute to the growth of the country's economy.
Idea Cellular Indore, Delhi, Pune, Headquarters India Chairman: Kumar Mangalam Birla Key people MD: Sanjeev Aga VP Corporate Affairs: Rajat Mukharjee Net Profit 20082009 Decrease in Net Profit Rs. 10.423 billion 6.42%
company operating in various states in India. It initially started in 1995 as a joint venture among the Tatas, Aditya Birla Group and AT&T by merging "'Wings Cellular'" operating in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh (UP) West, Rajasthan and Tata Cellular as well as Birla AT&T Communications. Idea Cellular won the GSM Association Award for "Best Billing and Customer Care Solution" for 2 consecutive years.
To delight their customer while meeting their individual communication needs anytime anywhere Mission: 1. The India footprint Idea o Anywhere connectivity - bringing India closer. 2. The Technology Advantage Idea o Tomorrow's technology to enrich today. 3. The Customer Focus Idea o Make a single interaction a lasting relationship. 4. The Employee Focus Idea
o Nurture the roots that nurture our ideas.
Reliance Communications Limited Navi Headquarters Mumbai, India Chairman: Mr. Anil D Key people Ambani. Products CDMA service, GSM service, Broadband Internet
Net Profit 2008-2009 Increase in Net Profit USP Reliance
Service Rs 5907.55 crore 9% Unlimited (formerly
Reliance Infocomm), along with Reliance Telecom and Flag Telecom, is part of Reliance Communications Ventures (RCoVL). It is an Indian telecommunications company. According to National Stock Exchange data, Anil Dhirubhai Ambani controls 66.77 per cent of the company, which accounts for more than 1.36 billion shares. It is the flagship company of the Reliance-Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, comprising
(Reliance Capital) and telecom initiatives of the Reliance ADAG. It uses CDMA2000 1x technology for its existing CDMA mobile services, GSM services. Reliance Communications is also into and GSM-900/GSM-1800 technology for its existing/newly launched
Wireline Business throughout India and has the largest optical fiber communication (OFC) backbone architecture [roughly 110,000 km] in the country. Reliance Communications has interests in Direct to Home (DTH) TV also, known as "Big TV". It plans to launch its DTH business by July 2008. Once launched, Reliance
Communications will have presence across all B2C communications channel in one of the fastest growing markets in the world. Vision: “We will leverage our strengths to execute complex global-scale projects to facilitate leading-edge information and communication services affordable to all individual consumers and businesses in India. We will offer unparalleled value to create customer delight and enhance business productivity. We will also generate value for our
capabilities beyond Indian borders and enable millions of India's knowledge workers to deliver their services globally.”
Tata Communications Navi Headquarters Mumbai, India Chairman: Mr. Ratan N. Tata, Key people Managing Director: Anil Kumar Net Profit
Sardana Rs. 3,158
million Superior Voice Clarity
Tata Teleservices Limited (TTSL) is a part of the Tata Group of companies, an Indian conglomerate. It operates under the brand name Tata Indicom in various telecom circles of India. The company forms part of the Tata Group's presence in the Telecommunication Industry in India, along with Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra) Limited (TTML) and TATA COMMUNICATIONS LTD. In February this year, TTSL announced that it would provide CDMA mobile services targeted towards the youth, in a joint venture
with Virgin, UK,on a Franchisee model basis. Interestingly, Virgin Mobile is a direct competitor of TTSL in a number of telecom circles across the country. Tata Teleservices is part of the Tata Group, that has over 87 companies, over 330,000 employees and more than 2.8 million shareholders. Tata Teleservices spearheads the Group’s presence in the telecom sector. Having pioneered platform the in CDMA India, 3G1x Tata technology
Teleservices has established 3G ready telecom infrastructure. It partnered with Motorola, Ericsson, Lucent and ECI Telecom for the deployment of its telecom network. MISSION:
Invest in building long-lasting relationships with customers and partners and lead the industry in responsiveness and flexibility. VISION: Deliver a new world of communications to advance the reach and leadership of our customers
Virgin Mobile Headquarters England Key People Chairman : Mr. Richard Brandson Virgin Mobile is a brand used by many mobile phone service providers based in the United Kingdom, and operating in India, Australia, Canada, South Africa, the United States and France; the brand survived only briefly in Singapore. The international Virgin Mobile businesses each act as independent entities, usually in a partnership between Sir Richard
Branson's Virgin Group and an existing phone company. Virgin Group provides the brand, and the phone company operates the network infrastructure. Virgin Mobile was the world's first Mobile Virtual Network Operator when it launched in the United Kingdom in 1999. It does not maintain its own network but instead contracts to use the existing network(s) of other providers.
Vodafone Essar Limited Rs.11.8 Net Profit billion Increase in 16.7% Net Profit Mumbai, Headquarters Maharastra, India Value Added Service Vodafone Essar, previously Hutchison Essar is a cellular operator in India that covers 23 telecom circles in India . Despite the official
name being Vodafone Essar, its products are simply branded Vodafone. It offers both prepaid and postpaid GSM cellular phone coverage throughout India with good presence in the metros. Vodafone Essar provides 2.75G services based on 900 MHz and 1800 MHz digital GSM technology, offering voice and data services in 23 of the country's 23 licence areas. It is among the top three GSM mobile operators of India. VISION: To be the world’s mobile communications leader-enrich customers’ lives and helping individuals, business and communities. Be more connected in mobile world
MISSION: • Driving in wireless world. Vodafone is primarily a user of technology rather than developer of it
Market Share (2008-2009): Companies Subscriber Base (Mn) Market Share March’09 AIRCEL AIRTEL BPL BSNL IDEA MTNL RELIANCE Tata 16.76 88.38 2.00 47.58 40.02 4.30 66.30 32.79 (%) 4.63 24.44 0.55 13.16 11.07 1.18 18.34 9.07 17.52 100
AIRCEL AIRTEL BPL BSNL IDEA MTNL RELIANCE Tata Teleservices VODAFONE
Teleservices Relative Market Share VODAFONE 63.34 25 TOTAL 361.49 Source: COAI & TRAI
15 10 5 0
44 Companies Share %
90 80 70 60 Subs 50 In Mn 40 30 20 10 0 Com panies
AIRCEL AIRTEL BPL BSNL IDEA MTNL RELIANCE Tata Teleservices VODAFONE
AIRTEL is the market leader holding 24.44%.
NOTE: It has a subscriber base of 88.38 million customers.
RELIANCE is challenging Airtel with 18.34% market share.
NOTE: It’s subscriber base is around 66.30 million customer which includes CDMA as well as GSM subscriber.
Vodafone is not far behind following with 17.52% market share.
NOTE: It is catching up with 63.34 million customers.
BSNL is the public sector telecom which holds 13.16% of the market share.
NOTE: Subscriber base of 47.58 million customers.
IDEA is also fighting hard in the market and its market share is 11.07%
NOTE: It has subscriber base of 40.02 million customers.
TATA TELESERVICES is trying hard to cope up with other service providers with 9.07% of market share.
NOTE: Subscriber base of 32.79 million customers.
Aircel has increased its circles and is no. 7 in the list with 4.63% of market share.
NOTE: It has subscriber base of 16.76 million customers.
MTNL works only in Delhi and Mumbai still it has market share of 1.18%.
NOTE: It is having 4.30 million customers.
BPL is the last one in the list with 0.55% market share.
NOTE: BPL has 2 million customers.
This can be seen that the direct competition of Reliance is with Vodafone. Both are working head-to-head. They are fighting for the second position spot in the industry. Reliance with 18.34% of the market share is the first company in the history of India to have CDMA as well as GSM service. Though it is a leader in CDMA service but when it comes to GSM service it still has to climb mountains.
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New Entrants • Videocon-promoted Datacom • Unitech • Etisalat’s - Swan Telecom • Loop Telecom The above mentioned providers will be given 4.4 MHz spectrum for starting the GSM-based cellular services. The move indicates that the Communication Ministry is all set to allocate radio frequencies to the new players in other Circles as well. A number of companies have gone to court contesting the Government’s policy of allocating spectrum on a first-come52
first-served basis. DoT had earlier released CDMA spectrum to Sistema backed Shyam Telelink across 12 circles. New operators could result in lower tariffs and better quality of services for consumers.The Government is also looking at introducing mobile number portability which would make it easy for existing subscribers to new operator without giving up on their phone number
Company Profile: Reliance Communications The Late Dhirubhai Ambani dreamt of a digital India — an India where the common man would have access to affordable means of information and communication. Dhirubhai, who single-handedly built India’s largest private sector company virtually from scratch, had stated as early as 1999: “Make the tools of information and communication available to people at an affordable cost. They will overcome the handicaps of illiteracy and lack of mobility.” It was with this belief in mind that Reliance Communications (formerly
kilometres of a pan-India fibre optic backbone. This backbone was commissioned on 28 December 2002, the auspicious occasion of Dhirubhai’s 70th birthday, though sadly after his unexpected demise on 6 July 2002. Reliance Communications has a reliable, highcapacity, integrated (both wireless and wireline) and convergent (voice, data and video) digital network. It is capable of delivering a range of services spanning the entire infocomm value (information chain, and communication) including
infrastructure and services — for enterprises as well as individuals, applications, and consulting.
revolutionising the way India communicates and networks, truly bringing about a new way of life.
About Sh. Dhirubhai Ambani
Few men in history have made as dramatic a contribution to their country’s economic fortunes as did the founder of Reliance, Sh. Dhirubhai H Ambani. Fewer still have left
behind a legacy that is more enduring and timeless. As with all great pioneers, there is more than one unique way of describing the true genius of Dhirubhai: The corporate visionary, the unmatched strategist, the proud patriot, the leader of men, the architect of India’s capital markets, the champion of shareholder interest. But the role Dhirubhai cherished most was perhaps that of India’s greatest wealth creator. In one lifetime, he built, starting from the proverbial scratch, India’s largest private sector enterprise.
When Dhirubhai embarked on his first business venture, he had a seed capital of barely US$ 300 (around Rs 14,000). Over the next three and a half decades, he converted this fledgling enterprise into a Rs 60,000 crore colossus—an achievement which earned Reliance a place on the global Fortune 500 list, the first ever Indian private company to do so. Dhirubhai is widely regarded as the father of India’s capital markets. In 1977, when Reliance Textile Industries Limited first went public, the Indian stock market was a place patronised by a small club of elite investors which dabbled in a handful of stocks.
Undaunted, Dhirubhai managed to convince a large number of first-time retail investors to participate in the unfolding Reliance story and put their hard-earned money in the Reliance Textile IPO, promising them, in exchange for their trust, substantial return on their investments. It was to be the start of one of great stories of mutual respect and reciprocal gain in the Indian markets. Under Dhirubhai’s extraordinary vision and leadership, Reliance scripted one of the greatest growth stories in corporate history anywhere in the world, and went on to become India’s largest private sector enterprise.
Through out this amazing journey, Dhirubhai always kept the interests of the ordinary shareholder uppermost in mind, in the process making millionaires out of many of the initial investors in the Reliance stock, and creating one of the world’s largest shareholder families.
India’s leading integrated telecom company Reliance Communications is the flagship company of the Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (ADAG) of companies. Listed on the National Stock Exchange and the Bombay Stock Exchange, it is India’s leading integrated telecommunication company with over 77 million customers. Our business encompasses a complete range of telecom services covering mobile and fixed line telephony. It includes broadband, national and international long distance services and data services along with an exhaustive range of value-added services and applications. Our constant endeavour is to achieve customer
delight by enhancing the productivity of the enterprises and individuals we serve. Reliance Mobile (formerly Reliance India Mobile), launched on 28 December 2002, coinciding with the joyous occasion of the late Dhirubhai Ambani’s 70th birthday, was among the initial initiatives of Reliance Communications. It marked the auspicious beginning of Dhirubhai’s dream of ushering in a digital revolution in India. Today, we can proudly claim that we were instrumental in harnessing the true power of information and communication, by bestowing it in the hands of the common man at affordable rates.
We endeavour to further extend our efforts beyond the traditional value chain by developing and deploying complete telecom solutions for the entire spectrum of society.
Looking back, looking forward Reliance – Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group, an offshoot of the Reliance Group founded by Shri Dhirubhai H Ambani (1932-2002), ranks among India’s top three private sector business houses in terms of net worth. The group has business interests that range from telecommunications Communications Limited) to (Reliance financial
services (Reliance Capital Ltd) and the generation and distribution of power (Reliance Infrastructure Limited). Reliance – ADA Group’s flagship company, Reliance Communications, is India's largest private sector information and communications company, with over 77
million subscribers. It has established a panIndia, high-capacity, integrated (wireless and wireline), convergent (voice, data and video) digital network, to offer services spanning the entire infocomm value chain. Other major group companies — Reliance Capital and Reliance Infrastructure — are widely acknowledged as the market leaders in their respective areas of operation.
Reliance EnergyReliance Mutual Fund Ltd.
Reliance Harmony Communications
Reliance Life Dhirubhai Group
Portfolio Reliance GeneralReliance Management Service Insurance
Chairman's Profile Anil D. Ambani
Regarded as one of the foremost corporate leaders of contemporary India,Shri Anil D Ambani, 48, is the chairman of all listed companies of the Reliance ADA Group, namely, Reliance Communications, Reliance Capital, Reliance Energy and Reliance Natural Resources limited. He is also Chairman of the Board of Governors of Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology, Gandhi Nagar, Gujarat.
Till recently, he also held the post of Vice Chairman and Managing Director of Reliance Industries Limited (RIL), India’s largest private sector enterprise. Anil D Ambani joined Reliance in 1983 as Co-Chief Executive Officer, and was centrally involved in every aspect of the company’s management over the next 22 years. He is credited with having pioneered a number of path-breaking financial innovations in the Indian capital markets. He spearheaded the country’s first forays into the overseas capital markets with international public offerings of global depositary receipts, convertibles and bonds. Starting in 1991, he directed Reliance Industries in its efforts to raise over US$ 2
billion. He also steered the 100-year Yankee bond issue for the company in January 1997. Acquisitions In its first overseas acquisition, the Reliance group has amalgamated the United Statesbased Flag Telecom for $ 211 million [roughly Rs 950 crore (Rs 9.50 billion)]. Nationwide GSM Launch On the 30th December 2008, Reliance Communications became the first telecom operator in the history of Indian telecommunications to simultaneously launch its GSM services in 14 circles, namely Andhra Pradesh, Chennai, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir,
Maharashtra, Mumbai, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh(East & West) thereby establishing itself as a pan-India operator.It already operates GSM services in 8 circles namely Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Kolkata, Madhya Pradesh, North Eastern states, Orissa, West Bengal.
Division of Reliance Communications
Reliance communications have been divided into four main heads:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Home Enterprise Business Personal Business Shared Services
Home: Home is further divided into three sub heads: • Big T.V • Big F.M • Big Artist Enterprise Business: This is business to business unit. In this business is done for big enterprises. Main businesses are done for: • Companies
A.T.M Personal Business: It is a unit which deals directly with consumers. The main parts of this unit are: • Mobile • Data Shared Services: This unit is mainly made for backup and support. FLAG Telecom is a part of shared services and includes: • Technical Services • Commercial Services • SAP Team.
Sales and Distribution Channel
Retail Mobile Store
Direct Selling Team Subscribers
Firstly Stock reaches circle warehouse from the main warehouse. This Warehouse is the head of the Circle. Circle warehouse passes it to different cluster warehouse. There are eight
cluster warehouses in UP (E). They are Allahabad, Jhansi, Varanasi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Gorakhpur, Faizabad and Sitapur. From here stocks are forwarded to Distributor. Distributor gives it to retailers and Retail Mobile Store (RMS) Retailer sells directly to subscribers while RMS gives it to Direct Selling Team (DST) which ultimately sells it to subscribers.
Regional Head UP (East & West) CEO (Cluster Head)
Customer Service Delivery Head Commercial Head
Marketing & Sales Head HR Head
Usage and Retention Head
Retail Head (Post paid)
Conceptual Review 1. GSM 2. CDMA GSM (Global Communication) This is one of the most used and famous mobile communication technology which uses TDMA, together . TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access SDMA: Space Division Multiple Access FDMA and SDMA techniques System for Mobile
Working: Voice or data communication uses
modulation technique to transfer data. In modulation, transfer is done using higher frequency. In order to communicate, particular frequency is required or assigned to a user. FDMA: Frequency division multiple access is a technique which is used to divide frequency band such that more number of users can communicate. GSM 900, 1800, 2100 are some types of GSM implementation based on frequency. In GSM
900 – 890 MHz to 960 MHz frequency band is assigned out of which 890 to 915 MHz is uplink frequency that means in this transfer is done from mobile entity to base station & 935 to 960 MHz is downlink frequency that means in this transfer is done from base station to mobile station. 25 MHz each assigned for uplink band as well as downlink band. These bands are divided in channels of 200 KHz in which transfer actually happens for a particular user. So there are 125 channels for each band. This division of frequency is termed as FDMA. Each user is assigned with one uplink and one downlink channel.
TDMA: Time division multiple access is a technique in which users are provided channel for a particular unit of time and then it is assigned to others. We as human cannot catch changes if they are occurring faster then what we can receive for example Video (we can’t see changes in picture because of fast speed of change).So for lots of time channel is free. So we can assign
particular channel to particular person and then to other. For doing this time is divided in slots (Time division multiplexing) and for particular slot is allocated to user. This also helps in increasing number of users.
SDMA: Space division multiple access is a technique in which number of user are increased by reusing frequencies by repeating them over different cell for which space are divide into smaller units named as space. Each cell has base station and has particular number of frequencies associated to it and
they are not repeated over adjacent cell this is done to avoid inter frequency disturbance.
Each hexagon here represents cell and color shows channel. This diagram then clearly shows the reuse of frequency channel and difference between them is kept such to avoid disturbance.
Code Division Multiple Access, a cellular technology competes orginally with known as IS-95, for GSM technology
dominance in the cellular world. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a radically new concept in wireless communications. It has gained widespread international acceptance by cellular radio system operators as an upgrade that will dramatically increase both their system capacity and the service quality. This uses SDMA and CDMA technique together. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
SDMA: Space Division Multiple Access CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access, is different than those traditional ways in that it does not allocate frequency or time in user slots but gives the right to use both to all users simultaneously. To do this, it uses a technique known as Spread Spectrum. In effect, each user is assigned a code which spreads its signal bandwidth in such a way that only the same code can recover it at the receiver end. This method has the property that the unwanted signals with different codes get spread even more by the process, making them like noise to the receiver.
Example, Assume there is party going on in a room in which people of different country are present and if there is one person speaks in French and other in Chinese .If there is a listener who knows French he /she will listen to everything but will discard other languages but will only take out French word and deduce meaning. This is a concept in which CDMA works. Every user has a particular code according to which it communicates. Usually computer works on 0 and 1. Now when CDMA is used each user uses different code word to represent
0 or 1. Like there is a user A who sent 0 as 100101 (this will be code) and one will be 011010. In CDMA all the data is send on same frequency but code used by all the users are orthogonal because of which data can be differentiated after getting mixed and there is no disturbance.
CDMA is a form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum communications. In general, Spread Spectrum communications is distinguished by three key elements: 1. The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary to send
the information. This results in many benefits, such as immunity to interference and jamming and multi-user access, which we'll discuss later on. 2. The bandwidth is spread by means of a code which is independent of the data. The independence of the code distinguishes this from standard modulation schemes in which the data modulation will always spread the spectrum somewhat. 3. The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data. The use of an independent code and synchronous reception allows multiple users to access the same frequency band at the same time.
Comparison: Properties Method of multiple Access GSM SDMA FDMA TDMA Interference/Voice More Clarity Interference because of frequency sharing. So lesser clarity. Security Lesser secure CDMA SDMA CDMA Less Interference. This result in better voice clarity More secure transmission because of code word used. Limited coverage.
Available in most of countries. So better coverage. More
because of fewer cell site Hand over Hard and Soft soft handover, handover resulting in both are better call possible but handling usually call while is lost. mobile is moving Noise Immunity Lesser More Immune Immune Transmission Require Require power more power lesser power Data Transfer Lesser in Better speed speed comparison to CDMA Latest Technology EDGE WCDMA having potential of providing better transfer speed than
earlier CDMA but has comparable speed to WCDMA
1. Objective of the study This project aims at understanding the CDMA and GSM technology keeping consumer perspective in mind. Consumer is taken as king so to know about his preference and meeting it is the most significant thing for the management as it provides useful information for decision making. Thus objectives of the study include: • To know the difference between CDMA
and GSM technology.
To know about consumer perspective when it comes to CDMA and GSM.
• To analyze the preference of consumer towards different CDMA and GSM service providers. 2. Sample of the study Convenient Sampling method has been
adopted for this study. The population covered for the present study consisted of students, private employees, government
employees, businessman, housewife and self93
employed people. The study covered a sample of 200
respondents belonging to Lucknow region. 3. Methodology of the project The project work has been carried out in three stages, a structured questionnaire with
objective and question was communicated tested and finalize. During the second stage, personally each questionnaire was filled up by interviewing the respondents. The work relating to data entry compilation, data analysis and report writing constituted the
third stage. The details of the methodology adopted are presented below: The Questionnaire Keeping in view the objective of the study, questionnaire was designed and tested on 20 respondents. After getting the proper response and sanction from the concerned department the questionnaire was finalized. Data entry and analysis It has been an uphill task to enter the enormous data received
questionnaire which consisted more than 10 questions.
4. Limitations of the Study: Time was not sufficient to conduct
detailed study. Study has been conducted only in a few areas of Lucknow For few questions researcher was not
able to get proper response which are as follows:
Reasons for Switching
ii. GSM and CDMA as a technology. iii. Monthly Income.
Data Analysis & Interpretations Table 1: Preference towards Mobile Services Service Type CDMA GSM Total Respondents(200) 56 144 In % 28% 72%
Chart I: Preference towards Mobile Services
Interpretation Out of the given respondents 28% are using CDMA services while rest 72% GSM users. It clearly denotes the demonomancy of GSM users in the market.
CDMA Study Table 2: Type of CDMA Users Service Type Total Respondents Prepaid Postpaid ( 56) 44 12 79% 21% In %
Chart II: Type of CDMA Users
Interpretation Out of 56 who are using CDMA services 79% are prepaid users and rest 21% are using postpaid service.
Table 3 : Preference towards CDMA service provider Service Providers Reliance Tata Indicom Virgin Total Respondents ( 56) 40 12 4 72% 21% 7% In %
Chart III: Preference towards CDMA service provider
21% Reliance Tata Indicom Virgin
Interpretation The CDMA market is dominated by Reliance as 72% are using Reliance service, 21% are using Tata Indicom while only 7% are Virgin users.
Table 4 : Influencer for CDMA Service Service Providers Advertisement Friends & Family Dealer Feel good Offers Total Respondents ( 56) 10 14 5 12 15 18 % 25 % 9% 21% 27 % In %
Chart IV : Influencer for CDMA Service
18% 27% Advertisement Friends & Family Dealer Feel good 25% Offers
Interpretation Main factor which made consumers to buy CDMA mobiles are its Offers with 27%, 25% purchased because of their Friends and Family, 21% bought due to Feel Good factor, 18% bought it after seeing Advertisement and 9% got influenced from Dealer.
Table 5 : Monthly Expense (CDMA users) Service Providers Below 150 Between 150 - 300 Between 300450 Between 450 - 600 600 & Above Total Respondents ( 56) 12 10 16 12 6 21 % 18 % 29 % 21 % 11 % In %
Chart V : Monthly Expense (CDMA users)
Below 150 Between 150 - 300 Between 300-450 Between 450 - 600 18% 600 & Above
Interpretation 29% of the respondent spends between Rs.300-450, 21% spends between Rs.450-600, 21% spends below Rs.150, 18% spends between Rs.150-300 while 11% spends Rs.600 & above.
Table 6 : Preferred Features (CDMA Users) Weight Assigne d Features Call Rates SMS Rates MMS & GPRS Rates Network Voice Clarity 0 2 8 4 8 4 1 6 0 1 2 8
4 3 2 Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 2 8 2 1 6 2 1 6 2 1 2 8 4 1 0 8 2 0 2 4 4
6 Total age 0 0 3 6 0 4 100 9 232 20 236 20
268 22 208 18
Value Added Services 4 0 8 4 2 4 1 6 132 11
Chart VI : Preferred Features (CDMA Users)
Call Rates SMS Rates MMS & GPRS Rates Network 20% Voice Clarity Value Added Services 22%
Interpretation As per the study main preference for features came out to be Network which is leading the
chart with 22%. It is followed by both Call Rates and SMS Rates with 20% each. Third is given to voice clarity with 18% of respondents preferring it. 11% look for Value added services while MMS and GPRS Rates are least preferred with 9%.
Table 7 : Preferred Service Providers (CDMA Users) Weight Assigned 9 Service Provider Aircel Airtel BSNL IDEA Reliance GSM Vodafone 1 0 1 2 4 4 0 1 6 8 7 6 5 Ranking 3 4 1 2 8 8 4 4
4 6 0 1 2 8 4 8 4
3 7 1 2 4 4 4 8 4
2 8 2 0 0 0 4 4 0
1 9 Total 1 2 4 4 4 8 0 156 324 324 320 260 372
2 0 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 8
4 0 8 8 1 2 4 8
5 8 4 8 4 8 1 2
Reliance CDMA TATA Indicom Virgin
1 2 8 0 8 0 4 4 1 2 0 8 4 4 8 4 0 8 8 4 4 1 2 4 4 8 1 6 0 0 2 4 340 284 140
Chart VII : Preferred Service Providers (CDMA Users)
6% 13% Aircel Airtel BSNL IDEA 13% Reliance GSM Vodafone Reliance CDMA TATA Indicom
First preference has come of Vodafone with 15%, Second preference has a mixed responses of Airtel, BSNL, Idea and Reliance CDMA with 13% each, 11% preferred Tata Indicom, 10% are looking for the recent entrant Reliance GSM while last preference can be seen for Aircel and Virgin with 6% each.
Table 8 : Preference towards Number Portability option (CDMA Users) Total Choice Yes No s (56) 42 75 14 25 In
Chart VIII : Preference towards Number Portability option (CDMA Users)
Interpretation 75% of the respondents said they will switch to other network while 25% are against changing their service provider.
Table 9 : Consumer Preference towards Number Portability options (CDMA Users) Total Service Providers Aircel Airtel BSNL IDEA Reliance GSM Vodafone Reliance CDMA TATA Indicom Virgin s (42) 0 6 10 15 2 6 2 0 1 0 14 24 36 5 14 5 0 2 In
Chart IX:Consumer Preference towards Number Portability options (CDMA Users)
0% 5% 14%
0% 14% Aircel Airtel BSNL IDEA 24% Reliance GSM Vodafone Reliance CDMA TATA Indicom Virgin
Interpretation It can be seen that 36% of the users are looking for Idea as their future service provider. 24% have trust in BSNL, Airtel and Vodafone are jointly present at third position with 14% each, Reliance CDMA and Reliance GSM preference is 5% each, Virgin got 2% preference while Aircel and Tata Indicom got 0% preference when it comes to Number Portability option. Personal Profile of CDMA Users
Table 10: Gender Gender Total Respondents Male Female (56) 36 20 Interpretation 64% of the respondents are male while 36% are female. Table 11 : Age Group Age Group Total Respondents
12-25 25-40 40-55 55 & Above
(56) 30 12 8 6 Interpretation
54 21 14 11
54% are between 12-25, 21% are between 4055, 14% are between 40-55 and rest 11% are above 55 years of age.
Table 12 : Occupation Occupation Total Respondents Student Government Employee Private Employee Businessman Housewife Self Employed Interpretation Respondents occupation can be classified as 46% Students, 16% are Private employee, 14% are Government Employee, 11% are
(56) 26 8 9 5 6 2
46 14 16 9 11 4
Housewife, 9% are Businessman while only 4% are Self-Employed. Table 13 : Monthly Income Income Total Respondents Below 5000 5000-15000 15000-30000 30000-45000 45000 & Above Interpretation Respondents Income can be classified as 54% are below Rs.5000, 21% are between Rs.500015000, 11% between Rs.15000-30000, 9%
(56) 30 12 6 5 3
54 21 11 9 5
between Rs.30000-45000 while 5% monthly income exceeds Rs.45000.
Table 14 : Marital Status Total Choice Yes No s (56) 25 45 31 55 Interpretation Out of the 56 respondents 45% are married while 55% are unmarried. In
GSM Study Table 15 : Type of GSM Users Service Type Total Respondents Prepaid Postpaid ( 144) 107 37 74 26 In %
Chart X: Type of GSM Users
Total Respondents ( 144)
Interpretation Out of 144 who are using GSM services 74% are prepaid users and rest 26% are using postpaid service.
Table 16: Preference towards GSM service provider Service Providers Aircel Airtel BSNL IDEA Reliance GSM Vodafone Total Respondents ( 144) 12 35 22 32 15 28 8 25 15 23 10 19 In %
Chart XI: Preference towards GSM service provider
Aircel 25% 10% Airtel BSNL IDEA Reliance GSM Vodafone 23% 15%
Interpretation The GSM market is dominated by Airtel as 25% are using this service, 23% are using Idea, 19% are using Vodafone, 15% are BSNL users, 10% are Reliance GSM users while only 8% are using Aircel.
Table 17 : Influencer for GSM Mobiles Service Providers Advertisement Friends & Family Dealer Feel good Offers Total Respondents ( 144) 45 21 4 24 40 33 16 3 18 30 In %
Chart XII: Influencer for GSM Mobiles
33% Advertisement Friends & Family Dealer Feel good Offers
Interpretation Main factor which made consumers to use GSM service are advertisement with 33%, 30% purchased because of its Offers, 18% bought due to feel good factor, 16% bought it because of Friends and Family and 3% got influenced from dealer.
Table 18 : Monthly Expense (GSM Users) Service Providers Below 150 Between 150 - 300 Between 300450 Between 450 - 600 600 & Above Total Respondents ( 144) 28 45 38 20 13 19 32 26 14 9 In %
Chart XIII: Monthly Expense (GSM Users)
9% 19% 14% Below 150 Between 150 - 300 Between 300-450 Between 450 - 600 600 & Above 26% 32%
Interpretation 32% of the respondent spends between Rs.150-300, 26% spends between Rs.300-450, 14% spends below Rs.150, 19% spends between Rs.450-600 while 9% spends Rs.600 & above.
Table 19 : Preferred Features (GSM Users) Weight Assigne d Features Call Rates SMS Rates MMS & GPRS Rates Network Voice Clarity Value 0 32 16 4 0 4 8 1 6 8 64 28 6 1 5 4 3 2 Ranking 2 3 4 5 4 2 8 2 4 0 2 0 1 6 2 0 4 8 2 8 4 4 2 8 1 6 3 2 1 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 0 4 1 %
6 Total age 0 4 7 6 4 1 2 4 272 9 736 24 552 18
612 20 516 17 336 12
Added Services 0 6 8 8
Chart XIV : Preferred Features (GSM Users)
12% 24% Call Rates 17% SMS Rates MMS & GPRS Rates Network Voice Clarity 18% 20% 9% Value Added Services
Interpretation As per the study main preference for features came out to be Call Rates which is leading the chart with 24%. It is followed by Network with 20%. Third is given to SMS Rates with 18% of respondents preferring it. Fourth
preference is given to voice clarity with 17%, 12% look for Value added services while MMS and GPRS Rates are least preferred with 9%.
Table 20 : Preferred Service Providers (GSM Users) Weight Assigned 9 Service Provider Aircel Airtel BSNL IDEA Reliance GSM Vodafon 1 8 4 8 1 2 2 0 1 2 3 8 7 6 5 Ranking 3 4 2 8 2 4 3 2 8 1 4 4 2 0 2 8 1 6 2 4 1 5 4 4 1 6 3 2 1 6 2
4 6 1 2 4 2 0 1 2 3 2 0
3 7 2 4 4 4 0 2 0 4
2 8 4 0 8 4 4 2 0 0
1 % 9 Total age 4 4 420 6 15 13 14 11 16
2 4 2 4 2 8 2 4 8 4
4 1008 8 4 856 912
4 684 8 1008
e Reliance CDMA TATA Indicom Virgin
6 8 0 0
8 8 0 0
2 2 0 1 2 8
6 2 8 4 0
0 3 6 1 2 4
2 4 3 2 4
1 6 5 6 2 0 0 2 4 4 4 4 4 6 4 772 516 304 12 8 5
Chart XV: Preferred Service Providers (GSM Users)
5% 8% 15% 12% Aircel Airtel BSNL IDEA Reliance GSM 13% 16% Vodafone Reliance CDMA TATA Indicom Virgin 11% 14% 6%
First preference has come of Vodafone with 16% followed by Airtel with 15%, Next preference has come of Idea with 14%, BSNL is fourth preferred brand with 13%, Reliance CDMA is next with 12%,11% are looking for Reliance GSM as next preferred brand, Tata Indicom at seventh spot with 8%, On 8th spot Aircel have come while last in the list can be seen as Virgin with 5%.
Table 21 : Preference towards Number Portability option (GSM Users) Total Choice Yes No s (144) 121 84 23 16 In
Chart XVI: Preference towards Number Portability option (GSM Users)
Interpretation 84% of the respondents said they will switch to other network while 16% are against changing their service provider.
Table 22 : Consumer Preference towards Number Portability options (GSM Users) Total Respondent In %
s (121) Service Providers Aircel 2 2 Airtel 29 24 BSNL 5 4 IDEA 25 21 Reliance GSM 13 11 Vodafone 23 19 Reliance CDMA 16 13 TATA Indicom 5 4 Virgin 3 2 Chart XVII: Consumer Preference towards Number Portability options (GSM Users)
4% 2%2% 13% 24% Aircel Airtel BSNL IDEA Reliance GSM 19% 4% Vodafone Reliance CDMA TATA Indicom Virgin 11% 21%
Interpretation It can be seen that 24% of the users are looking for Airtel as their future service provider. 21% have trust in Idea, Vodafone is present at third position with 19% each, Reliance CDMA is fourth with 13%. Reliance GSM preference is 11%, Tata Indicom and BSNL have 4% each while Aircel and Virgin got 2% each preference when it comes to Number Portability option.
Personal Profile of GSM Users Table 23 : Gender Gender Total Respondents Male Female (144) 85 59 Interpretation 59 41 In %
59% of the respondents are male while 41% are female. Table 24 : Age Group Age Group Total Respondents 12-25 25-40 40-55 55 & Above (144) 44 36 42 22
31 25 29 15
Interpretation 31% are between 12-25, 25% are between 4055, 29% are between 40-55 and rest 15% are above 55 years of age. Table 25 : Occupation Occupation Total Respondents Student Government Employee Private Employee Businessman Housewife Self Employed Interpretation
(144) 48 20 15 11 27 23
33 14 10 8 19 16
Respondents occupation can be classified as 33% Students, 14% are Government Employee, 10% are Private employee, 19% are Housewife, 8% are Businessman while 16% are Self-Employed.
Table 26 : Monthly Income Income Total Respondents Below 5000 5000-15000 15000-30000 30000-45000 45000 & Above Interpretation Respondents Income can be classified as 43% are below Rs.5000, 17% are between Rs.500015000, 13% between Rs.15000-30000, 12% between Rs.30000-45000 while 15% monthly income exceeds Rs.45000. (144) 62 25 19 17 21 43 17 13 12 15 In %
Table 27 : Marital Status Total Choice Yes No Interpretation Out of the 144 respondents 57% are married while 43% are unmarried. s (144) 82 57 64 43 In Respondent %
Mobile Market is dominated by GSM service providers Prepaid consumers are much more than postpaid consumers In CDMA Reliance while in GSM Airtel is leading the chart of market share
Consumer gets more influence from offers in CDMA but when it comes to GSM Advertisements are the main influencer.
Few years back mobile connections were not common among the students. But with the mobile revolution now we can find almost every student with mobile phone. Dominancy of monthly expense in GSM is between Rs.150-300 while in CDMA it is between Rs.300-450.
CDMA users have an inclined towards Network while GSM users have given Call Rates as their main preference. Vodafone ruled the chart for preference of service provider for both CDMA as well as GSM subscribers.
Both CDMA as well as GSM users are not very much satisfied with their existing service providers as more than 75% of them are ready to switch to some other network Idea from CDMA users while Airtel from GSM users have leaded the preference in Number Portability Option.
Consumers are aware only that in GSM different cell phones can be used while in CDMA variety of handsets are limited.
RECOMMENDATIONS From the research study, it has been found out that the Customers are very particular about the Quality of the Telecom services and hence they want Reliance to increase the Quality of their services. Customers were unaware about the new Jaadu Packs provided by Reliance, so effective media campaign is a must to enhance the awareness level. Customer care of Reliance should be improved a lot.
During the rainy season network gets disturb so reliance should work on this to make it better. Customers perceived that the bills are always inflated so steps should be taken in this matter.
Conclusion The telecom industry of India has registered manifold growth in the recent years. Personalized telecom access is essential necessity of life for increasing number of the people. The sector offers unlimited prospects when we consider future growth. Both Public Players and Private Players are enhancing their technologies and taking the telecom industry to a much higher growth state. Not only service providers but also handset manufacturers are contributing significantly to the industry and economy of India. Each Player is introducing new plans due to high competition. New service providers such as Swantel, Unitech etc are coming by the end of
this year in India. So the competition is heating up more day by day. RCOM is emerging as one of the main contributor to this sector. RCOM net profit is up by 9.4% in the FY 09 to RS. 5,908 Crore. It added 11.3 million new subscribers from Jan to March. It is the only telecom service provider in the history of India till date which has CDMA as well as GSM Service simultaneously. Keeping these things in mind it can be said that there are numerous opportunities in this sector it all depends who and grabs it.
BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: • Marketing Research – G. C. Beri • Research Methodology – C.R Kothari • Principles of Marketing – Philip Kotler
http://www.rcom.co.in/webapp/Com munications/rcom/Aboutus/aboutus _home.jsp
http://www.ideacellular.com/IDEA.po rtal? _nfpb=true&_pageLabel=IDEA_Pag e_AboutIdea
• www.wikipedia.org www.economictimes.com www.timesofindia.com www.domainb.com www.businessstandard.com
APPENDIX Questionnaire Dear Sir/Madam, This research is conducted to determine consumer preference for telecom operators in Lucknow. Kindly give your views in this regard and don’t skip any question. 1.
□ □ □ □ □ □ □
Which Mobile Service do you have? GSM CDMA Which type of user are you? Prepaid Postpaid Which Service Provider do you use? Aircel Airtel Bsnl Idea Reliance GSM Vodafone Reliance CDMA
Tata Indicom □ Virgin 4. What made you to go for this mobile service provider? □ Advertisement □ Family and Friends □ Dealer □ Feel Good □ Offers □ Any Other- Specify 5. What is your monthly average expense on your mobile? □ Below 150 □ Between 150-300 □ Between 300-450 □ Between 450-600 □ 600 & Above 6. Rank the following features as per your preference ( 1 to 6):
Features Rank Call Rates Sms Rates MMS and GPRS Rates
Network Voice Clarity Value added services (Where 1-Most Preferred and 6-Least Preferred)
Rate the following Service Provider as per your preference(1 to 9): Service Rank Provider Aircel Airtel Bsnl Idea Reliance GSM Vodafone Reliance CDMA Tata Indicom Virgin (Where 1-Most Preferred and 9-Least Preferred)
Provided Number Portability Option which service provider you would go for and why?
What do you think of GSM and CDMA as a technology? Suggestions ( if any): Personal Profile Gender: M F Age Group: 12-25 25-40 40-55 55 & Above Occupation: Student Government Employee Private Employee Businessman Housewife Self Employed Other – Specify
□ □ □ □
□ □ □ □ □ □ □
□ □ □ □ □
Monthly Income: Below 5000 5000 - 15000 15000 - 30000 30000 - 45000 45000 & Above Marital Status: Yes No Thank You
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