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QUESTIONS

1) Yes/No questions - be
Subject and verb change their position in statement and question.
statement

You are from Germany.

question

Are you from Germany?

We always use the short answer, not only "Yes" or "No". This sounds rude.
NOTE:
If the answer is "Yes", we always use the long form.
Example: Yes, I am.
If the answer is "No", we either use the long or the contracted form (short form).
Example: No, I am not - No, I'm not.
Yes,

am.

No,

am not.
'm not.

your friend?

Yes,

he

is.

from England?

Yes,

they

are.

Are

you

from Germany?

Is

he

Are

Peter and John

2) Questions with question words - be


Question word

Verb

Rest

Answer

Where

are

you from?

I'm from Stuttgart.

What

is

your name?

My name is Peter.

How

are

Pat and Sue?

They're fine.

3) Yes/No Questions and short answers - have

Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Rest

Yes/No

Subject

Auxiliary
(+ n't)

Have

you

got

a cat?

Yes,

have.

Have

you

got

a new car?

No,

we

haven't.

Has

your brother

got

a bike?

Yes,

he

has.

Do

you

have

a cat?

Yes,

do.

Do

you

have

a new car?

No,

we

don't.

Does

your brother

have

a bike?

Yes,

he

does.

4) Questions with question words - have


Question word

Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Rest

Answer

Where

have

you

got

your ruler?

I've got it in my pencil case.

Where

do

you

have

your ruler?

I have it in my pencil case.

5) Questions without question words in the Simple Present


Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Rest

Do

you

read

books?

Does

Peter

play

football?

Yes/No

Subject

Auxiliary (+ n't)

Yes,

do.

No,

don't.

Yes,

he

does.

6) Questions with question words in the Simple Present


Question
word

Auxiliary

Subject

Verb Rest

What

do

you

play

When

does

your mother go

Where

do

you

Answer

on your computer? I play games on my computer.


to work?

She goes to work at 6 o'clock.

meet your friends?

I meet them at the bus stop.

7) Questions without question words in the Simple Past


Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Rest

Did

Max

play

football?

Did

you

watch the film yesterday?

Yes/No

Subject

Auxiliary (+ n't)

Yes,

he

did.

No,

he

didn't.

Yes,

did.

No,

didn't.

BUT:
to be

Subject

Were

you

xxx

Rest
in Leipzig last week?

Yes/No

Subject

Auxiliary (+ n't)

Yes,

was.

No,

wasn't.

8) Questions with question words in the Simple Past

Question word

Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Rest

Answer

What

did

you

do

yesterday evening?

I did my homework.

When

did

she

meet

her boyfriend?

She met him yesterday.

Where

did

they

go

after the match?

They went to a caf.

BUT:
Question word

to be

Subject

Where

were

you

xxxxx

Rest

Answer

yesterday?

I was at the cinema.

9) Subject question
Question word

Verb

Rest

Subject

Verb

Object - Place - Time

Who

runs

to the shop?

Peter

runs

to the shop.

10) Object question


Question word

Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Who

do

you

like?

Who

did

Mandy

phone

Rest

Answer
I like my mum.

last Monday?

Mandy phoned her uncle.

NOTE!
Subject question
Who

phoned

Answer:
Peggy phoned John.

Object question
John?

Who

did

John

Answer:
John phoned Peggy.

English Comma Usage


Commas are used

phone?

I) separate independent clauses


The following conjunctions (socalledcoordinating conjunctions) are used in
such case:
and, but, for, nor, or, so & yet
II) after introductory
a) subclauses
b) phrases
c) words

The students asked for a second chance to rewrite


the exam, but the teacher did not grant it.

a) If you leave the door open, the dog might run


away.
b) As a matter of fact, Im going on vacation to
Hawaii next week.
c) Unfortunately, he was convicted of a crime and
put into jail.

III) when
a) subclauses
b) phrases
c) words
appear in the middle of the sentence.

a) Jill, who was sitting behind her desk, gave


Tim a smile.
b) We, as a matter of course, will contact your
former employer.
c) We have, however, found several severe errors.

IV) to set off three or more words, phrases or


mainclauses in a serious.

She went into the living room, sat


down, andplayed chess on the computer.

V) to set off two or more coordinate


adjectives, that is, the meaning does not
change when the order is altered.

We had to travel over


several narrow, winding,treacherous roads.

VI) at the end of a sentence in order to


indicate a pause.

He was merely ignorant, not stupid.

VII) to set off a nonrestrictive (also nondefining) relative clause.

Theodore Roosevelt, who was leader of the


famous rough riders, became president in 1901.

VIII) when someone is addressed directly.

Susan, can you help me do the dishes please?

IX) when a direct quotation is included.

Descartes said,I think, therefore I am.

X) to show an appositive.

Bill Clinton, former US president, is still very


popular in Europe.

XI) in dates.

Yes, July 17, 1972, was the date of his birth.

XII) separate identical words.

How it is, is how its always been.

XIII) in front of tag questions.

Bring me the tools, will you?

XIV) after digits indicating thousands.

10,000
9,999,999

XV) after a
a) salutation
b) farewell

a) Dear John,
b) Sincerely yours,

in letters.
Note that but and and do not take a comma when both are relatively short.
restrictive relative clause= they tell us which person or thing, or which kind of person or thing, is
meant;
non-restrictive relative clause = they tell us more about a person or thing that is already identified.
When an appositive is only one word, no comma is needed.

Thanks to Kai.