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5.

APPARATUS

Figure 1 : Unit Assembly of Osborne Reynolds Demonstration (model : FM11)

1.
3.
5.
7.

Dye reservoir
Head tank
Water inlet valve, V1
Water outlet valve, V2

2.
4.
6.
8.

Dye injector
Observation tube
Bell mouth
Overflow valve, V3

The Osborne Reynolds Demonstration apparatus is equipped with a visualization tube for
students to observe the flow condition. The rocks inside the stilling tank are to calm the
inflow water so that there will not be any turbulence to interfere with the experiment. The
water inlet / outlet valve and dye injector are utilized to generate the required flow.

6.0

PROCEDURE

6.1

Installation and Commissioning

1. The Osborne Reynolds was assembled as shown in figure 1.


2. The Osborne Reynolds apparatus was placed on a level ground. A level spirit was
used to level the apparatus.
3. The hose was connected to the apparatus outflow, inflow and overflow.
4. The dye reservoir was filled up with the provided red ink.
5. Water supply was established by connecting the inlet hose to a water source and
open the inlet valve.
6. The stilling tank was filled with the aquarium stones that are being provided and
proceed to fill up the stilling tank with water.
7. The outflow valve was opened to test the unit. Any leaking of water was checked
and proceed to inject the ink.
8. The unit is now ready to use.

6.2

Procedure Experiment A

Experiment objectives :
-

To compute Reynolds number (Re)


To observe the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow

1. The dye injector was lowered until it is seen in the glass tube.
2. The inlet valve, V1 was opened and water was allowed to enter stilling tank.
3. A small overflow spillage through the over flow tube was ensured to maintain a
constant level.
4. Water was allowed to settle for a few minutes.
5. The flow control valve was opened fractionally to let water flow through the
visualizing tube.
6. The dye control needle valve was slowly adjusted until a slow flow with dye
injection is achieved.
7. The water inlet valve, V1 and outlet valve, V2 was regulated until a straight
identifiable dye line is achieved. The flow will be laminar.
8. The flow rate was measured using volumetric method.
9. The experiment was repeated by regulating water inlet valve, V1 and outlet valve,
V2 to produce transitional and turbulent flow.

7.0

RESULT :

7.1

Laminar Flow

First reading of volume

: 0.092 L

Second reading of volume : 0.093 L


Third reading of volume

: 0.094 L

Table 1 : Data sheet for laminar flow


Average
Volume (L)
0.093

7.2

Time (s)
10

Flow rate, Q
(L/s)
0.0093

Flow rate, Q
(m3/s)
9.3E-06

Reynolds
Number
853.46

Transitional Flow

First reading of volume

: 0.400 L

Second reading of volume : 0.420 L


Third reading of volume

: 0.439 L

Table 2 : Data sheet for transitional flow


Average
Volume (L)
0.4197

7.3

Time (s)
10

Flow rate, Q
(L/s)
0.04197

Flow rate, Q
(m3/s)
4.197E-05

Reynolds
Number
3851.59

Turbulent Flow

First reading of volume

: 0.780 L

Second reading of volume : 0.790 L


Third reading of volume

: 0.780 L

Table 3 : Data sheet for turbulent flow


Average
Volume (L)
0.783

Time (s)
10

Flow rate, Q
(L/s)
0.0783
3

Flow rate, Q
(m3/s)
7.83E-05

Reynolds
Number
7185.60

8.0

CALCULATIONS

Reynolds Number Theory ;


If Re < 2000 is laminar flow
If 2000 < Re < 4000 is transitional flow
If Re > 4000 is turbulent flow

Kinematics viscosity(V) for 25oC water = 0.89 x 10-6 m/s


Glass tube diameter (D) = 0.0156 m
Area (A) = 1.91 x 10-4 m2

Thus,

Thus,

8.1 Calculation for laminar flow

= 853.46

8.2 Calculation for transitional flow

= 3851.59

8.3 Calculation for turbulent flow

= 7185.60