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By James Smithson
W.D. Gann’s outstanding skill was his ability to produce accurate annual forecasts of the stock
and commodity markets. Gann stated that his forecasts were based on his secret “time factor”.
However, careful analysis of his novel entitled “The Tunnel Thru The Air” reveals Gann’s belief
in the overwhelming importance of astrology. Therefore astrology is the real basis of Gann’s
annual forecasts. Indeed, astrological analysis is implicit at key points in his books and courses.
Consequently it is concluded that if we wish to emulate Gann’s outstanding forecasting skills we
must follow in his footsteps by firstly learning astrology and then apply this knowledge to the
stock and commodity markets.

William D. Gann (1878 to 1955) was an outstanding stock and commodities trader. He was also
a prolific teacher of how to make speculation a profitable profession, writing some seven books
and producing two courses on trading the stock and commodity markets. However, Gann’s
superlative skill was his ability to produce annual forecasts of the stock and commodity markets
one year in advance. Although he also sent his clients supplements, which corrected his annual
forecasts when necessary, the overall accuracy of these annual forecasts is highly impressive.
For example, Gann’s annual stockmarket forecast for 1929, which was published in November
1928, unequivocally forecast the “Great Crash” in the fall of 1929. However, Gann continued to
produce and publish annual forecasts of the stock and commodity markets until shortly before
his death in 1955.

Gann’s forecasts of the stock and commodity markets were based on the “time factor”, the
dictionary definition of which is “The passage of time as a limitation on what can be achieved”.
Gann provided the following comments on the time factor:
“The most important thing of all is the Time factor, which I use in making up my annual
forecasts. It is not my object here to give away that secret, but I am showing you plain enough
and giving you rules enough that, if you follow them, you will be able to make a success in the
stock market” (“Truth Of The Stock Tape”, 1923, page 116).
“Many people want to know what method I use to determine future indications on the market. I
keep charts of the various active stocks and also a set of averages. My charts are different from
the charts of the average statistician because they are based on a discovery of my own. I have
discovered a ‘time’ factor that enables me to determine important tops and bottoms one year or
more in advance. My annual forecasts on stocks, issued in December for ten years past, have
proved remarkably correct. The cotton and grain markets can also be forecast by this ‘time’
factor, which enables me to tell when extreme highs and lows will be made, as well as the minor
moves” (“Truth Of The Stock Tape”, 1923, page 41 of appendix).
“The time factor and time periods are most important in determining a change in trend because
time can over balance price, and when the time is up the volume of sales will increase and force
prices higher or lower” (“45 Years In Wall Street”, 1941, page 10).
“Time is the most important factor of all and not until sufficient time has expired does any big
move start up or down. The time factor will overbalance both space and volume. When time is
up, space movement will start and large volume will begin, either up or down. At the end of any
important movement – monthly, weekly or daily – Time must be allowed for accumulation or


when properly applied. details of which he is unwilling to reveal. THE FRONT COVER OF GANN’S NOVEL ENTITLED “THE TUNNEL THRU THE AIR” Gann’s “valuable secret” that astrology really works is not confined to the content of “The Tunnel Thru The Air”. He is however prepared to teach trading rules which. as the Bible clearly states.The future will become an open book”. clothed in veiled language” is that. The illustration on the front cover of “The Tunnel Thru The Air” has three elements: 1) In the background is an interlocking compass and setsquare. “Robert had gone deeply into the Bible study in order to learn more about the great science of Astrology” (page 213). This book describes the events in the United States leading up to the Second World War through the life of the principal character. Gann subtly reveals his “valuable secret” on the cover of his book. You will find the hidden secret…. Robert Gordon. which he wrote in 1927.. Indeed.. from which comes a tunnel. and I have figured out my destiny. and therefore he used this time factor in producing his highly-accurate annual forecasts of the stock and commodity markets. The Bible makes it plain that the stars do rule” (page 66). “I have studied the Bible very carefully because I believe it is the greatest scientific book ever written. 1951. There is a time and a season for everything and if a man does things according to the time. “‘The Tunnel Thru The Air’ is mysterious and contains a valuable secret. I have determined the major and minor time factors which repeat in the history of nations. I believe in astrology. “I believe in the stars. in the foreword to this book Gann wrote. 3) The time factor is a valuable secret. page 56). a new light will dawn.distribution or for buying and selling to be completed” (“How To Make Profits In Commodities”. produce profits in the stock and commodity markets. GANN’S NOVEL ENTITLED “THE TUNNEL THRU THE AIR” Although Gann was unwilling to explicitly reveal his time factor in his books and courses on trading the stock and commodity markets. 2 . “Through my study of the Bible. he will succeed” (page 204). He had made notes as he read the Bible at different times where it referred to Astrology or the signs in the heavens and was thoroughly convinced that the influence of the heavenly bodies govern our lives” (page 172). Gann’s “valuable secret. 2) The time factor is so fundamental that it precedes (and therefore causes) changes in prices and changes in volume in the stock and commodity markets. The laws are plainly laid down how to make a success. This theme runs throughout the book and is highlighted in the following quotations: “Robert was a great believer in Astrology because he had found this great science referred to so many times in the Holy Bible.When you read it the third time. Most importantly. “He read all the books he could get on astrology and began to understand why thing had happened as they had” (page 215). men and markets” (page 70). clothed in veiled language…. he was prepared to leave strong clues in his novel entitled “The Tunnel Thru The Air”. Therefore we learn from Gann that: 1) The time factor is the most important element in forecasting markets. astrology really works.

The illustration on the back cover of “The Tunnel Thru The Air” shows two sets of interlocking squares stretching to the horizon. On the other side of the scales is a price movement. in the form of interlocking price squares. the science of astrology) is of fundamental and eternal importance. so below”. after weighing up the historical influence of these astrological forces on a particular stock or commodity. 3 . Gann’s more specific symbolism is that the astrological squares in the heavens cause the price squares in the stock and commodity markets on earth. The series of interlocking squares symbolises the fact that. One set is shown in the sky and one set is shown on the earth. Gann “weighed up” or examined the time factors (i. which symbolises the time factor.e. The esoteric meaning behind this illustration on the front cover of the book is as follows: The interlocking compass and setsquare is the symbol of the Freemasons (Gann himself was a senior Freemason). the angles between the planets in the circle of the zodiac) are transmitted to earth (via waves which resemble tunnels through the air) and. Gann. However. the compass (which is of course used for drawing circles) symbolises the circle of the heavens. this “valuable secret” is also subtly revealed in the illustration on the back cover. page 32). The squares on the earth symbolise the unfolding of price action in the stock and commodity markets. the astrological influences) and their past. In this illustration. D. or the astrological zodiac. in his forecasting of the stock and commodity markets. Therefore the tunnel through the air in Gann’s illustration (and indeed in the book’s title) symbolises this transmission of astrological forces from the heavens to the earth. In summary therefore. On one side of the scales is an hourglass. according to occultism. the illustration on the front cover of “The Tunnel Thru The Air” highlights the fact that astrological influences (i.e. the price action of a particular stock or commodity unfolds according to a series of interlocking squares. 3) Stretching between the background and foreground is a series of interlocking squares. Here Gann is illustrating the age-old astrological saying “As above. Gann made this point elsewhere when he stated. one can forecast the future price movements (and in particular the future price squares). More specifically. This is the reason. that “Every stock makes tops or bottoms on some exact mathematical point in proportion to some previous move” (Stockmarket Course) and “Each top or bottom in wheat. astrological forces are vibrations which are transmitted to earth via an infinite number of longitudinal waves through the ether. Also shown on the earth is a pyramid inscribed with the name of W. which is 90 degrees (or a “square” aspect).2) In the foreground is a pair of scales. THE BACK COVER OF GANN’S NOVEL ENTITLED “THE TUNNEL THRU THE AIR” Gann’s “valuable secret” that astrology really works is not confined to the content and front cover of his book “The Tunnel Thru The Air”. present and future impact on prices.e. as Gann observed. Therefore this pair of scales symbolises the fact that. the squares in the sky symbolise astrological “squares” (i. Indeed. The setsquare (which is of course used for drawing “square” angles of 90 degrees) symbolises the most important angle between two planets in astrology. but the cause” (Stockmarket Course And Commodities Course). on one side of which is an hourglass and on the other side is a price movement. Moreover. according to Gann. or other commodities. when the planets form an angle of 90 degrees with respect to each other). comes out in accordance with an exact mathematical proportion to some other top or bottom” (“How To Make Profits In Commodities”. “We use the square of odd and even numbers to get not only the proof of market movements. Therefore the esoteric meaning behind the Freemasons’ symbol is that the great circle of the heavens and the angles between the planets (i.e.

Besides. rather than to state that they were based on astrology. have only in recent years been analysed with precision and added to the list of so-called modern discoveries. This is highlighted in the following quotation: “It appears to be a fact that Mr Gann has developed an entirely new idea as to the principles governing stockmarket movements. December 1922). In summary therefore. which may be defined as “The passage of time as a limitation on what can be achieved”. 2) Gann firmly believed that his students should. the public is not yet ready for it” (“Morning Telegraph” interview. GANN AND ASTROLOGY Since Gann’s book “The Tunnel Thru The Air” reveals the “valuable secret” that astrology really works and. 1. Therefore Gann preferred not to reveal that astrology is the basis of his market forecasts for the following reasons: 1) The principle that astrology may be used to produce detailed forecasts of the stock and commodity markets is a valuable secret that had taken Gann much time and effort to master. which violates the conventional wisdom and would therefore attract hostility.The final point to note about this illustration is the position of the pyramid which bears Gann’s name. and have secured some remarkable evidence as to the results obtained therefrom. He bases his operations on certain natural laws which. Indeed. GANN’S “TIME FACTOR” IS ASTROLOGY As stated above. The reason for Gann’s secrecy is suggested in the following quotation: “It has taken me twenty years of exhaustive study to learn the cause that produces effects according to time. These activities said majority abhors” (“Ticker & Investment Digest” interview. December 1909). One chapter common to both courses is entitled “The Basis Of My Forecasting Method: Geometrical Angles”. Gann’s Chapters On Forecasting In His Stock And Commodity Market Courses Gann produced and sold separate courses for trading the stock and commodity markets. though existing since the world began. We submit this in full recognition of the fact that a man in Wall Street with a new idea – an idea which violates the traditions and encourages a scientific view of the proposition – is not usually welcomed by the majority. devote much time and hard work to their studies on how to make speculation a profitable profession. clothed in veiled language” of Gann’s book “The Tunnel Thru The Air” is that. we see that time factor may be synonymous with astrology. An important quotation from this chapter is as follows: 4 . This is located between heaven and earth. astrology really works. one should look for evidence of the use of astrology by Gann in his other writings. for the reason that he stimulates thought and research. like him. Since astrology may be defined as “The study of the effects of the trends of time”. as the Bible clearly states. We have asked Mr Gann for an outline of his work. Gann’s forecasts of the stock and commodity markets were based on the “time factor”. astrology is the basis of Gann’s stock and commodity market forecasts. 3) Gann was well aware that the suggestion that the stock and commodity markets are governed by astrological influences is an astounding new paradigm. this is certain after carefully studying Gann’s book “The Tunnel Thru The Air” and identifying its “valuable secret” that astrology really works. by implication. It therefore appears that Gann preferred to state that his market forecasts were based on the “time factor”. the “valuable secret. That is my secret and is too valuable to be spread broadcast. These courses overlapped to some significant extent. and reflects Gann’s view that he was a seer destined to observe astrological squares in the heavens and to forecast their influence on price squares in the stock and commodity markets on earth.

where many important tops and bottoms are reached” (“How To Make Profits In Commodities”. Certain points on this zodiac (identified by a precise number of degrees) are very important because they relate to specific stocks and to specific commodity markets. 2 X 1. and this is the real basis of his forecasting method. as well as denote important resistance levels. or the zodiac. Therefore the very important implication here is that (as the chapter title suggests) the basis of Gann’s forecasting method was not merely the geometrical “Gann angles” drawn on a price chart. page 92). Certain numbers of these degrees and angles are of vast importance and indicate when important tops and bottoms occur on stocks and commodities. etc. but (more fundamentally) the geometrical angles between planets and the zodiac (which is of course astrology). The esoteric meaning behind this statement is as follows: There are 360 degrees in any circle.e. i. trendlines from important tops and bottoms on price charts. Gann is suggesting that the angles between the planets and the zodiac in the heavens (i. Two important angles (or “aspects”. These are what I call anniversary dates. It is also important to note that the above quotation by Gann was in the introduction to his chapter on forecasting by means of “Gann angles”. Consequently the angles between a planet and these specific points on the zodiac and also the angles between two planets are very important because they signify tops and bottoms in the stock and commodity markets. We use the circle of 360 degrees to measure time and price. In my research work I have discovered that stocks make an important change in trend in the months when they reach extreme high and low. the square and the triangle. page 58). The common feature of both books is their emphasis on the importance of anniversary dates and seasonal tendencies. There are 360 degrees in a circle. The first important time period to watch from any anniversary date is third or fourth month. “It is very important to watch the date when an individual commodity makes extreme high or low. the largest of which is the great circle of the heavens. then around the sixth or seventh month. Since the angles between a planet and a particular point on the zodiac or between two planets can be calculated years in advance. forecasting by using the 1 X 1. The esoteric meaning behind these statements is as follows: Certain points on the zodiac (identified by a precise number of degrees) relate to specific stocks and to specific commodity markets. price and space resistance. In summary therefore. The sun is unique amongst the planets in that it completes one revolution of the zodiac every year. We get the square and triangle points of a circle to determine points of time. Moreover on any given day of the year the sun is in exactly the same position (in the zodiac) as it was on that day one year earlier. Every movement in the market is the result of a natural law and of a cause which exists long before the effect takes place and can be determined years in advance” (Stockmarket Course and Commodities Course). the circle. and these important dates should be watched each year for important changes in trend” (“45 Years In Wall Street”. 2 Gann’s Emphasis On Anniversary Dates And Seasonal Tendencies In The Stock And Commodity Markets Gann’s consummate book on the stockmarket was “45 Years In Wall Street” (written in 1949) and his consummate book on the commodity markets was “How To Make Profits In Commodities” (first written in 1941 and updated in 1951). stock and commodity markets can in principle be forecast years in advance. 1 X 2.“We use three figures in geometry. astrological influences) cause the particular angle of a trendline on a price chart. ten years earlier 5 .e. as they are called in astrology) are the square (or 90 degrees) and the triune (or 120 degrees). no matter how large or small the circle may be. as the following quotations illustrate: “My object in writing this book ‘45 Years In Wall Street’ is to give you some new and valuable rules on time periods which will help to guide you in determining high and low prices in the future.

D. Oceanside. Gann has provided us with specific guidance. This led me to conclude that natural law was the basis of market movements. This is the cause of seasonal tendencies in the stock and commodity markets (indeed. 2. ii) The angles (especially the 90 degrees angle) between the planets and particular points on the zodiac. it appears that Gann had for over fifty years kept secret his method of market forecasting and at the age of 76 he was not simply going to reveal it to a student. this is the cause of all seasonal tendencies on earth). and in particular their angles to a specific point on the zodiac (which is of course astrology). Gann died in June 1955 and therefore these astrology letters are some of his last teachings. and in March 1954 he again wrote to his student recommending that he study the astrological influences on the coffee market (“By studying all of the (astrological) data outlined above and applying it to coffee. The cause is the position of the planets. it is notable that in these two short letters Gann does not reveal any clear and specific method of astrological forecasting of the commodity markets. experiment and learn for himself how the angles between the planets and their angles to specific points on the zodiac forecast the changes in price trends.A. we must apply this knowledge to the stock and commodity markets. The important point to note here is that Gann emphasised the seasonal tendencies in the stock and commodity markets to encourage his students to think about and to identify the cause. However. 2222 Mission Avenue. 6 . Nevertheless Gann was continuing his lifelong practice of helping his students to make speculation a profitable profession by giving them guidance and letting them learn for themselves. if we as investors and traders wish to emulate Gann’s outstanding forecasting ability.S. the present writer recommends. as Gann himself observed: “I soon began to note the periodical recurrence of the rise and fall in stocks and commodities. as a first step. In summary. Consequently the sun will aspect a particular point on the zodiac on the same day every year. Gann’s highly-accurate annual forecasts of the stock and commodity markets were based on astrology. However. Indeed. California 92054.or a century earlier. U. More specifically. 3. Although astrology may be learned from a variety of sources. Therefore. W. the correspondence courses in spiritual astrology taught by The Rosicrucian Fellowship. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. it is absolutely necessary that we learn astrology. you will be able to learn more about what causes the changes in trend”). I then decided to devote ten years of my life to the study of natural law as applicable to the speculative markets and to devote my best energies toward making speculation a profitable profession” (“Ticker & Investment Digest” interview. Instead. which may be contacted at International Headquarters. December 1909). in January 1954 Gann wrote to one of his students recommending that he study the astrological influences on the soybean market (“The longitude of the planets and the longitude of the average of the planets determine the resistance levels as the price of soybeans moves around each cycle of 24 cents per bushel”). we should obtain daily price charts which depict important tops and bottoms in the stock and commodity markets and we should then observe the following: i) The angles between the planets (the most important of which is the 90 degrees. Once we have learned astrology. Gann’s Recommendation To Study Astrological Influences On The Commodity Markets Amongst Gann’s surviving papers are his two “astrology letters”. angle). or “square”. Gann encouraged his student to observe. This task requires much hard work.

Texas. 7 . Like Gann. they do not in fact teach Gann’s real method. This is because. videotapes and computer programs. 3. since none of these individuals or companies can produce an accurate annual forecast of the stock or commodity markets. we will be in a position to produce accurate annual forecasts. England and Dallas. they should certainly be avoided.iii) The longitudinal position of the sun and especially its 90 degrees angle to particular points on the zodiac (because this causes the seasonal tendency in a particular market). courses. When we have mastered how astrological influences affect the stock and commodity markets. Although there are many individuals and companies around the world claiming to teach “Gann analysis” through is an investor and speculator based in London. we will then become the foremost speculators and traders of our generation. BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE James Smithson (e-mail: smithsonjames@hotmail.

where the seasonal changes are dramatic. By the time I am 80. to a great extent. One user reported to me that he once became quite anxious because of this time dilation effect. It seemed to me that I could remember this white stuff falling out of the sky and piling up all over the being. This is a dramatic decrease by a factor of 10. but to him it had felt as if a greatly inordinate length of time had been spent using the facilities (he said it felt like years) and thus he became afraid that his friends and family would consider that he was lost and send the police in search of him (the last people he would want to meet under such conditions would be the constabulary). This perception of shrinking time is prevalent in all cultures. D. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. because of the effects of certain types of drugs. either shortened or lengthen. For example it is a common adage that time flies faster the older you get. He had gone to the latrine to answer the call of nature. jiva . and others in this category. (The other ones are: isvara . one year represents only 2. which in itself is caused by time. How is it possible for time to shrink or at least to appear to do so? Shrinking time For a possible explanation let us consider the following experience that I had as a child growing up in Northern Canada.God. Thus the longer a person lives the smaller a year becomes in relation to their total previous experience of time in this life. According to Vedas Time is the ultimate dimension of this material world from which everything else unfolds. a yearly basis. As a boy of four years I recall being amazed when winter came and snow appeared again (as it had done one year previously since time immemorial). prakrti . It had happened. none added or subtracted. But now that I am 40 years old.material nature. Mescaline.25% of my previous experience. As I grew I found that it did indeed occur on a regular basis. GANN By Greg Cherni Not many may realize that term "Time factor" came from Vedic literature as well as idea of squaring and sq9 as a mathematical representation of Vedic concept of Absolute consciousness relating to itself. (BG 10.THE TIME FACTOR OF W. Mysterious energy Time (kala) is one of the five tattvas (realities) of existence which are the five subjects of the Bhagavad-gita. 8 . has stated that He is time and that time is all destructive. The users of these drugs often report that they felt that time seemed to stand still. Our perception of time can be dependent on our age. Time dilation It has been observed by investigators that the perception of time can be influenced. I thought. In the Bhagavad-gita (BG 11.25 days in the year.5% of my previous total experience of time. and "among subduers I am time".30) That time is Krsna by virtue of being one of His multifarious energies explains. It occurred to me that the only explanation for this shrinking time was my own previous experience of time.material activity). To a child of four years. one year would represent 25% of my total previous experience of time to that date. a long time ago and here it was happening again. This subjective effect of the drug could cause trauma to a user. Also squaring elements you can find in Einstein’s E=mc2 and virtually in any formula depicting dimensional relation.32) Krsna. This is especially true with psychotomimetic drugs such as LSD. the truly mysterious nature and effects of time. and karma . That a moment seemed like eons. Following is a compilation on "Time Factor" by Syamasundara Das from some Vedic sources. one year will only represent 1. That somehow a year shrinks with every passing new year. but like every one I noticed that as I grew older the time interval seemed to mysteriously grow shorter even though there were still 365.

Several generations of microbes will have come and gone in the course of one day for us. the dreaming state. Then there is the phenomena of time being relative to the species of life that is experiencing it. is perceived as lasting only one or two moments. This historical incident begins with the mention of a submarine kingdom called Kusasthali. they were endowed with mystic powers.000. And it is about 11:40 AM for him on his planet. After hearing his words.040.320.000. Definitely mind boggling! There are several instances in the Puranas where it is recounted that a person would be transported from the human worlds to that of a deva such as Brahma. Therefore Kakudmi waited. He will be having lunch in about 20 of his minutes.28-32) According to Vedic calculations a catur-yuga is equal to 4. who is most powerful. and at the end of the musical performances he offered his obeisances to Lord Brahma and thus submitted his long standing desire. Thus one second for Lord Brahma is equal to 100. He had one hundred very nice sons. susupti. The King of Kusasthali. was able to travel to the world of Brahma and experience Brahma's perception of time: "O Maharaja Pariksit. etc. When Kakudmi arrived there. the demiurge of this universe. Thus twentyseven such cycles would be equal to 116. There he lived and ruled such tracts of land as Anarta. but on waking he finds that less than five minutes have passed. Lord Brahma was engaged in hearing musical performances by the Gandharvas and had not a moment to talk to him. From our previous statement that one second of Brahma was equal to 100. illustrates time dilation on Brahmaloka. You cannot even hear about their names. For example a solar year of 365 days is experienced differently by a dog.640. not found in ordinary humans today. a long span of time. and inquired about a husband for her.000 human years. all those whom you may have decided within the core of your heart to accept as your sonin-law have passed away in the course of time. laughed loudly and said to Kakudmi. Lord Brahma has a life time of 100 years by his calculation which translate to be 311. 'O King. human or demigod.000 earth years we find that Kakudmi had only been waiting for 19 minutes and 26 seconds while Lord Brahma finished listening to the musical performance of the Gandharvas. The Experience of King Kakudmi The following example from the Bhagavata Purana.000.000 years for us. Twenty-seven catur-yugas have already passed. Thus our existence in relation to the demigods would be comparable to that of microbes in relationship to us. And even though they were only gone for what appeared to be a short length of time by their experience. (We shall discuss the Vedic divisions of time in a later section. which is transcendental to the three modes of material nature. subduer of enemies. It is commonly understood that one dog year is equivalent to seven human years whereas one human year is equivalent to only one day of the demigods. in cosmic time it is presently the day after the 50th birthday of Lord Brahma. which would take 120.000 years of our time. The opposite is true of svapna. It is unclear as to whether these time distortions related to drugs and sleep states are the effects of the drugs and sleep states on our perception of time or whether these are qualities of time which these other states of perception allow us to capture. Taking his own daughter. Those upon whom you may have already decided are now gone. Revata constructed a kingdom known as Kusasthali in the depths of the ocean. the planet of Lord Brahma.) 9 . when they returned millions of years had come and gone. It is common experience that in deep sleep. A man may lay down and take a nap and have a dream in which it seems as if many whole life times have gone by. and so are their sons. According to astronomical texts such as Surya-siddhanta and the Puranas. Kakudmi went to Lord Brahma in Brahmaloka. The residents of this kingdom were descendants of the solar dynasty.000. Kakudmi. Lord Brahma.To experience radical time dilation and contraction one need not be a drug user. Then there are the higher demigods such as Lord Brahma and his associates.000 earth years.' (SB 9. of whom the eldest was Kakudmi.3. And though they are considered human. say 45 minutes. You need only to lay down and sleep. grandsons and other descendants. Revati.

Indeed the etymological origin of the words: mensuration (to measure).29. who is the enjoyer of all sacrifices. The waxing and waning phases of the Moon give us each a two week period. It was found that gradually the sleep-wake cycle in that particular case would dramatically change to being on a 48 hour cycle rather than a 24 hour cycle. the supreme controller. The daily solar cycle controls when we rise. 3) Time has very serious effects on the living beings. The sun not only gives us our daily cycle but also our seasonal changes leading to the yearly cycle. and I have come here to destroy all people. There was no routine time of contact. and month. Studies have been done on subjects who have been isolated from the sun and other atmospheric cycles by being placed deep underground in caves such as the Carlsbad Caverns. the all-pervasive one. He is the support of everyone.. 1) Kala (time) is a special manifestation of Krsna's energy. and He causes every being to be annihilated by another. causes material creation. I consider Your Lordship to be eternal time.28) "The time factor. The dissensions between living beings are due to social intercourse." (BG 11.. or more properly that time is one of Krsna's energies. 10 . work.29. is another feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.37) "Lord Visnu." (SB 1. etc.32) "My Lord. Anyone who does not know that time is the same Supreme Personality is afraid of the time factor. This went on for months with major variations in the wake-sleep cycle. These experimental subjects were given no clocks and put on no schedules. Just think. it would be difficult to be even aware of the passage of time if it were not for the successive rising and setting of the sun which demarks the night and day of our experience. Which divided in two give us a week of seven days." (SB 3. without beginning and end. is the time factor and the master of all masters. eat. He enters everyone's heart.8. who causes the transformation of the various material manifestations. This clearly shows how we are closely governed in our normal experience by the rising and setting of the sun.Contemplating these strange effects of time plus the fact that day by day we get older and eventually will die at the hands of time we begin to appreciate why time has engrossed the minds of philosophers for so long." (SB 3. "The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Time I am. the time factor. go to sleep. are all derived from the Moon. Moon and other planets. 4) The spiritual world is free of time's destructive influence. 2) Krsna as the time factor causes the material creation. All efforts were made to obliterate any sense of time and cycle caused by the sun or anything else. As we shall soon see the calculation of time is ultimately based on the astronomical motion of the Sun. Krsna's energy From examining the scriptures we can make few basic conclusions: 1) The identity of Krsna with time. In distributing Your mercy. etc. mate. eat. go to sleep. the great destroyer of the worlds. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Between the day and the year the cycle of the Moon is prominent.38) 2) Kala. The subjects contacted the surface with telephones and gave information as to when they would get up. menstruation (women's period). You are equal to everyone.

Metaphysically.26-27. is working under My direction. O son of Kunti. rather. change and life of a particular object. Canakya Pandita says that even a slight fraction of time cannot be purchased with millions of dollars. Therefore. time has no beginning and no end. three eyes . maintenance and destruction of the material manifestation. but from our perspective His energy appears to differentiate into spiritual and material. We see in verse 12 that it is time itself which is the factor that causes the material energy to be 'material' by virtue of separating this energy from the Lord. This time factor is the material cause of creation and is therefore a self expansion of the Personality of Godhead.tri-kala-jna. the supreme sum total of matter called the mahat-tattva became manifested. Time is not subject to any form of psychology.changing of ages and begetting and annihilating of mankind.5. and that is why material nature appears to have produced so many wonderful things in the cosmic manifestation.11) PURPORT The impersonal time factor is the background of the material manifestation as the instrument of the Supreme Lord.12) Verses 11 and 12 give us a much deeper understanding of the influence of time on the material creation. Time is astronomically and mathematically calculated in relation to the speed.actions and reactions . influenced by the interactions of eternal time. Srila Jiva Gosvami concludes that the time factor is intermixed with the activities . however. Time is considered the impersonal feature of the Lord. but they are dependent on particular experiences." (SB 3. who is the Lord's plenary expansion. Factually."The Supreme Living Being in His feature as the transcendental purusa incarnation. and therefore even a moment of time lost without profit must be calculated as the greatest loss in life.time measurement in years. necklace of skulls with snakes . 11 ." (SB 3. The external energy. which is one of My energies. present and future. sowed the seeds of universal manifestation out of His own body. "Maitreya said: Eternal time is the primeval source of the interactions of the three modes of material nature.26) "Thereafter.. It can thus be understood from this verse that it is time. by which we calculate past. It is situated as the objective manifestation of the Lord under the influence of the same material energy of Visnu. and thus by the influence of eternal time the living entities appear. nor are the moments objective realities in themselves. From the Lord's perspective it is all one energy. snake around the neck .5.3-4. It is the ingredient of assistance offered to material nature.10) confirms this conclusion as follows: 'This material nature. For example the electricity can be used to create heat in an oven or to make ice in the freezer. Absolute time is continuous and is unaffected by the speed or slowness of material things. and it works as the instrument of the Supreme Personality of Godhead for His pastimes in the material creation. It is unchangeable and limitless. and in this mahat-tattva the unalloyed goodness.10) Siva's paraphernalia symbolize: moon . His spiritual energy.10.10. Brahma-samhita 5. time is distinguished as absolute and real. SB 3. but in factual calculation. which is the unmanifested." (SB 3.' "This cosmic manifestation is separated from the Supreme Lord as material energy by means of kala. which actually causes the transformation of the spiritual energy into material energy and separates it from Krsna. time has nothing to do with the relativities of things. and it is time only which can keep a record of the creation. one of Krsna's energies.of the external energy of the Lord. It depends on how it is used. Under its rule this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again. or material nature. (BG 14. .5. Bhagavad-gita (9.27) Time is described as Lord's glance (personified as Siva) on the material nature initiating the creation process. impregnates the material nature of three modes. Time is the basic measurement of the activity of our senses. impersonal feature of the Lord." (SB 3. the Supreme Lord. No one knows where time began and where it ends. works under the superintendence of the time factor as the Lord Himself. everything is shaped and calculated in terms of the facility offered by time.. producing all moving and nonmoving beings.time measurement in months.

Our lives last for one hundred years at the most. fire. It brings about the end of the phenomenal world.17) "By exhibiting His potencies. i.It is by virtue of being separated from Krsna that distinguishes the material from the spiritual energy.4-5) "The eternal time factor has no beginning and no end. mind. along with God. the individual soul. Yamaraja. as I have explained.18) 3) Time has very serious effects on the living beings. When the energy is separated from Krsna it becomes Maya. and similarly. and the father dies by the influence of cruel death. superior energy of Mine." (SB 3. although their lives may last for millions and billions of years. intelligence and false ego . For we speak of karma as pastkarma.26. which activates the material elements and captures the spiritual spark in a tangle of activities and karma. the demigods are not eternal. A devotee desires only to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead. is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. which comprises the living entities who are exploiting the resources of this material. the father begets a son. O mighty-armed Arjuna. present-karma and future-karma. the impersonal aspect of Sri Krsna. which is a representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. O daughter of Svayambhuva Manu. But they do interact. 12 .all together these eight constitute My separated material energies. and material energy. His servitor exists eternally." (BG 7. "Besides these. by definition. And it is the living being who is subject to karma and thus to time.29. all the demigods within the material world are temporary. the living being. The mixing element. The phenomenal world is created. the maker of the criminal world. The quality of stirring up the material elements and getting the material creation going is explained in the following verses: "All these are considered the qualified Brahman. the Lord exists eternally. and likewise it dissolves the universe by destroying even the lord of death. But by time's influence. The jiva. "Earth. keeping Himself within as the Supersoul and without as time. It is time. even the lord of cruel death is killed. which causes fear of death due to the false ego of the deluded soul who has contacted material nature. This doesn't mean that time and karma are synonymous. which is known as time. the Supreme Personality of Godhead adjusts all these different elements." (SB 3.26. In other words. from whom the creation begins as a result of the agitation of the neutral." (SB 3. is not material but spiritual and is superior to matter.15) "The influence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is felt in the time factor. Of these five subjects four are eternal but karma is not eternal. air. and the service exists eternally." (SB 3. No one can live within this material world eternally. means not Krsna. is counted as the twenty-fifth element. This servitude exists eternally. there is another.e. So there is distinction between karma and time. Maya. like ourselves. water.time and karma are two of the five topics of the Gita." (SB 3.45) PURPORT By the influence of eternal time. As stated in the introduction of the Bhagavad Gita . unmanifested nature. Therefore a devotee does not desire anything in this material world. it carries on the work of creation by bringing one individual into existence from another. maintained and destroyed by the finger signal of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. the material energy is not Krsna because it is not related to Krsna but separated from Him. inferior nature. It is the representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. the time factor.16) "My dear mother.26. ether.26. The Maya energy. and is always related to Krsna.

in material consciousness. Within the jurisdiction of the time element.20) "My dear Lord. who do not know that they are eternal and that they have an eternal engagement also. land and home. destroys.20) "This gross material body made of five elements is already under the control of eternal time [kala]. He is the killer of everything. and everything is being destroyed by something else . nor is He ever exhaustible. small particles of dust fly in the air. are engaged in producing so many things in the name of economic development. being already in the jaws of the serpent. Time scatters everything.13. which are destined to be vanquished in due course of time. one should observe the eternal time factor. and they waste time in improving economic conditions." (SB 1.11. but in due course of time they have all been destroyed. but He is perpetually free of birth and death.19) "The Supreme Personality of Godhead.65) "Since the material body is sure to be vanquished and the duration of one's life is not fixed. As. Your absolute authority cannot be directly experienced. Still the foolish materialists cannot understand that they are simply wasting time in producing material necessities. although everything is exhausted in due course of time." (SB 7." (SB 4.46) "The Personality of Godhead said: As a mass of clouds does not know the powerful influence of the wind.11. but He is not the actor. is to destroy everything. but He is not the killer. The living entities are created through the agency of the father and killed through the agency of death. one suffers or enjoys material life. by His inconceivable supreme energy." (SB 4." (SB 4. How. time. can it. From history we can see that there were many powerful empires on the surface of the globe that were constructed with great pain and great perseverance. and no one is His enemy. a person engaged in material consciousness does not know the powerful strength of the time factor. children. Rather. or fruitive activities. as the time factor. The materialists.1) "Whatever is produced by the materialist with great pain and labor for so-called happiness.11.13." (SB 3.2) PURPORT The main function of the time factor. causes the interaction of the three modes of material nature. by which he is being carried. Thus it is understood that only by His inconceivable power is everything happening. in which the living entity manifests himself and disappears.18) "My dear Dhruva. is present in the material world and is neutral towards everyone. Not knowing this fact. This waste of energy is due to the ignorance of the mass of people. which is a representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. action [karma] and the modes of material nature [guna]. and for this reason the conditioned soul laments.just as one animal is being eaten by another animal. They do not know that this span of life in a particular type of body is but a flash in the eternal journey.6) 13 . protect others?" (SB 1. It appears that He is acting. The force of time is very strong. He is killing. in His feature of eternal time. honor. according to one's particular karma."Whoever is under the influence of supreme kala [eternal time] must surrender his most dear life.30." (SB 4. exactly as the wind scatters clouds in the sky. the Supreme Personality of Godhead is ever existing. but in the form of time. they take the small flash of life to be everything. the Supreme Personality.24. No one is His ally. but one can guess by seeing the activities of the world that everything is being destroyed in due course of time.13. everyone enjoys or suffers the result of his own karma. and what to speak of other things. such as wealth. "The Supreme Personality of Godhead. although He is the beginning of everything. so. He has no beginning. neither death nor life is to be praised.30. and thus varieties of energy become manifest." (SB 3. then. when the wind blows. but they forget that everything they have produced will be destroyed in due course of time. They think that by advancing in satisfying the material needs of man they will be happy.

9. by drugs. This is the secret understanding of all Vedic literatures.a truti or 18 atomic prahara or quarter of a day . During the first six months the sun travels from south to north (uttarayana).one month During the period of one month the moon wanes and is called krsna-paksa.a hexatom (a particle visible in sunshine) . by the counsel of ministers. by mystic mantras. Two solar movements equal one day and night of the demigods. the material modes of ignorance and passion do not lava .1-12) The atomic description of the Srimad Bhagavatam is almost the same as that of modern science. external energy. both the demigods and the demons worship the Lord as devotees. This is further described in the Paramanu-vada of laghu or 2 minutes .one (nadika-danda) or 30 minutes .one nimesa . it cannot enter that region. Two atoms Three double atoms Three hexatoms One hundred trutis Three vedas Three lavas Three nimesas Five ksanas Fifteen kasthas Fifteen laghus Two dandas Six to seven dandas Fifteen days and nights Two fortnights . During the second six months the sun travels from north to south (daksinayana).2b) Calculation of time (SB veda ." (SB 4. In the same month the moon waxes and is called gaura-paksa or sukla-paksa. Standard time is calculated in terms of the movement of the ksana ." (SB 2.22) 4) The spiritual world is free of time's destructive influence.29.two weeks or a fortnight . 14 . The time covered by the sun in passing over an atom is calculated as atomic time.11. so what to speak of the illusory.875 parts.10) The affairs of the material world look unreal from the vantage point of the spiritual world: "All that happens in time .a double atom . Two months equal one a dream. the dark moon or amavasya. . by herbs or by any other means." (SB 8. by intelligence. present and future . nor is there any of their influence in goodness. There is no predominance of the influence of time. Time is measured in terms of its covering a certain space of atoms. "In that personal abode of the kastha or 8 seconds .21. by diplomacy. Without discrimination. or one second divided in 16. the full moon or purnima. Thus purnima to amavasya is called krsna-paksa (dark moon) and amavasya to purnima is called sukla-paksa (bright moon)."No one can surpass the time representation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by material muhurta or one hour . by fortresses.

296. (ladle. His body is marked with Srivatsa and other distinctive ornaments. has matted hair and wears a garment of tree bark.000 human years Life span .100. Symptoms of Treta-yuga In Treta-yuga the people are thoroughly religious.meditation or astanga yoga Yuga-avatara .Chanting the Hare Krsna mahamantra (harinama sankirtana) Yuga-avatara . during the period of the seventh Manu (Vaivasvata) in the 28th divya-yuga. He appears once in a day of Brahma. Symptoms of Dvapara-yuga In Dvapara-yuga people have the weaknesses of mortal beings.21-22) Treta-yuga (Silver Age) Duration . Although in every Dvapara-yuga there is a yuga-avatara. To achieve that end they are very strict in following Vedic principles. (SB 11. only the worship of Krsna and religion was perfectly practiced. spoon and other implements of sacrifice).600 demigod years or 1. a sacred thread. and He manifests His personal weapons.Temple worship (arcana) Yuga-avatara . non-envious.14. they are all expansions of Visnu.10. The original Personality of Godhead Krsna only comes once in a day of Brahma. who is an expansion of Sri Krsna.200 demigod years or 432.000 years Yuga-dharma . Symptoms of Satya-yuga The people are peaceful. He carries a black deerskin. but they have a strong desire to know about the Absolute Truth and they worship the Lord in the mood of honoring a great king. The original Personality of Godhead from whom all other incarnations expand is Sri Krsna. 15 . He wears a triple belt representing initiation into the three Vedas.1.000 human years Life span . In Satya-yuga there was no division of asrama. who is Krsna Himself.000 years Yuga-dharma . Kali-yuga (Iron Age) Duration .golden or yellow but generally black. everyone was a paramahamsa. friendly and naturally Krsna conscious.Four cosmic ages (yugas) Krta or Satya-yuga (Golden Age) Duration . appears only in the Kali-yuga immediately following the appearance of Sri Krsna in Dvaparayuga. In Treta-yuga they are inclined to become Krsna conscious.5. following the prescriptions of both Vedas and tantras.Fire sacrifice (yajna) Yuga-avatara . Lord Caitanya.100 years Yuga-dharma .his complexion is dark blue.000 years Yuga-dharma . Dvapara-yuga (Copper Age) Duration .white with four arms.000 human years Life span . There was no demigod worship.800 demigods years or 1. In Satya-yuga people are naturally Krsna conscious. He wears yellow garments.000 human years Life span with four arms and golden hair. (SB 9. prayer beads and the rod and waterpot of a brahmacari.4.400 demigod years or 864. sruva. His symbols are the sruk.3. etc.728.

or 311. One thousand divya-yugas equals one day of Brahma (4. always disturbed. One divya-yuga is 12. lazy.Symptoms of Kali-yuga "O learned one in the age of Kali.000.040. men have but short lives. In Brahma's one day there are fourteen Manus (patriarchs of mankind).000 human years. After the dissolution of every Manu a new Manu comes.3 billion years ago (453 mahayugas back).46p.000 human years).000 human years). 16 . The yuga-sandhyas are periods of partial devastation and creation.000 days and nights (of the same length).320.000. The beginning of this kalpa was 2. Brahma's life consists of 36.1.720.000 human years).320.. They are quarrelsome.000 years of the demigods (306.000. We live in Kali-yuga of the 28th divya-yuga of the 7th Manu of the 12th kalpa (called SvetaVaraha) (SB 2. With the change of Manu the universal management also changes." (SB 1.10. misguided unlucky and above all. Each manvantara is preceded and followed by the yuga-sandhya in length of one Satya-yuga.39-42).10) The four yugas are known as a divya-yuga.000 years of the demigods (4. Skanda P. 2. or maha-yuga. in the 51th year of Brahma. Each Manu enjoys a life of seventy-one divya-yugas or 852.