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Solar Car by www.seminarsTopics.


The project is solar vehicle we are using a solar energy as a source of energy in
our project.
Nowadays, we are experiencing an electricity scarcity we are experiencing a Lead
in shortage too. So the battery manufacturing cost and resulting end user prices are sky
high also a shortage of batteries in the market. We are also experiencing a hike in fuel
prices considerably, is bound to go on as time pass by as soon we will be shortage of fuel
too. There is an emphasis on using fuel appreciably but nobody is taking care of it.
But we are at least taking the consideration of it and with this we are trying to put a novel
concept in the market.
Government is also promoting the use of renewable energy in each of every
operation. The biggest option to replace the conventional theory of fuel operation, can be
replaced by the battery based theory, is environment friendly too.
The only problem associated with the battery based technique is it needs to be
recharged and the charging time is considerable high.
So it cant replace the fuel completely, if we are thinking of using the battery based
vehicle for conveyance. The other problem associated with the battery vehicle is the
battery weight takes the maximum weight of the total weight of the vehicle.
So it needs to be reduced because it directly affects the performance of the vehicle. As
due to more weight its mileage will be on shorter side due to maximum weight, if we
reduce the weight the mileage will improve many folds easily in one charge.
The fact is the battery charging is done using the electricity so in all sense we are using
electricity. We are eliminating these necessities to some extend, As in our vehicle we are
using the solar energy for operation as we are blessed with at least 300 days a total
And we are using the Capacitor as a source of storage of charge rather than the
battery, this in effect will reduce the dead weight of the vehicle and reduce the weight of
the vehicle considerably and improve the performance but we are not using the battery so
we are using the solar panel to power the motor used in the vehicle and the capacitor bank
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as a source of temporary storage. We will have a system which will continuously scan the
capacitor bank and charging the capacitor bank and the charge is discharged into the
motor directly. As the charge is stored momentarily the wattage requirement reduces
considerably and yielding a better result.

1. Introduction


2. Literature survey


2.1.Solar Cars


2.2.Photovoltaic Cell


3. Theory


3.1.Specification of Block Diagram of Solar Vehicle

3.1.1. Solar panel


1. What Is Solar Panel


2. Function of Solar Cells


3. Material of Photovoltaic Cell


4. Photovoltaic Cell


5. Storing Electricity


6. How Photovoltaic Cell Works


7. Energy Flow of a Solar Car


8. Solar Array of a Solar Car


9. Cell Type


3.1.2. High Frequency Switching Circuit


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3.1.3. Capacitor Bank





3.1.5. Cristal & Reset Circuit


3.1.6. Power Supply


3.1.7. Motor Buffer Driver


3.1.8. Motor Bridge Driver


3.1.9. Battery Low


3.1.10. From Cell To Module


3.1.11. Mains Connections & Stand-Alone Systems


3.1.12. Energy Storage Device


3.1.13. Charge Controller


3.1.14. An Alternative The Cis Cell


3.1.15. DC Motor


1. Permanent Magnet Motor




Brushed Dc Motor

4. Design


4.1.Point To Consider When Designing a Solar Vehicle


4.2.Wheel & Chassis


4.3.Design Of Chassis


4.4.Designing Consideration


4.5.Designing Of Shaft




4.7.Solar Panel


4.8.How to Determine The Efficiency Of Solar Panel


4.9.Calculation of Efficiency of Solar Panel


4.10. Battery Low Indicator Design

4.11. List of Components
5. Advantage, Disadvantage & Application
5.1. Advantage
5.2. Disadvantage
5.3. Application
6. Conclusion
7. Future scope


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The unique feature of the vehicle is being solar operated system, but it does not
use battery to supply the motor, instead it uses capacitor banks there are four different
capacitor banks used in this system, where there banks are switched one by one using the
high frequency switching through the microcontroller.
Many specifications must to know about solar car from solar array , motor,
capacitor bank and so on each specification has theory and calculation to mate it function
correctly & able to move perfectly. The most important things id\s the capacitor bank
because before this there is no solar car driven by a capacitor bank. This project a lot
depends on capacitor bank because it using influence if the solar car can drive or not.
Using brain storming techniques to generate ideas , several initial design may be
consider a common place to start is with the shape of the car since it will dictate the
design of many other system initial designing concept are also developed for chassis
design mechanical system design electric system design, driving train design& solar array
design that show promise are investigated further so that design can be compare through
trade of studies the concept must be eliminated until a final design can be agreed upon
there are many factors to consider to each design, for example:
Basically research about capacitor bank to drive a solar car was a something new.
Success do not depends on question that will answer it later from the research this
research is carried out to get an answer for the question as follows.
a) How to build a solar car with capacitor bank? In this research author will
built a proto type to improve the fact.
b) How a capacitor bank can drive a solar car? Connection between capacitor
bank and motor is important thing.
Knowledge about solar array also important because the array is made up of many
photovoltaic solar cell that convert sun energy into electricity .the cell types & the
dimensions of the array depends on the vehicle size and class.

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More over knowledge about drive train in solar car is very different from that a
conventional car. Throw this project the drive trains consist of electric motor & the means
by which the motor power is transmitted to the vehicle to move.
This project is to design a solar capacitor bank powered vehicle with objective as
a) To design use photovoltaic source of power.
b) To fabricate & assemble a working proto type model.
This project is more focus on solar capacitor bank powered vehicle. The scope of
this project is as follows:
a) Selection of solar panel.
b) Selection of capacitor bank.
c) Selection of chassis, selection of motor etc.

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2.1. Solar Cars
The first solar car invented was a tiny 15-inch vehicle created by William G. Cobb
of General Motors. Called the Sun mobile, Cobb showcased the first solar car at the
Chicago Powerama convention on August 31, 1955. The solar car was made up 12
selenium photovoltaic cells and a small Pooley electric motor turning a pulley which in
turn rotated the rear wheel shaft. The first solar car in history was obviously too small to
drive as shown in fig.2.1.
Now let's jump to 1962 when the first solar car that a person could drive was
demonstrated to the public. The International Rectifier Company converted a vintage
model 1912 Baker electric car (pictured above) to run on photovoltaic energy in 1958, but
they didn't show it until 4 years later. Around 10,640 individual solar cells were mounted
to the rooftop of the Baker to help propel it.
In 1977, Alabama University professor Ed Passereni built the Bluebird solar car,
which was a prototype full scale vehicle. The Bluebird was supposed to move from power
created by the photovoltaic cells only without the use of a battery. The Bluebird was
exhibited in the Knoxville, TN 1982 World's Fair. [2]
Between 1977 and 1980 (the exact dates are not known for sure), at Tokyo Denki
University, professor Masaharu Fujita first created a solar bicycle, then a 4-wheel solar
car. The car was actually two solar bicycles put together.
In 1979 Englishman Alain Freeman invented a solar car (pictured right). He road
registered the same vehicle in 1980. The Freeman solar car was a 3-wheeler with a solar
panel on the roof.
At the engineering department at Tel Aviv University in Israel, Arye Braunstein
and his colleagues created a solar car in 1980 (pictured below). The solar car had a solar
panel on the hood and on the roof of the Citicar comprised of 432 cells creating 400 watts
of peak power. The solar car used 8 batteries of 6 volts each to store the photovoltaic
energy. [5]
The 1,320 pound solar Citicar is said by the engineering department to have been
able to reach up to 40 mph with a maximum range of 50 miles.
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In 1981 Hans Tholstrup and Larry Perkins built a solar powered racecar. In 1982,
the pair became the first to cross a continent in a solar car, from Perth to Sydney,
Australia. Tholstrup is the creator of the World Solar Challenge in Australia.
In 1984, Greg Johanson and Joel Davidson invented the Sunrunner solar race car.
The Sunrunner set the official Guinness world record in Bellflower, California of 24.7
mph. In the Mojave Desert of California and final top speed of 41 mph was officially
recorded for a "Solely Solar Powered Vehicle" (did not use a battery). The 1986 Guinness
book of world records published the official records.
The GM Sunraycer in 1987 completed a 1,866 mile trip with an average speed of
42 mph. Since this time there have been many solar cars invented at universities for
competitions such as the Shell Eco Marathon. There is also a commercially available
solar car called the Venturi Astrolab. Time will only tell how far the solar car makes it
with todays & tomorrows technology. Solar cars combine technology typically used in
the aerospace, bicycle, alternative energy and automotive industries. The design of a solar
vehicle is severely limited by the amount of energy input into the car. Most solar cars
have been built for the purpose of solar car races. Exceptions include solar-powered cars
and utility vehicles.
Solar cars are often fitted with gauges as seen in conventional cars. In order to
keep the car running smoothly, the driver must keep an eye on these gauges to spot
possible problems. Cars without gauges almost always feature wireless telemetry, which
allows the driver's team to monitor the car's energy consumption, solar energy capture
and other parameters and free the driver to concentrate on driving.Solar cars depend on
PV cells to convert sunlight into electricity. In fact, 51% of sunlight actually enters the
Earth's atmosphere.[3]
Unlike solar thermal energy which converts solar energy to heat for either
household purposes, industrial purposes or to be converted to electricity, PV cells directly
convert sunlight into electricity. When sunlight (photons) strike PV cells, they excite
electrons and allow them to flow, creating an electrical current. PV cells are made of
semiconductor materials such as silicon and alloys of indium, gallium and nitrogen.
Silicon is the most common material used and has an efficiency rate of 15-20%. Of late,
several consulting companies, such as Phoenix Snider Power, have started offering
technical and financial services to institutes and teams developing solar cars worldwide
During the 1990s, regulations requiring an approach to "zero emissions"
from vehicles increased interest in new battery technology. Battery systems that
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offer higher energy density became the subject of joint research by federal and
auto industry scientists. Solar cars were first built by universities and
manufacturers. The sun energy collector areas proved to be too large for consumer
cars, however that is changing. Development continues on solar cell design and car
power supply requirements such as heater or air-conditioning fans.[4]
July 2007 marks the 24th anniversary since Joel Davidson and Greg Johanson set
The First Guinness World Record for a 100% solar powered vehicle (no batteries). In
1986, the vehicle was retired and taken apart, but the solar array is still producing
electricity for an off-grid home.

2.2. History of Photovoltaic Cell

Photovoltaic system converts sun light into electricity. The

term "photo" is a

stem from the Greek "photos," which means "light." "Volt" is named for
Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), a pioneer in the study of electricity. "Photovoltaic," then, could literally mean "light-electricity." Most commonly known as
"solar cells," PV systems are already an important part of our lives. The simplest
systems power many of the small calculators and wrist watches we use every day.
More complicated systems



for pumping water, powering

communications equipment, and even lighting our homes and running our
appliances. In a surprising number of cases, PV power is the cheapest form of
electricity performing these tasks.[7]
Photovoltaic cells converts lightr energy into electricity into atomic level.
Although first discovered in 1839, the process of producing electric current in
a solid material with the aid of sunlight wasn't truly understood for more than
a hundred years. Throught the second half of the 20th century, the science has
been refined and the process has been more fully explained. As a result, the cost of
these devices has put them into the mainstream of modern energy producers.
This was caused in part by advances in the technology, where PV conversion
efficiencies have improved considerably'.
French physicist Edmond Becquerel first described the photovoltaic
(PV) effect in 1839, but it remained a curiosity of science for the next
three quarters of a century. At only 19, Becquerel found that certain materials
would produce small amounts of electric current when exposed to light. The
effect was first studied in solids, such as selenium, by Heinrich Hertz in the
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1870s. Soon afterward, selenium PV cells were converting light to electricity at
1% to 2% efficiency. As

a result,

selenium was

quickly adopted in the

emerging field of photography for use in light- measuring devices. Major

steps toward commercializing PV were taken in the 1940s and early 1950s,


Czochralski process




producing highly pure

crystalline silicon. In 1954, scientists a t Bell Laboratories depended on the

Czochralski process to develop the first crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell,
which had an efficiency of 4%. The term "photovoltaic" comes from the Greek
(phs) meaning "light", and "voltaic", meaning electric, from the name of the Italian
physicist Volta, after whom a unit of electro-motive force, the volt, is named. The term
"photo-voltaic" has been in use in English since 1849.
The photovoltaic effect was first recognized in 1839 by French physicist A. E.
Becquerel. However, it was not until 1883 that the first photovoltaic cell was built, by
Charles Fritts, who coated the semiconductor selenium with an extremely thin layer of
gold to form the junctions. The device was only around 1% efficient. In 1888 Russian
physicist Aleksandr Stoletov built the first photoelectric cell (based on the outer
photoelectric effect discovered by Heinrich Hertz earlier in 1887). Albert Einstein
explained the photoelectric effect in 1905 for which he received the Nobel prize in
Physics in 1921. Russell Ohl patented the modern junction semiconductor solar cell in
1946, which was discovered while working on the series of advances that would lead to
the transistor.
The modern photovoltaic cell was developed in 1954 at Bell Laboratories. The
highly efficient solar cell was first developed by Daryl Chapin, Calvin Souther Fuller and
Gerald Pearson in 1954 using a diffused silicon p-n junction. At first, cells were
developed for toys and other minor uses, as the cost of the electricity they produced was
very high - in relative terms, a cell that produced 1 watt of electrical power in bright
sunlight cost about $250, comparing to $2 to $3 for a coal plant.
Solar cells were rescued from obscurity by the suggestion to add them to the
Vanguard I satellite. In the original plans, the satellite would be powered only by battery,
and last a short time while this ran down. By adding cells to the outside of the fuselage,
the mission time could be extended with no major changes to the spacecraft or its power
systems. There was some skepticism at first, but in practice the cells proved to be a huge
success, and solar cells were quickly designed into many new satellites, notably Bell's
own Telstar.
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Improvements were slow over the next two decades, and the only widespread use
was in space applications where their power-to-weight ratio was higher than any
competing technology. However, this success was also the reason for slow progress;
space users were willing to pay anything for the best possible cells, there was no reason to
invest in lower-cost solutions if this would reduce efficiency. Instead, the price of cells
was determined largely by the semiconductor industry; their move to integrated circuits in
the 1960s led to the availability of larger boules at lower relative prices. As their price
fell, the price of the resulting cells did as well. However these effects were limited, and

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by 1971 cell costs were estimated to be $100 a watt.

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A Size




Power Supply

Fig.3.5: Energy Flows In A Solar Car

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Specification of Block Diagram Of Solar Vehicle

Block diagram of solar vehicle is shown in fig 3.6 & components of the vehicle

are as follows.

Solar Panel

High Frequency Switching Circuit

Capacitor Bank

Micro Controller

Crystal & Reset Circuit

Power Supply

Motor Buffer Driver

Motor Bridge Driver

Battery Low

10 Cell To Module
11 Mains Connections & Stand-Alone Systems
12 Charge Controllers
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13 Energy storage device
14 An Alternative The Cis Cell

3.1.1. Solar Panel

1. What Is Solar Panel?
Essentials solar panels are groups of silicon cells used to convert light energy into
electricity. Solar panels are thin silicon cells that are grouped together into a simple frame
with some wire works. The panels harness daylight and process it for human use by
absorbing electrons from the sun's rays. These electrons help to extract energy from the
silicon, which is unstable due to a chemical combination of boron and phosphorus
combined in each cell. When the silicon heats up from the sun, it reacts with the other
chemical additives and becomes unstable. Then the electrons in the sun are absorbed by
the silicon and the unstable silicon elements are forced through the wires established in
the panel this becomes D.C. energy.

2. Function of Solar Cells

Not only sun is the source of heat & light it is also source of electricity too! solar
cells also called photovoltaic cells, are used to convert sunlight to electricity. Solar
cells are used to provide electricity all kinds of equipment, from calculators and
watches to roadside emergency phones and recreational vehicles. solar cell is most
commonly made from silica, the same material used to make computer chips.
Silicon is one of the Earth's most common elements, and is a major component of
sand and many kinds of rocks. A solar cell is built like a sandwich, with two layers
of silicon separated by a thin layer of insulating material. All three layers work
together to convert sunlight into electricity. [1]
When sunlight falls on to the solar cell, it produces a small electric charge.
Like a battery, the charge is positive on one side of the cell, and negative on the
other. A wire connects the two sides of the cell, allowing electricity to flow. This
flow, or current, of electricity can be used to power a small light bulb, turn an
electric motor, or recharge a battery.

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Solar cells are often used in locations where there isn't any electricity and where
electricity is needed in small amounts. In such cases, solar cells are usually connected to
batteries, allowing electricity to be stored for use during times when the sun isn't shining.
A single solar cell is able to produce only a small amount of electricity. But solar
cells can be connected together on a multi-cell panel to produce larger amounts of
electricity. As with batteries, the more cells that are connected to one another, the greater
the current of electricity that can be produced. Solar panels (figure 3.1) can produce
enough electricity to power satellites, recreational vehicles, and equipment for other
applications where electricity is used in large amounts.

3. Material of Photovoltaic Cell

Visible light can be directly converted to electricity by a space-age technology
called a photovoltaic cell (figure 3.2), also called a solar cell. Most photovoltaic cells are
made from a crystalline substance called silicon, one of the Earth's most common
materials. Solar cells are typically made by slicing a large crystal of silicon into thin
wafers and putting two separate wafers with different electrical properties together, along
with wires to enable electrons to travel between layers. When sunlight strikes the solar
cell, electrons naturally travel from one layer to the other through the wire because of the
different properties of the two silicon wafers.
A single cell can produce only very tiny amounts of electricity-barely enough to
light up a small light bulb or power a calculator. Nonetheless, single photovoltaic cells are
used in many small electronic appliances such as watches and calculators.

4. Photovoltaic Cell
To capture and convert more energy from the sun, photovoltaic cells (figure 3.3)
are linked to form photovoltaic arrays. An array is simply a large number of single cells
connected by wires. Linked together in an array, solar cells can produce enough
electricity to do some serious work. Many buildings generate most of their electrical
needs from solar photovoltaic arrays.
Photovoltaic arrays (figure 3.3) are becoming a familiar sight along
roadsides, on farms, and in the city, whenever portable electricity is needed. They
are commonly used to provide power for portable construction signs, emergency
telephones, and remote industrial facilities. They are also becoming popular as a
way of supplying electricity for remote power applications such as homes and
cabins that

are located

away from power lines, for sailboats, recreational

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vehicles, telecommunications

facilities, oil and gas operations, and sometimes

entire villages-in tropical countries, for example.

5. Storing Electricity
Solar panels make electricity in all kinds of conditions, from cloudy skies to full
sunlight, in all seasons of the year. But they don't work at all during the nighttime! To
make electricity available after sundown, the energy must be stored during the day for
later use. The usual storage device is a rechargeable battery.
The batteries used with solar arrays must be able to discharge and recharge again
many times. They contain special parts and chemicals not found in disposable batteries.
They are also usually larger and more expensive than their disposable cousins.
Besides solar panels and rechargeable batteries, modem photovoltaic systems are
usually equipped with some kind of electronic charge controller. The main job of the
charge controller is to feed electricity from the solar panel to the battery in the most
efficient manner and to prevent the solar panel from overcharging the battery. The charge
controller also protects the solar panels from electrical damage.

6. How Photovoltaic Cell Work

Photovoltaic cells are marvels of sub-atomic physics. They are constructed by
layering special materials called semiconductors into thin, flat sandwiches, called solar
cells (figure 3.4). These are linked by electrical wires and arranged on a panel of a stiff,
non-conducting material such as glass. The panel itself is called a module.
A ray of light consists of a stream of photons-tiny packets of light energy-moving
along at around 300,000 kilometers per second. When these energy packets strike the top
layer of a solar panel, they bump electrically charged particles called electrons away from
their "parent" atoms. These electrons are collected by another layer in the sandwich and
passed along to wires that connect to batteries and other appliances. The amount of
electricity the panel can produce depends on the intensity of the light.[7]

7. Energy Flow For A Solar Car

The energy from the sun strikes the earth throughout the entire day . However, the
amount of energy changes due to the time of day, weather conditions, and geographic
location. The amount of available solar energy is known as the solar isolation and is most
commonly measured in watts per meter squared or W / m 2. In India on a bright sunny
day in the early afternoon the solar isolation will be roughly around 1000 W / m 2, but in
the mornings, evenings, or when the skies are overcast, the solar isolation will fall
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towards 0 W / m 2. It must understand how the available isolation changes in order to
capture as much of the available energy as possible.
Figure (3.5) gives a general idea how energy flows in a solar car. The sunlight hits
the cells of the solar array, which produces an electrical current. The energy (current) can
travel to the batteries for storage; go directly to the motor controller, or a combination of
both. The energy sent to the controller is used to power the motor that turns the wheel and
makes the car moves.
Generally if the car is in motion, the converted sun light is delivered directly to the
motor controller, but there are times when there is more energy coming from the may
than the motor controller needs. When this happens, the extra energy gets stored in the
batteries for later use.
When the solar may can't produce enough energy to drive the motor at the desired
speed, the array's energy is supplemented with stored energy from the batteries.
Of course, when the car is not in motion, all the energy from the solar may is
stored in the batteries. There is also a way to get back some of the energy used to propel
the car. When the car is being slowed down, instead of using the normal mechanical
brakes, the motor is turned into a generator and energy flows backwards through the
motor controller and into the batteries for storage. This is known as regenerative braking.
The amount of energy returned to the batteries is small, but every bit helps.

8. Solar Array For A Solar Car

The solar array is the vehicle's only source of power during the cross-country race.
The array is made up of many (often several hundred) photovoltaic solar cells that convert
the sun's energy into electricity. Teams use a variety of solar cell technologies to build
their arrays. The cell types and dimensions of the array are depending on the vehicle size
and class.
The cells are wired together to form strings. Several strings are often wired
together to form a section or panel that has a voltage close to the nominal battery voltage.
There are several methods used to string the cells together, but the primary goal is to get
as many solar cells possible in the space available. The solar cells are very fragile and can
be damaged easily. It protects the cells from both the weather and breakage by
encapsulating them. There are several methods used to encapsulate cells and the goal is to
protect the cells while adding the least amount of weight.

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The power produced by the solar may varies depending on the weather, the sun's
position in the sky, and the solar array itself. On a bright, sunny day at noon, a good solar
car solar array will produce well over 1000 watts (1.3 hp) of power. The power from the
may is used either to power the electric motor or stored in the battery pack for later use.In
this model the photovoltaic cells arranged in this manner to deliver 12V dc, where each
cell has voltage of 1.5v each, the parallel connection of the cells is done to meet the
current capacity.
If 12 v then 9 cells are connected in series, here the power requirement is
considered to be a 500mA,then the total power output from the panel will be
12*500mA=6w approx, then the panel to be chosen more than this ratings. So that it can
sufficiently deliver the required output. The panel should be of 9 W powers output
Solar cells are almost exclusively based on silicon as the voltage source. Pure
(crystalline) silicon is a semiconductor, a crystal, with a regular structure of atoms which
are joined by chemical links. By applying energy, for example, absorption of light, it is
possible for electrons to be released from their atoms. With silicon, the minimum amount
of energy (force) needed for release equals 1.2eV (approx. 5 X 10-26 kWh).
In as far as it interacts with matter; light consists of a beam of particles (photons) which
matter on a surface. The energy of a single photon depends on the wavelength (i.e. co
lour) of the light: violet photons in shortwave light contain more energy than red photons
in light with a relatively large wavelength. The total power of the radiation is calculated
from the number photons that hit the irradiated surface per unit of time, multiplied by the
energy of individual photons. When light is absorbed, one photon can only transfer its
energy to one electron, irrespective of the amount of energy it contains. The only
condition for this to happen is that the minimum electron release energy is available.
Solar cells do not consist of pure silicon. The basic material is arranged in layers
& purposely polluted (doped) with foreign atoms which have either one electron less(p
doping with boron or aluminum) or one electron more (n-doping with phosphor or
arsenic) than required for taking up into silicon crystal structure.
Inside the barrier layer exits an electrical field which drives free charge carries
caused by irradiation to the electrodes of the solar cell.
Unfortunately, the resulting electrical current is rather small than might be
expected based on the amount of energy that hits the cell surface. The reason is twofold:
firstly only about 50% (max.) of the energy contained in the solar spectrum that reaches
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the earth can be used for photovoltaic conversion. Secondly, the efficiency is limited by
such factors as reflections, recombination & other losses. In practice, the over all
efficiency of a photovoltaic cell will hardly ever exceed 16%. Higher values of up to 40%
are only possible under laboratory conditions.
In general, a distinction is made between three cell types based on silicon:
Monocrystalline cells have the highest efficiency (12-15%). These so-called wafers are
cut from a cylinder-shaped monocrystal & are recognized by their rounded or broken
corners, & their smooth blue-grey surface.
Polycrystalline solar cells are made from silicon cast in blocks. By controlled cooling of
these blocks, relatively large crystallites are created which are at right angles to the cell
surface. When the block is cut into discs, the surface is opalescent. Polycrystalline cells
may be considered as a kind of parallel configuration of monocrystals. Their efficiency is
slightly below that of monocrystalline cells at 10 of 13%.
Amorphous silicon is the basic material used for solar cell type with the widest use. With
these cells, monosilane (SiH4) is grown in very thin layers on a glass surface. The
production process is simple & cost efficient. The silicon layer is totally unstructured, in
other words, no crystal is involved. Consequently, the efficiency is relatively low at only
7% (max.). None the less, amorphous cells are well as tablished in low power
applications (watches, pocket calculators), mainly because of their low price. A special
problem is formed by the long-term stability in contrast with crystalline cells, the
performance of amorphous cells drops after some time, albeit not as quickly as the types
manufactured a few years ago.
The main shortcoming of solar cells is the fact that the basic material, silicon, has to be of
purity which is almost beyond imagination. This might strike you as odd considering that
the resources for silicon are, in principal, unlimited. Furthermore, the material is nontoxic, environmentally clean, & easy to process. Returning to the subject of purity, the
pollution by foreign atoms are may nor exceed 1 ppb (parts per billion). The production
of silicon with this degree of purity is expensive & complex. This is reflected not only by
the cost, but also by small production volumes of crystalline, pure, silicon. A single onegig watt solar cell power station, for example, would use up a fourth of the world year

9. Cell Type

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There are many types of photovoltaic cell, with varying efficiencies. Cost
generally increases with efficiency, and cost per watt rises rapidly as efficiency increases.
For applications where there is plenty of space available for cells, efficiency is not
usually a great concern and a large array of low efficiency cells is often the best solution.
But for solar cars (and for satellites) there is a limited area available, and so high
efficiency cells are preferred.
The type of the cell that have been used in the solar cars include:
1. Monocrystalline Silicon
2. Single Junction Gallium Arsenide (Gaas)
3. Multi-Junction Gallium Arsenide
Other types of cells, such as thin-film silicon, polycrystalline silicon and
amorphous silicon, are generally not efficient enough to deliver sufficient power from the
limited space available on the surface of a solar car.
Monocrystalline cells have the highest efficiency (12-15%). Sun Power make cells
with efficiencies greater than 21%. Multi-junction gallium arsenide cells are more
efficient than silicon cells and its efficiencies up to 28%, but also much more expensive.
Higher values of up to 40% are only possible under laboratory conditions.

3.1.2. High Frequency Switching Circuit

It switching network, which switches in the particular capacitor bank one by one
into circuit for charging purpose. This is done at high frequency which is controlled by
the micro controller; the switching frequency is so chosen that it is just more than the
capacitor discharge cycle. So no discontinuity in the output voltage is observed.
Here two sets of the block is used one switches the capacitor bank in the circuit
for charging purpose and the other block switches in the capacitor bank to load.

3.1.3. Capacitor Bank

This block contains the four capacitor banks, the capacitor bank consists of the
parallel connected capacitor of high value such as 8500 mfd, as it retains the charge for
more time and takes long time to discharge which is sufficient for the driving of the small
load such as motor of the vehicle. Here three such banks are used to form a one cycle and
provide the continues dc voltage to the motor.

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The voltage level is maintained at fixed value because of the use of the number of
banks the number can be increased if load is increased. As capacitor will discharge
through the load.

3.1.4. Micro Controller

Micro controller makes the switching of the banks possible, here three output is
taken at the port terminal and these terminals are made high at high frequency that time is
decided using the timer settings internally that means calculating the time delay, and
programmed to sequentially make the pins high in a cyclic manner. Microcontroller
switches the banks for charging purpose as well as for discharging purpose. The
switching of the banks in to the circuit is totally governed.
Microcontroller IC 89C55WD is heart of our project. We select this Microcontroller IC
for our project for following no. of advantages.
1) Internal 1k bytes*14words of electrically erasable programmable read only
memory with internal EPROM.
2) 13 I/O pins with 25mA source capability.
3) Operating voltage of 3.5 to 6V D.C. which is easily available by using voltage
regulator IC.
4) Internal 64 byte RAM to store temporally storage of data.
5) One timer and one watch dog timer.
6) Three interrupt sources are available.

3.1.5. Crystal & Reset Circuit

12MHz quartz ceramic crystal is connected between pin XTAL1, & XTAL2 of
Microcontroller to produce machine cycle for fetch & execution of instruction. And at pin
9RST pin we connect R.C n/w to provide reset pulse when power is turn ON so that
program execution starts from memory location 0000H.

3.1.6. Power Supply

For our all IC we require 5V D.C. supply which can be generated by step down
transformer, full wave bridge rectifier, filter condenser & voltage regulator IC7805.
12V supply for relay is generated separately using the same procedure as above.
This supply requirement can be fulfilled in our case using the battery back up and
providing recharge facility to it.

3.1.7. Motor Buffer Driver

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This stage provides the needed isolation from the main driver stage as well as
current boost of the microcontroller signal.
As micro controller dont have the driving capability. It can only drive up to 4mA only.

3.1.8. Motor Bridge Driver

This is the final driver stage it incorporates the H bridge configuration to achieve
the full control over the motor in both direction that is forward and reverse direction.

3.1.9. Battery Low

Comparator circuit will sense that the voltage level of the particular capacitor
bank is below the reference level, if below then it will be indicated to the controlling
circuit to connect to charging, when it reaches the cut off level of charge, it will be sensed
and indicated to control circuit.
Operational amplifier is a special type of amplifier with very high gain. It is used
for various different purposes. An op-amp can also be used to compare two different
Generally an Op-amp, unit has two input terminals and one output terminal.
Signal at the output terminal depends on the voltage at the input terminal.
One of the input terminals is called non inverting terminal and the other is
inverting terminal.
To use the Op-Amp as comparator, one input terminal is provided a constant
reference voltage and the other input terminal is given a variable voltage from a sensor
If the inverting terminal is given constant reference voltage and non inverting
terminal is given dc voltage from the sensor circuit, then the output will depend on
whether the input dc voltage from sensor is equal to reference voltage i.e. there difference
is zero, the voltage at the out put terminal will be zero.
When the input is less than the reference voltage, the out put will negative.
When the input is more than reference voltage, voltage at the out put terminal will be
When using more than one capacitor banks then the independent comparator
circuit for the particular bank. As integrated comparator IC such as LM324 can be used
this makes circuit simple and compact and easy to make. The details are given below.
3.1.10. Form Cell to Module

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A single crystalline solar cell supplies a no-load voltage of about 0.6V,
independent of its size. A cell made from amorphous silicon produces a slightly higher
voltage of about 0.8V. Under normal circumstances, i.e., assuming a normal cell size of
10x19cm, the power output is relatively low at 1.2 to 1.4 watt. Consequently, cells have
to be joined into solar modules (or panels) before usable currents &/or voltages become
As with batteries in torchlight, cells are connected in series to obtain a higher
output voltage. Conventional solar modules supply a no-load voltage of between 15V &
22V, which indicates that they consist of up to 40 series-connected solar cells.
The size of the cells surface determines the maximum output current, which is
usually indicated as the short-circuit current (i.e. at an output voltage of 0V). Available
versions range from small amorphous cells with an output current capacity in the microamps range; right up to square-meter size modules from monocrystalline silicon with an
output short-circuit current rating of more than 5A. Several identical modules may be
connected in parallel to obtain a higher output current. The output voltage then equals that
of a single cell. Finally, it is also possible to resort to a combined parallel-serial

Strictly speaking, 20 cells connected in series should be sufficient to

charge a 12V battery. In practice, however a solid margin should be designed into such a
system. Unfortunately, the output voltage of solar cell is not constant. In fact, it drops
with increasing temperature, & decreasing brightness of sunlight. This effect is far more
pronounced with polycrystalline cells than with monocrystalline types. Because of this,
the voltage characteristics of the relevant cells or modules should be studied before a
solar power system is planned & built. To achieve the highest possible output power, the
cell or module should be operated at the so-called maximum power point, MPP, at which
the electrical output power reaches its maximum. The MPP shifts with light intensity &
cell temperature.
Inside a module, the individual cells are connected in such a way that the lower
part of a solar cell is always connected to the upper part of another cell. Professional
modules constitute a symmetrical glass assembly with a layer structure: melting adhesive
foil, solar cell, melting adhesive foil, glass. High-end frames consist of stainless V4A

3.1.11. Mains Connections & Stand-Alone Systems

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Basically, two types of solar power system may be distinguished: the solar system
with mains coupling, which feeds its output energy into the 240V mains system, & the
stand alone system, which serves to supply energy to loads in locations where no mains
connection is available.
From an economical point of view, mains coupled solar systems do not appear to
make sense at first sight. The cost of one kilowatt-hour (kWh) supplied by such a system
is between about 80p, & that is much higher than electricity generated in the traditional
way, i.e., by burning fuels such as coal or gas. Mains coupled solar systems are only
viable with heavy government funding & then only after an extended write-off period.
Photovoltaic energy supply is, however, not developed beyond its early stages.
Prices of solar modules & ancillaries like mains couples are dropping while the efficiency
is constantly improved. In the short term, there will be no need to these developments,
because new technologies (for instance, chlorophyll & CIS cells) & mass production give
hope of inexpensive & efficient solar cells. There are no (longer) doubts as regards the
environment advantages of solar energy. The claims that solar cells use up more energy in
their production than they can ever return during their lifetime have turned out just as
wrong as the stories about highly toxic waste materials being left out there during the
production & scrapping of solar cells. The facts are that solar energy does not use
valuable resources, does not pollute the environment, & does not contribute to the
greenhouse effect. Moreover, it promotes decentralized energy supply.
Solar power systems which feed energy into the mains grid are few & far
between. For some time to come, the normal application of solar cells will be in the standalone system. These systems are usually marked by one or several actual loads- a bulb in
the garden shade, a refrigerator in the caravan, an emergency radio in a remote location
such as a mountaineering cabin, or a transponder on board a satellite. Obviously, it is
important for the components in these systems to be designed for a specific supply current
& a typical supply voltage, while special provisions should be available to ensure
continuity of the supply & stability of the supply voltage. All of the planning & design of
such a stand-alone system is user-oriented, which means that it is accurately tailored to
supplying current to users with on connection to the mains grid. Environmental
considerations are then secondary.

3.1.12. Energy Storage Device

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Unfortunately, the sun may not shine just when you need electrical energy. The
reverse is also true: energy may not always be required when the sun supplies plenty of it!
In addition to the solar cell array, a stand-alone system requires another important
component: an electrical energy storage device.
The first device that comes to mind for this function is the battery, which is
available in many different shapes & structures. Apart from special battery types,
including chloride-zinc, iron-sulphide, lithium, nickel-iron, silver-zinc & sodium-sulphur,
a number of which are still under development, familiar types such as the lead gel) acid,
NiCd & NiMH batteries are widely used for this purpose. These batteries feature a high
& fairly constant capacity, nearly loss-free current acceptance & delivery, & extended
durability despite many charging/discharging cycles. Lastly they are almost maintenance
free. The lead plates of special batteries for solar systems have selenium or calcium
doping instead of antimony as used in car batteries. These special batteries are marked by
high cycle repeatability, excellent charge efficiency, low self-discharging, high immunity
against deep discharging & overcharging, & unfortunately, a high price! Just as with solar
cells & modules, batteries may be connected in parallel or in series. When doing so, it is
essential to use batteries of the same type, with the same capacity, nominal voltage &
charge condition.

3.1.13. Charge Controllers

The third elementary component in a solar power system is a control circuit which
ensures a reliable & battery tailored transfer of the energy supplied by the solar cells to
the energy storage device.
The simplest solar systems have no control circuit at all. Instead, a reverse current
protection diode is connected between the module & the battery, the diode prevents the
battery from discharging itself through the module when the module receives no light.
Unfortunately, the voltage drop introduced by the diode causes considerable losses. This
can be kept to a minimum, however, by using a Schottky diode with a low forward
voltage drop of 3.0 to 0.4V (at higher currents, up to 0.7V).
A much better solution is a dedicated reverse current protection for solar systems
such as the Battery Regulator for Solar Power System. This circuit is based on a power
transistor which enables voltage losses smaller than 100mV to be achieved.
Basically, real control systems come in three variants: type with series regulation, with
parallel regulation, & MPP controls.
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A switch or regulating device (adjustable resistor, transistor) is inserted in the
current circuit. This is done to limit or interrupt the current that flows into the battery. The
series regulator requires a fairly stable supply voltage which is provided by the battery. If
a relay is incorporated in the circuit, the battery also supplies the hold current. In such a
configuration, the voltage loss caused by the relay contact(s) is negligible. If a transistor
is used for the switching function, the voltage loss introduced by the collector-emitter
junction should be taken into account. Also, the transistor should be able to operate at
relatively small gate or base current (for FETs & bipolar transistors respectively).
By contrast, the parallel (or shunt) regulator short circuits the solar modules
output voltage via a switching transistor when the regulator detects a too high voltage at
the battery terminals. Because the electrical power is converted into heat, the principal
may only be used with relatively small solar power modules. The advantage of the
parallel regulator is that is requires almost no energy when it is not active. In fact, the
shunt regulator only consumes current when a surplus amount of energy is available from
the solar cells.
Like the series regulator, the parallel regulator has a diode in the current circuit.
Obviously, this diode also causes some voltage loss. Even low coast charge controllers
available these days use charge control based on the U-I characteristic. Essentially, this
consists of three phases: normal charging (until the gaseous phase is reached at 14.4V)
full charging (up to14.9V) & retention charging (between 13.5 & 13.8V). The full
charging phase has been devised specifically for solar batteries. By accurate & careful
control of the liquid-to-gas transition, surfacing bubbles ensure that the acids inside the
(normally immobile) battery are properly stirred, preventing an early demise of the
The disadvantage of the series & parallel (shunt) regulators are obvious: the
excess energy caused by the mismatch between the solar cell & the battery is turned into
heat, & simply lost. By contrast, the Maximum Power Point regulator is designed to
attempt to employ the maximum power delivered by the solar cell. Unfortunately, an
MPP regulator does reduce the efficiency somewhat, & is complex in respect of its
electronics because the mathematical product of current & voltage has to be computed all
the time to enable the circuit to perform the required control actions. In practice, the
advantage of MPP regulators is only substantial in large systems, say, with an output
power of 200 watts & more.

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A good charger in a solar power system should also feature a deep discharging
protection which interrupts the current flow when the loads have discharged the battery
down to its discharging minimum of about 11V. The main component in such protection
circuits is generally a switching transistor or a relay.

3.1.14. An Alternative The Cis Cell

A further development alternative to the silicon photovoltaic cell is based on
copper-indium-selenium or copper-indium-sulphide (CIS) technology. The development
of these cells has reached the stage where Siemens are actually in the course of preparing
for volume production. It should be noted, through, that CIS cells are not environmentally
innocent Selenium derivates are toxic, while indium is toxic, rare and expensive.

3.1.15. DC motor
A DC motor is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. An
electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Most electric motors
operate through interacting magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate
force, although electrostatic motors use electrostatic forces.[7]
A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power. Two examples of pure DC
designs are Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon), and the ball
bearing motor, which is (so far) a novelty. By far the most common DC motor types are
the brushed and brushless types, which use internal and external commutation
respectively to periodically reverse the current in the rotor windings.

1. Permanent-Magnet Motors
A permanent-magnet motor does not have a field winding on the stator frame,
instead relying on permanent magnets to provide the magnetic field against which the
rotor field interacts to produce torque. Compensating windings in series with the armature
may be used on large motors to improve commuation under load. Because this field is
fixed, it cannot be adjusted for speed control. Permanent-magnet motors are convenient in
miniature motors to eliminate the power consumption of the field winding. Most larger
DC motors are of the "dynamo" type, which requires current to flow in field windings to
provide the stator magnetic field.
To minimize overall weight and size, miniature permanent-magnet motors may
use high energy magnets made with neodymium or other strategic elements. With the
higher flux density provided, electric machines with high energy permanent magnets are
at least competitive with all optimally designed singly-fed synchronous and induction

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electric machines. Hansen Permanent Magnet DC Brush Motors have unique
performance advantages that make them the best choice for simple, high efficiency DC
drives and servo motors. Hansen Permanent Magnet DC Brush Motors feature die cast
end bells and ball bearings for long life and optimized heat transfer. Custom windings can
be tailored to your specific needs and Encoders and electrical noise suppression can be
added, if required. DC Permanent Magnet Motors feature lifetime lubricated sintered
bronze bearings and built-in electrical noise suppression. However, it is the low audible
noise on the majority of NMB-MATs motor line that really sets them apart from other
Asian manufacturers. The new SE series motors use a four pole design with rare earth
magnets to achieve the highest output power per cubic inch available in any mass
produced motor.
Hansens line of DC Brush gear motors features an SE15 Permanent Magnet DC
Motor mounted on Hansen's Synchron gear train. These DC Brush motors are available in
five mounting configurations and a wide range of gear ratios. This high-efficiency, lowcost DC brush motor design features permanently lubricated sintered bearings and long
life brush. Also in Hansen's line is the Hansen Size 16 Motor on a 2 diameter gearbox
with ball bearing on the motor, sintered bronze bearings on the output shaft, and heattreated sintered steel gears.

2. Brushed DC motors
DC motor design generates an oscillating current in a wound rotor, or armature,
with a split ring commutator, and either a wound or permanent magnet stator. A rotor
consists of one or more coils of wire wound around a core on a shaft; an electrical power
source is connected to the rotor coil through the commutator and its brushes, causing
current to flow in it, producing electromagnetism. The commutator causes the current in
the coils to be switched as the rotor turns, keeping the magnetic poles of the rotor from
ever fully aligning with the magnetic poles of the stator field, so that the rotor never stops
(like a compass needle does) but rather keeps rotating indefinitely (as long as power is
applied and is sufficient for the motor to overcome the shaft torque load and internal
losses due to friction, etc.)
Many of the limitations of the classic commutator DC motor are due to the need
for brushes to press against the commutator. This creates friction. Sparks are created by
the brushes making and breaking circuits through the rotor coils as the brushes cross the
insulating gaps between commutator sections. Depending on the commutator design, this
may include the brushes shorting together adjacent sectionsand hence coil ends
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momentarily while crossing the gaps. Furthermore, the inductance of the rotor coils
causes the voltage across each to rise when its circuit is opened, increasing the sparking
of the brushes. This sparking limits the maximum speed of the machine, as too-rapid
sparking will overheat, erode, or even melt the commutator. The current density per unit
area of the brushes, in combination with their resistivity, limits the output of the motor.
The making and breaking of electric contact also causes electrical noise, and the sparks
additionally cause RFI. Brushes eventually wear out and require replacement, and the
commutator itself is subject to wear and maintenance (on larger motors) or replacement
(on small motors). The commutator assembly on a large motor is a costly element,
requiring precision assembly of many parts. On small motors, the commutator is usually
permanently integrated into the rotor, so replacing it usually requires replacing the whole
Large brushes are desired for a larger brush contact area to maximize motor
output, but small brushes are desired for low mass to maximize the speed at which the
motor can run without the brushes excessively bouncing and sparking (comparable to the
problem of "valve float" in internal combustion engines). (Small brushes are also
desirable for lower cost.) Stiffer brush springs can also be used to make brushes of a
given mass work at a higher speed, but at the cost of greater friction losses (lower
efficiency) and accelerated brush and commutator wear. Therefore, DC motor brush
design entails a trade-off between output power, speed, and efficiency/wear.
The geared instrument DC motor is ideally suited to a wide range of applications
requiring a combination of low speed operation and compact unit size. The integral iron
core dc motor provides smooth operation and a bi-directional variable speed capability
while the gearhead utilises a multi-stage metal spur gear train and a diecast metal housing
rated for a working torque up to 1.0Nm. The unit, which is suitable for mounting in any
attitude, provides reliable operation over a wide ambient temperature range and is
equipped with a rear shaft extension to which a speed or position sensor may be attached
The 1308 unit offers a range of gear ratio options for operating speeds from 5-100 rpm
and is ideally suited to applications where a combination of high torque, compact size and
economic unit price are important design criteria.
60RPM 12V DC geared motors for robotics applications. Very easy to use and available
in standard size. Nut and threads on shaft to easily connect and internal threaded shaft for
easily connecting it to wheel. NR-DC-ECO is high quality low cost DC geared motor. It
contains Brass gears and steel pinions to ensure longer life and better wear and tear
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properties. The gears are fixed on hardened steel spindles polished to a mirror finish.
These spindles rotate between bronze plates which ensures silent running. The output
shaft rotates in a sintered bushing. The whole assembly is covered with a plastic ring. All
the bearings are permanently lubricated and therefore require no maintenance. The motor
is screwed to the gear box from inside.fig.3.6.shows the dc geared motor.

60RPM 12V DC motors with Gearbox

3000RPM base motor

6mm shaft diameter with internal hole

125gm weight

Same size motor available in various rpm

2kgcm torque

No-load current = 60 mA(Max), Load current = 300 mA(Max)

4.1. Points to Consider When Designing a Solar Vehicle
The car should he designed in order to maximize the area exposed to sun
light in order to achieve maximum power.
The car shape should he so-called an aerodynamic shape in order to achieve
minimum wind resistance, or the so-called drag force.

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The car should be as light as possible, because the power expected from the
solar cells is not that much. In addition, most of this power will be utilized to
overcome friction and drag.

4.2. Wheel & Chassis

To develop a four wheel based driving vehicle in miniature size it is a critical
designing to that so we have first decided the outer dimensions by assuming. After that
we decided the wheel diameter by searching in market which is easily available wheel
with gear attachment .then we fined the wheel which is made up of PVC material with
centre whole for mechanical coupling. After deciding wheel we have to give a griping
material at outer surface of wheel for better grip on surface while moving on any kind of
surface then we put on a rubber ring on the outer surface by simply pasting. As the wheel
are ready for use the next requirement is the base on which the complete vehicle is been
enclosed that main & basic thing is the chassis.
The chassis (fig.4.1,fig.4.2) is the most important part because of that any vehicle
can be designed. So for the chassis we have limitation on selecting the material of chassis.
The weight of the chassis should have to be lowest as possible with high strength, high
rigidity, low cost, easy to fabricate. Easily available etc. by considering all facts
aluminum is the best metal for this solar vehicle. Then by selecting metal for chassis the
all type of aluminum type available are taken in consideration after all designing
parameter important an aluminum angle is selected.
The aluminum angle is like as two strips which are bonded at 90 to each other
that called as angle. Then the chassis designing is developed which is uses two vertically
taken angle whose length is 16 long which are kept away from each by a horizontal
aluminum angle, whose length is 11.this horizontal & vertical angle are connected to
each other with the help of nut & bolts. The nut & bolt is attached after drilling on
marked point, the drilled point is connected by tightening the nut & bolt with the help of
spanner. The nut & bolt are 1/18 mild steel made used. This structure forms a rigid and
solid chassis which is able to give all mechanical support to other accessories, also in very
less weight itself. Now this cassis consist two vertical and two horizontal aluminum angle
strips. As this main mechanical part is finalized.
The next stage is confirming the distance between two wheels as according to
vehicle length. The length is good as 20 by this length decided to a 13 is distance
between two wheels. The wheel is equipped by the gears measuring the gear teeths for
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motor driving purpose. Then for connecting the wheels to chassis by center whole without
disturbing the revolution and movement there for a metal shaft is developed. This metal
shaft is made up of iron the machining is done by the lathe machine. This machine is
reduces the unrequited metal from shaft which is rotating in circular motion prissily
Without disturbing the centre point of the shaft. This shaped rod are cut in to a
specified length by cutting machine .the front wheel shaft are not connected to each other
to rotate simultaneously. But the back wheel are connected to shaft and locked to the shaft
of both side. this locked shaft of the both sides are connected to each other with the help
of connecting coupling which is also fabricated on the lathe machine. This mechanical
coupling is very important to drive the vehicle in straight line while moving. this back
wheel are the effort wheels of vehicle so it is very important to apply a exact and same
effort simultaneously to move vehicle in front straight direction this both side shaft
locking is very important this locking should not have a error in it. Then the low power,
lowest weight DC motor is selected. The DC motor are not able to drive directly this big
& heavy load, the effort of the motor is not sufficient to drive this vehicle there for it is
required to increase the effort & driving power by using the gear system then this motor is
attached to the miniature gear assembly then this motor is called as a DC geared moter the
toque of this motor is very high as compared to other dc motor. So this configuration is
used in this vehicle which offers high power in low input. There for to couple this driving
motor to the shaft of wheel a mechanical coupling is required this is done by using the
effort gear coupling at the motor shaft. This gear is made up of iron & numbers of teeth
are less than the number of teeth on wheel. This difference in the number of teeth is
maintained to adjust the torque and speed ratio with out loading the motor. then this
motor is mounted on the chassis by using the aluminum metal holding clamp, this clamp
is attached by using the nut & bolts.
To reduce the weight an aluminum L section of 25x25mm thickness is 2mm used.
Bearing case- this bearing case is formed in the mild steel fitted with 5/32 screw.
Solar unit platformThis is an essential part in which the size should be big as we can achive in range.
This size is decided by the solar panel we have used the dimension of panel is 16 x10
So the platform at top is in size accordingly.

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Fig.4.1: Front View

Fig.4.2: Solar Vehicle in Side View

4.3. Design of Chassis

Assume mass of the vehicle is 3kg
Weight of the vehicle

= 39.81
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Weight on each wheel

= 29.43/4

Torque of wheel (T)

= fr
= 7.35.075/2

Assume the speed of wheel (N)



= 23.147NT/60
= 1.76W

Torque of motor

= (T.wN.w)/N.m

Power of motor


4.4. Design Considerations

The motor has a capacity of 2kgcm torque.
Operating voltages is 12 volt
Shaft output dimension 6mm od
The weight of vehicle approximate 3kg
So the wheel available in market to matched the torque so after each we found 4in dia
Wheel Material PVC with rubber strip.
We have a motor of 2kgcm torque but vehicle is weighting 3 kg so that we need 1
kg more torque, so we have used a second motor of 2kg torque to drive the wheel
Then the wheel driving motor is now at both sides of vehicle left and right. So the
motors will drive individual wheel at same rpm. The power need is divided and
generation should have to be improved.

4.5. Designing of Shaft

Input Voltage of motor

=12 volts

Current rating

=.717 amp.

Power output of motor

= VI
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Power output of motor

=8.6 watts.


= 2NT
=2 60T
= 1.37 N-m

= 1370 N-mm

= fs d3
= 45 (assuming fs=45 N/mm2 for M.S)
=5.37 mm


Thus for safe design take d

=6 mm.

Hence, the diameter of wheel shaft =6mm.

4.6. Bearing
The four bearing are used of internal diameter of 6mm. OD is 20mm
Shaft a plain M.S. rod of 6mm in N/8 m.s.material is used to connect the both side
wheels through the bearing at both sides.
Design of Bearing
Fr=Radial load(N)
Fa= Axial load(N)
P= Equivalent dynamic load(N)
C= Dynamic load capacity(N)
n= speed of rotation(rpm)
t= Time
L10=Rated bearing life (million revolutions)
L10h=Rated bearing life (hours)
Material=Chrome steel or Stainless steel
The bearing is subjected to pure rolling load.

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= 2.59.81
= 24.53N

The relationship between life in million revolution & life in working hour is given by ,


= (60nL10h)/10^6
= 60rpm,
= 10000mr
= (606010000)/10^6
= 36million rev.

=P (L10) ^ (1/3)
=2.59.81(36) ^ (1/3)

From the designing data book, the bearing is available for the shaft diameter of 6mm is

4.7. Solar Panel

Specification of Solar Panel
The size of solar panel [inch]


Output voltage of solar panel [V]

= 22.05/ 17.48

Current produced by solar panel [A]

= 0.835/ .727

Power of the solar panel [W]

= VI
=12.71 (pass)

Panel efficiency [%]


4.8. How to Determine the Efficiency of Solar Panels

Solar panels are relatively simple to maintain, but dirt and improper placement
can significantly decrease their power output. In order to ensure you achieve the
maximum value from this product, you should regularly check the efficiency of your solar
panels. There are four steps to determined the efficiency of solar panel these are
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1. Measure the area of your solar panels if you do not already know it.
2. Use a solar meter to measure the maximum solar radiation for the exact
location of your solar panels in kilowatts per meter squared. Essentially, this
measures how much power the sun is bringing to your location--i.e., the
maximum power your solar panels could theoretically provide.
3. Use the volt and amp meter to measure the volts and amps produced by your
solar panels. Multiply volts and amps to calculate the power produced by your
solar panels (P = V x A) in kilowatts. Divide the power by the area of your
solar panels in meters squared.
4. Divide the power output of the solar panel (kW/m^2) by the solar input
measured by the solar meter (kW/m^2). Multiply this number by 100 to get a
percent efficiency. Do not be discouraged if it is low--most solar panels
achieve no more than a maximum of 20 percent efficiency.


Calculation of Efficiency of Solar Panel

1. Area of solar panel =1413 inch

= 14132.542.54
= 1137.5cm2
= 0.11375m2
2. In India on a bright sunny day in the early afternoon the solar isolation will be
roughly around 1000 W / m 2.

3. Power(p) output of solar panel=voltage(v) current(I)

= 17.480.727
= 12.71 w
Divide the power by the area of your solar panels =111.72w/m2
4. Efficiency of solar panel= power output of solar panel / radiation enegy incident
on the solar panel
= 111.72/1000
= 11.17%
So efficiency of solar panels 11.17%

4.10. Battery Low Indicator Design

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In this type of battery state indicator is accomplish by using Op-Amp. The OpAmp used as a comparator as shown in figure on reference voltage of %V is applied to
non inverting terminal through resistor dividing biasing as the resistance used are of value
33k.So the voltage at the point A will be calculated by
The voltage at the point A will be 2.5V as calculated; the battery voltage signal is applied
at the inverting terminal through an resistance of value 12k.



v/i= 12/12k=0.0001 A

Current will flow through 12k resistance this is appeared at inverting terminal, As
this voltage is above the reference voltage then the output of the op amp is below 5.1 V,
the diode will not conduct the LED is off. Zener diode is connected in series in output
circuit because we show the characteristics of the zener. It has a constant voltage at a
specified voltage and works as a regulator as used parallel voltage regulator, where as
when it connected in series the zener will conduct only when the input voltage exceeds
the defined value(5.1V) voltage only. So when the battery voltage comes down below a
certain point the voltage at input inverting terminals drops. When this voltage is below of
reference voltage the output of comparator Op-Amp is high. As it reaches to 5.1 V then
the zener diode is get conducts and due to condition of zener diode the battery low
indicator led glows. This lead state signal is given to microcontroller giving signal to
shunt down the operation. As the reason the battery voltage below operation voltage
reached, which low voltage cause improper working.

4.11. List of Components

1) Micro controller


2) Ic socket


3) Ic Socket


4) Ic 4050

5) Capacitor Bank


6) Resistor


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7) Diode


8) solar Panel


9) Ic 7805

10) Capacitor


11) capacitor


3 terminal

12) Connecting wires

13) IR Sensor
14) IR LED

15) Ic3


16) Transistor


17) IC socket


18) Diode


19) Resistor


20) Relay





Since there is no internal combustion engine and no combustion takes place,

there are no emissions.


It has few moving parts, service requirements are less than for conventional


Solar vehicles are very quiet. Noise comes only from the electric motors.
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Less dead weight as compared to battery powered vehicle.


As less weight of vehicle, so increase in mileage.


Less loss of energy, as dead weight is less.


Total cost will be lesser than the battery powered vehicle.


Solar vehicles are very quiet. Noise comes only from the electric motors.


1) As it is solar powered so it is a necessity that presence of sun light is required.

2) Although solar energy is an unlimited resource, it is not always available when its
needed the sun must be shining.



1) This concept can be utilized to build a single sitter four wheel vehicles in practice.
2) It can be extended to more commercial form of four wheeler vehicle.
3) In industry where small vehicles are used to perform light weight conveys work
from one place to other place.
4) It can be used places where, fuel based vehicles are banned due to production of
pollution and noise.

The vehicle use solar energy as source of power to drive the moter, and the moter
power is transmitted to the wheels and the vehicle to move. But it does not use battery as
a storage device to supply the motor, instead of battery it uses capacitor banks to store the
charge.So there is no need of charging the battery. No need of battery so less weight as
one battery weighs 50 to 70 kgs equivalent to one persons weight.

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The weight of the vehicle is decreases so speed of the vehicle is increases,and
efficiency of the vehicle is also increases.High speed can be achieved easily as compared
to battery used vehicle.

In solar vehicle project, the main component is capacitor bank and as we know it
needs to be charged periodically it is done using the solar panel but the problem is when
the sun will disappear no charging will take place and vehicle will get stopped on the
spot, but it can be overcome by using the latest technology.

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The revolution in capacitor manufacturing and technological advancement lead to
new type of capacitors called gold plated capacitors; they have the special feature of
retaining the charge for longer period, if we use these types of capacitors the problem of
charge loss can be overcome easily.

[1] M.A.Green, S.R.wenham, M.E.Watt,Applied photovoltaics p.n.-151
[2] Japans Kyocera corp ,Rising solar cars ,p.n.-29.
[3] P.Basu, H.saha Science abstracts p.n.123.
[4] Klutz press, Solar car book Aug-2001, p.n.-151
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[5] Doug stillinger, Solar car book p.n.120.
[6]Bhandari V.B.Design Of Machine Element Tata McGraw Hill Book Co.Inc,
2009, p.n.445-454.
[7]N.P.MahalikMechatronicsTata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New
Delhi, 2007, p.n.205-215.
[8]M.M.RathoreEngineering Heat

& Mass


Publication, New


Fig. 3.1: Solar Panel.

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Fig. 3.2: Photovoltaic Cell

Figure 3.3: Photovoltaic Array

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Fig. 3.4: The Make of a Photovoltaic Cell

Fig. 3.6: DC Geared Motor

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