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MA 6652 Aircraft Design

Course Activities and Planning


Aircraft Design Project
AY 2014 15 S1

Division of Aerospace Engineering


School of MAE
August 2014
MA 6652 Aircraft Design

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Contents
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Welcome to Aircraft Design Course


Teaching Plan Sessions 1 to 16
Reference Books and Material
Aircraft Design Project Request for Proposal (RFP)
Schedule for Aircraft Design Project Activities Weeks 2 to 13
Aircraft Design Project Activities - Weeks 2 & 3
Template and Guidelines for Phase 1 Presentation
Template and Guidelines for Phase 2 Presentation
Template and Guidelines for Final Report and Final Presentation

MA 6652 Aircraft Design

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1. Welcome to Exciting Experience of Learning Aircraft Design

Dear Students,
In this course on Aircraft Design you will have an opportunity to apply and synthesise your
knowledge in many disciplines like Aerodynamics, Flight Mechanics, Controls,
Propulsion, Structures, Aircraft Systems, Costing etc. There will be some lectures to
supplement your background in some of these areas to equip you to take up a Group Project
on Aircraft Design.
In pursuing the design project, you need to gather information on existing aircrafts belonging
to similar category, take a close look at the customer requirements, Airworthiness requirements
of relevant class of aircraft, do several layout studies, estimate mass of airframe structural
components and aircraft systems, carry out aircraft mass and CG balance calculations, draw 3
view drawing, estimate aircraft drag, lift & pitching moment characteristics, predict aircraft
performance, stability & control characteristics, do some cost estimation etc. Apart from over all
configuration design studies, each Group also has been assigned with some special topic around
the main design project for study including some aircraft system.
The whole range of activities outlined above has to be carried out iteratively and
accomplished within a time frame of 9 - 11 weeks, also making a few intermediate presentations.
This truly calls for well organised Group effort. The key to success will be to work in a team
with well defined task partitioning in the beginning, also giving due attention to project
documentation and sharing the same. Hopefully this will give you a feel for Conceptual and
Preliminary Design phases of Aircraft Design and working in a Group in a time bound manner.
We welcome you to this exciting experience of learning Aircraft Design through hands on
calculations in various disciplines.
Greetings and best wishes
Tonse G Pai
Aug 02, 2014

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2. Teaching Plan
Sessions 1 to 16*
1. Introduction, Aircraft Design Project RFP and Project Activity Schedule
2. Aircraft Mission Analysis and Take Off Weight Estimation
3. FAR Part 25 Performance Related Sections, Constraint Analysis and Aircraft Sizing
4. Aircraft Layout Location of Wing, Tail, Fin, Engine & Landing Gears
5. Some Successful Aircraft Designs Military Aircrafts and Special Aircrafts
6. Some Design Features of Transport Aircraft and UAV
7. Review of Drag Analysis and Balance Field Length
8. A Relook at various Mission Segments and Analysis
9. Component Mass Estimation, A/C Mass and CG Balance for range of Pay Load and Fuel
10. Trade Off between Range and Pay load
11. Aircraft Cost Analysis

* The first 2 Sessions will be used to cover some preparatory material and project allocation.
Subsequently Lectures will be continued during the first 1 or 1 hrs for the next 5 Sessions.
Sessions 15 - 16 will be devoted to Final Report Submission and Presentations

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3. Reference Books and Material


Reference Books

Daniel Raymer, Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, 5th Edition (TL 671.2 R267, 2012)
Lloyd Jenkinson, Civil Jet Aircraft Design (TL 671.2 J52 c, 1999)
LM Nicolai and GT Carichner, Fundamentals of Aircraft and Airship Design (TL 671.2 N636,
2010)
Lloyd R Jenkinson, Aircraft Design Projects (TL 671.2 J 52, 2003)
Jan Roskam, Airplane Design, Part I Preliminary Design Sizing of Airplanes (TL 671.2 R821,
1985)
Denis Howe, Aircraft Conceptual Design Synthesis (TL 671.2 H855, 2000)
Steven A Brandt, Introduction to Aeronautics A Design Perspective (TL 671.2 I61i, 2004)
E Torenbeek, Advanced Aircraft Design: Conceptual Design, Technology and Optimization of
Subsonic Civil Airplanes, 2013 (eBook accessible from NTU Library)

Documents and Web Pages


1. http://www.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/ModernAircraftDesignWHM.pdf
Modern Aircraft Design Techniques, WH Mason (2003), Virginia Tech University,.
Gives very good coverage on overall design process including Take Off Weight estimation and
Constraint analysis. Also gives several useful tables on Transport Aircraft Data including
Aircraft Geometry, Aerodynamics, Performance, Engines etc
2. http://www.ultraligero.net/Cursos/diseno/Proyecto_diseno_de_aeronaves.pdf
Aircraft Design Projects, Lloyd R Jenkinson and James F Marchman III (2003):
Excellent book (also listed above) covering a wide range of aircraft design projects. Gives very
useful data to pursue the design projects. Chap 4 pp 46 100 on Long Range Business Jet
3. http://www.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/SD1.html
http://adg.stanford.edu/aa241/AircraftDesign.html
Aircraft Design Course Web pages, Virginia Tech and Stanford Universities
Excellent Source of Aircraft Design material for project. Also excellent class room lecture
material on Aircraft Design. Emphasis and coverage at VT by Mason is different and unique
4. http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/M96SC.html
Landing Gear Integration in Aircraft Conceptual Design, ST Chai and WH Mason
Somewhat specialized report covering many design and analysis aspects of landing gear
including run way related issues
In every Group there will be some people interested in doing literature search, writing reports,
preparing presentation material, in addition to help carrying out design calculations, drawing lay
outs and 3 views etc. Please make use of above and other material available just a click away
from you, for your Aircraft Design Project and share the knowledge with your group and others.
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4. Aircraft Design Project


Request for Proposal (RFP)
4.1 Project Objective
The objective of this project is to design and present a configuration of a Transport Aircraft
capable of providing operators with efficiency of operations 15 - 20% better than current aircraft
in their respective category. Technologies available in 2020s should be considered.

4.2 Design Requirements and Constraints


4.2.1

The design mission for this aircraft must be accomplished with full pay load as relevant
eg.: Passengers, Baggage and Cargo. Annexure 1 gives Pay Load and Range for 10
different aircraft variants.
4.2.2

Design Mission:

Aircraft Mission Profile:

Warm up and taxi to take off position typically with10 min idle power and take off with
applicable full power
Climb/accelerate to intermediate/ cruise altitude & Mach number in suitable segments.
Take distance credit for climb/acceleration segments.
Cruise at relevant subsonic/transonic Mach number at constant altitude. Total climb plus
cruise distance must equal to design range set by the customer. See Annexure - 1 for
Speed, Altitude and Range for different aircrafts. Include additional cruise segment of 1
hour for domestic flight or 10% cruise duration for international flight (whichever is
higher) for estimation of mission fuel.
Descend negligible or nominal fuel penalty and no distance credit
Land- negligible or nominal fuel penalty
Taxi with10 min idle power
4.2.3 Other Requirements
The cabin of Transport aircraft shall include a flight deck (cockpit) for two pilots, a
passenger compartment (cabin) with stand-up headroom not less than 1.83 m (72 inches)
along the aisle and over head baggage compartments on both sides of the aisle/s.

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The Transport Aircraft cockpit must have two flight crew stations in a side by side
arrangement. For aircraft with mission time exceeding 8 9 hours, it is necessary to
accommodate spare team of flight crew in the passenger cabin
Full passenger capacity with single class/mixed class seating as specified for Transport
Aircraft (Annexure - 1)
At maximum landing mass, the aircraft approach speed must be 150 Knots. The
maximum landing mass must be not greater than 80% of the maximum design takeoff
mass (from the considerations of loads on landing gear)
Cabin Pressure for Transport Aircraft shall provide an equivalent altitude of 8000 ft.,
including in the baggage compartment for mission time of 9 hours or less and 5500 ft for
longer mission duration..
Baggage compartment below the passenger cabin must be big enough to accommodate
passenger/crew baggage (23 Kg or 0.25 m3 for economy class Pax and higher baggage
allowance as applicable for higher class of Pax) and 30% in excess of this for
accommodating nominal freight and Pax excess baggage. In case of Combi (Passenger +
Cargo) configuration additional volume may have to be provided for cargo at cabin level.
For passenger baggage and cargo, the containers and pallets of standard sizes shall be
used. Assume cargo density applicable for cargo mix of perishable (~ 30%) and heavy
machinery (70%).
Maximum operating altitude is as specified for different aircrafts in Annexure - 1
Maneuvering load factors for Transport Aircraft : +2.5 g and -1.0 g
Aircraft shall be designed to meet FAR Part 25 requirements or equivalent
The aircraft shall have a maximum cruise Mach number (< Drag Divergence Mach
number) as specified in Annexure - 1
4.2.4 Safety Constraints:

For refused landing and diversion to alternate airport provide fuel reserves for 200 Nm
cruise plus 30 minutes loiter at 15000 ft. Assume that the aircraft in its descent path gets
the diversion signal from Air Traffic Controller, at 3000 ft altitude and climbs to 15000 ft
before cruising 200 Nm to alternate airport..
The aircraft must have an FAA balanced field length as specified at 4000 ft ISA.
For multi-engine aircraft the second segment climb gradient (CGR) capability with one
engine inoperative (OEI) shall be greater than 2.8%. Conditions for second segment
climb are landing gear retracted and wing flaps in takeoff position with Speed not be less
than 1.2Vstall and Altitude of 400 ft above take off field altitude.
Other conditions are as specified in FAR 25.
4.2.5 Economic Constraints:

Production Cost estimates may be based on a production run of 500 aircraft.


Total flyaway cost, DOC and life cycle cost (LCC) are to be estimated.

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DOC is a primary factor in selection. Efficiency of the design is to be optimized and


specific design features applied to this end are to be described in the proposal.
Emphasis shall also be placed on minimizing airport turn-around times. Any special
design features that address turn-around time shall be highlighted in the proposal.
4.2.6 Manufacturability:

The proposal may include some considerations or features that simplify manufacturability
and assembly.
4. 2.7 Sustainability:

The proposal may include brief description of features of the aircraft design that
maximize reliability, simplify maintenance, and minimize special ground support
equipment and airport turnaround time.
4. 2.8 Environmental:

The proposal must describe design features that minimize environmental impact as far as
pollution and noise are concerned
4. 2.9 Recommended Weights for Pay Load Estimation:

Passenger/Crew
Baggage
Cabin
Check in

91 Kg per pax
Economy/Crew:10 Kg per pax
Business/First: 2 x 10 Kg per pax
Economy/Crew: 23 Kg per pax
Business/First: 2 x 32 Kg per pax

4. 2.10 Recommended Seat Pitch:

Economy
Business
First Class

MA 6652 Aircraft Design

30 to 32
36 to 38
60 to 62

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4.3 Aircraft Subsystems:


Broad specifications for conventional systems are given below. Alternative/advanced subsystems
are permitted with appropriate substantiation and assurances that they would be available within
the specified technology timeframe.

4.3.1 Landing Gear


Retractable gear shall be incorporated into the design
Gear must withstand with no damage, a 3 m/sec vertical velocity (approach glide of 3) at
maximum permissible landing mass (80% of maximum TO mass).
Brakes must be capable of stopping the aircraft at maximum takeoff mass within
specified balance field length (BFL).
Nose Landing gear must be positioned so that the aircraft possesses radius of turning
circle not greater than 30 m
4.3.2 Hydraulic System
The system must be designed for operating pressures of at least 3000psi. Emergency
pressurization of the hydraulic system shall be provided in case of primary system failure.
Burst testing of components shall exceed 2 times the operating pressure.
Emergency hydraulic power shall be sufficient to lower and lock the landing gear in
down position as well as providing sufficient braking force for landing and ground taxi.
The hydraulic system shall provide sufficient power for 30 minutes of flight maneuvers
to include one landing approach sequence.
4.3.3 Fuel System
The fuel system shall be capable of fuel jettison in an emergency situation to reach design
landing weight within 3 minutes (optional)
The fuel system shall be both pressure and gravity refuelable. The former shall withstand
pressures up to 50 psi.
The fuel system shall incorporate suitable gauges and display fuel quantities to the crew
during refueling and in flight.
Shut off valves shall be incorporated to cut off supply of fuel to engine/s in the event of
an engine fire.
The system shall allow crew to manage fuel distribution in the aircraft.
The fuel system shall have in-flight CG management system to limit the CG traverse and
maintain static margin (SM) of 3 5%

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Annexure - 1

4.4 Aircraft Design Project - RFP


Performance Requirements
Aircraft

Pay Load

Speed/
Altitude

Range/
Endurance

Take Off/
Landing
Distance

Engine
Type/
Location

Ultra Long Haul


Transport
(UL-1)

550 750 Pax


Mixed Class

0.89 - 0.92 M
11 to 13 Km

15000 Km

< 3000m

Turbofan/
Wing

Long Haul
Transport
(LH-1/LH-2
LH-3)

300 400 Pax


Mixed Class

0.86 - 0.89 M
11 to 13 Km

12000 Km

< 2600 m

Turbofan/
Wing or
Fuselage

Long Haul
Combi
(LC-1/LC-2)

220 320 Pax


Mixed Class
Cargo 15 - 20 T

0.86 - 0.89 M
11 to 13 Km

12000 Km

< 2600 m

Turbofan/
Fuselage,
Wing or

Medium Haul
Transport
(MH-1/MH-2)

120 140 Pax


Two Class

0.75 - 0.85 M
10 to 12 Km

3500 Km

< 1600 m

Turbofan/
Wing or
Fuselage

Note:
A total of 8 configuration variants have been suggested for above four Aircraft requirements to
enable formation of 8 Student Projects ( 4 - 5 students each) with specific system related studies
added to each of the Student group.

Annexure 2A
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4.5.1 Aircraft Design Project RFP


Aircraft Design Projects in 4 Categories of Transport Aircraft
Config.
Code
UL - 1

Configuration

Engine/ Location

Special Studies/Systems

Conventional

Turbofan/Wing

Fuel System with CG Management

LH 1
LH 2
LH - 3

Conventional
Braced Wing
Conventional

Turbofan/Wing
Turbofan/Fuselage
Turbofan/Fuselage

Landing Gears
Wing Brace - Fuselage Joints
Hydraulic System

LC 1
LC 2
.

Conventional
Braced Wing

Turbofan/Wing
Turbofan/Fuselage

CG Mgmt with partial PAX & Cargo Load


Cargo Loading System

MH 1
MH 2

Conventional
Braced Wing

Turbofan/Wing
Turbofan/Fuselage

Flight Control System


Cockpit & Avionics System

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Annexure 2B

5. Schedule for Aircraft Design Project Activities


Project work has been split into 3 Phases of 6 + 5 + 5 sessions of 3/2 hours each and
proposed phasewise activity breakdown has been given below. Group presentations have
been scheduled at the end of each phase. Depending on progress made the Groups may have
to rework on schedule of activities and propose a revised scope for the next phase. Scope of
Phase 3 will be reviewed at the end of Phase 2 presentations. The final design report
submission and presentation is planned at the end of the course.

5.1 Phase 1 Sep 03 to Nov 05, 2014 (6 Sessions)


1. Study of RFP, Aircraft Mission Profile and relevant sections of regulation document
(FAR Part 25). Collection of Statistical Data of similar Aircraft. Short list 2 - 3 aircrafts
falling under the category of transport aircraft in your RFP. As you proceed with the
design, choose one of these as Reference Aircraft for further design comparison studies.
2. Study typical aircraft cabin layout of successful designs or your reference aircraft for
providing for doors including emergency exits, galleys, toilets, stairs to upper deck etc.
where applicable. Finalise cabin dimensions (floor width and cabin length) and layout for
accommodating number of passengers (economy/executive/first class) with twin/single
aisle(s) in single/double deck(s) allowing for necessary galley space (front/central/rear),
doors (entry/exit/emergency) and toilets, using applicable seat pitch and width for
different classes. Cabin layout studies to be carried out for both single class and mixed
class seating and longer cabin length of the two is to be adopted. For Combi aircraft
please see Para 5 below for additional considerations in finalising the cabin length
3. Finalise fuselage cross section considering cabin width, overhead cabin baggage
compartment, head room above aisle(s) for single/double deck(s), cross section of cargo
bay or baggage compartment below the passenger cabin floor/lower deck accommodating
baggage/cargo container(s) of standard dimensions, side by side as the case may be. In
arriving at outer contour of the fuselage add 0.1 to 0.125 m. for fuselage bulk head and
skin and similar thickness for floor structure.
4. Finalise overall fuselage length and geometry by adding suitable segments for Flight
Deck/Cockpit in front and empennage (HT and Fin) in aft end, maintaining smooth cross
sectional area distribution from fuselage nose to after body. The fuselage should have
nearly closed aft end with very small base area. For Combi aircraft please next Para 5
applicable for determining cabin length.

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5. In case of Combi aircraft choose appropriate container(s) (cross section, length, volume
and load capacity) and estimate the number of containers required to accommodate
passenger baggage and Cargo, assuming appropriate cargo density for mixed kind of
cargo. By adopting side by side lay out for the containers in the baggage hold or cargo
bay estimate the length of cargo bay required to accommodate these containers. If cargo
bay length works out to be higher than the cabin length estimated in Para 2 above for
passenger seats and other amenities, take the average of passenger cabin length and cargo
bay length as revised cargo bay length, if necessary by marginally increasing the same to
accommodate an integer number of containers. The remaining containers not
accommodated in the cargo bay have to be accommodated in the extended passenger
cabin, by using appropriate container/s which fit/s in passenger cabin cross section, with
minor increase in length.
6. Estimate aircraft pay load or useful load considering passenger capacity (RFP),
flight/cabin crew, cabin/check-in baggage allowances, cabin amenities for
passengers/crew (food, beverages, reading material, life jacket, entertainment etc),
additional passenger baggage, cargo (in case of Combi) etc as applicable.
7. Considering technologies of 2020s, in the areas of Aerodynamics (low drag airfoil and
large AR), Controls, Structures, Materials, Manufacturing, Engine etc to get 15 20%
performance improvements, assume suitable (L/D)max (from present day value of 17 to
possible maximum value of 23 for wing- body configuration) and Structural Technology
factor KS (0.75 for aircraft with 50% composites to 0.85 for aircraft with nominal
composites), and thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) for the engine (8 to 12%
reduction).
8. Estimation of mission fuel mass fraction considering major mission segments like
cruise/loiter including extra cruise time/distance, diversion to alternate airfield, hold up in
flight prior to landing etc., as applicable for aircraft mission (higher of the cruise
allowance for international or domestic). Make suitable assumptions on weight fractions
for takeoff, climb and descent segments, and trapped fuel (1 to 2 %).
9. Estimation of aircraft gross take off mass based on aircraft pay load (Para 6), mission
fuel mass fraction (Para 8) and statistical correlation between aircraft empty mass and
take off mass (for all metal aircraft), considering Structural Technology factor KS
applicable for aircrafts of 2020s (0.75 to 0.85). Excepting for Ultra Long Haul Transport
(UL) aircraft, Nicolai/Raymers correlation between empty mass and take off mass of
transport aircraft gives reasonable estimation of take off mass and empty mass for Long
Haul and Medium Haul aircraft (LT, LC and MH). UL1 group working on UL aircraft
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need to consider reference aircraft mass data - takeoff mass, empty mass and fuel mass,
towards finalising TO mass.
10. Draw Constraint Diagram for identifying feasible design space in W/S - T/W domain,
meeting a range of performance and safety requirements as design constraints for multiengine aircraft from civil aviation (FAR) or other requirements. Make suitable
assumptions on rolling friction coefficient for ground run, C Lmax (for TO and landing),
number of engines etc. Select optimum values for W/S and T/W within the feasible
design space, with some built-in margin allowing for aircraft growth potential, catering
for marginally higher pay load and/or range for possible design variants of your aircraft
(larger wing or lower W/S and larger engine or larger T/W).
11. Aircraft Sizing: Using max gross takeoff weight (Para 9) and optimum values chosen for
wing loading W/S and thrust to weight ratio T/W (Para 10), estimate wing area S and
engine thrust T (total thrust of all engines)
12. Wing Design: Choose wing planform parameters - sweep (for higher Mcrit), taper ratio
(for efficient aerodynamic loading and structure), aspect ratio AR (braced wing, stiffer
structure vis-a-vis low CDi), high lift devices (CLmax for low landing speed and distance)
and winglets (drag reduction). These values (, AR, ) may be chosen in the range of
values corresponding to successful transport aircraft or your reference aircraft. The wing
sweep normally refers to quarter chord sweep.
Select wing airfoil thickness ratio (t/c) and type of airfoil (Mcr, Cd0, fuel volume and
efficient structure) towards realising the targeted value of cruise Mach number (below
Mcrit) with minimum drag or efficient (L/D) (Para 7).
Calculate wing span b using the wing area S obtained in aircraft sizing (Para 11) and AR
chosen. Using S, b, , calculate wing tip and root chords, Ct and Cr. With this, wing
planform may be drawn and wing can be initially located with its root apex about 40%
behind the fuselage length. Choose the wing mounting location on the fuselage to be low
or mid or high. For braced wing only high wing configuration is possible maintaining
upper wing surface clean. Calculate also the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC)
13. Estimate available fuel volume in the wing assuming fuel tanks to be extended from front
spar (20% chord line) to rear spar (65 - 70% chord line) and from wing root to station
70% of semi span outboard, and configuring available fuel volume into 2 or 3 (inboard,
midboard and outboard) wing tanks. Estimate fuel mass & CG for wing tanks full, full,
full to empty, assuming certain sequencing of fuel utilization from inboard first to
outboard tank last. Check for adequacy of wing fuel volume vis--vis mission fuel with
allowances (10 15%) made for aircraft growth potential (longer range) and Pay Load
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Vs Range trade off. If wing fuel tank is not adequate for accommodating mission fuel,
include a fuel tank in rear fuselage. (Fuselage fuel tank is normally avoided for transport
aircraft.)
14. HT and Fin Sizing: Select ratio of HT area with Wing area, ratio of Fin area with Wing
area, airfoil sections, t/c ratio and planform parameters of HT and Fin from statistical data
of similar aircraft. Finalise horizontal and vertical location of HT and Fin with respect to
the wing. HT is always located above the wing plane, mounted between the Fin root and
the Fin tip. HT located at Fin tip is known as T tail. Draw a preliminary 3 View drawing
of Aircraft, reflecting relative locations of Wing, HT and Fin with each other. Calculate
the tail volume coefficient and fin volume coefficient and compare the same with
reference aircraft value.
15. Engine Selection: Based on engine thrust T estimated above (Para 11) for the multiengine layout (twin or four) chosen, select an engine from off the shelf successful engines
meeting the thrust requirements (within 10 to 15%) and TSFC targeted in Para 7,
considering the technologies of 2020s. Get the engine geometry (dia and length), mass
and sea level performance data (T and TSFC) for the chosen engine. Also collect the
engine data (if available) on variation of the thrust with altitude and TSFC with altitude.
16. Complete the 3 view drawing of the aircraft by locating the engines either on the wings or
on the rear fuselage and accordingly the main and nose landing gears. In case of fuselage
mounted engines make sure to locate the engine such that wing wake is not ingested in
the engine. In case of braced wing configuration with fuselage mounted engine, also
ensure that the wake of the brace as well as the wing is not ingested in the engine
17. Group Presentations on Ph 1 activities : Nov 05, 2014 (20 min)
PPT File to be submitted a day prior to presentations.

5.2 Phase 2 Nov 12 to Nov 25, 2014 (6 Sessions)


18. Special Studies and Systems. (to be initiated in Phase 2 and continued in Phase 3):
Collect the data on the system(s) (eg.: Hydraulic System, Fuel System, Landing Gears,
Flight Control Systems, Cockpit & Avionics System, Engine Mounting Scheme etc)
identified under special studies for your group, from your reference aircraft or any other
sources. Also collect reference material for pursuing special studies (eg.: Wing - Body
configuration, typical Structural Joints etc) identified for your group. For the identified
system study the functionalities and block diagram, major building blocks like subsystem
or components and possible system input/output and interface with other aircraft systems.
In these studies only description of one of the existing systems adoptable to your aircraft
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need be addressed. Sizing studies or design calculations are optional. In case of Wing
Body variant identified for a few groups, cabin lay out studies may be initiated based on
passenger seating with amenities in a triangular planform of leading edge sweep back of
30 to 45 considering passenger entry/emergency evacuation, and also the layout of cargo
compartment below the passenger cabin considering landing gear location, cargo
loading/unloading, engine mounting at wing trailing edge (top or bottom) etc. Depending
on the available time, any quantitative design studies like preliminary sizing of the
airframe, takeoff weight estimation, simple aerodynamic calculations (L/D = 22 to 23),
T/W etc may be attempted. For studies on CG management with partial PAX and Cargo
for Combi aircraft see Para 23.
19. Aircraft Data for Performance and Mission Analysis: Estimation of Aircraft Drag using
component drag approach (CD0, k), Engine thrust T & thrust specific fuel consumption
TSFC variation with altitude and throttle setting based on the engine data at sea level.
20. Relook at the mission fuel considering updated (L/D) and TSFC data and realistic flight
segments for takeoff, acceleration, climb, cruise, deceleration and descent. Revisit of
constraint diagram for fine tuning/confirming optimum W/S and T/W values (in Para 10).
21. Estimation of aircraft systems and structural component mass landing gear, propulsion
system, Wing, HT, Fin, Fuselage, etc. using statistical data for all metallic aircraft and
applying appropriate Technology Factor (0.75 to 0.85). Use of component mass data for
checking/updating/reconciling aircraft empty mass from Para 9. Pay load estimation is
NOT to be revised at this stage.
22. Relook at Aircraft Take off Mass based on realistic mission fuel (Para 20) and empty
mass (Para 21) and finalization of Take off Mass, revision in empty mass and aircraft CG
for revised empty mass case.
23. Aircraft Mass and CG balance for a range of pay load and fuel conditions based on
component mass, system mass and revised mission fuel mass (Para 22). Wings may have
to be relocated (aft or forward position) to limit CG travel requirement/Static Margin
(Para 27). In case of Combi aircraft composite CG management considers several
operationally feasible flight combinations with partial payload, partial cargo and partial
fuel to limit the CG traverse and maintain SM within 3 5%
24. Aircraft Performance: Flight envelope, Cruise, Range, Endurance, Climb, Take off/
Landing, Balance Field Length (at SL and 4000 ft) and Climb gradient for one engine
inoperative (OEI) case for multi-engine aircraft as per FAR.
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25. Overall design compliance matrix - Aircraft performance and safety (FAR).
26. Trade off between Range and Pay Load leading to options of aircraft variants
27. Aircraft Stability & Control Analysis: Longitudinal and Directional analysis. Static
Margin (SM) for range of CG operations. HT setting for CL > 0 flights. Longitudinal
Controllability for forward most CG and CLmax, Elevator deflection for cruise. Directional
controls for Engine failure case and cross wind landing or take off
28. Aircraft Costing: Initial look at formulation of costing of DOC, fly away cost and Life
Cycle Cost.

29. Group Presentations on Ph. 2 activities Nov 25, 2014 (20 min)
PPT File to be submitted a day prior to the presentation.

5.3 Phase 3- Nov 26 28, 2014 (4 Sessions)


30. Special Studies and System: Depending on activities pursued in Phase 2 and time
available, these activities may be continued as discussed in Para 18
31. Aircraft Cost Analysis Fly away cost, Direct and Indirect operating cost, Life cycle cost
32. Final Project Report Submission: Nov 27, 2014, Thursday, 5 pm
One Hard Copy (both sides printed) to be submitted
Soft copy is to be sent as email attachment.
Main Report size is to be limited to approx 80 pages (A4) including figures.
Use Times Roman, Font size 12, 1 line spacing, 20 mm border all round
Appendices may include some details from Phase 1 & 2.
All material and figures reproduced in the report should be properly referenced
33. Final Project Presentations 45 min: Nov 28, 2014 (2 Sessions of 3 hrs)

PPT File to be submitted/uploaded in NTULearn a day prior to the presentation

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6. Aircraft Design Project Activities in Sessions 3 & 4


(Sep 17 and Oct 15, 2014)
The activities of first two sessions are further elaborated here within overall scope of Ph 1
1. Statistical Data for 2 3 Transport Aircrafts:
Collect as much data as available for 23 aircrafts of broadly falling in the category of
your project including
Range/ payload, cruise speed/ altitude, take off and landing distance/speed etc.,
Gross takeoff weight, payload, fuel, empty weight, equipment weight etc.,
Geometrical details like aircraft length, span, aspect ratio, wing/tail/fin areas,
Control surface areas (ailerons, elevators, rudder) and range of control deflections
High lift devices, Winglets, etc.
Engines, sea level thrust, TSFC, size (dia & length), weight, location etc.
A detailed list is given in Annexure 1 to this. Please note Braced Wing configuration is
futuristic one and for design project with braced wing configuration, collect statistical
data for aircraft with similar pay load, range, cruise speed and altitude.
2. FAR Part 25 Airworthiness Standards (for Transport Aircraft): Study of FAR pertaining
to Transport Category Airplanes: relevant to second segment climb gradient, balance
field length, engine failure case, climb following diversion to alternate airport etc which
are converted as design constraints in the constraint analysis to follow
3. Aircraft Mission Profile and Estimation of Mission Fuel: From the RFP prepare a specific
mission profile applicable to your aircraft and carry out mission fuel weight fraction
estimation making suitable assumptions on weight fraction for takeoff, climb, descent
and landing segments and also on aircraft L/D and engine TSFC for cruise/loiter
segments including for diversion.
4. Study of Cabin Lay out, Baggage Compartment and Cross Section of Fuselage
considering seat width, seat pitch, head room, cabin baggage compartment, storage space,
galleys, doors, emergency exits, toilets, crew seating, standard baggage container and
pallet dimensions, baggage loading and access doors etc
5. Fuselage cross section considering the interior dimension of the cabin, baggage/cargo
compartment below the floor and fuselage structure bulkhead / skin and floor structure
6. Estimation of Aircraft Pay Load or Useful Load: Passengers & Crew; Cabin/Check-in
baggage; Cabin amenities for Passengers and Crew; Additional Passenger baggage;
Cargo (in case of Combi)
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7. Overall Plan of action for the project for Phase 1 and Phase 2
8. Finalise a Project Title or Aircraft Name for your Aircraft Design Project (Optional)

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Annexure 1

6.1 Detailed List of Aircraft Parameters


Range, Pay Load, Take off/Landing Distance, Cruise Altitude and Speed, Max speed, Service
Ceiling, Climb Rate etc.
Take off Mass, Pay Load, Empty Mass, Fuel Mass, Structural Mass, Break up of System Mass
Wing Location (high/mid/low), Location from fuselage nose, Span, Area, Root and Tip Chords,
Mean Aerodynamic Chord, Aspect Ratio, Taper Ratio, Sweep, Airfoil, Airfoil Thickness Ratio at
the Root and Tip, Type of Wing Structure (wing with or without fuel tank), Fuel Capacity in
Wing, Engine Mounts on Wing, Wing Fuselage Faring, Leading Edge Devices like Slat, Type
of Slat, Slat Geometry Span/Chord/Area/Deflection, Type of Trailing Edge Flap, Flap
Geometry Span/Chord/Area/Deflections, BL Flow Control Devices, Winglet Geometry etc
Horizontal Tail: Location with respect to FRL/Wing/whether Fuselage or Fin mounted or T Tail.
Span, Area, Root and Tip Chord, Mean Aerodynamic Chord, Aspect Ratio, Taper Ratio, Sweep,
Airfoil, Airfoil Thickness Ratio at the root and tip; Elevator chord, span, area, deflection range.
Vertical Fin: Longitudinal location of Fin apex with respect to wing apex, Twin Fin or single
Fin, Span, Area, Root and Tip Chord, Mean Aerodynamic Chord, Aspect Ratio, Taper Ratio,
Sweep, Airfoil, Airfoil Thickness Ratio at the root and tip; rudder chord, span, area, deflection
range.
Fuselage: length, cross section elliptic/double bubble/circular, width/height/diameter, Seating
capacity/seat pitch/ seat width/cabin lay out with number of seats abreast (for different class) ,
number of aisle/s and decks, passenger boarding doors, emergency doors, seats for cabin crew,
cabin baggage compartment, number of galleys/toilets and their location, volume of baggage
compartment, container size/standard designations, baggage doors and loading provision. Type
of Fuselage Structure,
Engine: number of engines, location, engine mounting details, pylon and nacelle, mass, SL thrust
and TSFC and variation of the same with altitude, length, diameter, company/designation,
engine T/W ratio.
Engine mounted hydraulic motors and electrical generators, Auxiliary Power Unit,
Fuel tanks, Location, capacity, Fuel system, Fuel gauging, Refuel point
Under carriage: Type, location of nose and main under carriage, type of retraction: forward or
rearward or sideward, under carriage bay. Wheel track and wheel base, radius of turning circle,
Tire diameter and type of brakes
Cockpit size and lay out.
Broad details of other aircraft systems: Avionics, Flight control system (FBW), Hydraulic
system, cabin cooling etc.
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7. Template and Guidelines for Phase 1 Presentations


(Nov 05, 2014)
7.1 Suggested Coverage of Group Presentation
No of
Slides
1. Title Slide: Aircraft Project number/Project Name/Team Members
1
2. Outline of Presentation and Topics covered by each presenter for this phase
1
3. Aircraft Data (geometry & other) including 3 views/pictures of successful designs 2
4. Tabulated Aircraft Data with Analysis
1
5. Aircraft Specifications, Mission Profile and applicable Regulations:
2
6. Cabin Layout/ Baggage Compartment / Fuselage interior and external Geometry
2
7. Aircraft Pay Load and Mission Fuel Weight fraction (L/D, TSFC etc)
1
8. Take Off Weight Estimation
2
9. Constraint Analysis and Optimum (W/S), (T/W)
2
10. Aircraft Sizing: Wing Area S and Engine Thrust T
1
11. Wing Design: Planform S, b, AR, , , Airfoil, HLD, Ailerons and Winglet
2
12. Fuel Volume in Wing vis-a-vis Mission Fuel + allowances for growth
2
13. Horizontal Tail and Fin Geometry (S, b, AR, , , Airfoil, Elevator, Rudder)
1
14. Engine selection; Number of Engines, location, Thrust and SFC at SL
1
15. 3 View Drawing showing location of Engines and Landing Gears
2
16. Plan of action for Weeks 7 to 10 activities/Group Organisation etc:
1
17. Summary/Conclusions:
1

7.2 General Guidelines for Phasewise Presentation


Total Time: 30 min
Presentation Time: 20 3 min
Q&A time: 7+ min
Entire Design Team is responsible for the Project and will participate in the presentation
Number of People to Present: 3 4 in each Phase (opportunity for every team member)
Each team member will participate equitably in coverage (time and/or number of slides)
Topics and number of slides are only indicative. Groups may follow their own formats
Busy slides with details may be just flashed and if necessary revisited during Q&A
Entire Project Group will participate in Q&A sessions of both the Phases
PPT soft copy should be sent in advance, a day prior to the presentation

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8. Template and Guidelines for Phase 2 Presentations


(Nov 25, 2014)
8.1 Suggested Coverage of Group Presentation
(As many topics as completed as of Session 12)

1. Title Slide: Aircraft Project number/Project Name/Team Members:


2. Outline of Presentation and Topics covered by each presenter for this phase
3. Summary of Phase 1 presentations including actions identified for Phase 2
4. Aircraft Drag Estimation
5. Mission Analysis based on revised inputs on Drag and TSFC , Refined weight
fractions for mission segments like take off, climb (acceleration + constant speed
climb), cruise, loiter etc
6. Aircraft component mass estimation and relook at maximum take off mass
7. Aircraft mass Table for empty mass, operational empty mass, zero fuel mass etc
including Reference Aircraft data
8. Aircraft Mass & CG balance for a range of pay load (Pax & Cargo) & fuel cases
9. Performance estimation: Flight envelope, Take off/Landing distance, BFL, Climb
10. Stability & Control: Estimation of NP; SM for CG range. Long/ control CLmax trim
for forward most CG, Tail setting and elevator for cruise (if any)
11. Dir control adequacy - Cross wind TO / landing and Engine failure case
12. Aircraft variants and Pay Load Vs Range Trade off studies
13. Compliance matrix: FAR and RFP (Pay Load, Range, Performance etc)
14. Special Studies/System Status

15. Proposed coverage or Content Page(s) of Final Report

No of
Slides
1
1
1
2
3

2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
2

8.2 General Guidelines for Phasewise Presentation


Total Time: 30 min
Presentation: 20 3 min
Q&A time: 7+ min
Entire Design Team is responsible for the Project and will participate in the presentation
Number of People to Present: 3 4 in each Phase (opportunity for every team member)
Each team member will participate equitably in coverage (time and/or number of slides)
Topics and number of slides are only indicative. Groups may follow their own formats
Busy slides with details may be just flashed and if necessary revisited in Q&A session
Entire Project Group will participate in Q&A sessions of both the Phases
PPT soft copy should be sent in advance, a day prior to the presentation
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9. Template and Guidelines for


Aircraft Design Project Final Report and Final Presentation
9.1 Final Report Coverage
Executive Summary
Introduction
Analysis of RFP vis--vis reference aircraft
3 View Drawing of Aircraft
Design features of Aircraft Configuration
Constraint Analysis for optimum W/S and T/W
Gross Takeoff Weight, Pay Load, Fuel Weight, Structural Weight, Systems Weight and Engine
Weight break down (compare weight fraction with Reference Aircraft data)
Geometric parameters of Wing, Horizontal Tail, Vertical Tail, Fuselage and Engine
Lift and Drag Aerodynamic analysis of Aircraft, CD0, k, CL, CLmax with and without HLD
Engine features. Thrust and TSFC parameters at SL and altitudes
Aircraft Mass and CG balance for a range of Pay Load (Pax / Cargo) and Fuel conditions. Most
forward and aft CG vis--vis NP location
Aircraft Performance: Take off with full Pay Load, Balance Field Length at SL and 4000 ft,
Landing, Flight Envelope, Climb rates, Climb gradients for one engine failure case (FAR), Turn
rates, Mission Performance. Trade off between Range and Pay Load. Aircraft Variants. Design
Compliance matrix Aircraft Performance parameters vis-a-vis RFP and FAR
Stability and Control Analysis: Neutral Point, Static Margin, Directional Stability, Control
Effectiveness and adequacy Elevator and Rudder for range of flight situations, Trimmability at
CLmax with forward CG, Elevator deflection for cruise and tail setting. Directional control for
cross wind takeoff/landing, Engine failure case.
Special Studies/Systems as Assigned and Applicable : Aircraft System Requirements/
Architecture/ Functionality/ Block Diagrams/Building Blocks or Components etc for Hydraulic,
Fuel, Flight Controls, Avionics Systems, Main and Nose Landing Gears, Cockpit Layout;
Structural Layout of joints Wing Brace Fuselage, Engine Pylon Wing or Fuselage, Cabin
and Cargo Bay Layout for Wing- Body Configuration.
Aircraft Cost Analysis; Fly away cost; Direct Operating Cost (DOC) and Indirect Operating Cost
Summary / Conclusions / USPs of your Aircraft
References
Appendices
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9.2 General Guidelines for Final Report


Follow the Template suggested above for Final Report coverage
Limit the Main Report size to approx 80 pages (A4) including figures.
Use Times Roman, Font size 12, 1 line spacing, 20 mm border all round
Include essential details from Phase 1 and 2 not covered in Main Report in Appendices
Material/figures reproduced from elsewhere should be properly acknowledged/ referenced
Submit 1 Hard Copy (both sides printed and coloured)
Upload Soft Copy in NTULearn

9.3 Coverage of Final Presentation of Aircraft Design Project


First 2 - 3 slides:
Outline of the presentation
Task Partitioning and Scope of presentation of each Design Team Member
Summary of Phase 1, 2 & 3 results (follow final report coverage)
Use Tables, Figures, 3 Views, Pi charts, Bar charts, Plots etc. in giving final results.
Give comparison of your data with Reference Aircraft data - highlighting USPs of your design
Avoid reading busy slides.
Last 3 4 slides:
Design Compliance RFP & FAR
Summary, Conclusions, USPs of your Aircraft

General Guidelines
Entire Team should share the presentation equitably following suitable sequencing.
Total Time: 45 min
Presentation: 25 5min. (avoid videos)
Q & A: 15 5 min.
PPT soft copy should be sent/uploaded in NTULearn in advance, a day prior to the
presentation.
Note: Individual members contributions to the group project should be listed and sent
through email by Nov 27, 2014 before the final presentations
//End of Document//
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