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Analysis of Role of

Reserve Bank of
India and the
banking sector in
India
Submitted by:
Ankit Bohra
Davis N
Kunal Bhagat
Nirmal Kumar J
Shrabani Som
Varun Sharma

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13079
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Table of Contents
Banking Sector ........................................................................................................................................ 2
Role of Banks in the Economy................................................................................................................. 3
Capital Formation: .............................................................................................................................. 3
Support to the Capital Market: ........................................................................................................... 3
Rupee Loans: ....................................................................................................................................... 3
Foreign Currency Loans: ..................................................................................................................... 4
Subscription to Debentures and Guarantees ..................................................................................... 4
Assistance to Backward Areas: ........................................................................................................... 4
Promotion of New Entrepreneurs: ..................................................................................................... 4
Impact on Corporate Culture: ............................................................................................................. 5
Reserve Bank of India.......................................................................................................................... 6
The main functions of the Reserve Bank of India are: ........................................................................ 6
Issuer of currency................................................................................................................................ 6
Banker to the Government ................................................................................................................. 7
Managing Government Securities ...................................................................................................... 7
Banker to Other Banks ........................................................................................................................ 7
Controller of Money Supply and Credit .............................................................................................. 8
Exchange Manager and Controller ..................................................................................................... 8
Publisher of Monetary Data and Other Data ...................................................................................... 8
Developmental and Promotional role of RBI ...................................................................................... 9
Development of the Financial System ............................................................................................ 9
Development of Agriculture ........................................................................................................... 9
Provision of Industrial Finance ........................................................................................................ 9
Provisions of Training ...................................................................................................................... 9
Collection of Data............................................................................................................................ 9
Publication of the Reports .............................................................................................................. 9
Promotion of Banking Habits .......................................................................................................... 9
Promotion of Export through Refinance ....................................................................................... 10
Conclusion: ............................................................................................................................................ 10
References ............................................................................................................................................ 12

Banking Sectori
The Indian banking industry plays an important role in the economic development of the
country and is the most dominant segment of the financial sector. Banks help channel savings
to investments and encourage economic growth by allocating savings to investments that
have potential to yield higher returns. Indias banking system is a robust one and is classified
into commercial banks and co-operative credit institutions. Commercial banks include
Scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) and non-scheduled commercial banks. SCBs are further
classified into public sector banks (PSBs), private banks, foreign banks and regional rural
banks (RRBs). Co-operative credit institutions include the various co-operative banks.

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Role of Banks in the Economy iii


Capital Formation:
The significance of DFIs lies in their making available the means to utilize savings generated
in the economy, thus helping in capital formation. Capital formation implies the diversion of
the productive capacity of the economy to the making of capital goods which increases future
productive capacity. The process of Capital Formation involves three distinct but
interdependent activities, viz., saving financial intermediation and investment.
However, poor country/economy may be, there will be a need for institutions which allow
such savings, as are currently forthcoming, to be invested conveniently and safely and which
ensure that they are channelled into the most useful purposes.
A well-developed financial structure will therefore aid in the collections and disbursements of
investible funds and thereby contribute to the capital formation of the economy. Indian
capital market although still considered to be underdeveloped has been recording impressive
progress during the post-interdependence period.

Support to the Capital Market:


The basic purpose of DFIs particularly in the context of a developing economy, is to
accelerate the pace of economic development by increasing capital formation, inducing
investors and entrepreneurs, sealing the leakages of material and human resources by careful
allocation thereof, undertaking development activities, including promotion of industrial units
to fill the gaps in the industrial structure and by ensuring that no healthy projects suffer for
want of finance and/or technical services. Hence, the DFIs have to perform financial and
development functions on finance functions, there is a provision of adequate term finance and
in development functions there include providing of foreign currency loans, underwriting of
shares and debentures of industrial concerns, direct subscription to equity and preference
share capital, guaranteeing of deferred payments, conducting techno-economic surveys,
market and investment research and rendering of technical and administrative guidance to the
entrepreneurs.

Rupee Loans:
Rupee loans constitute more than 90 per cent of the total assistance sanctioned and disbursed.
This speaks eloquently on DFIs obsession with term loans to the neglect of other forms of
assistance which are equally important. Term loans unsupplemented by other forms of
assistance had naturally put the borrowers, most of whom are small entrepreneurs, on to a
heavy burden of debt-servicing. Since term finance is just one of the inputs but not everything
for the entrepreneurs, they had to search for other sources and their abortive efforts to secure
other forms of assistance led to sickness in industrial units in many cases.

Foreign Currency Loans:


Foreign currency loans are meant for setting up of new industrial projects as also for
expansion, diversification, modernization or renovation of existing units in cases where a
portion of the loan was for financing import of equipment from abroad and/or technical
know-how, in special cases.

Subscription to Debentures and Guarantees


Regarding guarantees, it is well-known that when an entrepreneur purchases some machinery
or fixed assets or capital goods on credit, the supplier usually asks him to furnish some
guarantee to ensure payment of instalments by the purchaser at regular intervals. In such a
case, DFIs can act as guarantors for prompt of instalments to the supplier of such machinery
or capital under a scheme called Deferred Payments Guarantee.

Assistance to Backward Areas:


Operations of DFIs in India have been primarily guided by priorities as spelt out in the FiveYear Plans. This is reflected in the lending portfolio and pattern of financial assistance of
development financial institutions under different schemes of financing. Institutional finance
to projects in backward areas is extended on concessional terms such as lower interest rate,
longer moratorium period, extended repayment schedule and relaxed norms in respect of
promoters contribution and debt-equity ratio. Such concessions are extended on a graded
scale to units in industrially backward districts, classified into the three categories of A, B
and c depending upon the degree of their backwardness. Besides, institutions have introduced
schemes for extending term loans for project/area-specific infrastructure development.
Moreover, in recent years, development banks in India have launched special programmes for
intensive development of industrially least developed areas, commonly referred to as the Noindustry Districts (NIDs) which do not have any large-scale or medium-scale industrial
project. Institutions have initiated industrial potential surveys in these areas.

Promotion of New Entrepreneurs:


Development banks in India have also achieved a remarkable success in creating a new class
of entrepreneurs and spreading the industrial culture to newer areas and weaker sections of
the society. Special capital and seed Capital schemes have been introduced to provide equity
type of assistance to new and technically skilled entrepreneurs who lack financial resources
of their own even to provide promoters contribution in view of long-term benefits to the
society from the emergence of a new class of entrepreneurs. Development banks have been
actively involved in the entrepreneurship development programmes and in establishing a set
of institutions which identify and train potential entrepreneurs. Again, to make available a
package of services encompassing preparation of feasibility of reports, project reports,
technical and management consultancy etc. at a reasonable cost, institutions have sponsored a
chain of 16 Technical Consultancy organizations covering practically the entire country.
Promotional and development functions are as important to institutions as the financing role.
The promotional activities like carrying out industrial potential surveys, identification of
potential entrepreneurs, conducting entrepreneurship development programmes and providing
technical consultancy services have contributed in a significant manner to the process of

industrialization and effective utilization of industrial finance by industry. IDBI has created a
special technical assistance fund to support its various promotional activities. Over the years,
the scope of promotional activities has expanded to include programmes for up gradation of
skill of State level development banks and other industrial promotion agencies, conducting
special studies on important issues concerning industrial development, encouraging voluntary
agencies in implementing their programmes for the uplift of rural areas, village an cottage
industries, artisans and other weaker sections of the society.

Impact on Corporate Culture:


The project appraisal and follow-up of assisted projects by institutions through various
instruments, such as project monitoring and report of nominee directors on the Boards of
directors of assisted units, have been mutually rewarding. Through monitoring of assisted
projects, the institutions have been able to better appreciate the problems faced by industrial
units. It also has been possible for the corporate managements to recognize the fact that
interests of the assisted units and those of institutions do not conflict but coincide. Over the
years, institutions have succeeded in infusing a sense of constructive partnership with the
corporate sector. Institutions have been going through a continuous process of learning by
doing and are effecting improvements in their systems and procedures on the basis of their
cumulative experience.
The promoters of industrial projects now develop ideas into specific projects more carefully
and prepare project reports more systematically. Institutions insist on more critical evaluation
of technical feasibility demand factors, marketing strategies and project location and on
application of modern techniques of discounted cash flow, internal rate of return, economic
rate of return etc., in assessing the prospects of a project. This has produced a favorable
impact on the process of decision-making in the corporate seeking financial assistance from
institutions. In fact, such impact is not continued to projects assisted by them but also spreads
over to projects financed by the corporate sector on its own.
The association of institutions in the management of corporate bodies has considerably
facilitated the process of progressive professionalism of the corporate management.
Institutions have been able to convince the corporate managements to appropriately re-orient
their organizational structure, personal policies and planning and control systems. In many
cases, institutions have successfully inducted experts on the Boards of assisted companies. As
part of their project follow-up work and through their nominee directors, institutions have
also been able to bring about progressive adoption of modern management techniques, such
as corporate planning and performance budgeting in the assisted units. The progressive
professionalism of industrial management in India reflects one of the major qualitative
changes brought about by the institutions.

Reserve Bank of Indiaivv


Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central bank - it formulates, implements and monitors
India's monetary policy. Reserve bank of India was established in 1935 and nationalized in
1949. It is fully owned by the Government of India and its headquarters are located in
Mumbai. RBI has 22 regional offices in the various state capitals of India. It has a majority
stake in the State Bank of India.

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The main functions of the Reserve Bank of India are:


As a central bank, the Reserve Bank has significant powers and duties to perform. For
smooth and speedy progress of the Indian Financial System, it has to perform some important
tasks. Among others it includes maintaining monetary and financial stability, to develop and
maintain stable payment system, to promote and develop financial infrastructure and to
regulate or control the financial institutions.

Issuer of currency
Except for issuing one rupee notes and coins, RBI is the sole authority for the issue of
currency in India. The Indian government issues one rupee notes and coins. Major currency is
in the form of RBI notes, such as notes in the denominations of two, five, ten, twenty, fifty,
one hundred, five hundred, and one thousand. Earlier, notes of higher denominations were

also issued. But, these notes were demonetized to discourage users from indulging in blackmarket operations.
RBI has two departments - the Issue department and Banking department. The issue
department is dedicated to issuing currency. All the currency issued is the monetary liability
of RBI that is backed by assets of equal value held by this department. Assets consist of gold,
coin, bullion, foreign securities, rupee coins, and the governments rupee securities. The
department acquires these assets whenever required by issuing currency. The conditions
governing the composition of these assets determine the nature of the currency standard that
prevails in India.
The Banking department of RBI looks after the banking operations. It takes care of the
currency in circulation and its withdrawal from circulation. Issuing new currency is known as
expansion of currency and withdrawal of currency is known as contraction of currency.

Banker to the Government


RBI acts as banker, both to the central government and state governments. It manages all the
banking transactions of the government involving the receipt and payment of money. In
addition, RBI remits exchange and performs other banking operations.
RBI provides short-term credit to the central government. Such credit helps the government
to meet any shortfalls in its receipts over its disbursements. RBI also provides short term
credit to state governments as advances.
RBI also manages all new issues of government loans, servicing the government debt
outstanding, and nurturing the market for governments securities. RBI advises the
government on banking and financial subjects, international finance, financing of five-year
plans, mobilizing resources, and banking legislation.

Managing Government Securities


Various financial institutions such as commercial banks are required by law to invest
specified minimum proportions of their total assets/liabilities in government securities. RBI
administers these investments of institutions.
The other responsibilities of RBI regarding these securities are to ensure Smooth functioning of the market
Readily available to potential buyers
Easily available in large numbers
Undisturbed maturity-structure of interest rates because of excess or deficit supply
Not subject to quick and huge fluctuations
Reasonable liquidity of investments
Good reception of the new issues of government loans

Banker to Other Banks


The role of RBI as a banker to other banks is as follows:

Holds some of the cash reserves of banks


Lends funds for short period
Provides centralized clearing and quick remittance facilities

RBI has the authority to statutorily ensure that the scheduled commercial banks deposit a
stipulated ratio of their total net liabilities. This ratio is known as cash reserve ratio [CRR].
However, banks can use these deposits to meet their temporary requirements for interbank
clearing as the maintenance of CRR is calculated based on the average balance over a period.

Controller of Money Supply and Credit


In a planned economy, the central bank plays an important role in controlling the paper
currency system and inflationary tendency. RBI has to regulate the claims of competing
banks on money supply and credit. RBI also needs to meet the credit requirements of the rest
of the banking system.
RBI needs to ensure promotion of maximum output, and maintain price stability and a high
rate of economic growth. To perform these functions effectively, RBI uses several control
instruments such as Open Market Operations
Changes in statutory reserve requirements for banks
Lending policies towards banks
Control over interest rate structure
Statutory liquidity ration of banks

Exchange Manager and Controller


RBI manages exchange control, and represents India as a member of the international
Monetary Fund [IMF]. Exchange control was first imposed on India in September 1939 when
World War II started and continues till date. Exchange control was imposed on both receipts
and payments of foreign exchange.
According to foreign exchange regulations, all foreign exchange receipts, whether on account
of export earnings, investment earnings, or capital receipts, whether of private or government
accounts, must be sold to RBI either directly or through authorized dealers. Most commercial
banks are authorized dealers of RBI.

Publisher of Monetary Data and Other Data


RBI maintains and provides all essential banking and other economic data, formulating and
critically evaluating the economic policies in India. In order to perform this function, RBI
collects, collates and publishes data regularly. Users can avail this data in the weekly
statements, the RBI monthly bulletin, annual report on currency and finance, and other
periodic publications.

Developmental and Promotional role of RBI


Along with the routine traditional functions, central banks especially in the developing
country like India have to perform numerous functions. These functions are country specific
functions and can change according to the requirements of that country. The RBI has been
performing as a promoter of the financial system since its inception. Some of the major
development functions of the RBI are maintained below.
Development of the Financial System: The financial system comprises the financial

institutions, financial markets and financial instruments. The sound and efficient financial
system is a precondition of the rapid economic development of the nation. The RBI has
encouraged establishment of main banking and non-banking institutions to cater to the credit
requirements of diverse sectors of the economy.
Development of Agriculture: In an agrarian economy like ours, the RBI has to provide

special attention for the credit need of agriculture and allied activities. It has successfully
rendered service in this direction by increasing the flow of credit to this sector. It has earlier
the Agriculture Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC) to look after the credit,
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and Regional Rural
Banks (RRBs).
Provision of Industrial Finance: Rapid industrial growth is the key to faster economic

development. In this regard, the adequate and timely availability of credit to small, medium
and large industry is very significant. In this regard the RBI has always been instrumental in
setting up special financial institutions such as ICICI Ltd. IDBI, SIDBI and EXIM BANK
etc.
Provisions of Training: The RBI has always tried to provide essential training to the staff of

the banking industry. The RBI has set up the bankers' training colleges at several places.
National Institute of Bank Management i.e NIBM, Bankers Staff College i.e BSC and
College of Agriculture Banking i.e CAB are few to mention.
Collection of Data: Being the apex monetary authority of the country, the RBI collects

process and disseminates statistical data on several topics. It includes interest rate, inflation,
savings and investments etc. This data proves to be quite useful for researchers and policy
makers.
Publication of the Reports: The Reserve Bank has its separate publication division. This

division collects and publishes data on several sectors of the economy. The reports and
bulletins are regularly published by the RBI. It includes RBI weekly reports, RBI Annual
Report, Report on Trend and Progress of Commercial Banks India., etc. This information is
made available to the public also at cheaper rates.
Promotion of Banking Habits: As an apex organization, the RBI always tries to promote the

banking habits in the country. It institutionalizes savings and takes measures for an expansion

of the banking network. It has set up many institutions such as the Deposit Insurance
Corporation-1962, UTI-1964, IDBI-1964, NABARD-1982, NHB-1988, etc. These
organizations develop and promote banking habits among the people. During economic
reforms it has taken many initiatives for encouraging and promoting banking in India.
Promotion of Export through Refinance: The RBI always tries to encourage the facilities

for providing finance for foreign trade especially exports from India. The Export-Import
Bank of India (EXIM Bank India) and the Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India
(ECGC) are supported by refinancing their lending for export purpose
Other major roles of RBI in the Indian Economy are:

Development of banking system

Development of financial institutions

Development of backward areas

Economic stability

Economic growth

Proper interest rate structure

Conclusion:
Indias financial system has undergone development as part of the economic reform process
that began in 1990. This has resulted in the expansion of both the banking sector and the
stock market. However, Indias banking sector remains relatively small compared with those
of most East Asian economies, and there appears to be scope for further expansion.
Individual banks are also small by international standards. Furthermore, the corporate bond
market is still immature and has not yet started to develop on a significant scale.
Indias rapid growth since 2000 has been accompanied by a rise in the savings and
investment rates. Procurement of external financial resources by businesses has risen sharply,
and bank borrowing has played a significant role. This suggests that external financing can be
expected to remain a significant factor in the maintenance of high economic growth, and that
the continuing development of the banking sec-tor, including the improvement of financial
intermediation capabilities and efficiency with which funds are distributed, will be a priority.
There is also likely to be further growth in the demand for finance for infrastructure
development. In addition to the expansion of bank credit, there is also a need for steps to
maintain soundness, including the improvement of risk management capabilities, and the
reinforcement of regulation and supervision.
Banking reforms introduced since the 1990s have included the easing regulations that
restricted competition, and the introduction of prudential regulations. These changes have

resulted in the entry of private sector banks and foreign banks into the market, leading to
increased competition. To some extent, the reforms have also brought improvements in the
efficiency and soundness of banks and led to the expansion of bank credit. The banking
reform process can be seen as a positive factor that is steadily yielding benefits.
However, many issues remain. Factors affecting the size of the banking sector and the
expansion of credit include the fact that financial savings still account for only a small
percentage of household savings. Furthermore, while there has been an upward trend in the
percentage of credit provided to individuals, there has been a decline in the share going to the
industrial sector. Of particular concern is the stagnation of credit to small and medium
enterprises (SMEs). Improvement in these areas will require action to deal with a number of
structural problems. First, the government should review the statutory liquidity ratio (SLR),
which stipulates the percent-age of deposits that must be invested in government bonds.
Second, improvements are needed in priority sector lending, which are designed to expand
credit to agriculture and SMEs, since banks are unable to secure adequate returns. Third,
India has implemented a financial inclusion policy with the aim of expanding the use of
formal finance, primarily through the expansion of a network of bank branches in the rural
areas. The effectiveness of this policy needs to be improved through diversification.
To increase the size of individual banks, the government should consider measures that will
encourage bank mergers while maintaining a competitive environment. A longer-term
priority will be a review of bank ownership by the government in order to improve the
competitiveness of public sector banks.
Some observers see the fact that the Indian banking sector has never experienced a major
financial crisis as evidence that there are no serious problems. However, the ratio of domestic
credit to GDP is not high by international standards, and the scale of individual banks is
relatively small. There are also characteristic systems, including priority sector lending and
government ownership of banks. Indias rapid growth since 2000 has been ac-companied by
increases in both savings and in-vestment rates. This process has also brought an increase in
external procurement of financial resources. This suggests that external financing plays an
important role in the achievement of high economic growth. Priorities in this context include
the structural expansion of bank credit through the expansion of financial savings, and the
improvement of the efficiency of financial intermediation and the allocation of financial
resources.
These goals will require further improvements in the efficiency of the banking sector, and the
setting of loan and deposit interest rates at levels that reflect market realities. Other essential
steps include a review of the statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) system and priority sector
lending, and the promotion of financial inclusion. When designing financial inclusion
systems, including priority sector lending, greater emphasis will need to be placed on
economic rationality. To expand financial savings, it will also be necessary to focus on
measures to reduce the number of informal sector enterprises, including the expansion of
rural employment. By further developing its banking sector and building a strong financial
system, India should be able to look forward to sustained high growth over many years.

References
i

rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Speeches/PDFs/FIBACS130813.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_in_India
iii
www.herald.co.zw/role-of-banks-in-the-economy/
iv
http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Publications/PDFs/RBIB140520012.pdf
v
http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Content/PDFs/FUNCWWE080910.pdf
vi
http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/AboutUsDisplay.aspx?pg=OrganizationStructure.htm
ii