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ISSN: 0871-7869

Rehabilitation and strengthening


of old masonry buildings
H. Meireles; R. Bento

- Maro de 2013 Relatrio ICIST


DTC n 02/2013

!
Table&of&contents&
!

&
!

Introduction*..........................................................................................................................................................*3!
Structural*interventions*related*to*the*foundations*...........................................................................*5!
a)! Improvement!of!the!ground!soil!by!Jet9Grouting!.............................................................!5!
b)! Improving!the!behaviour!of!foundations!by!enlargement!and/or!consolidation
!
5!
c)! Strengthening!of!the!foundation!by!using!micro!piles!isolated!or!in!group!or!in!
row!6!
Local*interventions*for*structural*improvement*..................................................................................*8!
a)! Injections!in!cracks!........................................................................................................................!8!
b)! Strengthening!roof!diaphragms!with!plywood!.................................................................!9!
c)! Transversal!anchorage!in!walls!...............................................................................................!9!
d)! Strengthening!masonry!column!with!jacketing!............................................................!10!
e)! Repair!of!damaged!wood!elements!.....................................................................................!10!
Global*interventions*for*structural*improvement*.............................................................................*11!
a)! Strengthening!of!masonry!walls!with!reinforced!cement!coating!.........................!11!
b)! Strengthening!of!masonry!walls!with!polypropylene!meshing!..............................!11!
c)! Strengthening!of!floors!and!improving!the!connection!floor/wall!.......................!12!
d)! Strengthening!with!composite!materials!(CFRP!and!GFRP)!....................................!14!
e)! The!use!of!horizontal!tie9rods!...............................................................................................!17!
f)! Retrofitting!by!post9tensioning!.............................................................................................!19!
f)! Strengthening!with!ring!beams!.............................................................................................!21!
g)! Retrofitting!by!introducing!RC!shear!walls!.....................................................................!22!
h)! Strengthening!with!RC!or!steel!frames!.............................................................................!22!
REFERENCES!..........................................................................................................................................!25!

1!

2!

Introduction!
!
Men! with! mainly! four! materials! built! the! oldest! constructions! and! these!
materials!lasted!thousands!of!years!for!construction!purposes.!These!were!earth!
(from! which! bricks! come! from,! for! instance),! stone,! wood! and! natural! plants!
fibres.!With!these!four!elements!men!was!able!to!build!spectacular!constructions!
some! of! which! are! still! standing! nowadays.! Later! in! the! XVIII! century,! with! the!
beginning!of!the!industrial!revolution!in!England,!the!iron!is!burnt!with!coal!and!
its! impurities! decrease! giving! rise! to! cast! iron,! to! be! built! in! great! quantities.!
While! the! iron! from! Nature! is! very! brittle,! the! cast! iron! is! resisting! well! to!
compression,!although!bad!to!tension,!and!can!be!used!as!a!structural!resisting!
element! working! in! compression.! With! fewer! impurities,! later! on,! we! have! the!
forged! iron/steel! and! later! the! steel,! where! carbon! is! mixed! with! iron! is! small!
quantities!to!make!it!become!more!malleable.!The!forged!steel!and!the!steel!are!
used! mainly! in! tension! due! to! the! phenomena! of! buckling.! Steel! structures! are!
common!nowadays!although!not!in!great!quantity!in!Portugal!when!compared!to!
England.! The! last! great! change! occurring! in! construction! materials! was! the!
introduction! of! concrete.! In! Portugal! it! started! in! the! 40s! only! by! introducing!
some!concrete!elements,!reinforced!with!steel,!to!build!floors!and!some!columns!
such!how!it!is!found!in!Placa!buildings.!Later!on,!in!the!60s!complete!reinforced!
concrete!buildings!were!built!in!Portugal!and!this!is!the!most!common!practice,!
nowadays,!to!build!new!buildings.!!
!
The! old! masonry! buildings! in! Lisbon! that! still! stand! nowadays! are! called! pre9
Pombalinos,! Pombalinos,! Gaioleiros! and! Placa! buildings.! They! were! built! with!
stone!and/or!bricks,!sometimes!lime,!and!wood,!(Placa!buildings!also!with!a!few!
reinforced! concrete! structural! elements).! Foundations! were! built! with! a! large!
masonry! footing! sometimes! settled! on! a! base! of! wooden! piles! (Pombalino!
buildings).!On!the!ground!floor!one!can!find!masonry!walls,!some!made!of!stone!
masonry! others! of! brick! masonry.! It! is! also! possible! to! find! arches! made! of!
masonry! very! common! on! the! ground! floor! of! Pombalino! buildings.! The! floors!
and!the!roof!are!made!with!wood!joists,!except!for!Placa!buildings!as!previously!
referred.!!
!
The! strengthening! of! old! masonry! buildings! is! an! important! issue! since! these!
buildings! constitute! the! historical! centres! of! many! cities! and! thus! deserve!
attention!from!the!state!authorities!for!preservation!purposes.!!
!
When!strengthening!an!old!building,!one!must!focus!first!on!understanding!how!
it!is!working,!assessing!its!performance!for!gravity!and!seismic!loads.!Then,!the!
problems!and/or!pathologies!must!be!encountered!and!only!then!one!can!start!
prescribing!the!necessary!solutions!for!the!rehabilitation!or!strengthening.!!
!
Old!masonry!buildings!have!common!pathologies!that!are!mainly!related!to!their!
age.!For!instance!the!wood!can!be!damaged!due!to!the!changes!and!exposure!to!
humidity.! It! can! have! fungus! attack! or! insect! attack.! On! the! other! hand! the!
masonry! can! be! also! damaged.! In! case! of! the! masonry! the! most! important!
pathologies! have! structural! origin! and! can! be! translated! into! desegregation,!

3!

crushing,! fracture! and! cracking.! The! most! common! causes! are! related! with!
foundation! settlements,! movements! of! thermal! origin,! horizontal! thrusts!
transmitted! by! inclined! roofs! or! arches,! the! existence! of! concentrated! and! high!
loads! (generally! associated! with! adaptation! of! the! building! to! new! usages)! and!
earthquakes!which!have!a!considerable!influence!in!a!material!that!is!both!heavy!
and!brittle.!!
!
The!ageing!of!the!masonry!and!in!particular!its!desegregation!depends!in!a!great!
deal!of!the!way!the!masonry!is!protected!by!coating;!the!cracking!or!the!loss!of!
these!coatings,!expose!the!masonry!to!the!action!of!the!atmospheric!agents!being!
especially!relevant!the!action!of!the!wind!transporting!sands!and!dust!that!give!
rise!to!erosion.!!
!
The! foundation! settlements! are! usually! associated! with! the! construction! of!
additional!floors!and/or!the!execution!of!excavations!in!the!adjacent!areas!of!the!
building!and!have!has!a!result!the!decompression!and!dragging!of!the!soil.!The!
changes!of!the!ground!water!flows!are!also!important.!!
!
The! iron! was! used! in! old! buildings! mainly! for! small! elements! such! as! nails,!
screws! and! elements! with! anchor! shape.! These! were! used! to! connect! wood!
elements! between! each! other,! connect! masonry! walls! between! each! other! and!
also! connect! wood! floors! with! masonry! walls.! The! main! problem! for! this!
material! is! its! corrosion! given! the! lack! of! maintenance! because! of! the!
inaccessibility!of!the!elements.!The!risk!of!oxidation!is,!in!first!place,!the!loss!of!
useful! cross9section! of! the! elements! and,! secondly,! the! effect! of! destruction!
caused! by! the! increase! of! the! volume! of! the! iron! elements! that! may! cause! the!
rupture!of!the!masonry.!!
!
The! existing! pathologies! should! be! tackled.! On! the! other! hand,! the! structural!
system!of!the!building!may!be!assessed!and!improved!whenever!necessary.!One!
reason! for! improving! the! structural! system! of! a! given! building! may! be,! for!
instance,!the!objective!of!changing!its!use!or!merely!an!adaptation!to!nowadays!
usages!and!facilities.!For!instance!the!introduction!of!toilets,!the!introduction!of!
elevators,!air!conditioning,!the!widen!up!of!rooms,!etc.!!
!
Moreover,! one! can! think! of! improving! the! structural! system! for! earthquake!
resisting!purposes.!It!is!then!very!important!to!understand!very!well!the!original!
behaviour! of! the! structure.! It! is! always! essential! to! improve! the! connections!
between!the!structural!elements,!e.g.,!between!the!floors!and!walls!(and!frontal!
walls!with!walls!in!Pombalino!buildings)!and!between!the!roof!and!the!top!of!the!
walls.! In! this! way! these! structural! elements! will! not! separate! when! the!
earthquake!strikes!and!will!behave!together.!It!is!usually!also!important!in!any!
building! to! strengthen! its! floors! given! the! wooden! floors! are! flexible! in!
plan(while! the! masonry! is! rigid)! and! thus! they! do! not! transmit! forces! between!
parallel! walls.! The! whole! structure! should! behave! like! a! box! where! all! the!
structural!elements!are!having!similar!displacements!and!moving!together.!The!
foundations!may!be!improved!also.!!
!
In! the! following! lines! it! is! presented! separately! structural! interventions,! firstly!

4!

related!to!the!foundations;!then,!structural!interventions!herein!called!Local!and,!
finally,! structural! interventions! that! are! affecting! the! whole! building! (Global)!
behaviour.!
!

Structural!interventions!related!to!the!foundations!
!
a) Improvement!of!the!ground!soil!by!Jet:Grouting!
!
This!technology!was!first!developed!in!the!70s!but!later!it!had!a!large!expansion!
on!the!80s.!It!was!introduced!in!Portugal!in!the!beginning!of!the!90s!due!to!the!
construction!of!the!metropolitan!in!Lisbon.!It!consists!in!the!disaggregation!of!a!
volume! of! soil,! internally! in! the! ground! without! previous! excavation,! mixing! it!
with! cement! grout! introduced! in! high! pressure! (values! between! 200! and! 800!
bar)! and! velocity! in! the! order! of! 250! m/s.! This! results! in! a! material! with!
mechanical!characteristics!with!higher!values!then!the!previous!ones!for!the!soil!
and!with!less!permeability!(Fig.!1).!!
!
The!advantages!of!this!technique!are:!it!can!be!applied!in!all!types!of!soil!(as!long!
as!they!contain!small!sized!material!and!are!not!subjected!to!seepage);!it!can!be!
applied! in! difficult! closed! areas! and! it! does! not! give! chance! to! significant!
vibrations.!!
!

!
Fig.&1&The&fases&of&jetgrouting&[Loureno,&Lectures&UM&]&
!

b) Improving!the!behaviour!of!foundations!by!enlargement!and/or!
consolidation!

As!explained!by!Appleton![2003],!the!superficial!foundation!can!be!enlarged!with!
concrete! as! is! depicted! in! Fig.! 2.! The! connection! between! foundation! and!
concrete!is!made!through!connectors!(Grampo!de!ligao).!There!is!the!need!to!
excavate!until!the!bottom!of!the!foundation!to!place!the!formwork!(Cofragem).!
!

5!

2.*.-+.'01#2.#34'2)5
2.*.-+.'01#2.#34'2)56.*
DECivil

a) Alargamento da fundao superficial existente

APPLETON, J., Reabilitao de Edifcios Antigos Patologias e tecnologias


de interveno, Edies Orion, 1 Edio, Setembro de 2003.

37

Fig.&2&Enlargement&of&the&foundation&[Appleton,&2003]&

APPLETON, J., Reabilitao de Edifcios Antigos Patologias e tecnologias

Edies Orion, 1 Edio, Setembro de 2003.


!"#$de%interveno,
&'(&)*#+),)#-./01,),#1#
!
Additionally,!the!foundation!may!be!improved!by!filling!the!gaps!between!blocks!
2.*.-+.'01#2.#34'2)56.*
37

with!mortar,!as!can!be!seen!in!Fig.!3.!Visibly,!there!is!the!need!to!excavate!until!
the!bottom!of!the!foundation!(Vala!escavada)!to!perform!these!tasks.!One!uses!
tubes! for!b)
injection!
(Tubos! de!
for! (de
the! inner!
holes! and!
then! closes!
Consolidao
dainjeco)!
fundao
alvenaria!)
existente
DECivil
cracks!at!the!face!of!the!masonry!(Selagem!das!juntas).!
!"#$%
!"#$%&'(&)*#+),)#-./01,),#1#
!

2.*.-+.'01#2.#34'2)5
2.*.-+.'01#2.#34'2)56.*

DECivil

b) Consolidao da fundao (de alvenaria!) existente

Fig.&3&Consolidation&of&the&foundation&[Appleton,&2003]&

APPLETON, J., Reabilitao de Edifcios Antigos Patologias e tecnologias


de interveno, Edies Orion, 1 Edio, Setembro de 2003.

38

APPLETON, J., Reabilitao de Edifcios Antigos Patologias e tecnologias


c) Strengthening!of!the!foundation!by!using!micro!piles!isolated!or!in!group!or!
de interveno, Edies Orion, 1 Edio, Setembro de 2003.
38
in!row!

&
The!foundation!layout!present!in!most!of!the!old!masonry!buildings!is!drawn!in!
Fig.!4!a).!In!Fig.!4!b)!one!can!see!the!foundation!typical!of!a!Pombalino!building!in!
downtown.! This! typology! of! buildings! is! mainly! set! on! an! alluvium! filled! valley!
with! a! weak! layer! of! material! over! the! bedrock.! The! small! wood! piles! (average!
1.5! m! long)! used! in! these! buildings! are! meant! for! consolidation! of! the! topmost!
layer!of!soil!and!cannot!be!seen!as!having!the!same!behaviour!as!nowadays!RC!
piles!(which!are!usually!longer,!working!by!point!resistance!and!lateral!friction).!
!

6!

19

!"#$%&'(#)*#+,-)./
!"#$%&'(#)*#+,-)./0'
Fundaes correntes de edifcios antigos

DECivil

&&

a)!
!
!
!
!
b)!
APPLETON, J., Reabilitao de Edifcios Antigos Patologias e tecnologias
Fig.&4&
a)&Common&foundations&of&old&masonry&buildings;&b)&Foundations&of&Pombalino&
de interveno, Edies Orion, 1 Edio, Setembro de 2003.
7
buildings&

&

!"#$%&%'#()*+,"+"-'!.'.!#-+#/
#&1"/#!%#+"+2#,"%!#
!

Using! micro! piles! to! strengthen! a! foundation! is! a! solution! reasonably! used! in!
Portugal! in! monuments! or! common! buildings.! It! is! for! increasing! loads! in! the!
structure,! which! lead! to! increasing! loads! in! the! soil,! or! to! deal! with! settlement!
de Fundaes
Execuo
!"#$%&'(#)*#+,-)./
/0'
!"#$%&'(#)*#+,-).
problems.!
The! micro! piles! Consolidao
consolidate!
the! shallower!
layers! of!- soil!
and! also! de Micro-esta
mobilize!the!deepest!layers!of!soil.!!!
!
They!are!composed!of!a!RC!heading,!a!steel!casing!with!8,!10!or!12!meters!long!
Fundaes de edifcios antigos em solo brando
DECivil
usually!to!be!filled!with!a!cement!grout!under!pressure.!Inside!the!casing!there!
may!be!steel!rods.!Finally,!at!the!bottom!there!is!usually!a!bulb!of!cement.!!
grade e estacas de
!
madeira
To!be!noticed!that!the!piles!are!only!under!pressure!when!there!is!an!additional!
load!in!the!structure.!When!they!are!built!they!do!not!receive!any!load.!!
&
In!Fig.!5!one!can!see!in!a)!the!machine!to!drill!the!holes!and!in!b)!the!micro!piles!
casing!to!be!filled!with!cement!grout.!
- Execuo de
Micro-estacas
!

"-'!.'.!#-+#/'%0#-+,"+
"%!#

4
a)

b)

Abril de 2011
Fig.&5&a)&Machine&to&drill&the&holes,&b)&micro&piles&casing&to&be&filled&with&cement&grout&

[photos&by&Appleton,&2011]&

!
!

7!

(%',*5)$.'! $/'-.4C&%/'! $)! /4&%'5/+)67.2! %! )! %D-%(/E43/)! $)! ',)! )-*/3)67.2! 8)>F'%!


'%+,/$)1%45%!,1)!)-(%'%45)67.!(%',1/$)!$%'5)'!5=34/3)';!
<'! &+,"-./"%! 3.4'5/5,%1! ,1)! '.*,67.! $%! (%8.(6.! G-)''/&)H! %! /((%&%('C&%*;!
I(%'%(&)1!
.! )'-%35.! .(/+/4)*! %D5%(/.(! $)'! -)(%$%'! -%*.! :,%! '7.! ,1)! '.*,67.!
Local!interventions!for!structural!improvement!
!
8(%:,%45%1%45%!,5/*/>)$)!%1!/45%(&%46?%'!'.0(%!%$/8C3/.'!$%!(%3.4A%3/$.!&)*.(!)(5C'5/3.!
Injections!in!cracks!
%J.,!a)
)(:,/5%35K4/3.;!
L! -)(5/3,*)(1%45%! /4$/3)$)! -)()! )! (%)0/*/5)67.! $%! )*&%4)(/)'! $%!
!
-%$()!.4$%!%D/'5)!,1)!8/4)!(%$%!$%!&)>/.'!/45%(/.(%'2!3.1,4/3)45%'!%45(%!'/;!!
The!injections!in!cracks,!internal!or!at!the!face,!of!a!masonry!wall!are!a!solution!
M'5)!'.*,67.!3.4'/'5%!4)!%1/''7.!$%!,1)!3)*$)!8*,C$)!N3/1%45C3/)2!A/$(O,*/3)!.,!
of!strengthening!that!is!irreversible.!They!are,!however,!used!frequently!because!
they!
preserve!
the! original!
the! exterior!%8%35,)$.'!
of! the! wall.!
is! particularly!
$%!
(%'/4)'!
.(+P4/3)'Q2!
%1! aspect!
8,(.'2! of!
-(%&/)1%45%!
%! It!3.4&%4/%45%1%45%!
indicated!for!the!rehabilitation!of!the!masonry!that!has!internal!cracks!connected!
$/'5(/0,C$.'2!
-)()! -(%%43A%(! 3)&/$)$%'! /45%(/.(%'2! '%@)1! %*)'! 8/'',()'! .,! &)>/.'!!
between!them.!
!
NR/+,()!SQ;!<!+()4,*.1%5(/)!$)'!3)*$)'!$%!/4@%367.!$%-%4$%!$)!$/1%4'7.!$)'!8%4$)'!.,!
For!this!solution!a!cimenticious!based!grout!is!used!or!a!hydraulic!based!grout!or!
&)>/.';!M1!+%()*2!=!,')$)!,1)!3)*$)!$%!*/+)45%!3.1!O+,)!'%1!)(%/);!T.!%45)45.2!'%!.'!
others!such!as!organic!resins!based!grout.!This!solution!is!based!on!the!injection!
in! holes! previously! made! with! injection! tubes! (tubos! de! injeco)! and! spread!
&)>/.'!'7.!$%!+()4$%!$/1%4'7.2!=!-(%8%(C&%*!,1)!)(+)1)'')!.,!,1!0%57.!$%!3.4'/'5E43/)!
throughout! the! wall,! to! fill! with! the! grout! the! internal! cracks.! For! the! external!
8*,C$);!
cracks!the!coating!should!be!removed!previously!(remoo!de!reboco)!and!the!
injection!tubes!may!be!used!also.!Fig.!6!shows!these!considerations.!!
!
!

a)!
!
!
!
!
!
!
b)!
!
!
c)!
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!N)Q!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!N0Q0

!!

Fig.&6&(a)&injection&in&external/face&diagonal&crack;&(b)&injection&for&the&internal&cracks;&(c)&side&view&
[Roque,&2002]&

R/+,()!SF!U4@%367.!$%!)*&%4)(/)'#!N)Q!'%*)+%1!$%!8%4$)'V!N0Q!3.4'.*/$)67.!1)5%(/)*;!

!
!
The!aggregate!grading!of!the!grout!depends!on!the!size!of!the!cracks!but!it!can!be!
<!%8/3O3/)!$%'5)!5=34/3)!5%1!'/$.!0%1!',3%$/$)!%1!)*&%4)(/)'2!3.1!,1!C4$/3%!$%!
used! a!
grout! without! the! sand.! This! technique! shows! improvements! in! the!
mechanical!characteristics!of!the!masonry.!It!seems!a!better!application!in!stone!
&)>/.'!3.1-(%%4$/$.!%45(%!.'!WX!%!.'!SYX;!<0)/D.!$%!WX!.'!(%',*5)$.'!'7.!%1!+%()*!
masonry.! To! deliver! a! specific! injection! grout! one! must! carry! on! in9situ! and!
! laboratory! tests! to! refine! the! grout.! Depending! on! the! used! process,! there! are!"!
several!solutions!for!the!injections:!
!
1.&Injection& under& pressure:! it! is! frequently! used! in! masonry.! To! avoid!
structural!failure!of!the!wall!(that!can!be!in!very!bad!conditions),!the!holes!
are!done!from!bottom!to!top!and!from!side!to!centre.!!
2.&Injection&trough&gravity:&it!is!used!to!highly!damaged!walls.!&
3. !Injection& trough& vacuum:& it! is! used! in! small! interventions,! mainly!
architectural,!statues,!etc.!The!grout!is!very!fluid!(for!instance!resins!can!be!
used)![Valluzzi,!M.,!2000].!!
!
In! old! structures,! the! inorganic! grouts,! non9cimenticious,! like! hydraulic! limes,!
should! be! preferred! because! of! compatibility! issues! with! the! already! existing!
mortars.! The! organic! mortars! (polyester! or! epoxy),! more! fluid,! should! only! be!
used! when! there! are! needs! for! higher! resistance,! hopefully! without!

8!

ble walls, which consisted of a steel shoe doweled to the concrete ring beam and bolted to the rid
am. Timber spreader beams were also doweled to the r.c. ring beam all along the perimeter,
eans of connecting steel bars chemically anchored by epoxy resin. Any discontinuity between t
mber spreader beam and the ring beam was smoothed by the insertion of a plaster layer to create
compromising!the!compatibility!between!the!materials![Roque,!2002].!
ntinuous contact.
The 8 cm x 12 cm joists were reshaped to create a horizontal seat on the rid
!
am and on the longitudinal spreader beams. Steel connecting elements were inserted at the top
e ridge beam, at the
between the two opposite purlins. The matchboard was then placed
b) contact
Strengthening!roof!diaphragms!with!plywood!
&
p of the timber structure.

To! stiffen! and! strengthen! the! roof! diaphragm! (which! may! be! originally! made!
only! by! a! single! layer! of! boards! nailed! to! the! joists),! one! can! adopt! an!
o stiffen and strengthen
thethat!
roof
diaphragmwith!
(which
originally
was
made by!
only
by a single layer
intervention!
is! compatible!
the! original!
timber!
structure,!
adding!
ards nailed to multilayer!
the joists),
it was
decided
towhich!
adoptare!anlighter!
intervention
wasto!compatible
with t
spruce!
plywood!
panels,!
and! easier!that
to! apply!
an!
inclined!plane!in!comparison!to!a!reinforced!concrete!slab,!although!providing!a!
iginal timber structure,
by adding multilayer spruce plywood panels, which are lighter and easier
significant!stiffness!increase.!One!example!of!intervention![Magenes!et!al.,!2012],!
ply to an inclined plane in comparison to a reinforced concrete slab, although providing a significa
Fig.! 7,! consists! in! adding! 3! layers! of! plywood,! each! 21! mm! thick,! glued! with!
ffness increase.polyurethane!glue!and!connected!to!the!purlins!by!means!of!chemically!anchored,!
The intervention consisted in adding 3 layers of plywood, each 21 mm thick, glu
th polyurethane10!mm!diameter!threaded!steel!bars.!After!having!drilled!and!cleaned!the!hole,!a!
glue and connected to the purlins by means of chemically anchored, 10 m
epoxy! having
mixture! is!
inserted!
the! hole! the
and! hole,
then! the!
bar! is!
ameter threadedtwo9component!
steel bars. After
drilled
andin! cleaned
a two-component
epo
introduced!
and!
rotated!
to!
distribute!
the!
resin.!
Bars!
were!
placed!
at!
a!
constant!
xture was inserted in the hole and then the bar was inserted and rotated to distribute the resin. Ba
spacing! of! 30! cm! and! penetrated! into! the! purlins! to! connect! the! upper! plank!
ere placed at a constant
spacing of 30 cm and penetrated into the purlins to connect the upper pla
layers!with!the!roof!structure.!
yers with the roof
& structure (Fig.3).

&

&

Figure 3. Scheme of
theScheme&of&the&intervention&on&the&roof&diaphragm,&consisting&in&the&application&of&
intervention on the roof diaphragm, consisting in the application of multilayer panel
Fig.&7&
multilayer&panels&and&chemically&anchored&steel&connectors.&[Magenes&et&al,&2012]
!
and chemically anchored steel connectors.
!

o improve the diaphragm


behaviour of the roof, continuous steel plates (80 mm wide and 5 m
To!improve!the!diaphragm!behaviour!of!the!roof,!continuous!steel!plates!(80!mm!
wide! and!
mm! thick)!
were! connected!
along!
perimeter!
to! the! roof,! to! of a strut and
ck) were connected
all 5!
along
the perimeter
to theall!
roof,
tothe!
favour
the development
favour!the!development!of!a!strut!and!tie!mechanism.!The!roof!is!then!completed!
echanism. The roof was then completed by adding plain roofing tiles nailed to the multilayer spru
by!adding!plain!roofing!tiles!nailed!to!the!multilayer!spruce!plywood!panels.!!!
!
c) Transversal!anchorage!in!walls!

!
The!application!of!transversal!anchorage!in!walls!aims!to!connect!better!the!two!
layers!of!the!wall!avoiding!their!separation!from!the!interior!core,!as!can!be!seen!
in! Fig.! 8.! The! interior! core! is! usually! constituted! by! rubble! of! low! quality.! The!
application!of!such!technique!may!include,!or!not,!binding!material!such!as!grout!
(cement,!lime).!!

9!

! 45->*>-+"'#5*+")-5"*1"?'%-"#1+*%*"'*'21>*5'*"'%17-5-+#-"'7&2@*"'%-'A*5-%45->*>-+"'#5*+")-5"*1"?'%-"#1+*%*"'*'21>*5'*"'%17-5-+#-"'7&2@*"'%-'A*5-%B8&.'&$'"-.'"-2*>-.'A&5'.*#-51*2'21>*+#-C
! "#$%&$'(#)*+,'-*).'(#+,/*0'$&0'/*$.*1

H I1>*%&5-"'5E
I1>*%&5-"'5E>1%&"

H I1>*%&5-"'72-JE
I1>*%&5-"'72-JE)-1"

Fig.&8&Face&to&face&connector&in&wall&of&two&layers&[Cias,&2007]&

!
DE#&5'F6
#&5'F61*"?'9::G
d) Strengthening!masonry!column!with!jacketing!

&
In! similarity! with! the! case! of! strengthening! the! masonry! walls! with! reinforced!
cement!coating,!the!masonry!piers!can!be!strengthened!with!reinforced!concrete!
as! an! outside! layer.! The! steels! rods! are! placed! in! the! perimeter! of! the! pier! and!
then!the!concrete!is!poured!covering!the!steel!rods.!The!rods!should!be!anchored!
to!the!base!foundation!of!the!pier.!!!
!
e) Repair!of!damaged!wood!elements!

!
These! are! repair! techniques! and! not! strengthening! solutions.! The! reduced!
existence!of!pieces!of!natural!wood!of!considerable!dimension!nowadays!makes!
Introduo de casas de
it! difficult! to! substitute! complete!
pieces! of! damaged! wood! with! natural! wood!
banho
elements.! In! this! way! one! can! find! several! substitutes! of! wood.! The! damaged!
wood! elements! may! be! replaced! by! glued! laminated! wood,! for! instance.! The!
damaged!wood!elements!can!be!replaced!also!with!epoxy!resin!mortar!and!this!
mortar! has! similar! mechanical! characteristics! to! the! wood! to! be! reconstructed.!
In!this!technique,!it!is!advisable!that!the!connection!between!existing!wood!and!
mortar! be! enforced! by! mechanical! connectors.! It! is! necessary! also! that! there! is!
enough! protection! of! the! mortar! against! fire! given! the! susceptibility! of! this!
material!to!high!temperatures.!In!Fig.!9!a)!it!is!depicted!rotten!wood!joists!and!in!
Fig.!9!b)!more!rotten!wood!elements.!!
&
perda de seco,
fractura ou
apodrecimento de
pavimentos

Apodrecimento das entregas

+ falta de solidarizao (apoios curtos,


falta de elementos metlicos)

a)!
!
!
!
!
!
b)!
Fig.&9&a)&Rotten&wood&joists&at&the&connection&to&the&wall;&b)&Rotten&wood&elements&[Cruz,&
2012]&

20
Erros / problemas correntes

10!

!"#$%&%'#()*+,"+"-'!.'.!#-+#/'%0#-+,
Global!interventions!for!structural!improvement!
#&1"/#!%#+"+2#,"%!#
!

a) Strengthening!of!masonry!walls!with!reinforced!cement!coating!
Reforo
de paredes de alvenaria com recurso a lminas armadas d
!
In!this!case!(Fig.!10!a)!and!b))!one!places!thin!(less!than!10!cm)!layers!of!coatings!
argamassa
ou microbeto Edifcios pombalinos em Lisboa
of!cement!reinforced!with!steel!(or!glass!fiber!or!plastic!meshes,!see!section!d))!
on!masonry!walls.!The!coating!increases!the!walls!strength!and!ductility.!It!can!
be! placed! in! the! outside! or! in! the! inside! or! both,! depending! on! the! most!
accessible!areas.!!
!
To! enable! the! behaviour! of! both! elements! (existing! and! new)! to! work! together!
one!places!steel!connectors!on!the!wall.!!
!
It! is! thought! that! a! wall! of! rubble! (stone)! masonry! with! 0.60! m! of! thickness!
Reforo
de paredes de alvenaria com recurso a lminas armadas
reinforced!with!two!layers!of!cement!coating!with!steel!meshes!and!with!0.10!m!
thickness!in!total,!may!have!increased!its!strength!in!compression!and!shear!of!3!
to!6!times!its!original!strength,!at!least![Appleton,!2009].!
argamassa
ou microbeto Edifcios pombalinos em Lisboa
&

!"#$%&%'#()*+,"+"-'!.'.!#-+#/'%0#-+
#&1"/#!%#+"+2#,"%!#

a)!

b)!

Fig.&10&a)&Masonry&wall&from&the&inside&with&steel&mesh,&b)&spraying&of&the&cement&grout&

into&the&wall&[fotos&by&Appleton,&2011]&

Abril& de 2011

b) Strengthening!of!masonry!walls!with!polypropylene!meshing!!!
&
Polypropylene! meshing! uses! common! polypropylene! packaging! straps!!
(PP9bands)! to! form! a! mesh,! which! is! used! to! encase! masonry! walls! (Fig.! 11! a)),!
preventing!both!collapse!and!the!escape!of!debris!during!earthquakes.!PP9bands!
are! used! for! packaging! all! over! the! world! and! are! therefore! cheap! and! readily!
available! while! the! retrofitting! technique! itself! is! simple! enough! to! be! suitable!
for! local! builders.! PP9meshing! has! been! applied! in! Nepal,! Pakistan! and! more!
recently!
China.! This! method! is! most! readily! applicable! in! terms! of! low9cost!
Abril de in!
2011
upgrading! of! traditional! structures! to! limit! damage! caused! by! normal!
earthquakes!and!give!occupants!a!good!chance!of!escape!in!an!once9in9a9lifetime!
large! earthquake.! Non9engineered! masonry! is! widespread! throughout! the!
developing! world! and! replacement! of! all! such! dwellings! is! both! unfeasible! and!
undesirable,! given! that! they! are! often! the! embodiment! of! local! culture! and!
tradition.! It! is! therefore! often! more! feasible! to! consider! low9cost! retrofitting! of!
!

11!

3.2 Polypropylene Meshing


Polypropylene meshing uses common polypropylene packaging straps (pp-bands) to form a mesh
which is used to encase masonry walls, preventing both collapse and the escape of debris during
earthquakes. PP-bands are used for packaging all over the world and are therefore cheap and readily
available while the retrofitting technique itself is simple enough to be suitable for local builders. PPmeshing
has been applied
in Nepal, Pakistan
and more recently
in China.
such! buildings.!
Experiments!
and! advanced!
numerical!
simulations! have! shown!

that! PP9band! mesh! can! dramatically! increase! the! seismic! capacity! of!

This method is most readily applicable in terms of low-cost upgrading of traditional structures to
adobe/masonry!houses![P.!Mayorka!and!K.!Meguro,!2008].!!
limit
damage caused by normal earthquakes and give occupants a good chance of escape in a once-in&
a-lifetime
large earthquake. Non-engineered masonry is widespread throughout the developing world
and
replacement
of allachieved!
such dwellings
both unfeasible
undesirable,ductility!
given that they
often the
This!
is! mainly!
by! isincreasing!
the!andstructural!
and!areenergy!
embodiment
of local
culture and
tradition.
It is therefore
often motions,!
more feasible
to consider
low-cost
dissipation!
capacities.!
Under!
moderate!
ground!
PP9band!
meshes!
retrofitting
of
such
buildings.
Experiments
and
advanced
numerical
simulations
have
shown
that PPprovide!enough!seismic!resistance!to!guaranty!limited!and!controlled!cracking!of!
band mesh can dramatically increase the seismic capacity of adobe/masonry houses [P. Mayorka and K
the! retrofitted! structures.! Under! extremely! strong! ground! motions,! they! are!
Meguro, 2008]. This is mainly achieved by increasing the structural ductility and energy dissipation
expected!to!prevent!or!delay!the!collapse,!thus,!increasing!the!rates!of!survival.!
capacities.
Under moderate ground motions, PP-band meshes provide enough seismic resistance to
This!method!is!good!for!one9storey!buildings!and!can!be!used!for!a!maximum!of!
guaranty
limited and controlled cracking of the retrofitted structures. Under extremely strong ground
motions,
they are expected to prevent or delay the collapse, thus, increasing the rates of survival.
two!storeys.!To!protect!the!Polypropylene!from!ultra!violate!rays,!mud!plaster!is!
Experimental
verification
scale) wasadequate!
done in thecover!
laboratory
of Tokyothe!
University
[Nesheli
et al,
used! on! the!
outside,!(full
providing!
to! ensure!
durability!
of!Kthe!
2006
]
and
also
in
Kathmandu,
(small
scale
1:6)
demonstrating
reliable
performance
improvement
in
material![Shrestha!et!al.!2012].!
the integrity of the structure and preventing material loss. This method is good for one storey
!
buildings and can be used for a maximum of two storeys. To protect the Polypropylene from ultra
To! enable!
the!plaster
behaviour!
elements!
(existing!
and!
new)!
to! work!
violate
rays, mud
is usedof!
onboth!
the outside,
providing
adequate
cover
to ensure
the together!
durability of
one!places!anchorages!throughout!the!wall!(
Fig.!11
!b)).!!
the material.

&

&

a)!
!
!
!
!
b)!
Fig Fig.&11&Implementation&of&PP&band&method&of&retrofitting&in&Kathmandu&Valley&(a)&and&
3.5 Implementation of PP band method of retrofitting in Kathmandu Valley (left) and anchorage throughout
the wall (right)
anchorage&throughout&the&wall&(b)&[Shrestha&et&al.&2012]!

A& pilot scheme implementing the PP-Band technology in Nepal was conducted in a rural village just
outside Bhaktapur, in Nepal, by National Society for Earthquake Technology-Nepal (NSET) in
collaboration
with Mondialogo Engineering Award Team. The project is titled Improving the
c) Strengthening!of!floors!and!improving!the!connection!floor/wall!
Structural
Strength
under Seismic Loading of Non- Engineered Buildings in the Himalayan Region
!
and
outlines
training
courses for rural masons and public demonstrations for community members in
Traditional!masonry!buildings!have!timber!floors,!and!they!are!typically!flexible.!
the seismically active Himalayan region, to promote seismic resistant building and retrofitting
The! increase!
of! the!
in9plane! stiffness!
floors!
an! evident!
most!
techniques,
focusing
on polypropylene
meshing.of!
The
mainis!
objective
of the and!
project
is toeffective!
disseminate
method!
of!
improving!
the!
seismic!
behaviour!
of!
old!
masonry!
structures.!
is!
and transfer the PP-band retrofitting technique to the communities who cannot afford otherThis!
expensive
mainly!because!the!increase!of!in9plane!stiffness!of!floors!enables!the!structure!
retrofitting
technology. The masons were trained through hands on implementation, found to be
technically
feasible and easily implemented.
behaves!like!a!box,!i.e.!enables!the!horizontal!forces!to!be!redistributed!between!

the!different!vertical!structural!elements,!and!then!the!horizontal!forces!of!failing!
walls! can! be! redistributed!to! the! adjacent! remaining! walls.! A! significant! role! in!
the!stability!of!the!entire!building!is!assigned!to!the!floors.!These!structures!are!
required,!in!addition!to!an!adequate!performance!level,!a!remarkable!rigidity!and!
an! efficient! connection! to! the! supporting! walls,! especially! in! what! concerns!
seismic!actions.!For!this!reason,!by!strengthen!a!floor,!on!has!an!opportunity!to!
improve!the!behaviour!and!efficiency!of!the!entire!structure.!
!

12!

A! technique! well! spread! for! the! in9plane! reinforcement! of! wooden! floors,!
consists!on!placing!over!the!existing!floor!a!concrete!slab,!usually!reinforced!with!
a!metallic!net,!and!anchored!to!the!existent!floor!by!pins!or!connectors!fixed!on!
the! top! edge! of! the! beams,! which! cross! the! planking! and! are! embedded! in! the!
concrete!slab!and!connected!to!the!metallic!net,!see!Fig.!12!a)!and!b).&
!

(a)

(b)

Fig.&12&a)&Example&of&the&reinforcement&of&a&wooden&floor&with&a&cooperating&reinforced`

concrete&slab,&(www.tecnaria.com);&b)&Basic&connectors&Tecnaria&(www.tecnaria.com)&

The! structural! particularity! of! this! type! of! intervention! is! the! connection!
between! wood! and! concrete,! designed! to! transmit! shear! forces! parallel! to! the!
structure,! between! the! beams! and! slab.! There! is! almost! no! advantage! in!
overlaying! the! slab! without! linking! it! to! the! pre9existent! structure,! because! the!
two! structures! would! work! independently.! Finally,! it! should! be! noted! that! this!
reinforcement! technique,! developed! in! the! last! 20! years,! allows! to! significantly!
increase!the!floors!in9plane!bending!stiffness,!however,!it!leads!to!a!weight!gain!
for!the!floor,!resulting!in!increase!of!the!seismic!actions.!Thus,!it!is!important!to!
limit!the!concrete!thickness!to!5!to!10!cm.!The!technique!is!also!not!reversible.!!
!
Another! possible! technique! is! the! idea! of! including! on! the! floor! a! horizontal!
bracing! composed! of! steel! ties! and! arranged! in! crosses! (Fig.! 13)! and! this!
technique! has! been! developed! for! many! decades.! Care! is! taken! to! improve! the!
connection! between! the! floor! and! the! masonry! wall! with! L9shaped! steel! plates!
(Fig.! 13).! On! the! contrary! to! the! previous! technique! this! one! does! not! increase!
significantly!the!mass!of!the!floors!and!is!reversible.!!

13!

DECivil

F) Reforo da ligao dos pisos de madeira com alvenaria


exterior com recurso a peas metlicas (cont.):
Fixao de perfis de ao em paredes para reforo de
frechais e apoio dos barrotes do pavimento

(Edifer)
!"#$"%&
Fig.&13&In`plane&stiffening&with&metallic&diagonals&and&reinforcement&of&connection&floor`

wall&(Pombalino&building)&[photo&from&Edifer]&
!

In! the! Fig.! 14! one! can! see! a! photograph! of! the! connection! with! L9shaped! steel!
plates!between!wooden!floor!and!masonry!wall.!
!

Fig.&14&Photo&of&the&connection&with&L`shaped&steel&plates&between&wooden&floor&and&

masonry&wall&

!
d) Strengthening!with!composite!materials!(CFRP!and!GFRP)!
&
It! is! possible! to! strengthen! with! composite! materials! such! as! carbon! or! glass!
fibres!reinforced!polymers!piers!and!spandrels!within!walls!and/or!columns!of!
masonry.!But!the!application!of!such!method!on!masonry!is!still!scarcely!found.!
The! strengthening! improves! flexural! behaviour! or! tension! and! compression!
through! increasing! the! confinement! for! instance! in! columns.! The! Carbon! Fiber!
Reinforced!Polymer!(CFRP)!or!Glass!Fiber!Reinforced!Polymer!(GFRP)!layers!of!
material!are!glued!with!epoxy!resin!to!the!cleaned!surface!of!masonry.!The!weak!
element!is!the!masonry!or!the!glued!surface!if!the!biding!is!not!well!done.!There!
can! be! placed! also! connectors,! especially! on! walls,! so! that! the! material! is! well!
bonded!to!the!masonry.!In!Fig.!15!it!is!shown!the!application!of!CFRP/GFRP!on!a!
building,!wall!and!column.!

14!

!"##$%$&$'(')#*')*+),"+-"*)*+)(%$&$.(-/"
! /-7&5,
/-7&5,&'8&.'.*#-51*1"'8&.>6
&'8&.'.*#-51*1"'8&.>6"1#&"'?@/4A'B/4C
D 4*5-%-"A'E
4*5-%-"A'E>12*5-"F
>12*5-"F -')1G*"'%-'8&5&*.-+#&'?81+#*"C
! "#$%&'%()#($*#+,%

! "#$%&'%()#(-%.$/.01#.2%

F igure 1.Geometric details of the masonry wall specimen


H1#&5'I6
H1#&5'I61*"A'9::J

!
The wall was built on an I-shaped concrete foundation. The foundation was over reinforced to avoid
Fig.&15&Application&of&CFRP/GFRP&on&a&building,&wall&and&column&[Cias,&2007]&
any damage during testing. The foundation was designed to accommodate four large holes
(approximately
100 mm in diameter each) to fit the holes in the Laboratory strong floor for securing
!
the In!Fig.!16,!a!wall!specimen!to!be!tested!was!retrofitted!with!two!layers!of!Carbon!
foundation during testing. The foundation concrete was supplied by a local ready-mix company.
The concrete strength that was ordered, was 30 MPa. After casting, the foundation cured at least for
Fiber! Reinforced! Polymer! (CFRP)! sheets,! one! in! each! direction,! covering! the!
28 days.

entire! surface! of! the! wall.! CFRP! sheets! are! applied! in! only! one! side! of! the!
The!
first! layer!
had!layers
fiber!oforientation!
to!Polymer
bed! joints!
and!
the! one
Thespecimen.!
specimen was
retrofitted
with two
Carbon Fiber parallel!
Reinforced
(CFRP)
sheets,
second!layer!had!fibers!oriented!900!with!the!horizontal.!They!were!applied!on!
in each
direction, covering the entire surface of the wall. This is illustrated in Fig. 2. CFRP sheets
wereone!side!of!the!wall,!while!the!other!side!remained!with!exposed!block!masonry.!
applied in only one side of the specimen. The first layer had fiber orientation parallel to bed
joints
and the
second
layerusing!
had fibers
900 with
the horizontal.
applied
onfirst!
one side
CFRP!
was!
applied!
the!oriented
wet! layup!
procedure.!
The! They
wall! were
surface!
was!
of the
wall, while
the to!
other
side
remained with
exposed
block
masonry. CFRP
was applied
using the
prepared!
prior!
the!
application!
of! CFRP.!
The!
preparation!
involved;!
i)! surface!
wet cleaning!
layup procedure.
The
wall
surface
was
first
prepared
prior
to
the
application
of
CFRP.
by! wire! brush,! followed! by! air! pressure! to! remove! loose! mortar,! ii)!The
preparation
involved;
i) surface cleaning by wire brush, followed by air pressure to remove loose
application!of!putty!consisting!of!two9component!epoxy!and!silica!fume!to!cover!
mortar, ii) application of putty consisting of two-component epoxy and silica fume to cover head and
head!and!bed!joints!and!to!smoothen!the!wall!surface,!iii)!removal!of!any!extra!
bed joints and to smoothen the wall surface, iii) removal of any extra putty by a plastic putty knife, iv)
afterputty!by!a!plastic!putty!knife,!iv)!after!curing!for!a!day,!inspection!of!the!surface!
curing for a day, inspection of the surface and covering any noticeable air bubbles with putty
and!covering!any!noticeable!air!bubbles!with!putty!using!the!same!plastic!knife!
using the same plastic knife and finally v) sanding the surface by sand paper after two full days of
and!finally!v)!sanding!the!surface!by!sand!paper!after!two!full!days!of!curing.!
curing.
&

&

Fig.&16&Wall&to&be&tested&in`plane&of&brick&masonry,&strengthened&with&CFRP&[Arifuzzaman&

F igure 2.Theand&Saatcioglu,&2012]&
Masonry wall retrofitted on one side.

15!

epoxy resin based adhesive (two component epoxy Sikadur 330) was used for bonding the glass fiber
sheet. Cured laminate (GFRP) properties after standard cure are given in Table 2.2 according to the
eel element was placed on top of the pier and was connected to the
datasheet made by the manufacturer.
ready!to
for!
the! application! of! CFRP! sheets,! the! sheets!
ertical Dywidag steelOnce!
bars.the!
Thewall!
steelsurface!
element was!
was linked
three
tely fixed to the Tstiff
concrete
floor.
Two actuators
were
arranged
at on! the! wall! surface.! The! application!
cut!
to! required!
and!
applied!
ablewere!
2.2. GFRP
properties
used insizes!
the experimental
program
xis belonging to a plane
perpendicular to the wall and containing
the
involved!the!following!steps:!!
90 deg
90 deg
90 deg
Tensile was Tensile
Tensile
ASTM test
whereas the third actuator
setApplication!of!a!layer!of!two9component!epoxy!on!the!surface.!!
at the right
side of the tensile
specimen. tensile
tensile
Thickness
i.
strength
modulus
elongation
method
positioned on both sidesii.of the Application!of!the!first!layer!of!CFRP!whose!fibres!were!parallel!to!the!
specimen so as to contrast
out-of- modulus
strength
elongation
(Fig. 2.3). Adequate
sliding26.49
devices
provided at 23
brace-wall
537 MPa
GPa were 2.21%
MPa
7.07 GPa
0.32%
0.5 mm
D 3039
bed!joint,!saturated!in!epoxy.!!
s used to reduce possible friction.
iii. height
Removal!of!extra!epoxy!and!air!pockets!by!means!of!a!ribbed!steel!
The length,
and thickness of these walls were 194, 143, and 16 cm, respectively. Thus, the
roller.!!
aspect ratio of the
test walls was about 0.74. The test walls were constructed on a strong reinforced
3.1. Samples
MS3-MS3r
iv.
concrete
footing.Application!of!another!layer!of!epoxy!prior!to!the!placement!of!the!
After allowing the wall to cure (for at least 7 days), a strong reinforced concrete
loading beam was
built on the top of the brick wall. The foundation and loading beam dimensions
next!layer.!!
The relationship
the shear
load194
andcm!20
the relative
displacement
ofwalls
the unreinforced
were 240v.between
cm!20Application!of!the!second!layer!of!CFRP!perpendicular!to!the!bed!joint!
cm!24
cm and
cm!16 transversal
cm, respectively.
These test
had a window
spandrelopening
MS3 is in
shown
Fig. 3.1a.
The test
reached
a maximum
value
of52about
45 cm,
kN in
both loading
their in
center.
The
length
and
height
of
this
window
were
and
47
respectively.
The
after!saturating!it!in!epoxy!and!following!step!iii.!!
directions.
After the and
peakGFRP
load astrengthened
quite rapidwalls
reduction
in shear in
capacity
was
observed
and
a residual
unreinforced
are
illustrated
Fig.
2.1.
In
specimen
RBW-X-S1,
the
!
strength width
valueofof
about
40-50%
of
the
maximum
shear
was
reached
at
the
end
of
the
tests
in
the lower and upper diagonal GFRP strips was 15 and 18 cm, respectively. The strengthening
In! the! following! wall! specimen! to! be! tested! under! in9plane! loads,! the! brick!
correspondence
of aRBW-X-S2
vertical displacement
0.8%
of the similar
spandrel
length. InRBW-X-S1,
Fig. 3.1b the
of specimen
by means ofequal
GFRPtowas
relatively
to specimen
but,crack
it had
masonry!wall!was!strengthened!with!GFRP!strips!in!both!sides!of!the!wall!(Fig.!
two
vertical
GFRPatstrips
with
width
cm atAs
theitbeginning
andthe
endmain
of the
surface
pattern in
theadditional
spandrels
back face
the end
ofathe
testof
is 15
shown.
can be seen
cracks
areof
17).!
sides.
diagonaltwo
(shear
cracks).

(b)
all with openings (a); experimental model of the spandrel (b).

(a)

(b)

&

(c)

Fig.&17&Wall&to&be&tested&in`plane,&strengthened&with&GFRP&[Kabir&et&al,&2012]&

Figure 2.1. The unreinforced and GFRP strengthened test walls: (a) URBW; (b) RBW-X-S1; (c) RBW-X-S2

&

Furthermore,!
Fig.! 18!
shows!
a! wall!
specimen!
to! be!along
tested!
in9plane!
In this
experimental study,
a gravity
load
of 41.2
kN was applied
theunder!
top of the
wall byloads!
a loading
beamwith!the!spandrels!strengthened!with!CFRP!strips!(on!both!sides),!before!testing!
in a manner consistent with the floor or roof loading. This vertical load generated an average
(b)and 0.18 MPa in each wall and its piers (adjacent to the window),
compression
of 0.13
MPa
(Fig.! 18!stress
a))! and!
after!
testing!
(Fig.! 18! b)).! After! testing! it! can! be! observed! the!
respectively.
For
this
purpose,
a
steel
loading
basket was constructed.(b)
This steela!loading
basket
of!(a)
the!theCFRP!
strips!
from!
reduction!
in!was
CFRP strips (MS3r) (a);debonding!
stone specimen
with
steel angle
(MS4r)
(b).the! masonry! face,! implying!
filledFigure
with
210
lead
weights
and
was
subsequently
placed
on
the
loading
beam.
The
loading
beam
3.1. Specimen MS3: shear load against displacement (a) and crack pattern (b).
shear!strength.!!
distributed this vertical load uniformly on the top of the wall. Thus, this axial load acting on the wall
&
was constant during cyclic loading as seen in the walls in real buildings under seismic loading.
Horizontal cyclic load was applied manually in the plane of the wall to the loading beam (via steel
plates which were connected to the loading beam during the construction) using two hydraulic jacks
and hand pumps. These jacks could only produce compressive load and were mounted on rigid
reaction frames. The loading beam distributed this concentrated load uniformly along the top of the
wall to simulate floor or roof loads used in the actual masonry building construction. The test wall
assembly was laterally supported along its top so as to restrict the out-of-plane displacement of the
assembly. The test setup was similar for all of the test walls.
All these walls were tested under constant gravity load and incrementally increasing in-plane loading
cycles according to (ICC Evaluation Service, Inc., 2007) as shown in Fig. 2.2. The selected loading
procedure can simulate the earthquake actions and their effects on the walls. During the test, each wall
was allowed to displace in its own plane. The force required to push the wall and the corresponding
displacement at each load interval were measured. &&The observed hysteresis response curve for& each
a)! in Fig.
! 2.2. !
!
!
!
b)!
tested wall specimen is shown

Fig.&18&(a)&Wall&to&be&tested&in`plane&with&strengthened&spandrels&with&CFRP&(b)&view&of&
(a) (b)
(b)
strengthened&spandrel&after&testing&showing&debonding&of&the&CFRP&[Amadio&et&al,&2012]&
est arrangements: schematic
drawing
(a),
axonometric
Figure 3.2. Specimen MS3r:view
shear(b).
load against displacement (a); crack pattern (b).

The sample MS3 was then reinforced (MS3r) applying horizontal CFRP strips. To close the cracks,
after completing the unreinforced tests, a prestress was applied to the specimen using a couple of
! ties. By means of the steel ties (two Dywidag bars 27 mm diameter) a horizontal
16!
horizontal steel
compressive force equal to 85 kN was applied to the spandrel. Two couples of horizontal CFRP strips
(four CFRP strips, 120x1 mm) were glued on both sides of the spandrel. When the installation of the

!"!"#"$%&%'()*+,-.%+.%/0123%43.5+3%6+%7.89):*,-.%
!

If!a!building!has!insuficient!shear!capacity!in!a!particular!direction,!the!capacity!
"#$! %&'$()*+,-$! #'(./#$! #! #%(*#+0&! #&! '12-3! /3&4#3! 5-2-)6! %&'$.$(.)! -78! #$$-/*)#)! #!
of!existing!walls!can!be!increased!instead!of!inserting!an!additional!structure.!In!
%&'(.'*.5#5-! -'()-! &$! 5.2-)$&$! -3-7-'(&$! -$()*(*)#.$! 9'-$(-$! %#$&$! :#)-5-$;! :.$&$! -!
the!Fig.!19!one!can!see!the!application!of!an!additional!layer!of!material!(CFRP!or!
!"##$%&'()!&"!*++$++#$%&!'%,!-#.("/$#$%&!"0!1%($2%0"(3$,!4'+"%()!5627,2%8+!0"(! >?@?A>>
GFRP)!bonded!to!the!surface!of!the!URM!wall!aiming!to!increase!its!strength.!!
9'(&:;6'<$!=$+2+&'%3$! !
%&4-)(*)#$<=!#$$-/*)#)!#$!%&'->,-$!93./#+,-$<!-'()-!-$$-$!-3-7-'(&$!-!.'()&5*?.)!#:&.&$!
&

93./#+,-$<!-'()-!&$! 7-$7&$@!A7#!(B%'.%#!5-!)-C&)+&!4#$(#'(-!#'(./#!9.7:3-7-'(#5#!'#!
D3E#!5&!F#.#3;!'#!$-G*H'%.#!5&!$.$7&!5-!IJKL<!-!G*-!$-!(-7!)-2-3#5&!4#$(#'(-!-C.%.-'(-;!
%&'$.$(-!'#!.'()&5*+0&!5-!(.)#'(-$!#&!'12-3!5&$!:.$&$;!C./*)#!K@IM;G*-!:-)7.(-7!3./#)!&$!
:#'&$! 5-! :#)-5-! &:&$(&$! 5-! #32-'#).#! -! G*-! '&! %#$&! 5#$! -7:-'#$! $&3(#$! 9:#)-5-$!
&).-'(#5#$!'#!5.)-%+0&!5&$!4#))&(-$!G*-!)-#3.?#7!&!$&#3E&<!$0&!C*'5#7-'(#.$@!!

&!

Fig.&19&Simple&and&visually&interesting&in`plane&strengthening&with&FRPs&[Ingham,&2012]&

&'()*+"!"#!",-".'/01+"234"5'6)2117"'38+*+68'3("'3!0123+"68*+3(89+3'3("

!
B:$!.($+$%3$!"0!".$%2%8+!2%!'!+:$'(!C'77!($%,$(+!&:'&!+$3&2"%!7$++!+&200!&:'%!&:$!+6(("6%,2%8!0677!
:$28:&!C'77+D!#$'%2%8!&:'&!&:$!C'77!'E"/$!'%,!E$7"CD!"(!E$&C$$%!37"+$7)!+.'3$,!".$%2%8+D!C277!
e) The!use!of!horizontal!tie:rods!!
F./*)#!K@IM!N!A(.3.?#+0&!5-!(.)#'(-$!:#)#!3./#)!:#)-5-$!
72<$7)!E$!&:$!02(+&!'($'+!&"!0'27!2%!&:$!$/$%&!"0!'%!$'(&:;6'<$F!-%02772%8!&:$!".$%2%8+!C277!$72#2%'&$!
!
O$(#! (B%'.%#! -$(6! #7:3#7-'(-! 5.C*'5.5#! -! (-7! 2.'5&! #! $-)! #:3.%#5#! 5-! *7#! C&)7#!
Tie9rods!in!steel!can!be!used!in!several!applications!of!old!masonry!buildings.!
&:2+!.("E7$#!E)!#'<2%8!&:$!C'77!3"%&2%6"6+D!'%,!:'+!E$$%!',/"3'&$,!'+!'!/'72,!+"76&2"%!2%!&:$!
$.$(-76(.%#! #&! 3&'/&! 5&$! (-7:&$;! C./*)#! K@IJ! -! (#74B7! -7! .'(-)2-'+,-$! )-%-'(-$! '&$!
For!instance,!they!can!avoid!or!at!least!decrease!the!probability!of!out9of9plane!
.'+&F!G("E7$#+!C2&:!'7&$(2%8!&:$!3:'('3&$(!"0!&:$!E627,2%8!'%,!#'&3:2%8!E(23<!'%,!#"(&'(!3"7"6(+!
failure.!Fig.!20!a)!and!b)!show!the!application!of!horizontal!tie9rods!to!connect!
P+&)-$;!C./*)#!K@KQ@!
#$'%!&:'&!&:2+!&$3:%2;6$!+:"67,!"%7)!E$!6+$,!'+!'!7'+&!($+"(&!'%,!$/$%!&:$%!.($0$('E7)!%"&!2%!
parallel!walls!at!the!level!of!the!floors.!
/2+2E7$! '($'+F!! -%02772%8! ".$%2%8+! 2+! 72<$7)! &"! E$! +"#$C:'&! ($/$(+2E7$! 20! ,"%$! C2&:! E(23<D! E6&! %"&!
!
3"#.7$&$7)D!'%,!/2+6'7!2#.'3&!C277!,$.$%,!"%!&:$!7"3'&2"%F!-0!2%"0277$,!C2&:!3"%3($&$D!&:$!C"(<!C277!
E$! 7$++! ($/$(+2E7$! '%,! &:$! ,63&27$! E$:'/2"6(! "0! &:$! C'77! #')! E$! '00$3&$,! ,6$! &"! 2%3"#.'&2E7$!
+&200%$++$+F! H"3'72+$,! +&$$7! 3("++! E('32%8! %$'(! ".$%2%8+! 2+! '%"&:$(! &$3:%2;6$! C:23:! 3'%! .("/$!
$00$3&2/$D!E6&!'8'2%!&:2+!+)+&$#!2+!72<$7)!&"!E$!:28:7)!/2+2E7$!'%,!+:"67,!"%7)!E$!6%,$(&'<$%!C:$%!
2&!,"$+!%"&!,$&('3&!0("#!&:$!3:'('3&$(!"0!&:$!E627,2%8F!!

!>IFJ !K$C!5627,2%8!L&($%8&:$%2%8!L)+&$#+!
1=4! C'77+! C277! "0&$%! E$! 6%+62&'E7$! 0"(! +&($%8&:! 6.8(',$+D! "(! '($! %"&! "0! +600232$%&! $M&$%&! 0"(!
&:$+$!6.8(',$+!&"!.("/2,$!$%"68:!+&($%8&:F!B'77$(!E627,2%8+!2%!.'(&2367'(!C277!0($;6$%&7)!($;62($!
!&
a)!
!
!
!
!
b)!
',,2&2"%'7!+&($%8&:$%2%8!$7$#$%&+!&"!+6..7$#$%&!&:$2(!2%:$($%&!+&($%8&:D!'+!&:$2(!0'3',$+!"0&$%!
F./*)#!K@IJ!R!A(.3.?#+0&!5-!(.)#'(-$!:#)#!3./#)!:#)-5-$!
Fig.&20&Using&tie`rods&to&connect&parallel&walls&[A.&Costa,&2008]&
3"%+2+&!"0!'!+$(2$+!"0!.2$(+!C2&:!".$%2%8+!E$&C$$%!+7$%,$(!.2$(+D!C2&:"6&!$%"68:!.7'%'(!+6(0'3$+!
!
&"!& 0"(#! $00$3&2/$!
+:$'(! C'77+F! *+! +:"C%! 2%! N286($! !>I">OD! &:$+$! '($! +6+3$.&2E7$! &"! $'(&:;6'<$!
!
Tie9rods!
can!
be!
also! used!!"#$%!&'$%#())*)'(%+,%,+!()-')!./'$!+0!)-')"'-+!
in! arches! to! absorb! horizontal! impulses! (Fig.!
21! and!
!
,'#'8$F!B:2+!+$3&2"%!,$+3(2E$+!&:$!#"($!3"##"%!&$3:%2;6$+!C:23:!3'%!E$!6&272+$,F!!

Fig.!22).!
&

17!

!
!

"#$%&'!()(9!+!:0;%/4'0!</!3#$'-=5!/12&/!>'&/</0!6(*8!
!
! !"#$%&'!()*!" +,--".%,/01,23!4'#0&1,2"5
!

An alternative solution, very useful in particular


& situations, will be the insertion !of stren
which provides
"#$%&'!()(?!+!@#&'12/0!>'&'!'A05&B/&!'0!C54>51/12/0!D5&#E512'#0!<50!#4>%3050!
to the vault and in which the barrier effect is much less sensitive (Fig. 31).

Fig.&21&Utilizing&tie`rods&to&absorb&horizontal&impulses&in&arches&[A.&Costa,&2008]&
components (in steel or timber), glued to the extrados of the masonry,

!
!

!
!"#$%!&'$%#())*)'(%+,%,+!()-')!./'$!+0!)-')"'-+!!
$5&"6/7%1.8"*+"9%5-/"%.4:*2%9/"

$%&"'()!*+!,-%./"0%--"+%1-(2/"3(/")*"
4*../4)1*."+%1-(2/"

Fig.&22&Tying&of&masonry&vaults&with&tie`rods&in&steel&(Santos,&2003)&

Figure 30 Tying of masonry vaults with tie-rods in

steel (21)

Figure 31: Strengthening of masonry va

timber ribs glued on the extrados (

In!Fig.!23!one!can!see!a!failure!of!the!anchorage!of!the!tie9rod!after!an!earthquake,!
When blocks
have become out of position, an adequate solution will be dismantling,
4&";*"%.4:*2%9/"*+"31%,:2%978")*"0%--"
$3&"<(.4:1.9"8:/%2"+%1-(2/"*+"4%.*,="
because!the!plate!was!too!small.!In!Fig.!24!it!is!shown!the!successful!behaviour!of!
by rebuilding in the%.4:*2%9/"
correct position. In very severe situations, when the shape of the
the!tie9rods,!spaced!close!together.!
!

has been heavily changed, it can be more appropriate to demolish the element, fol
its reconstruction using materials similar to the original ones.
In the case of filled vaults, one possible solution
will be the reduction of weight or, if appropriate,
the adjustment of its distribution.

In the case of floors made with brick vaults


supported on steel beams, an adequate
measure to restrict their lateral separation will
consist in the placing of tie-rods, in steel,
welded onto the bottom flange of the beams.&
!
!
Fig.&23&Close&up&of&partial&anchorage&failure.&Photograph&of&damage&in&the&2010&Darfield&
c)
Towers
and
chimneys
(Canterbury)&earthquake&due&to&deficient&anchorages&[Ingham,&2012]&
/&">.4:*2%9/"+%1-(2/"%)"2**+"31%,:2%97"
$+&"!-*8/"(,"*+",%2)1%-"%.4:*2%9/"+%1-(2/"
The most common solution for the
4*../4)1*."
!
strengthening of this type of element consists
9(2/"!"#!"@"<:*)*92%,:8"*+"3%7%9/"1."):/"#A"A"B%2+1/-3"$!%.)/25(2=&"/%2):C(%D/"3(/")*"
ofn tying them with horizontal ties, usually, steel
3/+141/.)"*2"%58/.)"31%92%7"%.4:*2%9/8"
strips or cables (Fig. 32), or by wrapping them
with glued composites (CFRP, GRC, etc.).

"#!#" !

In the case of prismatic towers an appropriate


measure will be the provision of diaphragms (in
concrete or steel), at intermediate levels, for the
confinement of the walls.

18!

Figure 32: Tying of masonry tower w

! .%1"#$-=! ,:&;"! <0"1"! 38-$%/-"! ,'#0&1,2"5! ,1"! "3:"..".! %'$&! ,! 5%'2-"! :".! D&%'$C! ! E0%5!
"! 3&."! %5! /1%3,1%-=! ,55&#%,$".! <%$0! /,1,/"$5! ,'.! %$! %5! 1"#&33"'.".! $0,$! /,1,/"$5!
,%'$5!:"!/1&;%.".!$&!,..1"55!$0%5!%558"C!

roof covered an important historical building in the town center, the Carli-Benedetti palace, that
suffered severe damage in various parts, like many similar buildings in town.

The strengthening intervention that had been recently performed on the roof may be seen in fig. 5.
This inside view was possible from the opening caused by the unfortunate collapse of a vault. The roof
had undergone intervention with light elements to improve its interior and exterior connectivity and
remove thrusts. In order to appreciate the positive effect of this work, it must be considered that the
earthquake had caused the
! opening of a significant crack on both sides of !the corner corresponding to
the picture.
This crack pattern typically evolves into the detachment of the angle and of its subsequent
Fig.&24&Successful&anchorages&spaced&close&together.&Photograph&of&building&after&the&2010&
%*' In
:;..+88<;6"&-./01&2+8"84&.+,".608+"
%&' ()*+,,+,"&-./01&2+"3/&3"4&135&667"
Darfield&(Canterbury)&earthquake&[Ingham,&2012]&
possible collapse as a rigid
block.
this case, the crack was well open up to the mid-height of the
302+3/+1"
walls, but became narrower and was barely visible
at the top, near the roof, indicating that a
1+831&5-+,"3/+"9&66"
&
restraining action had occurred in this area. The roof action avoided more dramatic damage and
;1+"!"#!#>""(?&)46+8"0<"9&66!,5&4/1&2)"&-./01&2+8"3/&3"9+1+"4&135&667"01"<;667"8;..+88<;6"
Finally,!in!Fig.!25!one!can!see!the!utilization!of!tie9rods!in!a!wooden!roof.!!
probably
collapse of a significant part of the building. The building is currently under repair.
,;15-2"3/+"#@"@"A&1<5+6,"+&13/B;&C+"
!

CG !$""-!4'#0&1,2"!@,%-81"5!

1;,$%&'5!>1&3!$0"!*I)I!J,1>%"-.!",1$078,9"!5822"5$!$0,$!>,%-81"!&>!$0"!5$""-!A&1!&$0"1!3"$,-B!
"#$%&'!-%'9%'2!$0"!.%,/01,23!,'.!3,5&'1=!<,--!%5!-"55!-%9"-=!$0,'!3,5&'1=!,'#0&1,2"!>,%-81"?!
85$1,$".! %'! @%281"!()*"KA,B! ,'.! @%281"!()*"KA:B! <0"1"! ,'#0&15! 0,;"! :""'! /8--".! &8$! >1&3!
3,5&'1=!<,--!<%$0&8$!18/$81"C!!L&<";"1?!>,%-81"!&>!$0"!#&''"#$%&'!.8"!$&!"%$0"1!:,1!18/$81"!
3:"1! $",1"&8$! <,5! &:5"1;".! ,5! 50&<'! %'! @%281"!()*"KA#B! ,'.! @%281"! ()*"KA.BC! ! M"#,85"!
55!$&!$0"!%'5%."!&>!$0"!:8%-.%'2!<,5!'&$!,;,%-,:-"?!$0"!5/"#%>%#!>,%-81"!3&."!,55&#%,$".!<%$0!
"!()*"KA#B!,'.!@%281"!()*"KA.B!<,5!'&$!"5$,:-%50".C!

"'$-=! $0"1"! %5! %',."78,$"! %'>&13,$%&'! 1"2,1.%'2! $0"! 3,$"1%,-! #0,1,#$"1%5$%#5! &>! $0"! 5$""-5!
&
%'! $0"5"! ,'#0&1,2"! $=/"5?! :8$! ,! 5%3/-"! #0"#9! &>! $0"! "F/"#$".! ,F%,-! 5$1"55"5! %'! $0"5"!
Fig.&25&Using&tie`rods&in&roofs&[M.A.&Parisi&et&al.,&2012]&
"#$%&'5! 50&8-.! :"! 58>>%#%"'$! $&! ."$"13%'"!
>,%-81"!intervention
3"1%$5! #-&5"1!
! N,1$%#8-,1!
Fig.%>!5.5$""-!
Low-mass
on a 5#18$%'=C!
timber roof
in LAquila.
&
$%&'!50&8-.!:"!2%;"'!$&!$0"!">>"#$%;"!#1&55"5"#$%&',-!,1",!50&8-.!$0"!5$""-!"F0%:%$!5%2'5!&>!
The second case is still under analysis, but it seems interesting because the intervention recognizes a
5%&'C!
Retrofitting!by!post:tensioning!
possiblef)problem
in case of horizontal longitudinal motion of the truss top and takes care of it. The
& of St Michele, in Vimercate, near Milano presents a roof structure composed of a series of king
church
postA!
trusses,
which were irregularly
because
oneby!
truss
was missing
at the intended
spacing, an
post9tensioning!
retrofit! is!spaced
applied!
either!
placing!
post9tensioning!
tendons!
apparently
strange situation which, on the contrary, was found also in other cases (Parisi et al, 2011b).
into!cored!cavities!located!at!the!centre!of!the!wall!or!by!placing!post9tensioning!

#!$" !

tendons! externally! at! discrete! locations.! The! first! procedure! involves! coring! a!
cavity! from! the! top! of! the! URM! wall! right! through! to! the! foundations,! then!
placing! a! tendon! into! the! cored! cavity! and! finally! the! application! of! a! post9
tensioning!force!to!the!tendon.!From!discussions!with!specialized!New!Zealander!
constructors,!one!knows!that!it!is!possible!to!core!a!cavity!up!to!four!stories!with!
a! precision! of! +9! 10! mm.! [Ingham,! 2012].! Fig.! 26! a)! shows! the! procedure! of!
coring!a!cavity!and!Fig.!26!b)!shows!the!bar!post9tensioning.!!
!

Fig. 6. Trusses of the church of St. Michael, Vimercate; the bracing element is visible.

19!

!"##$%&'()!&"!*++$++#$%&!'%,!-#.("/$#$%&!"0!1%($2%0"(3$,!4'+"%()!5627,2%8+!0"(!
>?@?A>>
!"##$%&'()!&"!*++$++#$%&!'%,!-#.("/$#$%&!"0!1%($2%0"(3$,!4'+"%
9'(&:;6'<$!=$+2+&'%3$! ! 9'(&:;
!

!!

!&

a)!
!
!
!
!
b)!
Fig.&26&(a)&Coring&operation;&(b)&Bar&post`tensioning&[Ingham,&2012]&

%&'"!()*+,"-./)&0*(+"

%&'"!()*+,"-./)&0*(+"
%1'"230/)+&4"50)&+67"

%1'"230/)+&4"50)&+67"
%8'"9&)"
:(70!0/+7*(+*+,"

%8'"9&)"
%6'"50)&+6"
:(70!0/+7*(+*+,"
:(70!0/+7*(+*+,"

&
There! can! be! done! vertical! post9tensioning! for! piers! or! horizontal! post9
tensioning! for!
spandrels,! as! suggested!;*,<)/"!"#!"=":(70!0/+7*(+*+,">/0)(?*0"@/8A+*B</
by! Meireles! [2012]! for! Pombalino!
;*,<)/"!"#!"=":(70!0/+7*(+*+,">/0)(?*0"@/8A+*B</"
buildings,!or!both!types.!!The!performance!of!post9tensioned!URM!walls!depends!
upon! the! initial! post9tensioning! force,! tendon! type! and! spacing,! restraint!
conditions! and!!"#CDCD
the! level!E/7*,+"F*G*0"50&0/7"
of! confinement.! Post9tensioning! can! either! be! bonded!
!"#CDCD E/7*,+"F*G*0"50&0/7"
when! tendons! are! fully! restrained,! by! grouting! the! cavity! or! left! unbounded! by!
leaving!the!cavities!unfilled.!Because!unbounded!post9tensioning!is!reversible!to!
"(,$(! B$:'/2"6(!
&"! 2%&$(.($&!
+$2+#23! B$:'/2"6(!
"0! ."+&"&$%+2"%$,!
-%! "(,$(! &"! 2%&$(.($&!
&:$!-%!
+$2+#23!
"0!&:$!
."+&"&$%+2"%$,!
#'+"%()!
C'77+D! 0"6(! 72#2&!#'+"%()
+&'&$+!!
some!extent!and!has!minimal!impact!on!the!architectural!fabric!of!a!building,!the!
technique!is!deemed!to!be!a!desirable!retrofit!solution!for!URM!buildings!having!
'($!,$02%$,!E+$$!F286($!!>G"?HD!C:$($!02(+&!3('3<2%8!2+!&:$!72#2&!+&'&$!C:$%
'($!,$02%$,!E+$$!F286($!!>G"?HD!C:$($!02(+&!3('3<2%8!2+!&:$!72#2&!+&'&$!C:$%!&:$!02(+&!3('3<!'..$'(+!
important!heritage!value.![Ingham,!2012].!
'%,!3"(($+."%,+!&"!C'77!.$(0"(#'%3$!2%!&:$!$7'+&23!('%8$I!&:$!:2%8$!0"(#
'%,!3"(($+."%,+!&"!C'77!.$(0"(#'%3$!2%!&:$!$7'+&23!('%8$I!&:$!:2%8$!0"(#'&2"%!72#2&!+&'&$!"336(+!
!
In!Fig.!27!one!can!see!in!close!up!view!a!post9tensioning!anchorage.!
C:$%!&:$! 6..$(!'%,! 7"C$(!C'77!+$8#$%&+!+&'(&!
&"!("&'&$!'%,!3"(($+."%
C:$%!&:$! 6..$(!'%,!
7"C$(!C'77!+$8#$%&+!+&'(&!
&"!("&'&$!'%,!3"(($+."%,+!&"!&:$!+$(/23$'B272&)!
ion
under service
!

ning

('%8$I!
&:$!%"#2%'7!
72#2&!72#2&!
+&'&$I!
'%,!3"(($+."%,2%8!
&:$! 0'276($! 72#2&!
+&'&$! 3"
('%8$I! &:$!%"#2%'7! +&($%8&:!
72#2&!
+&'&$I! '%,!+&($%8&:!
&:$! 0'276($!
+&'&$!
&"! &$%,"%!
)2$7,2%8J!K:$!+$7$3&2"%!"0!'!72#2&!+&'&$!0"(!($&("02&!,$+28%!2+!7$0&!&"!&:$!,2+
)2$7,2%8J!K:$!+$7$3&2"%!"0!'!72#2&!+&'&$!0"(!($&("02&!,$+28%!2+!7$0&!&"!&:$!,2+3($&2"%!"0!&:$!,$+28%$(D!
trength
and ductility
'%,!,$+28%!$;6'&2"%+!0"(!&:$!%"#2%'7!72#2&!+&'&$!'($!($."(&$,!2%!&:$!862,$
'%,!,$+28%!$;6'&2"%+!0"(!&:$!%"#2%'7!72#2&!+&'&$!'($!($."(&$,!2%!&:$!862,$72%$J!

ucture with minor

2
1

Total Lateral Force (kN)

Total Lateral Force (kN)

nce

2
1

1
Fig.&27&Close`up&view&of&a&post`tensioning&anchorage&[Ahmad,&2012]&
1 - First Cracking

- First Cracking
2 - Hinge Formation
2 - Hinge Formation
!
3
- Nominal Strength
3 - Nominal Strength
4
- Failure
According!to!Ahmad![2012]!some!advantages!of!this!technique!for!URM!are:!
4 - Failure

a) Reducing!cracking/deflection!under!service!loads;!
Significant!increase!in!strength!and!ductility;!
orated masonryb)
c)!!!Keep!integrity!of!the!structure!with!minor!changes;!!
d shrinkage of d) Reversible;!
e) Easy!to!apply.!

not simple

Top Displacement (mm)

Top Displacement (mm)

!
;*,<)/"!"#!D="E/?*+*0*(+"(?"F*G*0"50&0/7"
20!
;*,<)/"!"#!D="E/?*+*0*(+"(?"F*G*0"50&0/7"

!
However!some!disadvantages!may!be:!
a) Not!applicable!to!deteriorated!masonry;!
b) Losses!due!to!creep!and!shrinkage!of!masonry;!
c)!!!Guiding!the!tendons!is!not!simple.!
!
Regarding!the!placing!of!post9tensioning!tendons!externally!at!discrete!locations,!
Ma! et! al! [2012]! placed! vertical! and! cross! bracing! struts! at! a! building! in! the!
301
Ma et al. / Engineering laboratory.!This!is!to!improve!the!shear!capacity!of!the!walls!(Fig.!28).!
Structures 42 (2012) 297307
!

by side.

with a nominal
ess of 600 MPa,

Fig.&28&Cross&bracing&struts&at&the&first&two&storeys&

&

Fig. 11. Cross bracing struts at the first two storeys of Model B.

f) Strengthening!with!ring!beams!

&
RC!ring!beams!can!be!placed!along!the!perimeter!of!the!walls!in!the!last!floor!if!
tion is shown in the! roof! can! be! temporarily! removed! and/or! at! the! level! of! the! floors.! The!
behaviour!of!the!different!possibilities!without!or!with!ring!beams!for!flexible!or!
rigid! diaphragms! can! be! seen! in! Fig.! 29! a),! b)! and! c).! Out9of9plane! behaviour!
should!always!be!avoided!and!the!in9plane!behaviour!of!the!walls!encouraged!for!
a!better!performance!of!a!masonry!building.!In!this!case,!the!situation!(c)!is!the!
B as shown in best!situation.!!

Wall and Diaphragm Interaction

B is reduced due
her compressive
rs (e.g. storey 1
duced cross-secshear strength
Therefore, cross
&
alls along axis B
Fig. 12. Connector plate.
Fig.&29&Behaviour&of&a)&Wood&(flexible)&diaphragm&without&ring&beams;&b)&Wood&diaphragm&
stance capacity,
with&ring&beams;&c)&rigid&diaphragm&with&ring&beams.&[Ahmad,&2012]&
along axis B at
discussed previously. The first group of connector plates was set
able prestressing
in the ring beam beneath the floor slab at storey 2 and the second
self-weight was !
group was set in the ring beam beneath the floor slab at storey 3 21!
red. Two groups
(see Fig. 11).
egments of preThe overview of the completed Model B is shown in Fig. 13.

a- Wood ( flexible) diaphragm without ties


b-Wood diaphragm with ties
c- Rigid diaphragm with tie beams

&
A! reinforced! concrete! ring! beam,! 20! cm! high! and! 32! cm! wide! (as! the! wall! in!!
Fig.!30),!was!cast!at!the!roof!level,!on!top!of!the!perimeter!faades!(Fig.!30!a)!and!
Simulating an intervention where the roof structure can be temporarily removed, a reinforced concrete
b))! in! the! experimental! work! of! Magenes! et! al.! [2012].! The! reinforcement!
ring beam, 20 cm high and 32 cm wide (as the wall below), was cast at the roof level, on top of the
consisted! in! 416! longitudinal! bars! and! 8! stirrups! at! a! spacing! of! 20! cm,!
perimeter faades (Fig. 2, left). The reinforcement consisted in 4!16 longitudinal bars and !8 stirrups
coherently!with!the!prescriptions!of!the!Italian!Building!Code.!!
at a spacing
of 20 cm, coherently with the prescriptions of the Italian Building Code (NTC08, 2008).
&

&

a)!
!
!
!
!
b)!
Figure
2. Detail
of the reinforcement of the joint at the base of the gable wall (left). Operation of drilling the
Fig.&30&
Details&of&the&reinforcement&of&the&ring&beam&(left)&and&view&of&the&ring&beam&after&
timber spreader beam and the concrete ring beam (right)
filling&with&the&concrete&(right)&[Magenes&et&al,&2012]&

The &original timber roof structure of the unstrengthened building included one 20cm x 32 cm ridge
beam, two segmented 32cm x 12cm spreader beams on top of the longitudinal walls and 8cm x 12 cm
g) Retrofitting!by!introducing!RC!shear!walls!
purlins every
50 cm forming the two pitches with 30 mm thick planks.
The &strengthening of the roof envisaged the improvement of the connection of the ridge beam with the
gableIf!walls,
which consisted
of a steel
shoe doweled
the concrete
ring beam
and boltedcan!
to the
the! rigidity!
of! the! slab!
is! sufficient!
then!tolateral!
strength!
of! a! building!
be!ridge
beam.
Timber
spreader
beams
were
also
doweled
to
the
r.c.
ring
beam
all
along
the
perimeter,
increased!by!the!placement!of!RC!shear!walls.!A!structural!engineer!can!rapidly! by
means
of connecting
steelof!
bars
chemically
by lengths!
epoxy resin.
discontinuity
between
calculate!
number!
shear!
walls! anchored
and! their!
and!Any
bars!
arrangement!
by! the
timber spreader beam and the ring beam was smoothed by the insertion of a plaster layer to create a
calculation! of! base! shear.! The! strength! of! the! masonry! building! is! neglected! in!
continuous contact. The 8 cm x 12 cm joists were reshaped to create a horizontal seat on the ridge
the!
of! the!spreader
shear! walls.!
the!
following!
Fig.! 31!
is!inserted
depicted!
this!
n calculating of these
shear
walls.
beam
andcalculation!
on
the longitudinal
beams. In!
Steel
connecting
elements
were
at the
top of
retrofitting!solution!in!a!school!building.!!
the ridge
beam, at the contact between the two opposite purlins. The matchboard was then placed on
& the timber structure.
top of

To stiffen and strengthen the roof diaphragm (which originally was made only by a single layer of
boards nailed to the joists), it was decided to adopt an intervention that was compatible with the
original timber structure, by adding multilayer spruce plywood panels, which are lighter and easier to
apply to an inclined plane in comparison to a reinforced concrete slab, although providing a significant
stiffness increase. The intervention consisted in adding 3 layers of plywood, each 21 mm thick, glued
with polyurethane glue and connected to the purlins by means of chemically anchored, 10 mm
diameter threaded steel bars. After having drilled and cleaned the hole, a two-component epoxy
mixture was inserted in the hole and then the bar was inserted and rotated
& to distribute the resin. Bars
Fig.&31&
Photo&of&the&reinforcement&of&two&perpendicular&shear&walls&[
et al, plank
F
igure
6:
typical
retrofitting
by
shear
wall
!
were placed at a constant spacing of 30 cm and penetrated into the purlins toMahdizadeh
connect the upper
2012]
layers with the roof structure (Fig.3).
l shotc rete: This method was achieved by experience of other countries and different
tal tests in masonry buildings. In this method, the peripheral of one! story masonry building
ed completely. Bars dimension, arrangements and thickness of shotcrete are determined
h) Strengthening!with!RC!or!steel!frames!
ateral earthquake force. Weight
of slab and masonry walls are considered in calculation of
& masonry walls are neglected in calculation of the shotcrete.
, and shear capacity of

The! introducing! of! moment! frames! is! a! common! strength! method! aiming! to!
increase! additional! horizontal! resistance,! which! can! also! be! used! as! a! local!
strengthening!
solution.!
The!
of! this!
system!inis!
it! is! comprised!
of!
Figure
3. Scheme of the
intervention
onadvantage!
the roof diaphragm,
consisting
thethat!
application
of multilayer panels
beams! and! columns,! so!and
is!chemically
fully! customizable!
there! is! space! between! the!
anchored steeland!
connectors.
vertical! and! horizontal! elements.! Moment! frames! allow! full! visual! and! physical!

To improve the diaphragm behaviour of the roof, continuous steel plates (80 mm wide and 5 mm
thick) were connected all along the perimeter to the roof, to favour the development of a strut and tie
mechanism. The roof was then completed by adding plain roofing tiles nailed to the multilayer spruce

F igure 7: typical retrofitting by peripheral shotcrete

22!

access!between!each!side!of!the!frame!and!minimal!spatial!disruption![Ingham,!
2012].!
&
Care! needs! to! be! taken! with! steel! frames! in! particular! to! ensure! stiffness!
compatibility!with!the!existing!structure![Robinson!and!Bowman,!2000].!Steel!is!
a! ductile! material! but! URM! is! not,! meaning! that! under! earthquake! loads! the!
added! stiffness! of! the! steel! might! not! come! into! effect! until! a! load! is! reached!
where!the!URM!has!already!been!extensively!cracked.!If!a!steel!frame!is!erected!
against! an! existing! wall,! the! frame! needs! to! be! fixed! either! directly! to! the! URM!
using!bolted!connections!into!the!wall!or!to!the!diaphragm![Ingham,!2012].!!
!
Steel! moment! frames! have! a! high! degree! of! reversibility! as! they! rely! on!
mechanical! connections! and! relatively! small! ties! to! connect! to! the! existing!
structure.!Concrete!frames!are!generally!far!less!reversible.!!
&
!"##$%&'()!&"!*++$++#$%&!'%,!-#.("/$#$%&!"0!1%($2%0"(3$,!4'+"%()!5627,2%8+!0"(! >?@?A>>
Fig.!32!shows!a!large!new!moment!frame!of!RC!inside!an!URM!building.!!
9'(&:;6'<$!=$+2+&'%3$! !
&

&!

Fig.&32&A&concrete&moment&frame&inside&the&faade&of&a&large&URM&building&in&Wellington&

&'()*+"!"#!$,-"."/01/*+2+"303+12"4*53+"'16'7+"28+"45957+"04"5":5*(+";<=">)':7'1("'1"
(Dunning&Thornton&Consultants)&
?+::'1(201"@A)11'1("B80*1201"!016):25126CD"

!
Braced!frames!are!also!a!plausible!solution!for!strengthening.!The!key!functional!
!"#D%D$
E*5/+7"&*53+6"
difference!
between! braced! frames! and! moment! frames! is! that! due! to! the!
diagonal!
braces,!
braced! frames!
prevent!
physical!3"%3$%&(23D!
continuity!&$%+2"%!
between!
spaces!
on!
5('3$,!
0('#$+!
'($! '/'27'B7$!
2%! /'(2"6+!
3"%0286('&2"%+C!
"%7)!
3"%3$%&(23D!
either!
side!
of!
the!
frame.!
Braced!
frames!
are!
also!
generally!
constructed!
of!
steel!
$33$%&(23D! '%,! EFG! B('32%8H! I:$! <$)! 06%3&2"%'7! ,200$($%3$! B$&J$$%! B('3$,! 0('#$+! '%,! #"#$%&!
rather! than! concrete! and! are! much! more! rigid! than! moment! frames.! Braced!
0('#$+! 2+! &:'&! ,6$! &"! &:$! ,2'8"%'7! B('3$+D! B('3$,! 0('#$+! .($/$%&! .:)+23'7! 3"%&2%62&)! B$&J$$%!
frames! are! a! very! efficient! method! of! transferring! horizontal! forces! but! have!
+.'3$+!
"%! $2&:$(!
+2,$! "0!and!
&:$! 0('#$H!
5('3$,!
'7+"!is!8$%$('77)!
+&$$7!
significant!
setbacks!
their! use!
in! 0('#$+!
faade!'($!
walls!
usually!3"%+&(63&$,!
precluded!0("#!
by! the!
('&:$(!&:'%!3"%3($&$D!'%,!'($!#63:!#"($!(282,!&:'%!#"#$%&!0('#$+H!
presence!of!windows!as!diagonal!braces!crossing!window!openings!are!generally!
considered!to!be!poor!design.!It!is!also!difficult!to!get!a!braced!frame!to!conform!
5('3$,!0('#$+!'($!'!/$()!$00232$%&!#$&:",!"0!&('%+0$((2%8!:"(2K"%&'7!0"(3$+!B6&!:'/$!+28%2023'%&!
to! an! existing! architectural! character;! however,! they! can! be! used! to! very! good!
+$&B'3<+D! '%,! &:$2(! 6+$! 2%! 0'L',$! J'77+! 2+! 6+6'77)! .($376,$,! B)! &:$! .($+$%3$! "0! J2%,"J+D! '+!
effect! within! secondary! spaces! and! can! be! made! to! fit! architecturally! in! some!
,2'8"%'7!B('3$+!3("++2%8!J2%,"J!".$%2%8+!'($!8$%$('77)!3"%+2,$($,!&"!B$!.""(!,$+28%H!-&!2+!'7+"!
situations!with!careful!consideration.!Generally,!steel!braced!frames!have!a!good!
,2002367&!&"!8$&!'!B('3$,!0('#$!&"!3"%0"(#!&"!'%!$M2+&2%8!'(3:2&$3&6('7!3:'('3&$(N!:"J$/$(!&:$)!
degree! of! reversibility! and! provide! excellent! strengthening! when! appropriately!
3'%!B$!6+$,!&"!/$()!8"",!$00$3&!J2&:2%!+$3"%,'()!+.'3$+D!'%,!3'%!B$!#',$!&"!02&!'(3:2&$3&6('77)!
[Ingham,!2012].!
2%!! +"#$! +2&6'&2"%+! J2&:! 3'($067! 3"%+2,$('&2"%H! O286($! !>P"?>! '%,! O286($! !>P"??! +:"J! B('3$,!
Fig.!33!a)!and!b)!show!braced!frames!inside!two!different!buildings.!!
0('#$+!2%!6+$H!Q$%$('77)!+.$'<2%8D!+&$$7!B('3$,!0('#$+!:'/$!'!8"",!,$8($$!"0!($/$(+2B272&)!'%,!
!
3'%!.("/2,$!$M3$77$%&!+&($%8&:$%2%8!J:$%!6+$,!'..(".(2'&$7)H!

23!

3'%!B$!6+$,!&"!/$()!8"",!$00$3&!J2&:2%!+$3"%,'()!+.'3$+D!'%,!3'%!B$!#',$!&"!02&!'(3:2&$3&6('77)!
2%! +"#$! +2&6'&2"%+! J2&:! 3'($067! 3"%+2,$('&2"%H! O286($! !>P"?>! '%,! O286($! !>P"??! +:"J! B('3$,!
0('#$+!2%!6+$H!Q$%$('77)!+.$'<2%8D!+&$$7!B('3$,!0('#$+!:'/$!'!8"",!,$8($$!"0!($/$(+2B272&)!'%,!
3'%!.("/2,$!$M3$77$%&!+&($%8&:$%2%8!J:$%!6+$,!'..(".(2'&$7)H!

a)!
!
!
!
!
!
!
b)!
&'()*+"!"#!$"-"F//+12*'/">*5/'1("'1"5"
&'()*+"!"#!$$-".1"+//+12*'/5::I">*5/+7"/0*+"
Fig.&33
&a)&Eccentric&bracing&in&a&walkway;&b)&Eccentric&bracing&core&(Dunning&Thornton&
Consultants)&@A)11'1("B80*1201"!016):25126CD"
G5:HG5I"@A)11'1("B80*1201"!016):25126CD"

&!

! !"#!$%
!

24!

REFERENCES!
&

Ahmad!Hamid,!2012,!Design!and!Retrofit!of!unreinforced!Masonry!Structures,!FUNDEC!course!on!
Lisbon,!February!6,!2012.!
!
Amadio!C.,!Gattesco!N.,!Dudine!A.,!Franceschinis!R.,!Rinaldin!G.,!2012,!Structural!performance!of!
spandrels! in! stone! masonry! buildings,! Proc.! of! the! 15th! World! conference! on! Earthquake!
Engineering,!pp!5077,!Lisbon,!Portugal.!
!
Appleton! J,! 2009,! Tcnicas! de! reabilitao! de! estruturas! de! alvenaria,! Seminar! ! Patologia,!
Inspeco!e!Reabilitao!de!Edificios!tradicionais!(in!Portuguese).!!
!
Appleton,! J.,! Reabilitao! de! Edifcios! Antigos! Patologias! e! tecnologias! de! interveno,! Edies!
Orion,!1Edio,!Setembro!de!2003![in!Portuguese].!!
!
Arifuzzaman!S.!and!Saatcioglu!M.,!2012,!Seismic!Retrofit!of!Load!Bearing!Masonry!Walls!by!FRP!
sheets! and! Anchors,! Proc.! of! the! 15th! World! conference! on! Earthquake! Engineering,! pp! 4501,!
Lisbon,!Portugal.!
!
Cias! e! Silva! V! (2007)! Reabilitao! Estrutural! de! Edifcios! AntigosAlvenaria,! Madeira
Tcnicas!pouco!intrusivas.!Ed.!Argumentum!&!Gecorpa,!Lisbon,!Portugal!(in!Portuguese).!
!
Costa!A.,!2008,!Notes!from!the!post9graduation!course!on!rehabilitation!of!constructions!!Stone!
Masonry!structures.!
!
Cruz!H.,!FUNDEC!course!on!Rehabilitation!techniques!of!constructions,!wood!structures,!IST!9!23!
Jan!to!3!Fev!2012.!
!
Ingham,!J.,!2012,!FUNDEC!one!day!lecture!on!the!Seismic!assessment!and!improvement!of!
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