19 views

Original Title: Structural reliability of offshore platforms considering fatigue damage and different failure scenarios

Uploaded by Alexis Lopez

Structural reliability of offshore platforms considering fatigue damage and different failure scenarios

Structuralsystemswillnormallyfailasaconsequenceofachainofdifferentcomponentsfailurees.
In thispaper,fatiguereliabilityoffixedoffshoreplatformsisinvestigatedbyanalyzingdifferentfailure
scenarios.Inordertoevaluatetheoccurrenceprobabilityofaspecialscenario,itisdividedintoafinite
numberofsub-scenarios.Allcombinationsoftimesequencesaregeneratedforagivensequence
of failures,usingaspeciallydevelopedprogram.
In ordertocalculatetheoccurrenceprobabilityofeachscenario,amassivereliabilityanalysis
shouldbedoneforeachofcorrespondingsub-scenarios.Alargenumberofsub-scenariosshouldbe
analyzed,thereforeimplementingtimeconsumingtraditionalmethodsforevaluatingfatiguereliability
may beunrealistic,andasimplifiedandaccuratemethodisrequired.Herein,an‘‘Artificialtransfer
function’’ isusedtocalculatethecumulativefatiguedegradationincomponents.Theprecisenessofthe
proposedmethodisevaluatedusinganumericalmodel,andthen,itisusedtocalculatetheoccurrence
probabilityofeachsub-scenario.Basedonthecalculatedvalues,probabilityofoccurrenceisobtained
for eachscenario,andfinally,thefailureprobabilityofentiresystemiscalculated.Theproposed
methodcanbeusedininspectionplanningandevaluatingthelifeextensionofexistingoffshore
platforms.

© All Rights Reserved

- Castell Appraisal Review 2018-19 v2
- Investigasi Dalam as Leleh Fatigue Dari Struktur Di Las Pada Badan Kereta API Kecepatan Tinggi_Marine Transport_Song_zhanxun
- STUDIO RM
- Airframe inspection reliability
- Legislative Policies - GFS Functions - Explanation
- Chapter 6 Software Metrics
- 2011_41-05-02
- Spectral Based Fatigue Analysis for Floating Production Storage and Offloading
- Fault Tolerant Power Systems
- SMRP_Exam_CMRP_Certified_Maintenance_and.pdf
- Bulgarian Railway Company.pdf
- Inspection, Planning of Offshore Jacket
- 1.pdf
- Composite Materials for Marine Applications Key Ch
- Datasheet
- Forensic Study of Structural Durability
- Applied Ocean Research Volume 71 Issue 2018 [Doi 10.1016_j.apor.2017.12.008] Hou, Hui-Min; Dong, Guo-Hai; Xu, Tiao-Jian; Zhao, Yun-Peng; Bi, -- Fatigue Reliability Analysis of Mooring System for Fis
- Development Assessment
- Userfiles.soton.ac.Uk Users Slb1 Mydesktop 1-s2.0-S1877705815006311-Main
- 2SC3324_datasheet_en_20140301.pdf

You are on page 1of 8

Ocean Engineering

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

and different failure scenarios

A. Gholizad a,n, A.A. Golafshani b, V. Akrami c

a

Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9313, Tehran, Iran

c

Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

b

a r t i c l e i n f o

abstract

Article history:

Received 18 January 2011

Accepted 28 January 2012

Editor-in-Chief: A.I. Incecik

Available online 19 March 2012

Structural systems will normally fail as a consequence of a chain of different components failure es.

In this paper, fatigue reliability of xed offshore platforms is investigated by analyzing different failure

scenarios. In order to evaluate the occurrence probability of a special scenario, it is divided into a nite

number of sub-scenarios. All combinations of time sequences are generated for a given sequence

of failures, using a specially developed program.

In order to calculate the occurrence probability of each scenario, a massive reliability analysis

should be done for each of corresponding sub-scenarios. A large number of sub-scenarios should be

analyzed, therefore implementing time consuming traditional methods for evaluating fatigue reliability

may be unrealistic, and a simplied and accurate method is required. Herein, an Articial transfer

function is used to calculate the cumulative fatigue degradation in components. The preciseness of the

proposed method is evaluated using a numerical model, and then, it is used to calculate the occurrence

probability of each sub-scenario. Based on the calculated values, probability of occurrence is obtained

for each scenario, and nally, the failure probability of entire system is calculated. The proposed

method can be used in inspection planning and evaluating the life extension of existing offshore

platforms.

& 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Fatigue damage

Structural reliability

Failure scenario

Articial transfer function

1. Introduction

Fatigue deteriorating phenomenon is a major failure mode

accounted for in design codes of offshore structures. The awareness of fatigue degradation in metallic structures started in the

mid 19th century with the occurrence of fatigue failures in the

railway industry (Gordon, 1978). In later years, fatigue failure

of pentagon-type semi-submersible Alexander L. Kielland platform, caused an increased focus on fatigue problems in the

offshore industry (Moan, 1981). A detailed theoretical background

for fatigue analysis is given by Martindale and Wirshing (1983),

Stahl and Geyer (1984), Almar-Naess (1985), Gurney (1979),

Kumar and Karsan (1990), Maddox (1992), Suresh (1991), Dover

and Madhava Rao (1996). More recently, fatigue crack growth has

been studied by among others Lassen (1997).

Considering the high costs of installation and repair of xed

offshore platforms and their environmental disasters in the case

of failure, it is necessary to create more detailed procedures for

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: Gholizad@uma.ac.ir (A. Gholizad),

Golafshani@sharif.edu (A.A. Golafshani).

0029-8018/$ - see front matter & 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2012.01.033

methods have become the most utilized tools for this purpose.

Details of the structural reliability theory can be found in

Schnerder (1997), Melchers (1999).

In this regard, Madhavan Pillai and Meher Prasad (2000)

formulated a procedure for fatigue reliability analysis for inspection strategy of xed offshore platforms using the serviceability

limit state criteria. Siddiqui and Ahmad (2001) studied fatigue

and fracture reliability of TLP tethers under random loading of sea

waves. In this study, fatigue reliability of TLP tethers are evaluated using two common methods, i.e., rst order reliability

method (FORM) and Mont Carlo simulation. A more detailed

application of reliability methods in fatigue assessment of existing offshore structures can be found in Gerhard (2005). Golafshani

and Gholizad (2009) utilized vibration control mechanisms to

increase structural reliability of xed offshore platforms against

fatigue damage. In this research, reliability analysis is performed

using an approximate method, which models the structure

directly as a system rather than modeling of the structural system

as a system of components.

The present work studies fatigue reliability of xed offshore

platforms, considering the different failure paths which may lead

to the failure of the entire system. Herein, Failure scenarios are

Nomenclature

G( )

Fraction of time spent in the ith sea state

Wide band correction factor

Standard deviation of stress process

Zero mean crossing frequency of stress process

Frequency

Parameters of ATF

Natural period of the structure

Zero up crossing period

Representative of the normal distribution function

Wirschings wide band correction factor

ith order moment of the stress process

Reliability index

gi

H(f)

SY(f)

SX(f)

g(z)

DF

A

O

B

TL

m

Transfer function

Response spectrum

Excitation spectrum

Limit state function for fatigue

Value of the PalmgrenMiner damage index at failure

Fatigue strength coefcient

Dened stress parameter

Inaccuracies in estimating the fatigue stresses

Design life in seconds

Negative inverse slope of the logarithmic SN Curve

N A S m

sequence of failures in different members of a structure.

The participation of each failure scenario in total probability of

system failure is accounted for using an approximate method

which uses an articial transfer function (ATF) to calculate fatigue

degradation in different components. To do this, each scenario is

divided to a nite number of sub-scenarios through generating all

possible combinations of occurrence times for a given sequence of

failures.

Since each sub-scenario is an independent random process, the

occurrence probability of each scenario is found to be equal to

sum of occurrence probability of its constitutive sub-scenarios.

Consequently, the probability of failure for entire jacket is

evaluated by adding the occurrence probability of all scenarios

and corresponding reliability index is calculated. This method is

performed using different life times (T) and corresponding reliability indexes (b) are obtained, whichmakes plotting b versus T

possible.

Since the proposed method considers different failure scenarios in order to evaluate fatigue reliability of entire platform,

it provides more detailed information on fatigue behavior of

different members. Using this method, it is possible to determine

critical failure paths (scenarios with high probability of occurrence) and reinforce corresponding weak members.

This method can be used to evaluate existing offshore structures. Reliability analysis may be performed for these structures

considering their in-service condition. It can be used for inspection planning of xed offshore platforms as well.

li

si

f0i

f

a, C

Ts

TZ

F( )

li

Mi

function and calculate fatigue degradation in a desired point of

structure. ATF is a function with predetermined shape and some

unknown parameters. Since the proposed ATF has two unknown

parameters, it will be checked in two points to be equal with the

real transfer function (Fig. 1).

Limit state function for fatigue loads can be found in references; Yong Bai (2003), Siddiqui and Ahmad (2001) as Eq.(2). This

equation is based on PalmgrenMiners rule and uses SN curve

to estimate accumulated fatigue damages:

gz

DF A

T L

Bm O

slope of the logarithmic SN curve, B is stress modeling error, DF

stands for modeling error associated with the PalmgrenMiner

rule and TL is the design life in seconds. There are some

uncertainties in dening the terms A, B and DF, which their mean,

COV (coefcient of variation) and distribution type are listed in

Table 1. The term O is the stress parameter, which is dened in

Eq. (3) Siddiqui and Ahmad (2001):

p

O 2 2m G 1

n

m X

g f l sm

2 i1 i 0i i i

2. Approximate method

In this section, an approximate method is developed for

calculating fatigue reliability of components in an offshore platform. This method will be used later to calculate occurrence

probability of each sub-scenario. Since there are a large number of

sub-scenarios to be analyzed, the proposed method should have

the possible highest accuracy while doing the least amount of

calculations.

2.1. Assumptions

As stated in API (2000), A transfer function denes the ratio of

the range of a structural response quantity to the wave height as a

function of frequency. In a linear system, having an excitation

spectrum SX(f), and a transfer function H(f) at a specic point,

stress process SY(f) can be achieved by:

SY f H2f SX f

Table 1

Denition of random variables Madhavan Pillai and Meher Prasad (2000).

Variable

Distribution

Mean/median

COV

A

B

Lognormal

Lognormal

Lognormal

1.00

1.00a

0.63

0.20

0.30

DF

a

PiersonMoskowitz spectrum). As this function has two unknown

parameters, thus it should be checked in two points, to be equal

with real transfer function (one on natural period of the jacket

and the other one away from this point).

In a spectral fatigue analysis, each sea state is dened with a wave

height spectrum. In this study, PiersonMoskowitz spectrum is

used to represent each sea state. PM spectrum is given by:

!

H2s

1 1 4

SX f

exp

7

5

p f Tz

8p2 f T 4z

where, Hs and Tz are the signicant wave height and characteristic

wave period, respectively (which can be found in a sea scatter

diagram). Using the proposed ATF (Eq. (6)) in conjunction with PM

wave height spectrum (Eq. (7)), the stress process SY(f) may be

calculated from Eq. (1). The next step is to determine f0i and si using

Eqs. (4) and (5):

s

a2 T 2z 0:0275T 3s =1 1=T 4s T 4z 7=4

8

f 0i

a2 T 4z 0:0608T 5s =1 1=T 4s T 4z 9=4

si CH

s

a2

T 5s

0:0038 4

16

T z 1 1=T 4s T 4z 9=4

functions of sea scatter data (H and Tz) and structural properties (Ts).

Fig. 2. A typical two-parameter ATF.

In Eq. (3), m is the fatigue exponent; n is the total number of seastate in the wave scatter diagram; gi is the fraction of time spent

in the ith sea state; li is the wide band correction factor; G( ) is

representative of gamma distribution function and f0i, si are the

zero mean crossing frequency and standard deviation of stress

process for ith sea state, given by:

q

R1 2

0 f SY f df

4

f 0i

si

Z 1

si

SY f df

of stress process in a specied location of structure as a function

of frequency f and it is generally calculated from Eq. (1). Using

Eqs. (4) and (5), the next step is to use a two-parameter ATF in

conjunction with Eq. (1) to calculate SY(f) and nd the values of f0i

and si.

2.3. Calculation of f0i and si, using constant ATF

In this section, it is intended to nd f0i and si for a twoparameter ATF. Many different functions may be used as a twoparameter ATF. An Example of these functions is as follows:

v

u

!

u

C2

4 1 4

Hf ta2 C 2

6

exp

5

p f Ts

2p2 f T 4

s

of ATF (Fig. 2), and Ts is the natural period of structure. The ATF

of Eq. (6) is composed of a constant line (aC) and a projection with

specic point of structure is a narrow band random process.

A correction factor is used in Eq. (3), to account for wide band

random processes. In the present work, Wirschings wide band

correction factor is used which is given by ABS, (2003):

li am 1am1ei bm

10

where

am 0:9260:033m

11

bm 1:587m2:323

12

by Yong Bai (2003):

v

!

u

u

M 22

t

13

e 1

M0 M4

where, Mq is the qth order moment of the stress process. Using

prescribed articial stress process (stress process corresponding

to two-parameter ATF), M4 becomes innite and therefore ei for

all sea states equals to unity. Assuming m3, wide band correction factor becomes 0.827 for all sea states.

Using Cornell safety method, reliability index can be

achieved by calculating mean and standard deviation of limit

state function. This index is shown in Eq. (14) which is the

corrected form of equation given in Yong Bai (2003):

LnmT =T L 0:5s2LnT

sLnT

14

respectively and are given by:

mT

mDF mA

mB O

15

q

2

sLnT Ln1 C A 1 C D 1 C B m

16

in Table 1, one can obtain reliability index in the form of:

!

n

X

b 34:8231:365Ln

gi f 0i li sm

1:365LnT

17

i

i1

Converting the unit of T from seconds into years and substituting a value of 0.827 for wide band correction factor, the

equation can be rewritten as:

!

n

X

b 111:365Ln

gi f 0i sm

1:365LnT

18

i

i1

HS

TZ

(ft)

(m)

2.5

3.5

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0

10.0

11.0

12.0

13.0

14.0

0.30

0.61

0.91

1.22

1.52

1.83

2.13

2.44

2.74

3.05

3.35

3.96

4.27

4.57

23

17

17

53

16

2

1

3

52

127

35

4

4

4.5

5.5

17

74

61

17

4

1

32

11

20

16

9

4

1

14

6

14

7

3

14

7

2

3

1

6

10

2

3

8

4

2

1

6.5

2

2

1

2

1

4

2

2

1

1

1

Eqs. (8) and (9) denes the reliability index of components as a

function of sea scatter data (Hz, Tz), structural properties (Ts, C, a)

and in-service life time (T). In order to use this equation, it is

sufcient to determine the value of transfer function in two points.

One of these points should be selected at natural period of the

jacket. Let the corresponding value of this point be represented by

Tr1. The other point should be selected away from natural period of

the jacket (the corresponding value is shown by Tr2). Using these

two values, a and C may be calculated from the following equations:

q

19

Tr 1 a2 C 2 0:0142C 2 T s

Tr 2 aC

Table 2

Sea-scatter data Vughts and Kinra (1976).

20

away from natural period of jacket (and furthermore, f0i and

si are inside the Ln operator), the position of second point will

not change the results considerably and it can be selected in any

arbitrary point which is not close to Ts (for example, it can be

selected at Ts 1).

analysis should be done.

In this part of study, the statistical concept of scenarios and

sub-scenarios is explained and fatigue reliability of entire jacket is

formulated. It is illustrated in this section, how to use Eq. (18) for

calculating occurrence probability of each sub-scenario. Also, the

probabilistic relations between sub-scenarios, scenarios and failure of entire jacket are established.

When a member in an offshore platform fails due to fatigue

degradation, this may lead to load redistribution to other components in the structure. This may further lead to an increased

stresses in these components which will accelerate crack growth

in them; however the entire jacket is still functioning until

the next failure occurs, and next, and next. Failure of a structural

system can be modeled by sets of scenarios. Hence, the failure

probability of entire system may be calculated as follows:

In order to evaluate preciseness of the proposed method, a six leg

platform is modeled in SACS program Engineering Dynamics, Inc

(2005) and its members are designed using the proposed method.

The numerical model is analyzed using the sea-scatter data listed

in Table 2. This procedure is done for three members of the

numerical model using 25 pairs of T and b. After designing members

with the proposed method, the jacket is reanalyzed and actual

reliability index in members is calculated using the real transfer

function.

The numerical model of jacket and results of analysis are

shown in Fig. 3. As it is apparent from this gure, there are two

surfaces in each presented diagram. One of these surfaces is

representative of design reliability level (the black one), which is

based on the proposed method, and the other is the calculated

reliability after designing members (using real transfer function).

Based on the results, it can be said that the two-parameter ATF

is a powerful mean for simulating the real transfer function in a

desired point of structure. As it is apparent from Fig. 3, the

proposed method has an acceptable accuracy level against its low

amount of calculations.

Generally speaking, the proposed method is an efcient way

to simplify the massive calculations of fatigue reliability while

retaining the acceptable level of accuracy. Hence, it can be used in

Pf sys

K

X

P sce k

21

k1

the occurrence probability of kth scenario and K is the total

number of scenarios.

As it is mentioned before, each scenario is an independent

random process which species a predened sequence of events.

An example scenario may be indicated as: event 1-event 2-event 3

(or e1-e2-e3). As it is clear from this indication, scenarios dene

only the sequence of events and not their occurrence time. But

Eq. (18) can not be used for calculating fatigue reliability of

components, until the occurrence time of all events are specied.

To solve this problem, each scenario is divided to a nite

number of sub-scenarios which dene both sequence of events

and their occurrence times. To do this, all possible combinations

of occurrence times should be generated for a given sequence of

events. An example of these sub-scenarios is illustrated in Fig. 4,

which shows all possible occurrence times for a scenario with

three events (e1-e2-e3) if it is intended to occur within 5 years.

If it is intended to nd the occurrence probability of the above

mentioned scenario within 25 years, there will be 2925 subscenarios which should be analyzed. Since sub-scenarios are

independent random processes, the occurrence probability of

Fig. 3. Evaluating preciseness of the two-parameter ATF method: (a) numerical model, (b) member 1, (c) member 2 and (d) member 3.

scenario have failed and all other members are in the safe margin.

Hence, Psubk (o) can be calculated as:

P sce k

O

X

P subk o

22

o1

which corresponds to the kth scenario, and O is the total number

of sub-scenarios.

In order to calculate Psubk (o), one should nd the occurrence

probability of a condition in which all members listed in the kth

Psubk o

m=

2Y

kth sce

Rmo

m AY

kth sce

P f mo

23

scenario), when the last failure of oth sub-scenario occurs. Let a

typical sub-scenario be indicated as: T1, T2, T3y TSC. Also let the

corresponding scenario be indicated as: E1, E2, E3y ESC. By

Fig. 4. All possible occurrence times for scenario with three events.

Fig. 5. Simplied model of the platform, members numbering and some failure scenarios.

R(m)o can be calculated as:

8

0

19

SC1

n

<

=

XX

m

Rmo F 111:365Ln@

f 0,i s0,i gi j T j 1 A

24

:

;

j0 i1

where, F{ } is representative of the normal distribution function. In order to use this equation, the entire jacket should be

analyzed SC times. In this equation, j 0 denotes intact state of

the platform where no failure has occurred in members. Subsequently, j 1 denotes that the rst component of the corresponding scenario has failed and this member should be removed from

numerical model of platform. In the above expression, Tj 1 is the

(j1)th component of the oth sub-scenario which denotes the

time between jth and (j 1)th failures.

In Eq. (23), Pf(m)o is the failure probability of mth member

(mAkth scenario), at the time determined by the oth sub-scenario.

Let m be the qth component of the corresponding scenario.

the years Tq 1 and Tq, then Pf(m)o can be calculated as:

8

0

q2 X

<

n

X

f 0,i sm

Pf mo F 111:365Ln@

0,i gi j T j 1

:

j0i1

n

X

!)

m

0,i i q1 T q 1

f 0,i s g

i1

8

0

19

q1 X

n

<

=

X

m

@

f 0,i s0,i gi j T j 1 A

F:111:365Ln

;

qa 1

j 0i 1

25

(

Pf mo F 111:365Ln

n

X

i1

!)

f 0,i sm

0,i gi q1 T q 1

(

F 111:365Ln

n

X

!)

f 0,i sm

0,i gi q1 T q

q1

26

i1

4. Numerical example

In this section, an example jacket is analyzed using the proposed

method and its failure probability is obtained by the means of a

specially developed computer code. The numerical model of jacket is

shown in Fig. 5 and its members properties are listed in Table 3.

In this example, it is assumed that the failure of the entire jacket

will occur in the form of one of the 18 scenarios which are shown in

Fig. 5. All of the possible sub-scenarios are generated for these

scenarios and the numerical model is analyzed using the prescribed

method.

In order to nd natural period of the jacket in each analysis

(which is required when using approximate method), the jacket is

modeled using a cantilever beam and three lumped masses

(shown in Fig. 5). It must be noted that the amount of these

lumped masses are constant during all stages of the analysis,

while the stiffness of each part varies based on the collapsed

members in each phase of analysis.

If it is intended to plot reliability of the entire jacket (b) versus

its life time (T), then the numerical model should be analyzed

using different values for T. Fig. 6 shows the corresponding results

for two scenarios which are analyzed using a life time of 25 years.

Each of these diagrams contains the resultant probability of

occurrence for 2925 sub-scenarios. These values are calculated

using Eq. (23) in conjunction with Eqs. (24), (25) and (26).

Based on the discussions of previous section, each of the subscenarios is an independent random process, and hence, they can

be added up to give the occurrence probability of the corresponding scenarios. For example, one can add up the occurrence

probabilities of the Fig. 6(a) using Eq. (22) to achieve only a one

Table 3

Members properties of example jacket (cylindrical sections).

Members number

Thickness (cm)

1,

2,

3,

5,

120

80

80

100

2.25

1.25

1.5

2

4

6, 10

7, 11

8, 9, 12

point on the Fig. 7(a). This should be done for all other scenarios

using different values for in-service life of the jacket (5, 10, 15, 20

and 25 years) to obtain all of the curves shown in Fig. 7(a).

As it is apparent from Fig. 7(a), the relative vulnerability of

different failure paths may be determined from this gure. Based

on the results, one can nd the critical scenarios (most probable

failure paths) from Fig. 7(a) and strengthen the corresponding

weak members involved in these scenarios.

Using Eq. (21), one can add up the curves of Fig. 7(a), to obtain

failure probability of the entire jacket in different years of the

jackets life. This is shown in Fig. 7(b), which represents the failure

probability of the entire jacket among its constitutive components (failure probability of the scenarios).

Failure probability of the entire jacket under fatigue degradation is re-plotted in Fig. 8(a). This curve may be converted to show

the reliability index of the entire jacket under fatigue loads:

27

function. The reliability index of the entire jacket against its in-service

life time is calculated using Eq. (27) and displayed in Fig. 8(b). This

curve may be used to predict the fatigue life of a xed offshore

platform. Also, one can prepare this curve considering in-service

condition of the members to predict remaining life of the structure.

5. Conclusion

A new method is introduced in this paper which studies fatigue

reliability of xed offshore platforms, through analyzing different

failure scenarios.

In the rst phase of this study, an approximate method is

proposed in order to evaluate fatigue reliability of different

components in an offshore structure. In this method, an articial

transfer function is tted to the real one, using a two point

control. Based on the results, the proposed method has an

acceptable accuracy against its low amount of calculations and

it can be used in the second phase of the study where a large

number of reliability analysis should be performed.

In the second phase, fatigue reliability of entire system is

evaluated through analyzing different failure paths. To do this,

each scenario in divided to some independent sub-scenarios

which their occurrence probability is calculated using the above

mentioned approximate method.

Fig. 6. Results of analysis for two sample scenarios of failure: (a) 12-10-9, (b) 8-6-5.

Fig. 7. Results of analyses for different scenarios: (a) Failure probability of each scenario, (b) adding failure probability os scenarios.

5

4.5

1.2

Reliability index

1.4

1

0.8

0.6

4

3.5

3

0.4

2.5

0.2

10

15

Years in service

20

25

1.5

10

15

Years in service

20

25

Fig. 8. Fatigue parameters of the entire jacket: (a) Failure probability of entire jacket, (b) fatigue reliability index of entire jacket.

information on fatigue behavior of different members. Using this

method, it is possible to determine critical failure paths (most

probable scenarios) and reinforce corresponding weak members.

Also, this method can be used to evaluate existing offshore

structures. For these structures, the reliability analysis may be

performed considering their in-service condition. It can be used

for inspection planning of xed offshore platforms, too.

References

Gordon, J.E., 1978. Structuresor why things dont fall down. Pelican Books,

London, England.

Moan T., 1981, The Alexander L. Kielland Accident. In: Proceedings from the rst

Robert Bruce Wallace Lecture, Department of Ocean Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA.

Martindale, S.G., Wirshing, P.H., 1983. Reliability-based progressive fatigue collapse. J. Struct.l Eng. ASCE 109 (8), 17921811.

Stahl, B., Geyer, J.F, 1984. Fatigue reliability of parallel member system. J. Struct.

Eng. ASCE 110 (10), 23072323.

Almar-Naess, A., 1985. Fatigue Handbook of Offshore Steel Structures. Tapir, Norway.

Gurney, T.R., 1979. Fatigue of Welded Structures, 2nd Ed. Cambridge University

Press.

Kumar, A., Karsan, D.I., 1990. Fatigue reliability of parallel systems. J. Struct. Eng.

ASCE 116 (3), 719729.

Maddox, S.J., 1992. Fatigue Strength of Welded Structures. Abington Publishing.

Dover, W.D., Madhava Rao, A.G., 1996. Fatigue in Offshore Structures. A.A. Balkema.

Lassen T., 1997. Experimental investigation and stochastic modeling of the fatigue

behavior of welded steel joints, Ph.D. Thesis Aalborg University, Denmark.

Schnerder, J., 1997. Introduction to Safety and Reliability of Structures. Structural

Engineering Documents, Vol. 5. International Association for Bridge and

Structural Engineering (IABSE).

Melchers, R.E., 1999. Structural Reliability Analysis and Prediction, 2nd Ed. John

Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Madhavan Pillai, T.M., Meher Prasad, A., 2000. Fatigue reliability analysis in time

domain for inspection strategy of xed offshore structures. J. Ocean Eng. 27 (2),

167186.

Siddiqui, N.A., Ahmad, Suhail, 2001. Fatigue and fracture reliability of TLP tethers

under random loading. Mar. Struct. 14, 331352.

Gerhard E., 2005. Assessment of existing offshore structures for life extension,

Doctorial Thesis, University of Stavanger.

Golafshani, A.A., Gholizad, A., 2009. Friction damper for vibration control in

offshore steel jacket platforms. J. Constr. Steel Res. 65 (1). January, Elsevier.

API, 2000. RP 2A-WSD recommended practice for planning, designing and

constructing xed offshore platformsWorking Stress Design, 21st ed. American Petroleum Institute, API Publishing Services December.

Yong Bai, 2003. Marine Structural Design. Elsevier Ltd.

ABS, 2003. Guide for the Fatigue Assessment of Offshore Structures, American

Bureau of Shipping (April).

Engineering Dynamics, Inc,.2005. SACSStructural Analysis Computer System

Program.

Vughts J.H., Kinra R.K., 1976.Probabilistic fatigue analysis of xed offshore

structures, Proc. Offshore Technology Conference, No. OTC2608, pp. 889906.

- Investigasi Dalam as Leleh Fatigue Dari Struktur Di Las Pada Badan Kereta API Kecepatan Tinggi_Marine Transport_Song_zhanxunUploaded byDr. Ir. R. Didin Kusdian, MT.
- STUDIO RMUploaded byandi
- Airframe inspection reliabilityUploaded byGyogi Mitsuta
- Chapter 6 Software MetricsUploaded byRAHUL TULSYAN
- Castell Appraisal Review 2018-19 v2Uploaded byErvin Preg
- Legislative Policies - GFS Functions - ExplanationUploaded bymatsieng
- 2011_41-05-02Uploaded byHAs Gom
- Spectral Based Fatigue Analysis for Floating Production Storage and OffloadingUploaded byEd Liegel
- Fault Tolerant Power SystemsUploaded byNalin Lochan Gupta
- SMRP_Exam_CMRP_Certified_Maintenance_and.pdfUploaded byrudi setiawan
- Bulgarian Railway Company.pdfUploaded byFrancisco Fernandes
- Inspection, Planning of Offshore JacketUploaded bysaulolm
- 1.pdfUploaded byDrVikas Singh Bhadoria
- Composite Materials for Marine Applications Key ChUploaded bymavi1979
- DatasheetUploaded byTVTEC
- Forensic Study of Structural DurabilityUploaded byindrajit sodha
- Applied Ocean Research Volume 71 Issue 2018 [Doi 10.1016_j.apor.2017.12.008] Hou, Hui-Min; Dong, Guo-Hai; Xu, Tiao-Jian; Zhao, Yun-Peng; Bi, -- Fatigue Reliability Analysis of Mooring System for FisUploaded byIbraHimRahmatullah
- Development AssessmentUploaded byKatie
- Userfiles.soton.ac.Uk Users Slb1 Mydesktop 1-s2.0-S1877705815006311-MainUploaded bytoules
- 2SC3324_datasheet_en_20140301.pdfUploaded bykale
- Engineering Plan- IlinUploaded byAbhay Kumar
- Bill Into Np Maps DataUploaded byiborella999
- Assignment-1_noc18_me53_11Uploaded bySaket Raj
- 2sb1182Uploaded byAngelica Gómez
- 2SA1587_datasheet_en_20140301.pdfUploaded bykale
- CGUploaded byChaitanya Kumar
- 22433.pdfUploaded bySimi Sheen
- 2SC5587Uploaded byAlejandro Borrego Dominguez
- 2SD669Uploaded byblueword66
- A27-CENTL HYDUploaded bysumitdubey12345

- Introduction to Reliability. WARWICK MANUFACTURING GROUPUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- Cyclic Plastic Hinges with Degradation Effects for Frame StructuresUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- KrigingUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- Spatial Interpolation of Soil Texture Using Compositional Kriging and Regression Kriging with Consideration of the Characteristics of Compositional Data and Environment VariablesUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- High Performance Concrete: Fundamentals and ApplicationUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- Experimental Investigation on High Performance Concrete Using Silica Fume and SuperplasticizerUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- Engineering Computations of Large Infrastructures in the Presence of UncertaintyUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- Stochastic analysis of historical masonry structuresUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- Curing of High-Performance Concrete: Report of the State-of-the-ArtUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- High Performance ConcreteUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- High Performance Concrete in Washington State SR 18/SR 516 Overcrossing: Interim Report on Girder MonitoringUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE IN JAPAN －RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONSUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- G Sorensen - Stochastic Finite Elements in Reliability Based Structural OptimizationUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- Stocastic FEUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- HpcUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- p1Uploaded byAlexis Lopez
- JTB-01Uploaded byhanamichipbc
- 1Uploaded byAlexis Lopez
- AScalarDamageMeasureForSeismicReliabilityAnalysisOfRCFramesUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- Matlab Random WavesUploaded byAlexis Lopez
- Dynamic AnalysisUploaded byAlexis Lopez

- Pain neuroscience education for adults with chronic musculoskeletal.pdfUploaded byErnesto
- Comparisonof TIS in Asian CountriesUploaded byaymen726550
- Cover Pages Sample FinalUploaded byBhagesh Kumar
- USBR Small Embankment Dam Safety GuideUploaded bychutton681
- 194387_Ting 2013Uploaded byDylanchong91
- Summer ProjectUploaded byAvinash Arjun S
- A Different Approach in the Shrinkage Estimation for the Rayleigh ModelUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- ab tyUploaded byapi-252410935
- Drawing and Representation - Envisioning InformationUploaded byJavier Burón
- Integral Abutment and Jointless BridgesUploaded byJc Wong
- Guilt is More Strongly Associated With Suicidal Ideation Among Military Personnel With Direct Combat ExposureUploaded byAna C
- Lube Oil PresentationUploaded byasirul_me
- Generating_a_Racial_Tolerance_Scale_for (1).docxUploaded byshandy
- 3_Small (2009)How Many Cases Do I Need?Uploaded byJavier Andrés Contreras
- Riemann mapping theorem.pdfUploaded byjayroldparcede
- Numericke Metode u Inzenjerstvu Predavanja 1 (1)Uploaded byDzenan Hasanbasic
- Material Gear EngranesUploaded byvictoryanez
- Ridiculous and Insane Interview Questions You Could Actually Be AskedUploaded byManav Singla
- Effective Meetings Part 1 the FundamentalsUploaded byApeuDerrop
- OutUploaded byanushan
- Mmv Sample Mcq and EmqsUploaded bysuzane christopher
- death_investigation_guidelines.pdfUploaded byValentin G.
- Harmonic MeasureUploaded byDorothy Oz
- business statistics - mohit final.docxUploaded bymohit
- 14Uploaded byasyrafmuhdd
- Ranking of U.S. Finance Doctoral ProgramsUploaded byProf. Vikki Vandal
- Chain TriangulationUploaded bysuuray
- Media & Politics: Framing the Iraqi War.Uploaded byFrancine Carron
- Self-Disclosure in Mixed-Sex Focus Groups with Arab-Americans,"Uploaded byStephen Sills
- ac60030a002-error.pdfUploaded byAna Erika Fidencio Dolores