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62

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

Original

P.4

2nd paragraph, line 1

... the mass/charge (m/e) ratio and the velocity of


the particles ...

P.9

*Note: Beryllium and fluorine have no isotopes.

P.11 Table 1-4


Neutron

... the mass/charge (m/e) ratio of the particles ...

Bottom of Table 1-3

*Note: Fluorine has no isotope.

Amendment

n or n

Neutron

1
n
0

or n

P.12 1st paragraph, line 2


238
92

... nucleus of the uranium () atom 92U ...

... nucleus of the uranium () atom

P. 13 Fig. 1-23 (b)

** There should not be a white spot in the middle


of the photograph.

P.14 2nd paragraph, line 1


It has no mass and ...

During the reaction, one of the ... into a proton


(i.e. 01 n 11 p + 01 e ). At the same time, an
electron is emitted (Fig. 1-25).

P.17 Fig. 1-27


y-axis: Atomic mass

It has negligible mass and ...

P.15 Last paragraph, line 1


When the tritium nucleus loses an electron,
one of the ... into a proton (Fig. 1-25).

U ...

y-axis: Mass number

P.17 Last paragraph, line 4


... unknown in nature, i.e. all the presently known
elements which are not found in nature. Most of
them with atomic numbers greater than 92, were
for med in bombardment reactions with
accelerated particles.

... unknown in nature. Most of these isotopes formed


are of atomic numbers greater than 92.

Part 1

P.19 Check point 1-1, part (b)


232
92

Th ...

232
90

Th ...

P.24 Fig. 1-36(b)

123

Relative abundance

Relative abundance

123

40

40

3
35 37

2
50 5152

35 37

mass/charge

P.26 Lower middle part of page


The relative atomic mass ... can be found in
the Periodic Table ... of this book.

...

...

-particle

Type of
radiation

...

...

-radiation

P.46 Middle of page


The volatile liquid, trichloromethane
(chloroform), is stored in the ... with steam.

The relative atomic mass ... can be found in


Appendix I of this book.

P.29 Section 1.5, 3., table


Type of
radiation

50 5152

mass/charge

The volatile liquid is stored in the ... with steam.

P.55 Table 2-2


.
.
.
Silver

.
.
.
AgNO3(aq)

.
.
.
96 500

Sodium

NaCl(aq)

96 500

..
.
Silver

..
.
AgNO3(aq)

**Delete the row of Sodium.

..
.
96 500

63

64

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

P.61 Q23
Assuming that the reaction between nitrogen
and hydrogen goes to completion, how much
ammonia could ... conditions?

How much ammonia could ... conditions?

P.67 Example 3-3, Solution

Relative number of moles

...

25
4
6.25

...

...

Relative
number 3.70 1.2 6.18 2
of moles 3.08
3.08

49.38
= 3.08
16.0

Number
of
moles

...

...

49.38
= 3.09
16.0

3.08
=1
3.08

Relative
number
of moles

3.70 1.2
3.09

6.18
=2
3.09

3.09
=1
3.09

P.77 Check Point 3-7, part (c)


(c)

Therefore, the molecular ... is C2H6.

P.70
Number
of
moles

25
=4
6.25

...

P.69 Bottom of Example 3-5


Therefore, the molecular ... is either (CH3)2 or
C2H6.

Relative number of moles

20 cm 3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon and


150 cm3 of oxygen were exploded ...

(c)

20 cm of a gaseous hydrocarbon and 150 cm


of oxygen (in excess) were exploded ...

P.78 Bottom of page

... the end point () of the titration.

... the equivalence point (



reaction.

Titration with an Indicator

The end point of a titration ... from the acid.


The indicator is a dye that changes colour at
the end point.

) of the

Titration with an Indicator


The equivalence point of a titration ... from the
acid. The point at which the indicator changes
colour is called the end point of the titration
which indicates the completion of the
reaction. We should choose an indicator
whose end point matches with equivalence
point of the reaction.

Parts 1, 2

P.79 Table 3-3


Acid-base Pair pH at End Point

Indicator

Acid-base Pair

12 V d.c.

P.86 Check Point 3-8, part (b)


(b) 8.54 g of iron (II) sulphate ...

(a)

14

(b)

(c)

23

(d)

N + He O + _________
4

17

(a)

14
7

H He + _________

(b)

3
1

Na + He

(c)

23
11

(d)

2
1

1.

26

Mg + _________

H + H He + _________
2

H + 42 He

3
2

17
8

O + _________

He + _________

Na + 42 He

26
12

Mg + _________

H + 21 H 23 He + _________

P.91 Q3
3.

The equivalence point of an acid-base ...

P.91 Q1
1.

(b) 8.54 g of hydrated iron (II) sulphate ...

P.87 Section 3.6, 4


The end point of an acid-base ...

Indicator

P.84 Fig. 3-8(a), left-hand side


12 V a.c.

pH at
Equivalence Point

(c)

Sulphur has the formula S 8 under


average conditions.

3.

(c) Sulphur has the formula S8 under room


conditions.

P.93 Q13
13. (c)

... crystallization per molecule of ...

13. (c) ... crystallization per unit of ...

P.106 Fig. 4-4

**Delete the column of "Cosmic rays".

P.107 Fig. 4-6

**Exchange the diagrams in Fig. 4-6(a) and


Fig. 4-6(b).

P.108 Table 4-2, caption


Table 4-2 Wavelengths ... atomic hydrogen

Table 4-2 Wave l e n g t h s . . . a t o m i c hy d r og e n


(measured in nm)

65

66

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

P.110 Top of page


Fig. 4-10 shows how a line ... between
different energy levels.

Fig. 4-10 shows the possible transitions of an


electron between different energy levels.

P.111 Fig. 4-11


n=
n=8
n=7
n=6
n=5
n=4

Energy
levels
of a
hydrogen
atom

n=3

...
n=2

n=
n=8
n=7
n=6
n=5
n=4

Energy
levels
of a
hydrogen
atom

n=3

...
n=2

n=1

Lyman
series

Balmer
series

Paschen
series

Balmer
series

Paschen
series

P.113 1st paragraph, line 6


... brought to higher energy levels. The unstable
electrons ... return to the ground state. This results
in ...

n=1

Lyman
series

... brought to higher energy levels. These electrons


are unstable and will return to the ground state.
The excess energy is given out as radiation of
definite wavelengths. This results in ...

P.114 1st paragraph


By observing ... (Fig. 4-14).

** Delete the paragraph.

P.114 Fig. 4-14

** Delete Fig. 4-14.

P.118 3rd paragraph, line 4


... that it is easier to remove the third and ... have
different energy states. This leads to ...

... that it is easier to remove the outermost shell


electrons of Group III and Group VI elements.
This means electrons in the same shell of different
elements have different energy states. This leads to
...

Part 2

P.120 Middle of page


The symbols given for ... respectively. The
number of orbitals in ...

The symbols given for ... respectively. They


correspond to the spectral lines in the atomic
spectra. They are:
s for sharp, p for principal,
d for diffused, f for fundamental
The number of orbitals in ...

P.134 Table
Atomic
Number

Element

Atomic
Number

Element

33

Antimony

33

Arsenic

(a) (i)

Silicon; and

P.135 Check Point 5-2, part (a)


(a) (i)
(ii)

79

Gold Au; and


Uranium

238

U.

P.138 4th paragraph


They have either ... (see Groups IB & IIB).

They have either ... (see Groups IB & IIB). It should


be noted that the electronic configuration of
Group VIB is [ ]ns1(n-1)d5 but not [ ]ns2(n-1)d4.

P.139 Fig. 5-7


: The general formula ... first 36 elements in
Periodic Table.

(ii) Copper.

The general formula ... first 36 elements in Periodic


Table. Note that the electronic configuration of
Group VIB is [ ]ns1(n-1)d5 but not [ ]ns2(n-1)d4.

P.140 Bottom of page and P.141 top of page


... enthalpy is the size of their atoms. As the size
... of each element decrease down a group.

... enthalpy is the size of their atoms. Going down a


group, there is an increase in the number of
electron shells. As the size of atoms increases down
the group, the outermost electrons of these atoms
would be further away from the nucleus.
Therefore, the ionization enthalpies of individual
atoms of each element decrease down a group.

67

68

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

P.144 Bottom of page


Mg (g) Mg (g) + 2e
+

2+

Mg2+(g) Mg3+(g) + e

Mg3+(g) Mg4+(g) + 4e

Mg3+(g) Mg4+(g) + e

Mg (g) Mg (g) + 3e
2+

Mg+(g) Mg2+(g) + e

3+

P.146 Example 5-1


For the element carbon 1C ,

26

(a)

Give ... Fe.

P.152 Q19

Explain the general trend of the f irst


ionization enthalpies with respect to ...

(d) Explain the irregularity of ... the f irst


ionization enthalpies.

(c)

Explain the general trend of the first ionization


enthalpies from Li to F.

(d) Explain the irregularity of ... the first ionization


enthalpies from Li to F.

P.154 Q11
2

(d) A doubly ... 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d .

(b) the alkali metal with 19 electrons;

P.154 Q8
(c)

... electrons originally present in the atom. This


would ...

4. ... degenerate orbitals have extra stability.

(b) the alkali metal without 4p electrons;

Give ... 26Fe.

P.150 Point 5.4, line 6


4. ... orbitals have extra stability.

C,

P.148 last paragraph, line 5


... electrons originally present in the atom
(screening effect). This would ...

12
6

P.147 Check Point 5-4, part (a)


(a)

For the element

(d) A doubly ... 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d .

P.155 Q12
Suppose that the Pauli principle indicated ...

Suppose that the Pauli's Exclusion Principle


indicated ...

Part 3

P.166 1st paragraph, line 2


... Its value depends on the local environment ...
of molecule is called the mean bond enthalpy ...

P.171 Table 6-3

2+

Zn

NO3

SO42

839

814

83.9

81.4

Hfo (kJ mol 1)

Substance

Hfo (kJ mol 1)

Cu (s)

48.5

CuS (s)

48.5

P.174 Upper part of page


o

The standard enthalpy ... of hydrogen (Hc [H2(g)])


is ...

P.181 Check Point 6-4, part (a), line 8


(a) ... aqueous ammonia. (Density of water
= 1 g cm-3)

P.182 Check Point 6-4, part (c)


(c) A student used ... in Fig. 6-13 ...

2+

SO42

Substance

(a) ... aqueous ammonia

Zn

NO3

P.173 Table 6-4

2. ... The standard enthalpy ... of hydrogen (Hco)


[H2(g)], is ...

... Its value depends on the specific local environment


... of molecules having the particular bond is called
the mean bond enthalpy ...

(c) A student used ... in Fig. 6-14 ...

P.187 Example 6-5


C(s)(graphite) + O2(g) CO2(g)
Ho
f [CO2(g)]
1
H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l)
2
Ho
f [H2O(l)]

C(s)(graphite) + O2(g) CO2(g)


Hc [C(s)]
o

H2(g) +

1
O2(g) H2O(l)
2

Hc [H2(g)]
o

69

70

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

P.188 Top of page


Note:

H1 = Hf [CO2(g)]
o

H1 = Hc [C(s)]
o

Note:

H2 = 2 Hf [H2O(l)]
..
.

H2 = 2 Hc [H2(g)]
.
.
.

o
= Ho
f [CO2(g)] + 2 Hf [H2O(l)]

= Hc [C(s)] + 2 Hc [H2(g)]
o

P.190 Example 6-9


Making use of Hess's law,

Making use of Hess's law,

H = H2 H1
o

H = 2H2 H1
o

P.194 Q 20, line 3


1

... of 1 560 J kg K . The ...

... of 1 560 J K . The ...

P.197 Q 13(c)
Na (g) + Cl (g) NaCl(s)

NaCl(s) Na (g) + Cl (g)


+

P.211 Fig. 7-8

H
72

Li
52

Be

H
72

B
29

Na
71

C
120

N
3

O
142

O
+844

F
348

59.8

Si
180

P
70

S
S
200 +532

Cl
364

Na
52.9

Li

B
29

Be
1240

C
122

N
3

O
142

O
+780

F
322

Si
120

P
74

S
200

S
+590

Cl
348

Br
342

Br
324

I
314

I
295

P.212 Upper part of page


...

lattice

[Na Cl (s)]

...

H = H
o

lattice

[Na Cl (s)]

Part 4

P.215 Example 7-1


(b) Calculate a lattice enthalpy for this oxide of
boron.

(b) Calculate the lattice enthalpy for aluminium


oxide.

P.215 Solution
(a)
3B3+(g), 3O2 (g)
H4 = 3 (142 + 884)
= 2 226 kJ mol1

3O(g), 2Al 3+(g)

(b) ... = 15 541 kJ mol

H4 = 3 (142 + 884)
= 2 226 kJ mol1

3+

2AI (g), 3O(g)

(b) ... = -15 541 kJ mol

o
atom

[ 21 Cl2(g)] + 3 HE.A.

+ 3 Hoatom [ 21 Cl2(g)] + 3 ..

P.219 Fig. 7-10, bottom left

1 000

1
Cl 2(g)]
2

1 HI.E. [Mg(g)]
st

Hatom [

Hatom [

HE.A. [Cl(g)]

1 000

H atom [Mg(s)]

Hf [MgCl(s)]

Hf [MgCl(s)]
1 000

1 000

Formation of MgCl

Formation of MgCl

P.219 Check point 7-2


(a) List two ... of the enthalpy change of
formation of the ionic compound.

HE.A. [Cl(g)]

Hlattice [MgCl(s)]
0

H atom [Mg(s)]

1
Cl 2(g)]
2

1stHI.E. [Mg(g)]

Hlattice [MgCl(s)]
0

-1

P.218 Lower middle part of page


+ 3 H

-1

3+

2AI (g), 3O2 (g)

(a) List two ... of the lattice enthalpy of an ionic


compound.

P.229 Q15
15. Explain the following terms with suitable
equation(s).

15. Explain the following terms with a suitable


example.

71

72

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

P.230 Q17

Ca2+

Ca2+

P.230 Q19
(b) From the result in (a), deduce ... not.

... lying vacant 3d orbital for bond ...

P.237 First paragraph, line 2


... The presence of the low-lying d-orbital ...

... The presence of the low-lying vacant d-orbital ...

P.240 Fig. 8-14

5 000

Standard enthalpy change of combustion ( kJ mol 1)

Standard enthalpy change of combustion ( kJ mol 1)

(b) From the result in (a), comment on the stability


of the compound XY2(s).

P.236 Last paragraph, line 4


... lying 3d orbital for bond ...

4 000

3 000

2 000

1 000

5 000

4 000

3 000

2 000

1 000

0
CH4

C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14

CH3OH

C3H7OH

C2H5OH

C5H11OH

C4H9OH

CH4

C7H15OH

C6H13OH

C8H17OH

C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14

CH3OH

C3H7OH

C2H5OH

C5H11OH

C4H9OH

C7H15OH

C6H13OH

C8H17OH

Part 4

P.240 Last paragraph, line 3


... additional t CH2 t group. This occurs as ...
with molar mass.

P.242 Table 8-2

Bond

Bond

..
.
CvC
CtC
..
.

..
.
CvC
C t Cl
..
.

P.243 Bottom of page


C(graphite)(s) + 2H2(g) ...

2.

C(g) ...
2.

From energy cycle and Hesss law

C(g) ...
Given: H1 ...

P.245 Middle of page


Energy required

Energy released

Energy required

Energy released

= E(C uC) + E(H t H)

= E(C t C) + 2E(C t H)

= E(C uC) + E(H t H)

= E(C t C) + 2E(C t H)

= 606 + 431

= 347 + 2(413)

= 612 + 436

= 348 + 2(412)

= 1 037 kJ mol

= 1 173 kJ mol

Hf = 1 073 + (1 173)
o

= 136 kJ mol1

From energy cycle and Hess's law


C(graphite)(s) + 2H2(g) ...

Given: H1 ...

... additional t CH2 t group. This shows that the


amount of energy associated with a particular
bond is more or less constant.

= 1 048 kJ mol

= 1 172 kJ mol1

Ho
f = 1 048 + (1 172)

= 124 kJ mol

P.248 First paragraph, line 1


The covalent radius is the space occupied by an
atom in a ...

The covalent radius is the distance between the


nucleus and the bonding electrons in a ...

73

74

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

P.249 Example 8-1

**Move Example 8-1 to P.254, before Example


8-2.

(a)

(a)

Explain why CCl4 is tetrahedral in shape but


NCl3 is not.

(a)

In CCl 4 , there are four bond pairs of


electrons. The bond pairs have to stay as far
away as possible. They take up the shape of a
tetrahedron and so CCl4 is tetrahedral in
shape. The four electron pairs in NCl3 take
the shape of a tetrahedron as well. However,
one of the electron pairs is a lone pair and the
other three are bond pairs. To account for the
shape of NCl3, we do not consider the lone
pair. The shape of NCl3 is trigonal pyramid.

Explain the fact ... shapes.

P.249 Example 8-1, Solution


(a)

Both CCl4 and ... is resulted.

(b) BCl3 has six electrons (boron atom is sp 2


hybridized) round the central atom ...

(b) BCl3 has six electrons round the central atom


...

P.250 Check Point 8-4


(a)

The following data ... Cl2.


(i)

Predict the approximate bond length


and bond enthalpies of SiH4 ...
..
.
(Hint: Assume both bond length and
bond enthalpy are addictive)

(a)

**Delete the sentence "The following data ...


Cl2."
(i)

Predict the approximate bond length of


SiH4 ...
..
.
(Hint: Assume that bond length is
additive.)

(ii) Assume ... observed.


(ii) Assume ... observed?

P.250 Lower middle part of page, line 3 of


paragraph
... orbitals and pairing of electrons. The more ...
their atomic orbitals. Hence, a covalent bond ...

... orbitals and pairing of electrons. The strongest


bond will be formed when the atoms approach
each other in such a way that there is an overlap
of their atomic orbitals and the potential energy
of the system is a minimum. Hence, a covalent bond
...

Part 4

P.251 Middle and lower parts of page

P.253 Last paragraph, line 6


... the lone pair and bond pair will stay further
away than the two bond pairs. ...

120
C

P=

**Delete the whole paragraph.

q1q2
r

P.264 1st paragraph


The calculation of the ... in the calculation.

**Delete the whole pargraph.

P.265 Last paragraph, line 4


... while the anion is large and has a low charge.

... applications include watch crystals, lifetime drill


bits, etc.

P.263 Bottom of page


The lattice enthalpy is ...

121 - 122
H
(>120)
118 - 119
C
C
(<120)
H

P.258 1st paragraph, line 3


... applications are endless: scratch proof
cookware, watch cr ystals, hard discs and
eyeglasses, lifetime drill bits, ball bearings and
razor blade.

120

... the lone pair will stay further away than the
three bond pairs. ...

P.256 Fig. 8-26


H

** Change all "bond pair electrons" to "bond


pairs of electrons".

... while the anion is large.

P.266 Example 9-1, Solution


(a) ... X+Br is purely ionic, ....
..
.

(a) ... X+Br is nearly purely ionic, ...


..
.

(b) It belongs to ... and Br.

(b) As X+ must have a low polarizing power. Its


charge/volume ratio should be small. X is a
Group I metal.

75

76

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

P.269 Fig. 9-6


________ Ionic bond

________ Covalent bond

________ Ionic bond with covalent character

________ Polar covalent bond

________ Polar covalent bond

________ Ionic bond with covalent character

________ Covalent bond

________ Ionic bond

P.275 Section 9.1, point (3), line 2


... implies the presence of pure ionic bonds while
a large ...

P.277 Q14
(a)

... ionic radii of the Group IIA ions?

(a)

... ionic radii of the Group IIA elements?

P.277 Q15
15. Fine jets of liquid CHCl3 and ...

15. Fine jets of liquid PCl3 and ...

... implies that the compound is almost purely ionic


while a large ...

P.277 Q16
16. Compare the sizes of the ions:
F
Cl
..
.

0.136 nm

Al3+

16. Consider the sizes of the ions:


0.050 nm

0.181 nm

Cl 0.181 nm
..
.

Al3+

0.050 nm

Based on the ... halides do not exist.

Based on the ... halides is rare.

P.277 Q19
... the theoretical value of lattice enthalpy of
calcium fluoride with the ... value?

P.277 Q21
21. Write a short essay on electroregativity.

... the theoretical lattice enthalpy of a substance


with the experimentally determined value?

21. Write a short essay on electronegativity.

P.289 1st paragraph, line 3


... The strength of the weak intermolecular forces
(or van der Waal's forces) affects ...

... The strength of the weak intermolecular forces


affects ...

Part 4

P.290 Fig. 11-2


Instantaneous
dipole
+

Instantaneous
dipole

Instantaneous
dipole

Instantaneous
dipole

P.290 Fig. 11-3


Induced
dipole
d+

Induced
dipole
+

d-

He

He

He

77

He

P.291 Fig. 11-5

Induced
in
dipole
non-polar
molecule

Induced
in
dipole
non-polar
molecule

Permanent dipole
in polar molecule

Permanent dipole
in polar molecule

78

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

P.291 Last paragraph, line 5


... which hold the noble gas atoms together ...

P.292 Fig. 11-6(b)

Fig. 11-7 Two isomers of C5H12

(b) Plastics are substances which have extraordinarily strong van der Waal's forces. Explain
why the van der Waal's forces are so strong in
plastics.

P.294 Last paragraph, line 5


... include iodine, napthalene, solid ...

... a definite internal of time, but the average ...

P.294 Check point 11-1


(b) Name a substance which ... in this substance.

... For example, the two isomers with molecular


formula C5H12 have ...

P.294 Middle of page


Fig. 11-7 Two isomers of pentane

P.293 1st pargraph, line 3


... a definite interval of time, which is large
compared with the instantaneous time. But the
average ...

P.293 Last paragraph, line 2


... For example, the two isomers of pentane
(C5H12) have ...

... which hold these non-polar molecules together ...

... include iodine, naphthalene, solid ...

P.300 2nd paragraph, line 3


... hydrogen. But there are three C t Cl bonds ...
polarization of the C t H bond increases. The ...

... hydrogen. Therefore, CH bond can be


considered as non-polar. However, there are three
CCl bonds ... polarization of the CH bond
increases. The ...

Part 4

P.300 Fig. 11-16

H
Cl

Cl
H

C 2H 5

Cl

CH3

A hydrogen atom or a

R:

n:

non-polar organic group


A large positive integer

n:

Dipole-dipole interaction ... while


instantaneous ...

(a) Name the types of bonding or intermolecular


forces that are ...

2.

Dipole-dipole interaction is present between


polar molecules; dipole-induced dipole
interaction is present between a polar
molecule and a non-polar molecule, while
instantaneous ...

P.312 Q20
**Delete Q 20 part (c).

P.318 1st paragraph, line 4


... and are free to move within layers. So, ...

P.320 Example 12-1


What is the type of bonding present ... ?

A hydrogen atom or an
organic group
a large positive integer

P.309 Section 11.2, 2

... and are free to move under the influence of an


electric field. So, ...

Hydrogen bond

R:

(c) Account for the ...

C 2H 5

CH3

P.308 Check point 11-3

2.

P.304 Diagram at bottom of page

(a) Name the types of bonding that are ...

Cl

Hydrogen bond

What are the types of attractive forces present ... ?

P.332 Q44
(c) H

atom

[MgCl2(s)] = ...

atom

for the process = ...

(c) Hf [MgCl2(s)] = ...


o

H for the process = ...


o

79

80

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

A-6

Chapter 1

*Check Point 1-1

(b) X is

228
88

X.

(b) X is

228
88

Ra .

Y is

228
89

Y.

Y is

228
89

Ac .

Z is

228
90

Z.

Z is

228
90

Th .

A-6

Chapter 2

*Check Point 2-2


(c)

1.6 g

(d) 1.6 g

*Check Point 2-3


(c)

V2 = 15.06 atm

(c)

V2 = 15.06 cm3

*Check Point 2-5


(b) (ii) Partial pressure of He = 103 371 Nm

Total pressure = 146 787 Nm

A-6

Partial pressure of N2 = 22 752 Nm

Partial pressure of Ar = 20 697 Nm

Total pressure = 146 786 Nm

Chapter 3

*Check Point 3-1

CH3
H

CH2

C 3H 6

(i) Propene

H C

HNO3

HNO3

(ii) Nitric acid

N
O

(iii) Ethanol

C 2H6O

C2H5OH or
C 2H6O

CO

C
C

Structural
formula

Structural formula:

Empirical Molecular
formula
formula

Compound

Molecular formula: C3H6

(a)

Empirical formula: CH2

(a)

(b) (ii) Partial pressure of He = 103 337 Nm

Partial pressure of N2 = 22 742 Nm


Partial pressure of Ar = 20 674 Nm

CH2OH

(iv) Glucose

CH2O

C6H12O6

H
HO OH
H

OH

H H
OH

Answers for Check Points

*Check point 3-8


(b) 96.7%

(b) 55.6%

A-7

Chapter 5

*Check Point 5-2


(a) Gold: [Xe] 6s14f 145d10

(a) (i)

[Xe]
5d

4f
2

(b) Uranium: [Rn] 7s 6d 5f

3s

3p
1

(ii) Cu: [Ar] 4s 3d

[Rn]

10

[Ar ]
7s

A-7

[Ne]
6s

Si: [Ne] 3s 3p

6d

4s

5f

3d

Chapter 6

*Check Point 6-2


(a) (i)
(ii)

76 kJ mol ; ...

76 kJ; ...

(ii) 184 kJ; ...

(iii) 484 kJ; ...

484 kJ mol ; ...

(iii) 417 kJ mol ; ...


1

(iv) 1 031 kJ; ...

(v) 8 340 kJ; ...

(iv) 2 081 kJ mol ; ...


(v)

(a) (i)

8 545 kJ mol ; ...

*Check Point 6-4

(b) 697.2 kJ mol1

(b) 21.84 kJ mol

(c) 21.84 kJ mol1

(c) 697.2 kJ mol

A-8

Chapter 11

*Check Point 11-13


(a) ...

*Check point 11-3


(a) (i)

...

(b) ...

(ii) ...

(c) ...

(iii) ...

(d) ... covalent bond and metallic bond

(iv) ... covalent bond, metallic bond and


hydrogen bond

(e) ...

(v) ...

81

82

Errata to Book 1 (First Edition, 1997)

A-9
21.

A-9

Chapter Exercise 1
230
90

Th ...

21. (e)

230
90

Th ...

Chapter Exercise 2

19. 641 cm3

19. 320 cm

20. 320 cm3

20. 641 cm3

A-10 Chapter Exercise 3


8.

30.96%

10. Volumetric analysis

8.

30.96%

9.

(a) 2CO(g) + O2(g) 2CO2(g)


(b) Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) +
H2O(l) + CO2(g)
(c) 5I(aq) + IO3(aq) + 6H+(aq) 3I2(aq)
+ 3H2O(l)
(d) 5Fe2+(aq) + MnO 4(aq) + 8H+(aq)
5Fe3+(aq) + Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l)
(e) 5SO32(aq) + 2MnO4(aq) + 6H+(aq)
5SO42(aq) + 2Mn2+(aq) + 3H2O(l)

10. Volumetric analysis


25. (c) 0.237 m

25. (c) 0.237

(d) 80.17 %

A-10 Part 1 Further Exercise


6.

(b)

2.37 dm

(c)

2.54 dm

12. (c)

(d)

(d) 80.18 %

6.

(b) 2.39 dm3


(c) 2.56 dm3

(i)

22.4 cm

(ii)

44.8 cm

(i)

oxygen

(ii)

hydrogen

(c) (i)

oxygen

(ii) hydrogen
22.4 cm

(ii) 44.8 cm

(d) (i)

A-11 Chapter Exercise 5


3.

(e)

1s22s22p63s23p64s13d10

**Delete Q3 part(e).

Answers for Exercises

A-11 Part 2 Further Exercise


3.

(d)

11. (a)

Germanium; Period 4; group IV

3.

(d) I.E. = 5 320 kJ mol1

11. (a) Germanium; Period 4; Group IVA

(b)

Chlorine; Period 3; group VII

(b) Chlorine; Period 3; Group VIIA

(c)

Chlorine; Period 3; group VII

(c) Chlorine; Period 3; Group VIIA

(d)

Scandium; Period 4; Group IIIB

(d) Manganese; Period 4; Group VIIB

12. (b)

I.E. = 5 320 mol

(i)

H2

12. (b) (i)

H3

(ii)

H2O

(ii) H7O

(iii)

NH3

(iii) NH8

A-12 Chapter Exercise 6


13. (c)

1 390 kJ

16. (a)

54.99 kJ g

13. (c) 3.98 kJ


1

16. (a) For hydrogen: 140.5 kJ g1


For methane: 54.99 kJ g1

A-12 Part 3 Further Exercise


4.

(c)

+18.45 kJ mol1

4.

(c) +20.0 kJ mol

A-12 Chapter Exercise 7


12. K = 4

12. K+ = 4

Cl = 4

Cl = 4

83