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VCE Biology Summary Book 2013

Samantha Tierney
DNA Structure and protein synthesis
Cellular respiration
Experimental Design

Nucleic acids
Organic and inorganic compounds
Composition of membranes
Processes molecules use to cross membrane
Important terms
Different ways animal and plant cells respond to osmosis and water balance
Adaptations of some organisms to osomoregulate
Movement across membranes in circulatory and digestive system

Signal transduction
Immunity as A3 booklet
DNA structure
DNA replication
Genetic engineering
Cell reproduction
Cell division
Population genetics and evidence of evolution
Methods of finding evidence of evolution

Hominid evolution
Hominids and their features
Movement of humans
Types of human evolution
Gene technology and the impact on the evolutionary process
Human intervention
Sub units:

Amino acids

Protein stages:

Stage Bond Diagram

Primary Peptide

Secondary Hydrogen

Tertiary Ionic and

disulphide (specific
3D shape)

Quarternary Hydrogen and


Identifying chemical structure of protein:

Amino acids
Peptide, hydrogen, ionic and disulphide bonds.

Where they are synthesised:

In a ribosome
Common proteins used in the cell:
RNA polymerase
DNA polymerase
Protein channels
Enzymes (to catalyse chemical reactions)

Two types of proteins:

Fibrous proteins (strength, structure and support)
Globular (eg. enzymes) have a very specific shape (active site) for their very
specific function.

How proteins transported and manufactured in the cell:

Produced via protein synthesis
o Transcription (nucleus)
 During Transcription RNA polymerase reads the DNA template strand to
produce a complimentary strand of pre mRNA. Post transcription modification
occurs and Introns are spliced out and exons are re-joined. A methyl cap(5')
and poly A tail(3') are added to the mRNA. This forms mature mRNA, which
then leaves the nucleus via a nuclear pore.
o Translation (cytoplasm)
 During Translation the Ribosome reads the mRNA, one codon (3 bases) at a
time. tRNA with the complimentary anticodon then binds to mRNA and drops off
a specific amino acid. Peptide bonds form between adjacent amino acids to
form a polypeptide chain.

o Transportation
 When the protein is at the tertiary structure it is transported to the Golgi body
where final synthesis (Quarternary) and packaging occurs. It is packaged into a
vesicle and is transported out of cell via exocytosis or to the part of the cell
where it is needed.
DNA Structure and Protein Synthesis
Bases of DNA and RNA:
Base Pyrimidine or Purine Pairs with DNA or
Adenine Purine Thymine/Uracil (2 bonds) Both
Guanine Purine Cytosine (3 bonds) Both
Thymine Pyrimidine Adenine (2 bonds) DNA
Cytosine Pyrimidine Guanine (3 bonds) Both
Uracil Pyrimidine Adenine (2 bonds) RNA

Pyrimidine: Has one 6-membered ring

Purine: Has one 6-membered ring joined to a 5-membered ring

Is the monomer of nucleic acids.

Transcription: Process by which a base sequence in DNA is used to produce a

base sequence in RNA
Translation: Process by which the base sequence of an mRNA molecule is
used to produce the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide

tRNA: RNA molecules responsible for bringing specific amino acids to the ribosome
for incorporation into a polypeptide during translation.
mRNA: Messenger RNA, molecule transcribed from DNA in the nucleus which
passes into the cytoplasm and binds to a ribosome, where it is translated into an
amino acid sequence.
rRNA: RNA component of the ribosome, essential for protein synthesis.
Differences between DNA and RNA:
Double stranded (double helix) Single stranded
Thymine Uracil
Stays in the nucleus Can leave the nucleus
Contains deoxyribose sugar Contains Ribose sugar

Start codon:
Start codon is the message that starts a certain protein being synthesized. For all
proteins this is the nucleotide sequence "AUG" and this codes for the amino acid
Stop codon:
The stop codons are the messages that tells the cell that the protein is made and
that they should stop adding more amino acids to the polypeptide. The stop codons
do not have amino acids. They are:
UAA (You are annoying)
UAG (You are gross)
UGA (You Go away)

When a base on DNA is changed:

 Codes for incorrect amino acid
 Results in genetic mutation
 Incorrect amino acid sequence
 Incorrect bonds
 Incorrect shape
 Protein unable to perform specific function

Amino acid code:

Is read from the mRNA (complimentary to DNA) NOT tRNA!
Definition: Protein that catalyses chemical reactions in living organisms. An enzyme
has a highly specific shape for its specific function. They can be used over and over

Protein structure:
Highly specific active site
Highly specific for specific function

Lock and Key theory:

Where the shape of the active site of the enzyme and the substrates are
complimentary. (SE not ES complex)

Induced fit:
Where the actual interaction between the substrate and the enzyme changes the
shape of the enzyme, producing the “right fit” at the active site. Alpha helix is like a

Factors that affect enzymes:

Amount of substrate

Enzyme activity increases with temp until critical point is reached
Optimum temp is just below critical temp
When critical temp reached enzyme denatures (loses its specific shape),
Therefore reaction rate slowed
Cannot be reversed
Does not happen when temp is cold
Due to charges in surface of enzyme, it interacts with solution it's dissolved in
Large changes result in denaturing
Small changes result in reduced activity
Optimum pH determined by pH enzyme is usually found in

Competitive inhibition:
Molecule (not substrate) binds to active site
Stops enzyme acting as catalyst for desired substrate

Non Competitive inhibition:

Molecule binds to another part of enzyme
New bond changes active site or obstructs it

Amount of substrate:
Increase in substrate increases enzyme activity
Until Enzyme saturation is reached (then it has no effect)

An enzyme is saturated when the active sites of all the molecules are occupied most
of the time. At the saturation point, the reaction will not speed up, no matter how
much additional substrate is added.

Can you pick the enzyme substrate and product in a chemical reaction?
Yes for example lipase breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol.

Are organic molecules
Donate protons or electrons
Eg. Vitamins

Co factors:
Are inorganic molecules
Help stabilize enzymes
Eg. Ions like Cl- or Zn2+

Biochemical pathways:
A series of chemical reactions occur when the product of one enzyme is the
substrate of another.

Factors that regulate biochemical pathways:

Can trigger reaction
Produce substrate for next enzyme (link pathways)
Enzyme graphs:

Build-up of substrate:
Prevents reaction from occurring
Often, diseases occur (eg. Albinism, anaemia)


Breaks down
Cellular Respiration
Krebs Cycle-Matrix
Electron transport chain-Cristae

Products of Glycolysis:
2 Pyruvate molecules (aerobic)
Lactic acid (anaerobic)

Matrix: Fluid nutrient component of mitochondria
Cristae: Inner membrane of mitochondria


Loaded acceptors
Carry electrons
Carry Hydrogen

Chemical formula:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 –enzymes-> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36/38 ATP

Glucose -enzymes-> Ethanol + Carbon dioxide (plants)
Glucose -enzymes-> Lactic Acid (animals)

Purpose is to store energy in the phosphate bonds.
Produced in Aerobic respiration
ADP + Pi --> ATP

What is the purpose of hydrogen ions building up on one side of the

Concentration gradient
It is the driving force of ATP synthase

What can be used as a fuel source?

Proteins (muscles)
Only as last resort

Cycle Oxygen
Glycolysis No
Krebs Yes
Can you apply oxidation and reduction to NAD and FADH?
Accepting H - Reduction
Donating H - Oxidation
Light dependant:
Light is absorbed by chlorophyll. Water is split. NADP binds with hydrogen-NADPH
and ADP binds with Pi –ATP. Oxygen produced.
H2O --> O2 + H+

Light independent:
CO2 enters stroma. It combines with H ions during a metabolic reaction to produce
H+ + CO2 -> C6H12O6 + H2O

Light spectrum and absorption:

Absorbs red and blue light
Reflects green and yellow

Limiting Factors:
CO2 levels
Light levels

Chemical formula:
12H2O + 6CO2 → C6H12O6 + 6O2 +6H2O

Light dependant-Grana
Light independent-Stroma
Experimental Design
Dependent variable:
Is the measure of the independent variable. Therefore it depends on the
independent variable.

Independent variable:
Is the variable which you change in an experiment
You can only have 1 variable that can change in an experiment
More than one independent variable will result in an unfair experiment.

An experiment looking at the growth of trees in no sunlight, low sunlight, a lot
of sunlight.
The independent variable is the amount of sunlight on the plants, because this
is what is being changed.
The dependent variable may be the height of the plants, which is determined
by the independent variable (amount of sunlight on the plants)

Controlled Variables:
The factors that stay the same in the experiment.

A standard (reference) treatment that helps to ensure that the other
treatments are being acted upon by the dependent variable and that the
results can be properly interpreted.

An explanation of an observation capable of being tested by experimentation.
Written as clear statements not as questions.

Do the results support or disprove your hypothesis?

Can only have one variable
All others are controlled
Two large test groups of the same amount with similar genetic makeup.
A control group
Results should be able to be repeated over a number of trials.
General formula CnH2nOn eg. C6H12O6
Names end in 'ose'
Contain many hydroxyl groups and one carbonyl group.
Classified by number of carbons eg. Glucose is a pentose sugar as it has 5
Composed of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds.

Store energy
Used as fuel for cellular work
Used as raw material for synthesis of other substances such as amino acids
and fatty acids

Synthesis of Carbohydrates:
Dehydration reaction where water is lost
Glycosidic bonds form

(Alpha) Glucose:

Identifying chemical structure of carbohydrates:

General formula CnH2nOn eg. C6H12O6
Common Carbohydrates:

Found in animals
Synthesised in the smooth ER
When in excess they are converted into lipids
Used for energy
Monomer: Alpha Glucose

Found in plants
Stores energy
Monomer: Alpha Glucose

Found in plant cell walls
Strong bonds (due to cross bonds)
Monomer: Beta Glucose

A derivative of cellulose and is used in exoskeletons of crustaceans and cell
wall of fungi.
Another polysaccharide
Is a cementing material between the cell walls of plant tissue cells

Breakdown of polysaccharides:
Hydrolysis reaction where water is gained

Relationship to cell membrane:

Used in cell adhesion
Used in Cell to cell recognition
Can be attached to proteins in membrane
Recognition processes involving antibodies, hormones and viruses.
Synthesis of lipids:
Condensation reaction where water is lost (one per fatty acid tail)
Synthesised in smooth ER

Fatty acids
Glycerol head

Chemical Structure:
Fatty acid tails are hydrocarbons
Insoluble In water
Phospholipids polar phosphate head due to an oxygen
5 common lipids:

Contains 3 fatty acid tails.
Form due to condensation reaction.
Sometimes referred to fats and oils.
Used as energy source and insulator.
Provides protection for organs.
Glycerol and fatty acids

Principle major component of cell membrane
2 fatty acid tails that are water hating therefore insoluble therefore nonpolar.
Has a phosphate molecule which contains phosphate and nitrogen.
Because of the oxygen in head it is polar.
So that nutrients can pass through the membrane and waste can come out.
Always moving, very flexible.

Has a four ring structure that looks like a carb.
They are lipids made in smooth ER.
Two main types: cholesterol gives strength
Hormones involved in cell to cell recognition and can act as transcription
factors and cause growth.

Carbohydrate attached to lipid.
2 fatty acids and lipids. In cell membrane
Cell to cell identification, communication and cohesion.

Often on outside of plant leaves.
Epidermal layer produces and secretes it.
Therefore the epidermal layer has an abundance of smooth ER.
Prevents water loss, produces insulation and protection.

Breakdown of lipids:
Hydrolysis reaction where water is gained

Relationship to cell membrane:

Main component
Form the bilayer
It is polar to allow nutrients and waste in/out
Provides flexibility
Nucleic Acids
DNA (DeoxyriboNucleicAcid)


Consists of many monomer units
Double helix structure
Wound and coiled to form chromosome
Found in nucleus (and mitochondria/chloroplast)

Monomers joined by phosphodiester bond
Condensation reaction

Holds all genetic material of an organism
Contains sequence of bases that code for a protein
Used in protein synthesis during transcription

Relationship to cell membrane:

Codes for proteins within it
RNA (RiboNucleicAcid)


Single stranded
Contains uracil instead of thymine
Many monomer units

Condensation reaction

mRNA carries amino acid sequence to ribosome
tRNA brings correct amino acid as coded for
rRNA main component in ribosome (organelle)
Overall is involved in protein synthesis

Relationship to cell membrane:

Involved in producing the proteins within the membrane
Organic and Inorganic Compounds
Organic Compounds
Are compound that are large and contain carbon in complex forms. They also have
carbon-carbon bonds. Important organic compounds are:
Nucleic acids

Small and not containing carbon (so they cannot have carbon-carbon bond).

The role of water in organisms:
Used in cellular respiration
Used in photosynthesis
Provides a medium for chemical reactions in the cell
It is a universal solvent
It is the key element to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function(pH).
Used for transport
Heat regulation (high heat capacity)
Goes into very small places (good for plants in soil)
Cohesive (good for transpiration)
Component of most chemical processes
Composition of Membranes
Membrane structure:
hospholipid bilayer
(lipids, protein, carbs, cholesterol)
Hydrophilic on the outside to let molecules in/out
Hydrophobic on inside

Membrane function:
Encloses contents of the cell
Controls movement of substances into and out of the cell.
Permits selective control of molecules coming in/out
Active environment for chemical reactions
Establish compartments within the cell
(separating hereditary material, cytosol, lysosomal enzymes, secretory
products of cell, energy processing materials in mitochondria/chloroplast)
Restrict movement of substances between one part of a cell and another,
thereby permitting regulation of the many enzymatic pro cesses that take
place within the cell
Have protein receptors involved in intercellular communication (directly
between adjacent cells, and by hormones and nerves)
Involved in cell–cell recognition
Produce electrical activity in excitable cells.

Fatty acid tails are hydrophilic hydrocarbons
Phosphate head has a negative charge (due to one oxygen) making the lipid
It is hydrophilic.
Polar so that nutrients can pass through the membrane and waste can come

Cholesterol function and structure:

Provides structure and stability
Makes it less fluid
Decreases permeability to water soluble molecules

Provide channels for water soluble molecules
Facilitated diffusion

Often linked to protruding proteins
Involved in recognition/adhesion btw cells
Recognition of antibodies, hormones and viruses

What can go through where?

Processes Molecules Use to Cross Membranes
Definition What uses this  Why is it important
process in human cells?
Diffusion Movement of  Gases (oxygen,  Cell respiration
substances from carbon dioxide)
an area of high  Alveoli of lungs
concentration to  Water molecules
 Capillaries
an area of low (rate slow due to
concentration. No polarity)  Red Blood Cells
energy required  Lipids (steroid  Medications: time-
hormones) release capsules
 Lipid soluble
alcohols, some
 Small non
molecules (NH3)
Facilitated Passive diffusion  Ions  Cells obtain food
Diffusion through selective

+ +
(Na , K , Cl )- for cell respiration
channels in  Sugars  Neurons
membranes. (Glucose) communicate
 Amino Acids  Small intestine
cells transport food
 Small water
to bloodstream
molecules  Muscle cells

Water (faster
Osmosis Passive  Water  Cells remove water
movement of produced by cell
water from an respiration.
area of low solute
concentration to  Large intestine
an area of high cells transport
solute water to
concentration bloodstream
 Kidney cells form
Active Movement of Certain water soluble  Bring in essential
Transport substances molecules (some ions, molecules: ions,
against the amino acids, amino acids,
concentration monosaccharides) glucose,
gradient nucleotides
that requires
energy. Occurs  Rid cell of
through selective unwanted
protein channels. molecules (Ex.
sodium from urine
in kidneys)
 Maintain internal
conditions different
from the
 Regulate the
volume of cells by
controlling osmotic
 Control cellular pH
 Re-establish
gradients to run
facilitated diffusion.
(Ex. Sodium-
Potassium pump
and Proton pumps)
Endocytosis: Parts of the Large molecules  Phagocytosis
Form of active membrane (such as proteins,
transport polysaccharides,  Pinocytosis
surround the
where material and pinch foreign material)  Receptor-Mediated
off enclosing the endocytosis
material in a
vesicle inside the
cell. This process
requires energy.
Exocytosis: Vesicles Large molecules Expels waste.
Form of active containing the (such as proteins,
transport material to leave polysaccharides,
where the cell fuse with foreign material)
the membrane,
open and out and
spill their contents
into the
Intracellular fluid
Important Terms
Solutions that have a higher solute concentration than a suspended cell.

What happens if you place a cell into this solution?

The cell will lose water and shrink. (Red blood cells = crenation)
In plant cells, the central vacuole will shrink and the plasma membrane will
pull away from the cell wall causing the cytoplasm to shrink called plasmolysis

Solutions that have a lower solute concentration than the suspended cell.

What happens if you place a cell into this solution?

The cell will gain water and swell.
If the cell bursts, then we call this lysis. (Red blood cells = hemolysis)
In plant cells with rigid cell walls, this creates turgor pressure.

Solutions that have the same concentration of solutes as the suspended cell.

What happens if you place a cell into this solution?

The cell will have no net movement of water (goes in and out at same rate)
and will stay the same size.

Water soluble

No charge
Water insoluble
Different ways animal and plant cells responds to
osmosis and water balance
Osmosis in different solutions:

Water balance:
They regulate osmosis by having a semipermeable membrane allowing only
water in or out and only allowing it to move from a high concentration to a low
Osmosis creates a balance on each side of the cell

Crenation: When animal cells become shrivelled

(Cyto)lysed: When animal cells burst due to high osmotic pressure

Plasmolysed: When plant/bacterial cells shrink away from the cell wall resulting in
large gaps btw cell membrane and cell wall
Turgid: When the plant cell membrane is pushed up against the cell wall due to
increased osmotic pressure.
Flaccid: Osmotic pressure is lost (but not like plasmolysed)
Adaptations of some organsisms to osomoregulate
Contractile vacuoles gather excess water and expel it to the outside of the cell
(sponges and freshwater protozoans)
By pumping ions such as sodium and potassium across cell membranes,
creating a concentration gradient that causes water to follow by osmosis.

Movement across membranes in the circulatory and

digestive system
Circulatory system:
In the lungs diffusion is used for gas exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen.
In the capillaries, oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide
diffuses out.
Without diffusion we would not acquire enough oxygen to got to the heart and
circulate throughout the body.
Nutrients and waste will move in/out of blood/extracellular fluid.

Digestive system:
In the small intestine nutrients diffuse into across the microvilli (increased
SA/V for maximum diffusion)
Signal transduction
Signal Transduction: Chemical process by which an extracellular message is
converted to an intracellular message to cause cell change.

Ways signalling molecules travel:

Endocrine: Blood stream
Paracrine: Neighbouring cells
Autocrine: Within itself
Exocrine: Outside body

4 Main signalling molecules

Pheromones: Chemical released by an animal that acts as a

signal to other animals of the same species
Function: Used for communication between organisms of the same species
Affect mating
Mark feeding
Mark territory
Signal presence of food
Signal presence of predator

Animal Hormones: Chemical substance produced in one part of the organism

(animal) and sent to another to initiate signal transduction.
Function: Initiate signal transduction in animals

Plant Hormones: Chemical substance produced in one part of the organism (plant)
and sent to another to initiate signal transduction.
Function: Initiate signal transduction in plants

Neurotransmitters: A chemical messenger transferred between the axon of one

nerve cell to the dendrites of another in order to continue a nerve impulse across
synaptic gap.
Function: Transmit nerve impulse across synaptic cleft

Produced in hypothalamus (releasing hormone)
Sent to anterior pituitary stimulates release of stimulating hormone
Stimulates organ/gland to produce and secrete a specific hormone
Signal Transduction Pathways

Steroid Hormone
1. Able to move through the membrane so
receptor is inside.
2. Binds to receptor.
3. Often then act as transcription factors.
4. Help switching on genes.
5. Results in protein formation.

Protein Hormone
1. Bind externally
2. Activates G Protein
3. Secondary messenger
4. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a common
secondary messenger.
5. Results in further reactions in the
6. Change in cell activity
1. Impulse converted from electrical message to chemical message
2. Neurotransmitters are released from axon terminal via exocytosis
3. They diffuse across synaptic gap
4. They bind to receptors on dendrites of neighbouring neuron
5. Sodium gates open and sodium ions rush in
6. If this stimulus reaches threshold an action potential is generated and the
impulse ia passed on

Difference between steroid and protein based hormone pathways

Made of lipids Made of Protein
Intracellular receptor Extracellular receptor
Lipid soluble Water soluble
Do not require second messengers Requires second messengers

Second messengers: Molecules that act after the chemical signals from signalling
molecule have entered cell.
Protein Kinases
Transcription Factors: Molecule that binds to specific receptor on DNA to initiate

Homeostasis: The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment within a

narrow range.

Animal Adaptions to Maintain Homeostasis:

Extended loop of henle
Increases water uptake back into the body
Counter current heat exchange
Regulates temperature

Cools blood down when animal does not have sweat glands
Shade seeking behaviour
to reduce radiation exposure
to move to more suitable climates

1. Signalling molecule binds to death receptor stimulating response apoptosis
2. Many different enzymes are activated within the cell and at the same time
messages go out to nearby phagocytes.
3. All cells that have received the death signal begin to break down and develop
small lumps (blebs) on the surface.
4. Organelles (except nucleus and mitochondria) are usually preserved as cell
breaks down into membrane enclosed fragments.
5. Fragments bind to receptor on phagocytic cell that have responded to message
from dying cell.
6. Phagocytes engulf fragments and release cytokines to inhibit inflammation so
that nearby cells are not damaged by necrosis.
Importance in body
Essential for feature development
Balances out with mitosis (must be balanced)

To much apoptosis
Causes neurodegenerative diseases

Not enough apoptosis

Leads to production of cancers
Leads to autoimmune diseases

Negative feedback mechanisms:


Chemoreceptors in the

-Diaphragm (contracts) Low pH High pH

-Diaphragm (relax)
-Intercostal muscles (contract) level in level in -Intercostal muscles (relax)
blood blood

-Increase breathing rate and -Decreases breathing rate and

therefore pH therefore pH

Osmoreceptors in the

-Posterior pituitary gland Low water High water

-Posterior pituitary gland
(stimulated) releases in blood in blood (inhibited) does not release
hormone ADH hormone ADH

-ADH binds to specific receptor -ADH not secreted therefore it

on the loop of henle (in kidney) cannot bind to its specific
stimulating (water gates open) receptor and the water gates in
water reabsorption into the loop of henle membrane remain
blood. closed.
-Kidney produces concentrated -Kidney produces dilute urine

Thermoreceptors in the skin and


-Skeletal muscles (contract) Low core High core

-Skeletal muscles (relax)
-Pilli muscles (contract) body temp body temp -Pilli muscles (relax)
-Smooth muscles surrounding -Smooth muscles
blood vessels (contract) surrounding blood vessels
-Sweat glands (inhibited) (relax)
-Thyroid gland (stimulated) -Sweat glands (stimulated)
-Thyroid gland (Inhibited)

-Shivering: increases metabolic -No shivering: decreases

rate therefore increases heat metabolic rate therefore
production decreases heat production
-Piloerection: Traps warm air -No piloerection: no warm air
which decreases temperature trapped increases temperature
gradient and therefore heat loss gradient and therefore heat loss
-Vasoconstriction: decreases -Vasodilation: increases
diameter of blood vessel diameter of blood vessel
pushing the heat further away bringing the blood vessels and
from the skin so that it stays in therefore the heat closer to the
the body for longer skin to make it easier to diffuse
-No sweat: no heat moves into out
sweat droplets therefore no -Sweat: Heat moves into sweat
heat is lost this way droplets and they are
-Production/secretion of evaporated taking heat away
thyroxine: increases metabolic from body
rate therefore increases heat -No production/secretion of
production thyroxine: decreases metabolic
rate therefore decreases heat

Pancreatic receptors

-Alpha cells (in islets of Low High

-Beta cells (in islets of
langerhans) of pancreas glucose glucose langerhans) of pancreas
produce and secrete hormone levels levels produce and secrete
glucagon hormone insulin

-Glucagon binds to its specific -Insulin binds to its specific

receptor stimulating the receptor on liver cells and
breakdown of glycogen to muscle cells stimulating the
glucose active uptake of glucose and
-Glucose then released into conversion to glycogen
Stimulus: The change from ideal or resting conditions
Receptor: The cells or tissue which detects the change due to the stimulus
Transmission: A form of chemical communication that occurs between two nerve
cells or between a nerve cell and an effector cell
Effector: The cells or tissue (usually muscles or glands) which cause response
Response: Change in an organism due to a stimulus

Hormones produced in the hypothalamus
Stimulating/releasing hormones

Neurosecretory cells
Located in hypothalamus (but continue into anterior pituitary)
Produce and secrete neurohormones

Common glands and what they secrete

Thyroid Gland:
Speeds up metabolic rate

Parathyroid Gland:
Parathyroid hormone: Increases blood calcium concentration

Adrenal Glands
Aldosterone: Maintains salt and water balance
Cortisol: Regulates carbohydrate and protein metabolism
Epinephrine(adrenalin) and norepinephrine: Initiates 'fight or flight' response
to danger

Oestrogen: Regulates female secondary sex characteristics
Progesterone: Maintains growth of uterine wall

Testosterone: Regulates male secondary sex characteristics

Glucagon: Stimulates breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Insulin: Stimulates active uptake of glucose into cell
Pituitary Gland:
Secretes neurohormones such as oxytocin
Oxytocin: causes uterine contractions and stimulates milk secretion in
mammary glands
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): Stimulates secretion of cortisol and
aldosterone by adrenal cortex
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): Stimulates reabsorption of water by kidneys
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH): (ovaries/testes): Stimulates production of
Growth hormone (GH): Regulates development of muscle and bones
Luteinizing hormone (LH): Stimulates production of progesterone and
oestrogen production; initiates ovulation in females; stimulates testosterone in
Prolactin (PRL): Stimulates milk production in breasts during lactation
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): Regulates secretion of thyroid hormones
(thyroxine and thyroidthyronine)

Neurons are nerve cells (specialised for transmission of impulses)
Are not replaced after initial development
Only carry signal in one direction
Afferent as they carry signal towards CNS
Detects stimulus
Cell body in the middle

Efferent as it carries signal away from CNS
Stimulates effector (muscle/gland)

Located in CNS
Carry impulse from sensory neuron to motor neuron
Reflex Arc
Controls rapid autonomic involuntary responses to keep the body out of
Does not involve the brain (making the response faster)
Stimulus travels from sensory to spinal cord to motor neuron

Action potential
1. Sodium channels open and Na+ ions diffuse into the axon
2. This region of the axon is now slightly positive (depolarisation)
3. Sodium channels close and potassium channels open. K+ ions diffuse out.
4. This region is now negative again (repolarisation)
5. This depolarisation and repolarisation moves along the axon (like a wave)
until it reaches the end
6. Then there is the refractory period. This is when Na+ and K+ ions are actively
transported back across membrane until they are distributed in the same
concentrations as before the impulse was sent
Can only move in one direction
In order for the impulse to take place the stimulus must reach or pass the

Signal transduction across the synapse

Action potential (charge) stimulates calcium gates to open
Calcium ions diffuse into the axon terminal
Stimulates vesicles to release neurotransmitters (EG.Acetylcholine) via
Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic gap (synapse)
Neurotransmitter binds to specific receptors (Sodium channels) on the
dendrites of the neighbouring neuron
Na channels stimulated to open (by Neurotransmitter) and Na rushes in
making cell slightly positive. If this stimulus reaches threshold action potential
is initiated.
Enzyme breaks bond btw neurotransmitter and receptor. Neurotransmitter
goes back into cell and is repackaged ready for next stimulus

Difference between hormonal and nervous system:

Hormonal Nervous
Very slow Very fast
Chemical Chemical and electrical
Longer lasting response Short lasting
Feedback: The consequence of the response on the stimulus. This can be
positive or negative.
Negative feedback: Homeostatic mechanisms where the response diminishes
the original stimulus.
Positive feedback: Homeostatic mechanisms where the response enhances
the original stimulus.

Important hormones:
IAA, GBA, ABA, Ethylene, Cytokinin
Hormone Function
IAA (auxin) -Promotes growth -causes cell elongation- promotes apical
dominance -prevents lateral growth
GBA -Promotes germination -breaches dormancy
ABA -inhibits germination -initiates dormancy -stimulates closure
of the stomata -promotes abscission
Ethylene -Ripens fruit -leaf/flower abscission
Cytokinin -Breaches dormancy -stimulates lateral buds -enhances
stomata opening - promotes cell division

Can be positive or negative
A growth response to a stimulus
Tropism A plant growth response to a stimulus
Photoperiodism A plant response to the stimulus of day/night length
Phototropism A plant growth response to the stimulus of light
Thigmotropism A plant growth response to the stimulus of touch
Geotropism A plant growth response to the stimulus of gravity
Heliotropism A plant growth response to the stimulus of direction of

Vernalisation A plant response due to extreme periods of cold

Dormancy Period of time where environmental conditions are not
Opening and closing of the stomata

Increased turgor results from an influx of water into the guard cells, causing them to
swell in the only direction possible, lengthwise. Because they are attached at their
ends, this buckles the guard cells and opens the stoma.
Water rushes out of the guard cells decreasing turgor pressure and allowing the
guard cells to go back to their normal shape and close stomata

Movement of materials from leaves to other tissues in plant via phloem
Nutrients from source (leaves)
Companion cell (storage)
Sieve cells ensure it goes in the right direction (down)
Companion cell (storage)
Sink (root cells, flowers, developing leaves)

Water molecules from soil move into root cells via osmosis
Move into xylem (made of skeletons of cells)
Due to hydrogen bonds water is cohesive and can move up the xylem
When it reaches the leaf it is evaporated
Plant adaptations

Desert Plant Adaptations

→ Some plants, called succulents, store water in their stems or leaves;
→ Some plants have no leaves or small seasonal leaves that only grow after it
rains. The lack of leaves helps reduce water loss during photosynthesis. Leafless
plants conduct photosynthesis in their green stems.
→ Long root systems spread out wide or go deep into the ground to absorb water;
→ Some plants have a short life cycle, germinating in response to rain, growing,
flowering, and dying within one year. These plants can evade drought.
→ Leaves with hair help shade the plant, reducing water loss. Other plants have
leaves that turn throughout the day to expose a minimum surface area to the heat.
→ Spines to discourage animals from eating plants for water;
→ Waxy coating on stems and leaves help reduce water loss.
→ Flowers that open at night lure pollinators who are more likely to be active during
the cooler night.
→ Slower growing requires less energy. The plants don't have to make as much
food and therefore do not lose as much water.

Tropical Rainforest Plant Adaptations

→ Drip tips and waxy surfaces allow water to run off, to discourage growth of
bacteria and fungi
→ Buttresses and prop and stilt roots help hold up plants in the shallow soil
→ Some plants grow/climb on others to reach the sunlight
→ Flowers on the forest floor are designed to lure animal pollinators since there is
relatively no wind on the forest floor to aid in pollination
→ Smooth bark and smooth or waxy flowers speed the run off of water
→ Plants have shallow roots to help capture nutrients from the top level of soil.

Plant Adaptations in Water

→ Underwater leaves and stems are flexible to move with water currents
→ Some plants have air spaces in their stems to help hold the plant up in the water
→ Submerged plants lack strong water transport system (in stems); instead water,
nutrients, and dissolved gases are absorbed through the leaves directly from the
→ Roots and root hairs reduced or absent; roots only needed for anchorage, not for
absorption of nutrients and water
→ Some plants have leaves that float atop the water, exposing themselves to the
→ in floating plants chlorophyll is restricted to upper surface of leaves (part that the
sunlight will hit) and the upper surface is waxy to repel water
→ Some plants produce seeds that can float
Plant defence
Thorns, spines and micro needles: discourage animals from eating them
Barriers such as waxy cuticle, bark and resins: resist penetration by virus
particles, bacteria, and the spores of fungi. Barks also provide some defence
against insect jaws and stingers. Thick barks provide fire protection.
Covering epidermis, leaves, stem, roots, with a contact poison to defend
against herbivores. Poison ivy, poison oak

Triggered by attack
When being eaten some plants can produce substances that act on the
animal eating them
Many plants produce volatile signal-chemicals that attract the natural
predators of their attackers.
Eg corn plants:
→ Attracts tiny wasps which home in on the signal and sting the caterpillar then lay
their eggs in it
→It tells nearby corn plants to activate their defences.
DNA Structure
DNA's 4 nitrogenous bases
Base Pair Pyrimidine/Purine
Adenine T Purine
Guanine C Purine
Cytosine G Pyrimidine
Thymine A Pyrimidine

Pyrimidines have a single ring structure.

Purines have a double ringed structure.

Double Helix
Two DNA strands form a helical spiral, winding around a helix axis in a right-
handed spiral
The two polynucleotide chains run in opposite directions (antiparallel)
5'end- with the 5th carbon on sugar exposed, 3'end- with the 3rd carbon on
sugar exposed.
The sugar-phosphate backbones of the two DNA strands wind around the
helix axis like the railing of a spiral staircase
The bases of the individual nucleotides are on the inside of the helix, stacked
on top of each other like the steps of a spiral staircase.


Difference between DNA and RNA

-Contains Thymine -Contains uracil
-Is double stranded -Is single stranded
-Never leaves the nucleus -Leaves the nucleus
-Monomer contains deoxyribose sugar -Monomer contains ribose sugar

Gene: A segment of DNA that codes for a protein.

DNA Replication
DNA helicase unwinds the double stranded DNA
DNA is copied in a 3' to 5' direction therefore the leading strand is copied
continuously where complimentary bases join to the parent strand
The lagging strand is copied in fragments discontinuously where DNA
polymerase binds to primers and synthesises short otzaki fragments
The otzaki fragments are joined by DNA ligase
The final product is two identical DNA strands that are semi conservative.
(double stranded semi conservative DNA)

DNA template strand

Generally from 5' end to 3' end
Strand on which a new strand is synthesised
Both strands act as template strand
3'-5' is lagging strand

Semiconservative: When the product contains one parent and one daughter strand
of DNA
Purpose: It limits the amount of mutations that would occur.

Primer: Marks binding site for DNA polymerase during DNA replication.

Otzaki Fragment: Short fragment of DNA synthesised on the lagging strand during
DNA replication.
Operon: A group of genes or a segment of DNA that functions as a
single transcription unit. It is comprised of an operator, a promoter, and one or
more structural genes that are transcribed into mRNA.

A segment of DNA where the repressor binds to, thereby preventing the transcription
of certain genes.

Promoter Region: A site in a DNA molecule at which RNA

polymerase and transcription factors bind to initiate transcription of mRNA.

-RNA polymerase binds to promoter region and initiates translation. It moves along
the DNA template strand (5' to 3'direction)
-Using complimentary free floating nucleotides it synthesises a complimentary
strand of pre mRNA
-Post Transcriptional Modification occurs. Introns are spliced out by a splicosome
and exons are joined together. A methyl cap is added to the 5' end and a poly-A tail
is added to the 3' end. Mature mRNA is produced.

Intron: Non coding regions of a gene

Exon: Coding regions of a gene

Poly-A Tail: Around 100-200 adenine bases

Methyl cap:

Repressor Protein: A regulatory protein that binds to the operator site to prevent
transcription (they switch the gene on and off).
Initiation-mRNA binds to the ribosome and the ribosome reads one codon (3 bases)
at a time. It begins at the start coon (which codes for methionine). Each codon
specifies for a specific amino acid.
Elongation-tRNA with the specific complimentary anticodon brings the specific amino
acid as specified by the mRNA to ribosome (occurs at ribosome site A). Amino acids
join by forming a peptide bond (site P) and the tRNA exits the ribosome (site E)
Termination- A stop codon is reached. This indicates that the production of the
polypeptide chain is complete. A stop codon does not code for an amino acid. A
polypeptide is produced.

-During transcription the mRNA moves through the ribosome. The ribosome stays

Transfer RNA (tRNA): RNA molecules responsible for bringing specific amino acids
to the ribosome for incorporation into a polypeptide during translation.

Anticodon: 3 bases located on tRNA which are complimentary to an mRNA codon.

Ribosome: Is an organelle consisting of rRNA and protein. It is the site of

Translation. It translates the mRNA code to call for specific amino acids to make a
peptide chain.

The ribosome is made up od a small subunit and a large subunit.

In the large subunit there are three sites:
Site A-Where tRNA binds to mRNA
Site P-Where tRNA drops off the amino acid and a peptide bond forms
Site E-Where the tRNA exits the ribosome

RNA base pairs: Adenine-Uracil, Guanine-Cytosine

Polypeptide: Primary structure of a protein, produced during Translation. It consists

of a chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
The coding of DNA determines the mRNA code. The codons of mRNA specify for a
specific amino acid. These amino acids form specific bonds that determine the
shape of the protein. If a DNA base is changed, the mRNA codon is changed and in
turn the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide produced. This means that different
bonds form and a different shaped protein is produced.
Genetic Engineering
Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that cut DNA at a specific recognition site to
generally produce sticky ends. They are named after the bacteria they are isolated
Enzyme Bacteria/Source Recognition Site
EcoRI Escherichia coli RY 13 GAATTC
BamHI Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H GGATCC
HindIII Haemophillus influenza Rd AAGCTT

DNA Ligase: Type of enzyme that joins DNA segments with sticky ends. It aids the
formation phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides.

Reverse Transcriptase: An enzyme naturally found in retroviruses used to make

cDNA from mRNA. It is used for gene cloning.

Gel Electrophoresis
Add dye to the marker DNA and all samples (so that they are visible at the
end of the process)
Load Marker and samples into the wells of the gel
Place negative electrode at the top and positive at the bottom
Turn on the electrodes
Let it run

This techniques is used to separate DNA fragments by length (or weight/molecular

The samples can be obtained through PCR or from cells. The fragments are
produced using restriction enzymes. The sixe of the fragments is measured in
kilobases (1000 bases).
The DNA is placed into the gel. Because it is negative it is attracted to the positive
electrode at the other end of the gel, so they move towards it. The smaller/lighter
fragments are able to move faster through the gel. DNA is not visible to the naked
eye so staining or southern blotting must be used to see the bands produced.

Molecular weight standards: Fragments of DNA of known lengths used for

comparing lengths of unknown samples.

Uses of gel electrophoresis:

1. It can be used to determine some ones DNA fingerprint to solve a crime.
2. It can be used for paternity testing to see who the other parent is.
3. It can be used to identify human remains, for example if there was a natural
Gene Probes: Single stranded DNA (can be RNA) that binds complimentary to DNA
under investigation to enable it to be seen or visualised.
They are used in gel electrophoresis to see if a particular allele is present in a

STR: Short tandem repeat. Non coding segments found between genes. They
repeat themselves many times and are between 2-6 bases long. There are many
different alleles for STR's and it less likely for people to have the same STR alleles
that coding segments of DNA. This makes them more useful for DNA fingerprinting.

Southern Blot Technique: Process used to identify individual DNA sequences


PCR: A process where DNA is amplified to produce many copies of a particular

segment of DNA.
1. Heat DNA of interest to 950C to break the hydrogen bonds between bases.
2. Cool to 500C to allow primers to anneal the 3' end of DNA strands.
3. Heat to 720C. Add Taq polymerase and nucleotides to extend the primers.
4. Repeat many times

Taq Polymerase: An enzyme which is used to extend primers in PCR. It synthesises

DNA at high temperatures.

Primers: Indicate the starting point for enzymes (in this case Taq polymerase.

DNA Sequencing: Determining the order of bases of a segment of DNA

Plasmid: A ring like structure that holds non essential DNA, found in bacteria. They
can replicate on their own, they are double stranded and easily manipulated.

General Structure of Bacteria:

Prokaryotic, therefore no membrane bound organelles
Cell wall made of peptidoglycan
Circular DNA
Does not have a true nucleus

Transformed Bacteria: Bacteria that have taken up a recombinant plasmid.

Recombinant Plasmid: A plasmid that has had a foreign gene inserted into it.

Clone: An organism which has been made to have the exact same genetic material
as another. Cloned DNA is when copies of an exact segment of DNA are produced.
(eg. In PCR)

ampr: Ampicillin resistance gene, inserted into plasmids so that transformed bacteria
can be isolated.

tetr: Tetracyline resistance gene, inserted into plasmids so that transformed bacteria
can be isolated.

To insert Insulin gene into plasmid

1. Isolate plasmid (with ampr) and gene of interest.
2. Cut each with the same specific enzyme
3. Join gene and plasmid together with DNA ligase
4. Plasmid is now recombinant
5. Place plasmid into mixture of bacteria
6. Heat shock the mixture so that some bacteria may take up the plasmid (bacteria
that do are now transformed)
7. Pour culture onto agar plate containing ampicillin
8. Those that survive are transformed (as they contain the plasmid with ampicillin
resistance gene) the other bacteria were killed
Agrobacterium Tumefaciens: Bacteria that is a pathogen of plants. It can be used as
a gene delivery system by taking out its pathogenic genes and inserting other genes
(such as growth promoters) and infecting the plants with it.


Advantages Disadvantages
-figuring out how to cure genetic -Raises ethical/religious issues
diseases, like sickle-cell anaemia -Expensive process
- Producing larger animals/crops so -GMO's escaping. eg The big fish that
that farmers get more money for got out and started eating the little fish
them of the same species.
- cloning animals that are about to

Cell Replication

1. Cell replicates its DNA

2. Cell elongates and DNA moves to either pole
3. Cell wall and membrane begin to form
4. Cell wall forms completely
5. 2 daughter cells produced


1. G1, G2 and S phase. Where DNA replication occurs and is

checked. Centriole move to either pole
2. Chromosomes thicken, nuclear membrane breaks down and
spindle fibres begin to form
3. Homologous chromosomes line up linear single file.
4. Centromeres are divided and pulled to either pole. Sister
chromatids are separated at their centromere and pulled to
either pole.
5. Nuclear membrane reforms
6. Separation of the cytoplasm
Population Genetics and Evidence of Evolution
Process of natural selection
1. VARIATION must exist between members of the species
2. SELECTION PRESSURE causes a struggle for survival
3. There is a SELECTIVE ADVANTAGE. Those that are most fit are able to respond an
pass on their alleles
4. Favourable traits ae INHERITED and over many generations allelic frequencies will

Two examples
1. Darwin's finches. Small populations moved to the Galapagos islands. On each island
there were different selection pressures, in terms of food source, which meant different
beaks were favourable. The finches with the favourable beaks were able to then mate
and pass on their trait. Over generations a specific beak type became higher in
2. Resistant Bacteria. There are some bacteria in a population that are resistant to a
particular antibiotic. When the population is exposed to this antibiotic there is a struggle
for survival. Those with the resistance are most fit for this environment and survive so
that they may replicate thus increasing the number of bacteria in the population that
are resistant.

Evolution: The changes that occur in the genetic makeup of a population over time.

Mutation and migration are the only factors that bring about variation in an asexual
population. The law of independent assortment and crossing over do not apply as asexual
organisms do not undergo meiosis.

Recombination: The process of exchanging genes between chromosomes.

Meiosis: A process of cell division occurring in the sex organs that results in the production
of four non daughter cells containing half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.

Linked genes: Genes that are located on the same chromosome and that are usually
inherited together.

Test cross: A cross between an organism expressing the dominant phenotype with an
organism that is homozygous recessive, used to determine the genotype of the organism
expressing the dominant phenotype.

Monogenic inheritance: Where one gene influences the expression of the trait. There are
two or more alleles and very distinct phenotypes. Shows discontinuous variation.
Discontinuous variation: When members of a population can be organised into only a few
classes for a trait.

Polygenic inheritance: When the expression of one trait is influenced by many genes.
Shows continuous variation.
Continuous variation: When members of a population vary in phenotype across the
population continuously.
Asexual reproduction, genetic variation is restricted to
 Mutation: A change in that organisms DNA which is then passed on to its daughter
cells (eg bacteria)
 Migration: By chance organisms that migrate may have variation in a phenotype due to
environmental influences
Sexual reproduction, genetic variation is brought on by
 Mutation: A change in that organisms DNA
 Migration: By chance organisms that migrate may have variation in a phenotype due to
environmental influences
 Sexual reproduction: Brings about the most variation by the following processes
 Crossing over: The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes.
 Independent assortment: The alleles of a gene controlling one trait assort
independently of alleles of another gene controlling a different trait.

Selection Pressure: Environmental conditions leading to differential fitness based on the

value of a particular trait

Adaptation: Inherited characteristic that increases the likelihood of survival and

reproduction of an organism

Artificial Selection: When an organism seeks a mate with a particular phenotype

Selective Breeding: The intentional breeding of organisms with desirable trait in an attempt
to produce offspring with similar desirable characteristics or with improved traits

Experimental Design (example)

Corn is grown on many farms. It was found that corn plants grown on one farm were always
shorter than the corn plants grown on its neighbouring farm. A hypothesis that the heights of
the corn plants was under genetic control was put forward.
Describe an experiment to test this hypothesis, and the results that would support it.

-Large sample of seedlings from each crop (A and B)

-There is an equal number of plants in each sample
-Sample seedlings need to be as similar as possible
-Place in a controlled lab (so that all variables are controlled)
-Record height every week for 8 months
-If all of the plants in sample A are short and all the plants from sample B are tall, height of
the plants is genetically controlled.
Process of Speciation
1. A species becomes isolated by a geographic barrier therefore no gene flow can occur.
2. The two populations are exposed to different selection pressures and agents. Natural
selection occurs thus changing the allelic frequencies of that population.
3. The two populations become reproductively isolated.
4. They can no longer interbreed to produce fertile and viable offspring.

Eg. There is a land bridge between north and south America. On either side there are
snapping shrimp. The two groups are phenotypically similar but when brought together they
snap at each other. They are considered to be two different species.
Explain how the differences between the shrimp could have arisen.
1. The population is separated into two groups by the geographic barrier of the land
bridge, therefore no gene flow can occur.
2. The two populations on either side of the land bridge are exposed to different selection
pressures. Natural selection occurs thus changing the allelic frequencies of the
3. The two populations are reproductively isolated and will not mate
4. Therefore they cannot produce fertile viable offspring and are considered different

Allopatric Speciation
The physical isolation of a population that begins the process of speciation due to
geographical isolation

Sympatric Speciation
Formation of a new species where there is no separation of genes by a geographical barrier
(happens in plants)

Adaptive Radiation
Rapid divergence of an evolutionary lineage from a recent common ancestor

A cluster of related species is considered evidence of adaptive radiation. It is assumed that

this type of evolution occurred among Darwin’s group of 13 species of finches. The species
evolved relatively rapidly as they adapted to different habitats and different islands in the
absence of competitors.
The dying out of a species or a group of species.

A species is considered extinct when they cannot be released into the wild. For example if
there still remains an organism of a particular species, but it lives in a zoo and cannot
survive on its own in the wild, the species is considered extinct.


Bottle Neck
When a large population is reduced to a small population due to a random catastrophic
event and the surviving individuals have different allelic frequencies that the original
population. When the population increases the new population is genetically different to the

North elephant seals went through a bottleneck when they were hunted so much that their
population was reduced to only twenty individuals. The population grew back to tens of
thousands after the species was listed as a protected animal. However, all the seals today
are identical for 24 genetic loci examined so far.

Founders Effect
When a small population becomes isolated from the original large population and the allele
frequencies in the founding population is different from the original population

An example of this is when a small group of Amish people moved from the main population
to Pennsylvania. The small group had a large number of people with polydactyl, where as
the large population only had a few, therefore allelic frequencies were different.

Genetic Drift: Change in the gene pool of a population over generations by chance

Inbreeding: The mating of two closely related organisms

Allele Frequencies: This is a measurement that determines how frequent the allele
expression of a particular gene arises in a population.

Gene Flow: The movement of individuals into or out of a population which results in a
change of allelic frequencies.
Immigration- When an organism moves into a population, introducing new alleles therefore
changing allelic frequencies of the population
Emigration- When an organism moves out of a population, taking alleles therefore changing
allelic frequencies of the population

Gene Pool: The sum of all genes and alleles in a population for a particular phenotype of an
Monomorphic- When all members of the population show the same phenotype.
Polymorphic- When members of a population show variation in a trait.

Divergent Evolution: When closely related species from a common ancestor become
dissimilar over time due to exposure to different selection pressure and therefore evolve

Homologous Features: Features that have similarity in structure but have different
functions. They are evidence of common ancestry.(eg. Bone structure in limbs)

Convergent Evolution: The development of two different species with similar structures/life
styles due to similar selection pressures but have not inherited from a common ancestor.
Analagous features: of organisms have the same function but do not have the same
structural similarity. They are evidence of Convergent evolution.

Parallel Evolution: When related species are exposed to similar environmental conditions
after speciation evolving similar features independently

Ancestor: A species from which another species evolved.

Selection Pressures: All the abiotic and biotic components of the external and internal
environment of an organism that influence population change over time.

Vestigial Structures: A reduced structure with no apparent function but is evidence of

evolutionary relationships.
Methods of finding evidence of Evolution
DNA Hybridisation
1. DNA from two species of the same gene is obtained
2. Heat is used to separate the DNA
3. The two strands from the different species is mixed together and allowed to cool
4. The strands are heated again until separated
5. The higher the melting temperature (Tm) the closer the species are related (as there
are more complimentary base pairings with each other)

Linkage Groups
This is a group of genetic loci close together on the same chromosome.
These are used in immunological studies to see how similar genes from certain species

1. Blood from a human (containing proteins but no cells) is injected into a rabbit.
2. The rabbits immune system recognises this as non self and produces antibodies
against human blood.
3. A sample of the rabbits blood is taken and the anti-human antibodies are extracted.
4. These antibodies are then added to samples of other species blood.
5. The more similar the sample is to human blood, the more precipitate is likely to form.

Similarities between species can be determined by examining their amino acid sequences,
and therefore their nucleic acid sequence.

Molecular Clock
Throughout evolution there have been changes in protein structure. The longer any species
have been separated the greater these changes will be. The change in protein structure
allows determination of 'relatedness' and provides a clock to discover the divergence
between two species took place.

Involves the study of present and former distributions of plants and animals. These studies
show that many organisms have a common evolutionary origin and are now found in widely
separated parts of the world.

Mitochondrial DNA
All organisms require mitochondria for cellular respiration, and therefore have its DNA.
It is used because there is little variation within a species but a lot between species. It is only
inherited from the mother so it is easier to trace back the genetic line.
Mitochondrial DNA is not copied in meiosis therefore there is decreased variation due to no
recombination. The only way variation can occur in mitochondrial DNA is through mutations
(redundancy of DNA also reduces variation).

This is the study of developmental stages of organisms.
Comparisons of different species embryos can reveal their true ancestral past. For example
human embryos still have gill slits at an early stage.
DNA Barcoding
Scientists look at the CO1 gene of the species and create a 'barcode' of that species
nucleic acid sequence. As most eukaryotic cells require Mitochondrial DNA, scientists can
create barcodes for most species. They then use these barcodes to identify which species a
plant animal or fungus belongs to by comparing the similarity between the barcodes.

Pseudo Genes
A segment of DNA that is part of the genome of an organism, and which is similar to a gene
but does not code for a gene product.

Phylogenetic Tree
A tree diagram showing the evolutionary relationship between species that have a common
In the diagram below the pine and rose are more closely related than the pine and the moss.
Conditions for fossilisation
Organism undergoes rapid burial by sediments
-Organism is trapped and therefore protected from erosion and scavengers. The lack
of oxygen reduces activity and therefore slows rate of decay.
Organism is in the bottom of a deep lake
-Lack of movement and low temp reduce scavenger activity and therefore the
organism is less likely to decay and more likely to fossilise.
Organism dies in a cave
As it is not disturbed by scavengers and wind the rate of decay is slowed.
Organism trapped in ice or glacier
Low temp and low oxygen slow decay.

Types of fossils
Pollen grains

Abundance of fossils
Could be because:
the area was inhabited by a large number of that organism
The conditions were optimal for fossilisation at this location

Lack of fossils
Could be because:
The area was uninhabitable by most organisms
The conditions were not optimal for fossilisation

Parts that fossilise

The harder parts of an organism are most likely to be fossilised as they are more resistant to

Relative Age
Can be determined using index fossils and stratigraphy. This form of aging is based on the
assumption that the top layers of sediment are the youngest and the deepest is the oldest. It
gives a rough estimate of the age of a fossil.

Index Fossils
Are fossils that are characteristic to a particular time period which is short, are abundant and
have a wide distribution.
Fossils found near index fossils are assumed to have been fossilised around the same time
and are therefore of a relatively similar age to the index fossil.

Is comparing the different layers of strata from a rock.
Radioisotope dating
The amount of a particular isotope left in an organism can determine the approximate age of
a fossil (by using half-lives). Different isotopes in organisms will break down at different rates
and therefore can only be used within a specific timeframe.

EG. Carbon Dating (carbon to nitrogen) can be used if the fossil is between 40,000 to 60,000
years old
Uranium to lead-1,000 to 1,000,000 years old.
Hominid Evolution



FORAMEN Back of head Centre of head Centre of head Centre of head


SHAPE OF DENTAL Parabolic arch


Box shaped

CANINES / have large canines with small canines without a gap Small but not as small as homo Large
DIASTAEMA diastaema around them (diastaema) sapiens

BRAIN SIZE Small Largest Smaller than homo sapiens but Medium
larger than apes and

SHAPE OF PELVIS longer pelvis is found in tree shorter more rounded pelvis
dwelling primates as it is used as
an anchor point for skeletal

Similar to modern humans


BROW RIDGES Prominent Slight Less prominent Prominent

ZYGOMATIC Large/Very pronounced Far less pronounced Less promounced Large/Very pronounced
ARCHES (cheek

Graciles Robust

 More slender  More robust

 Includes: A. anamensis  Includes: A. robustus

A. afarensis (Lucy) A. boisei
A. africanus (Taung Child) A. aethiopicus

 Possible ancestors of our line  Cousins of our line

 Rounded top of skull with no  Bony crests on skull


Time of living

 3.9-2.3 mya

Major features

 Foramen magnum at centre of head

 Larger Zygomatic arches were indicative of larger jaw muscles than homo sapiens

 Sexual Dimorphism was present

 Fully erect posture

 Bipedal gait

 Prominent brow ridges

Types of evolution they exhibit

 Biological
-Became bipedal
-Related to modern humans (divergent evolution)
-Increase in brain case size

-Teeth became smaller

 Cultural
-Used sticks, stones and plant materials as tools and passed this idea on to their
GROUP Pan troglodytes a. Afarensis A. Africanus (taung Homo Habilis
Feature (Chimp) (lucy)

Years ago The great apes, including the 3.9-2.5 mya 3.0 – 2.3 2.3 – 1.5
chimpanzee and humans, spilt off
from the lesser apes about 20

Cranial capacity 320-480 cubic centimetres (cc) - 430-440ml 400ml – 480ml 630 – 800ml

Physique - males larger than females - light build some ape Light build more like Legs were relatively short,
- arms and shoulders that enable features humans than afarensis, providing this species with
them to swing from branch to - long arms curved fingers longer arms arm and leg proportions that
branch and toes were relatively ape-like.
- long curved finger and toe
bones to grip tree branches and - females grew to only a
‘knuckle walking’; walking on little over one metre in
knuckles. height (105 – 110
centimetres) and males
were much larger at about
150 centimetres in height
-rib cage was cone-shaped
like apes
Skull shape Apelike face, low forehead, Brow ridges less Beginnings of slight forehead
bony brow ridge flat nose, prominent, higher
(Images) no chin forehead shorter face Small, arched brow ridge
smaller and shorter than
Front earlier ancestors

Hole for the spinal cord

Side located in centre of skull
base, therefore bipedal

Teeth and jaw Long pointed canine teeth and Human like teeth, smaller Canine teeth further Smaller narrow molars,
long jaws than apes,, larger than reduced. Shape of jaw thinner jaw.
humans. Large jaw shape fully parabolic.

Use of tools Sticks, twigs and stones Simple tools; sticks, non- Includes core tools, Use of sticks, also rocks were
durable plant material, choppers and smaller used but no evidence of
stones. flakes used as scrapers. shaping the rocks.

Use of fire

Ceremonies Complex social groups; 10-100

individuals that often divide into
small foraging groups of
constantly changing membership
of about 3-10 individuals.
Feature Homo erectus – Homo floresiensis Homo Neanderthal- Homo sapien (modern)

Time of This species lived between 100,000 The human remains date from Between 28,000 and 300,000 years ago to
living and 1.6 million years ago, although about 38,000 to 18,000 years old, 300,000 years ago present
some estimates extend this to but archaeological evidence
between 35,000 and 1.8 million suggests H. floresiensis lived at (archaic Homo sapiens from
years ago. Liang Bua from at least 95,000 to 300,000 years ago,
13,000 years ago. - modern Homo sapiens from
about 160,000 years ago)

Cranial 800-1100ml 417 cc Neanderthals: 1,200– Humans: 1,000–1,900 cc

capacity 1,900 cc (73–120 cu in) (61–120 cu in)

Phisique The body tended to be shorter similar to early humans than generally shorter and Modern humans now have
had more robust an average height of about
and stockier than those of modern humans
skeletons and muscular 160 centimetres in females
modern humans.
bodies than modern and 175 centimetres in
 characteristic bipedal foot that
humans males
Brain includes a big toe aligned with
showed an increase in size over
other toes and a locking
earlier structure of the brain was males averaged about
mechanism on the middle of the Slender trunks and long
similar to that of modern humans 168 centimetres in height
foot limbs. As well as stockier
while females were
slightly shorter at 156 builds
Limbs  Several primitive features include centimetres
were like those of modern humans
a relatively long foot for its body
although the bones were thicker,
size, a flat arch lacking the spring-
suggesting a physically demanding
lifestyle like mechanism used to store and
release energy during running,
and a short big toe.

unusual low twist in the upper arm

bone, wide leg bones, relatively
short and curved clavicle,
shoulder moved forwards slightly.

 They lack features that evolved

with the ancestors of modern
humans at least about 800,000
years ago
Skull -face was large with a low, sloping  cranial shape is long and low and
forehead, a massive brow ridge and
closer to that of H.
a broad, flat nose
erectus than H. sapiens
-skull was broad and long with sharp
angles at the rear,  receding and small forehead
-bones of the skull were very thick  thick bones within the range of H.
and formed a small central ridge, erectus and H. sapiens
known as a midline keel, along the  flat face
top of the skull  brow ridges over each eye that do
not form a continuous brow ridge
as in Indonesian H. erectus
narrow nose
Teeth and Jaw was large and thick without a lacks the bony point on the chin -jaws were larger and -jaws are short which result
Jaw pointed chin more robust than those in an almost vertical face
found in modern humans
of modern humans and -usually no gap between the
Molar teeth had large roots but were had a gap called the last molar teeth and the jaw
 relatively large jaw and teeth that
decreasing toward a more modern retromolar space, behind bone
size resemble H. erectus but with
the third molars (wisdom -lightly built and have a
more primitive features
teeth) at the back of the protruding bony chin for
 premolar roots different from H.
jaw. added strength. Homo
sapiens sapiens is the only species
 small post-canine and canine -jaw lacked the to have a protruding chin.
projecting bony chin that -Shortened jaw resulted in a
is found in Homo parabolic shape
 parabolic or V-shaped dental
sapiens. -Teeth are relatively small
arcade typical of Homo -teeth were larger than compared with earlier
bony shelf at the front of the lower
those of modern humans species.
jaw which is a primitive feature
-Front premolar teeth in the
not seen in H. erectus
lower jaw have two equal-
sized cusps

Use of tools Advanced tools for chopping Stone tools were found in a Similar to the blade tools -Homo sapiens made stone
scraping and cutting number of different layers dating of Homo sapiens but less tools such as flakes,
from 90,000 to 13,000 years ago. advanced. scrapers and points that
Tools include simple flakes, were similar in design to
points, perforators, blades and those made by the
microblades which were possibly Neanderthals
hafted as barbs. -wider range of materials
including bone, ivory and
antler were used
-very small blades
(microliths) that were often
used in composite tools
having several parts

Use of Fire Burnt stones and animal bones, There is evidence of the use of The Neanderthals built Sophisticated control of fire,
charcoal and ash deposits indicate fire in Liang Bua cave. The hearths and were able to including complex hearths,
these people may have used fire remains of numerous juvenile control fire for warmth, pits and kilns
about 500,000 years ago but it is Stegodon have charred bones, cooking and protection
difficult to prove whether this use possibly indicating that H.
was controlled. floresiensis was able to control
fire for cooking.

Ceremonies There are no traces of pigments, The dead were often Burials were infrequent and
ornaments or deliberate burials in buried, although there is very simple prior to 40,000
the layers associated with H. no conclusive evidence years ago and then began
floresiensis – all of which for any ritualistic to become more elaborate
characterise the modern human behaviour. However, at with the inclusion of valued
levels from the upper parts of the some sites, objects have objects such as tools and
cave. been uncovered that body adornments. Red
may represent grave ochre was sprinkled over
goods. many of the bodies prior to
Out of Africa Theory
Suggests that Homo erectus evolved into Homo sapiens in Africa, and then ventured
out of Africa and dispersed to all around the world.

Mitochondrial DNA indicates that the out of Africa Hypothesis is most likely

Regional Development Theory

Suggests that Homo erectus ventured out of Africa and then evolved into modern
man in several different locations through out the world.
Biological Evolution: Slow change over time due to mutations and genetic changes
due to natural selection acting on phenotypes.

An example is Darwin's finches changing beak shape.

Cultural Evolution: The passing on of ideas, knowledge, beliefs and language from
one generation to another. This is rapid and deliberate.

Examples include; teaching how to use fire or communicate via speech.

Technological Evolution: The passing on of technology, allowing us to intervene

with biological evolution within a generation.

Examples include; gene therapy, stem cell research, selective breeding, cloning and
artificial insemination.
Genetic Screening
Is the systematic testing of individuals in a population for genetic disorders that have
yet to be expressed or are in the early stages of development.

-Decisions which individuals make on the basis of the results of genetic screening
have the potential to change the human gene pool.
-A person who knows they are a carrier of a detrimental trait may choose not to have
-Parents may choose to terminate a pregnancy if the foetus is shown to have genetic
abnormalities or inherited diseases.
-Screening prior to the implantation of embryos leads to fewer offspring with genetic

DNA Profiling
Is determining all alleles of an organism

-Decisions which individuals make on the basis of the results of DNA profile have the
potential to change the human gene pool, if parents chose not to have a child if they
possess a specific trait.
-Can lower genetic diversity if certain traits are not kept within the population

Bacterial Transformation
Is when bacteria take on a plasmid and are used to produce certain proteins.
Transformed bacteria can be used to add a gene to the gene pool of an organism.

-Sufferers of diseases such as diabetes and growth defects survive longer and are
therefore able to reproduce and pass on their alleles. The frequencies of these
alleles may increase within the population.
-It is maintaining unfit alleles within the population

Selective Breeding as a method of affecting and limiting the gene pool of a

This is when plants and animals are selected on the basis of phenotypes/traits by the
farmer or breeder, and the other organisms are prevented from reproducing.

-This lowers the genetic diversity of the population as all phenotypes are the same
-The population becomes more susceptible to selection pressures/agents and
therefore is more likely to become extinct
Apoptosis: Programmed cell death (is an example of signal transduction)

Signal Transduction: Chemical process by which an extracellular message is

converted to an intracellular message to cause cell change.

1. Signalling molecule binds to death receptor stimulating response apoptosis
2. Many different enzymes are activated within the cell and at the same time
messages go out to nearby phagocytes.
3. All cells that have received the death signal begin to break down and develop
small lumps (blebs) on the surface.
4. Organelles (except nucleus and mitochondria) are usually preserved as cell
breaks down into membrane enclosed fragments.
5. Fragments bind to receptor on phagocytic cell that have responded to message
from dying cell.
6. Phagocytes engulf fragments and release cytokines to inhibit inflammation so
that nearby cells are not damaged by necrosis.
What it is Why scientists use it How it works How it intervenes Issues
with evolution
IVF and AI Process by which -So that couples unable -Egg is removed from -Maintains variability Legal
egg cells are to naturally reproduce woman and placed in within the population -If embryos are frozen
fertilised by sperm may have children a culture medium by allowing more and the parents do not
outside the womb -Sperm is extracted people to pass on wish to use them, they
from semen and their alleles must be destroyed if
placed in the culture that is what they want.
medium with the egg There can be issues if
in an incubator the medical practitioner
-Egg is fertilised uses them without the
-Embryo is permission of the
transferred into the parents.
woman's uterus

Cloning The production of a -To protect endangered EMBRYO -Leads to loss of Environmental
new organism from species from extinction SPLITTING genetic variability -By creating herds of
a cell nucleus of -To understand Cells of an early -Should animal cloned animals that
another organism. diseases and test embryo are artificially cloning become have the same genetic
The clone is medicines (therapeutic separated. Each widespread, composition, the
genetically cloning) single cell is then decreased diversity diversity of those
identical. -To test new medicines placed into a may result animals is reduced. As
on cells taken from surrogate mother for -Cloning may be a consequence, cloned
the embryos before development to used for medical animals and herds may
trying the medicines on continue. All purposes to provide a be more susceptible to
animals and real people organisms produced treatment to a disease and less able
-To replace body parts are identical. disease thus to withstand an
NUCLEAR maintaining unfit outbreak.
TRANSFER alleles within the
Egg ell is enucleated. population
The nucleus from a
cell of the organism
to be cloned is
transferred into the
egg cell. The egg cell
is now fused with the
somatic cell of the
other organism. It is
given an electric
pulse which
stimulates cell
Stem cells Are undifferentiated -Use it for research -Egg is fertilised -Maintains unfit Ethical
cells that have the -Patients' own adult -Cell multiplies and alleles within the -The blastocyst from
potential to develop stem cells have been turns into a blastocyst population by which the stem cells are
into a variety of successfully used to Stem cells are allowing sick people extracted is considered
cells. treat a number of removed from the to reproduce and by some people to be a
conditions, like blastocyst (or can be pass on their alleles foetus and some
Parkinson's taken from bone to their offspring believe it is killing the
disease and multiple marrow/cord blood) -Frequencies of the foetus.
sclerosis -Stem cells are alleles may be
-Used for cultured in the lab increased within the
cloning/therapeutic -used to produce population
cloning bone cells, nerve
cells, skin cells and
blood cells
Gene involves the -To increase the life -Functioning allele is -Maintains unfit Economical
therapy insertion of span of people with fatal placed into a vector, alleles within the -Gene therapy is a very
functional alleles diseases such as a virus population by expensive process
into an individual -The virus is then allowing sick people
who has a non- injected into the to reproduce and -Patients may not be
functional allele patients’ blood pass on their alleles able to afford it
which causes a stream to their offspring -Patient numbers may
genetic -The virus attaches to -Frequencies of the be too small to support
disease/disorder its specific receptor alleles may be commercial
this enable the on its target cell and increased within the development
organism to injects the functional population
produces the allele into the cell
functional protein. -The cell starts to
produce the protein
coded for by the
functional allele
SAC 4 Summary
Biology 2013
Samantha Tierney 2013
Structure of the lymphatic system:
The lymphatic system is composed of lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, lymph vessels and
bone marrow.

o Lymph Nodes: centre for production of white blood cells. Contain mature T-cells
and B-cells
o Spleen: Like a giant lymph node with blood. It purifies the blood and lymph fluid
that flows through it
o Thymus: organ where T-cells mature
o Lymph Vessels: Carry lymph fluid from cells to lymph nodes
o Bone Marrow: Contains tissue that produces red blood cells, T-cells and B-cells

1. Transportation of lipids (lipids can cause blockage in arteries)
2. Returns nutrients into the blood stream
3. Defends against disease

Pathogen or Pathogenic Agent:

Is any infectious agent that is capable of
causing disease to an organism.

Cellular Non Cellular

Bacteria: Protozoans: Fungi: Worms: Viruses: Prions:

Are prokaryotic Are unicellular Are eukaryotic spore Are multicellular Are non-cellular Are pathogens
organisms that have a eukaryotic organisms producing organisms. organisms that come in pathogens that can composed of protein
cell wall made of classified on the basis They are heterotrophic two forms; flat or infect all types of only which replicates
peptidoglycan or of their locomotion. and their cell wall is round. They are organisms. They are via host cell (therefore
murein. They do not They are usually made of chitin. (They endoparasitic and have classified as non-living non-living). It infects
contain membrane endoparasitic. produce penicillin) hooks or suckers to as they require cell the nervous system
bound organelles (eg. attach to the host. machinery of the host only (degenerative).
Nucleus). They may be to reproduce. They Transmission via
motile eg. Have flagella. contain either DNA or inheritance or
RNA which is ingestion. It consists of:
surrounded by a sPrP-scarpie prion
protein coat. protein and nPrP-
Normal prion protein
Binary Fission: Optimal Living Conditions: Mode of reproduction: Diseases: Optimal living conditions: Disease:
Must be living in an Can be asexual/sexual To prevent diseases from fungi you In the gut of animals where they To prevent disease from
environment with sufficient Eg in wheat should kill fungi to prevent have a surface to latch onto the this parasite avoid effected
nutrients, specific When fungi infects host it spreading/reproduction, wear host and can obtain sufficient waters and consumption of
temperature and pH at which produces haploid spores. They protective clothing (eg shoes in nutrients to survive. uncooked/infected foods.
they function at their optimal fertilise and grow into a fruiting shower) to prevent direct contact and There are a number of
level. body. This then releases more use antifungal powders. If you do drugs available to treat
spores and those infect other become infected with a fungal disease dieases cause by worms
Prevention of disease and (eg scabies)
plants. (eg. Tinea-Humans or Ringworm-
Plants) antibiotics and antifungal
Bacterial diseases (eg. cholera
powders can be used. They will not
and pneumonia) can be Main distinguishing feature: Main distinguishing feature:
Fungi are eukaryotic organisms. cure this disease though. They are multicellular organisms that are either flat or round. They
treated with antibiotics in
extreme cases chemo can be Their cell walls are made of are endoparasitic and have hook/sucker to attach to host
used. Prevention of bacterial chitin. They are spore producing Optimal living conditions:
diseases comes in the form of heterotrophs. Warm and moist environments.
vaccines and antibiotics.
Other methods can be taken
such as usin heat to kill Reproduction:
bacteria in food (cell wall) or The different segments of the worm contain male/female reproductive organs. Fertilisation occurs between the different segments. Each segment
by using disinfectants to kill matures into bag of eggs and breaks off. They are excreted with faeces. Animals eat it and become infected. When humans eat the animal meat they
pathogen. too become infected.
Malaria life cycle:
Main distinguishing feature: They are eukaryotic organisms that can Optimal living conditions:
be motile. Part of Protista family. Environment with nutrients and water as well as having the right temp, pH
Reproduction: Asexual reproduction of protozoans occurs
when the cell divides in half by binary fission. Some Prevention and treatment of disease: Prevent breeding of infected vector,
protozoans reproduce sexually as well. This can happen when revent vector from acsessing human, vaccines and preventative drugs.
two protozoans carrying half of their regular genetic material Treatment involves drugs which kill the parasite.
fuse together and form a new cell.

Other disease life cycle:

African sleeping sickness
Reproduction: Ideal living environments: Main distinguishing feature:
Where there is an Viruses are non-cellular and
abundance of host cells infect all types of organisms.
They require cell machinery of
Prevention of disease: host cells to reproduce
Avoid direct contact with (therefore they are nonliving).
infected individuals, Their nucleic acid is
ensure you do not surrounded by protein coat,
consume infected they only have DNA or RNA.
food/water and there are

As viruses do not have the structures that are usually the
targets of antibiotics treatment is difficult. Most effective
strategies involve interfering with protective coat & preventing
assembly/release of viral particles. An example of a viral
infection is chicken pox.

Reproduction: Optimal living conditions: Prevention of diseas:

Prions consist of a protein, called PrP (Prion Protein). There is normal PrP and disease-causing As they are a protein their optimal living Avoid consumption of infected foodand
PrP (scrapie PrP). The amino acid composition of the two forms is similar however their tertiary conditions would be their specific pH and maintain strict quarantine processes.
structures are different. Contact between scrapie PrP and normal PrP causes the normal PrP to flip temperature. There is no treatment for prion diseases.
into the disease shape. In an infected mammal the nervous system accumulates large amounts of
scrapie PrP and slowly degenerates.
Types of prion disease: Main feature:
-Cruetzfeldt-Jakob Disease (effects People) -Composed of protein only
-Kuru (effects People) -Replicates via host cell
-Scrapie(effects sheep) -Infects nervous system (degenerative)
-Mad cow disease -Consists of:
-All caused by prions that led to spongi- sPrP-scarpie prion protein
form Encephalopathy nPrP-Normal prion protein
-Genetic or inherited form

o Pathogen: An organism that can produce disease in another organism

o Ectoparasite: A parasite that lives on the outside of the host.
o Endoparasite: A parasite that lives on the inside of the host.
o Infectious disease: caused by pathogenic organisms or agents.
Vaccine and booster shot.
Tetanus bacteria Antibiotics and vaccination.
enters the body

First Line of defence: Second line of defence: Third line of defence:.

Is a form of nonspecific (innate) immunity, meaning Is a form of nonspecific (innate) immunity, meaning It is the reaction of lymphocytes to specific antigen
that it recognises and responds to a pathogen in a that it recognises and responds to a pathogen in a resulting in the production of specific antibodies and
generic way. It is not long lasting but is immediate. generic way. It is not long lasting but is immediate. the production of memory cells. It is a form of specific

Barriers: Chemical: Cellular: Chemical: Physiological: Humoral: Cell mediated:

Skin: Is a physical barrier. Its Lysosomes: Burst bacteria -Phagocytosis -Cytokines -Fever Is a specific immune response to It is a specific immune
glands secrete sweat and cells. -Natural killer cells -Interferons -Inflammatory response a specific antigen where specific response where
fatty acids to inhibit bacterial Sweat: High salt content -Mast cells -Histamine -Blood clotting antibodies and memory cells are cytotoxic T-cells and
growth. ‘dries up’ microbes. -Basophils -Compliment proteins produced. It fights disease in the memory cells are
Natural secretions: Such as Digestive enzymes: Break -Platelets extracellular fluid. produced against a
stomach acid to kill bacteria. apart components on specific antigen. It acts
Lysosomes in tears and pathogen. It is also known as antibody on infected cells, tissue
saliva burst bacteria cells. Urine: Changes pH, changing mediated. transplants, eukaryotic
Natural flora: Prevents their environment (so they Involves B-cells. parasites and
infection by pathogenic cannot function as they are Vaccination & Immunisation (Vaccination is when a vaccine is administered to you tumour/cancer cells.
bacteria, by taking nutrients not in optimal conditions) Immunisation is what happens in your body after you have the vaccination)
and being competition. Contains an attenuated (weakened), dead or synthetic form of the
Mucus: lines the antigen/pathogen that cause an immune response.
respiratory/digestive tract
trap bacteria.
Cilia: sweep them upward to Firs vaccination causes A booster vaccine causes
the back of the throat to be
removed by swallowing,
blowing your nose or Primary Immune response: Secondary Immune response:
sneezing. The first encounter with a specific antigen which causes an immune response where Second encounter with a specific antigen which produces a more intense and rapid
antibodies and memory are produced. Takes about a week. immune response producing large amounts of antibodies. The response lasts longer.

Phagocytosis Dendritic cells

Are a type of phagocyte that breaks down pathogens and becomes an

Phagocytes are types of white blood cells that engulf, ingest and digest (with the use of powerful enzymes) foreign substances. It has no memory and is
Natural Killer cells
Is a type of white blood cell. It is a type of lymphocyte that gives
Mast cells Basophils
protection by killing infected cells by releasing cytokines. They have no
Are white blood cells located in the smooth muscles and connective tissue. That Are granular white blood cells that contain histamine and serotonin.
have vesicles containing histamine (signalling molecule) and their function is to
promote the inflammatory response.

Granules are small packets of enzymes and other substances - for example
inflammatory chemicals like histamine - that are made by the white blood cells that
help them perform their function. For those white blood cells that are phagocytic
(they eat bacteria and waste chemicals) the enzymes in the granules (vesicles) will
be released onto the eaten material and break it down into its component pieces -
bacteria are killed in this way. The enzymes have to be kept in these vesicles
because if they were free inside the white cell they would destroy it from the

Signalling molecules

Cytokines Histamine
Act as messengers between cells. There are many different types of Triggers the release of Is a signalling molecule released from Mast cells. It binds to its specific receptorsin the
cytokines. They are the signalling molecules of the immune system. smooth muscle/blood vessel. The blood vessel dilates and becomes slightly more
permeable. This causes the inflammatory response and compliment to occur and attracts
phagocytes to the area.

Stimulates release of
Are a type of cytokine. They are antiviral chemicals produced in the cell
infected by a virus that interfere with the reproduction of virus particles. Complement
They send messages to nearby cells and stimulate macrophages to the Involves 20 different proteins. Once activated it will coat pathogens making them sticky
area. (therefore easier to phagocytose) or it can lyse the cell wall of the pathogen and
stimulate phagocytes to the area. It also stimulates the release of histamine.

Types of Immunity

Active: Is when a specific Passive: Is when an organism

immune response occurs and is given specific antibodies
produces antibodies and and does not produce
memory. Longer lasting memory

Naturally induced: When Naturally induced: When an Artificially induced: When

Artificially induced: An
antigens naturally enter an organism gains its antibodies antibodies are introduced to
organism is given an injection
organisms body maternally the body by injection (eg.
of attenuated, dead or
Against snake bite)
fragments of an antigen.

When the core body temperature is reset to destroy pathogens.

1-A macrophage engulfs and ingests 2-The pathogen is digested in a vacuole by 3-Interleukin-1 is released into blood stream and 4-Interleukin-1 stimulate hypothalamus resets
pathogen. powerful enzymes. This causes the release of travels to hypothalamus. body’s ‘thermostat’ top a higher temperature
endotoxins which induce the macrophage to producing fever.
release interleukin-1 (a cytokine).

Crisis phase: Finally all pathogens consumed,

therefore decrease in interleukin-1, therefore Chill onset Fever onset
the thermostst has been reset.


1-Dilation of blood vessels Increases blood flow

Heat-denatures proteins in pathogen

Allows antimicrobial factors (eg

phagocytes , antibodies,
2-Histamine produced and complement, interferon) in
Phagocytes can reach and
attracts phagocytotic cells blood to reach infected site.
Inflammatory response starts with enter affected tissues
invasion of tissues by pathogen

Phagocytosis. Phagocytes release

3-Increased permeability of Antibodies, complement,
chemicals (interleukin) to control
blood vessel walls allows interferon can pass into
temperature via hypothalamus (fever)
fluid to leave circulation affected area
and enter tissues
Odema (swelling)

Pain caused by odema and

certain substances released
by injured tissue Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) Are protective immune ‘guards’ that sense
PAMPs. They induce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines via signal
Blood Clotting:
The biochemical process to minimise blood loss and damage
from an organism

Injured tissue and platelets release clotting factor

(prothrombin activator) and calcium ions.

Blood prothrombin >converted to> thrombin >splits fibrinogen> fibrin

Fibrin fibres form a mesh cover over wound

trapping platelets and red blood cells

Bleeding stops and the clot hardens

and becomes smaller

New cells grow to repair wound site

Enzyme plasmin is released and

dissolves clot

Virus Infects cells

Infected cells place antigen in MHC class 1

Macrophage engulfs, digests and

processes antigen (with the use of
powerful enzymes) and becomes an
antigen presenting cell.

MCH- Protein markers expressed in all

cells that are specific to an organism. It
enables cells to differentiate ‘self’ from
‘non self’.

APC presents antigen to T-Helper cells T-Helper cell stimulates correct

and stimulates it with interleukin 1. T-Cell with interleukin-2

The stimulated T-Cell proliferates,

differentiates and divides (mitosis)

TC bind to infected cells and release the cytokine perferin, which

lyses the infected cells membrane. They also release other
cytokines to alert phagocytes and stimulate compliment (to
make the cells sticky for phagocytosis)

Antigen self and non self

The body is able to distinguish its own cells (self)
from foreign matter (non self) by shapes of
antigen. MHC1= Self antigen PAMP=foreign

Antibodies are secreted into the body. They

Macrophage engulfs, digests and processes then precipitate, agglutinate, stimulate
antigen and places it on MHC2 compliment, neutralise and attract

Clonal selection occurs: specific antigen

determines correct B-cell. This B-cell
APC presents to Th undergoes cloning

B-Plasma: rapidly produce &

secrete specific antibodies
B-Memory: roam lymph until
second encounter and divide

Th stimulates B-cell with the correct antibody (immunoglobulin

antigen receptor)
The B-cell then proliferates, differentiates and divides by mitosis
into B-memory and B-plasma cells
Autoimmunity: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is when the myelin sheath is
when self-cells recognise other self-cells ads non-self and attack them. recognised as non-self and is therefore attacked.

Diabetes type 1 is when the beta cells in the pancreas are

recognised as non-self and are therefore attacked.

Allergic Response:
Considered as an inappropriate immune response.
Treatments for allergies include antihistamines and
epi pens with adrenalin Tissue rejection

Allergen (anything that causes a specific immune

response and the production of IgE antibodies) enters
the body
Transplant is placed into the body

Plasma cells become sensitised and

produce and release IgE antibodies.
If immunosupressants are given the immune If immunosupressants are not given the immune
system is slowed and almost shut down. system functions as normal.

IgE antibodies bind to mast cell (instead

of allergen)
New ‘self’ cells grow over the ‘non-self’ cells in There is not enough time for ‘self’ cells to grow
transplant. Therefore the antigen (MCH of over ‘non-self’ cells. They are detected and
other organisms cell) on transplant is not attacked via cell mediated response.
detected or attacked.

Mast cell secretes histamine and causes

inflammation (which is the allergic response)

The more frequent contact, the more severe

each response is. It can eventually lead to
hypersensitivity, which is when the allergic
response affects the whole body and can be
enough to cause death.

Mechanical Barriers Chemical Barriers Plant Diseases

Epidermis layer/waxy Bark /resin provides -Plant antibodies to kill/destroy pathogen. Honey Fungus: Honey fungus is the Soft rot: Bacteria enter
cuticle resists penetration defence against insects -Sticky substances trap pathogen to stop it from common name given to several plant and attack the
by virus particles, bacteria that may be vectors for reproducing and spreading. differentArmillaria fungi that attack fleshy storage organs of
and the spores of fungi. pathogens. -Phenols (Phyltolexins) destroy a range of and kill the roots of many woody their hosts, but they also
pathogens. and perennial plants. The most affect succulent buds,
-Toxins kill animals and pathogens. characteristic symptom of honey stems, and tissues.
Thorns prevent Galls encapsulate -Stop aerobic respiration in an infected area, seal fungus is white fungal growth
herbivores from eating pathogen to prevent it it off and induce abscission. between the bark and wood
them. from spreading.
usually at ground level.

Epidermal layer (acts as skin) provides a barrier between

plant and pathogen. The thicker, the better.
-Biggest plant killer
-Xylem: when infected plant dries and wilts
-Phloem: plant becomes discoloured as it cannot send food to
make pigment
-Hyphae: are branch filaments extending from fungi

Molecular Biology: The study of biochemistry of cells, particularly Proteome: The sum total of all proteins found in a Genome: The sum total of all genes in a functioning organism
DNA and genes functioning organism

Molecular Biology can be used to create vaccines based on

knowledge gained from studying the structure of antigens.

Rational drug design

1.Finding out the infective agents work against a cell: 2.Then using this information to design drugs to prevent the infective agent being able to
Find the shape(structure) of the active site (or biological target) that aids in the cause of do what it does.
the illness. Design a drug that is complimentary to the active site thereby inhibiting it. It will also be
based on particular chemicals that are attracted to each other and positives and
Designing a drug that stops the allergic reaction to peanuts.

Group A: 100 genetically similar people allergic to peanuts. Test group. Group B: 100 genetically similar people allergic to peanuts. Placebo group

Group A is given the drug with antibodies containing complimentary shape Group B is given a pill with no antibodies in it.
to peanut antigen.

All other variables such as temperature and diet are controlled.

Both groups are given a peanut and their drug.

If group A do not develop a reaction and group B do develop a reaction, the drug works.