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they decided to move to cities as better job opportunities were awaiting for them.

addition, younger migrants migrate in order to escape from their monotonous village
life and goes to urban areas to have fun or to explore the real city life. Other
young adults also migrate in order to pursue further studies, to get better job
opportunities or to establish their families in urban centres.

Another case in point is in India where migrations have been taking

place in the past thirty years, soaring the populations of urban areas like Delhi and
Mumbai. Fieldwork research has been conducted during the summer of 2012 for 3
months and where the major areas of research were in the Northeast India primarily
in Bihar and New Delhi. Moreover, via interviews with Indian experts and urban-rural
informants revealed that migration basically took place in the northern state of Bihar
for the past decades. Furthermore, during the time of Green Revolution in Punjab, the
Biharis left for seasonal labour in the high yield field variety agricultural centres of
North India in order to get higher wages. Eventually, after working in the fields for
four months, the Bihar people could no longer account for the needs of their families
so they decided to leave their homes along with their children so as to migrate to
major cities such as Delhi and Mumbai in order to have a better and successful

On the contrary, push factors come in various forms, leaving

inhabitants with no choice except for being forced to leave their country of origin.
Economic push factors include overpopulation , lack of economic opportunity, poverty,
agricultural decline, environmental degradation and natural hazards such as droughts,
floods, famines, volcanic eruptions as well as slavery and political persecutions. In
addition, social and physical push factors tend to involve and an example of a social
push factors would be religious injustice towards a certain cultural group, such as the
Jewish refugees who flee from Nazi Germany in 1930. Furthermore, an example of a
physical push factor would be a natural disaster and disease such as the East Africa
drought and the scourge of HIV/Aids. Rural inhabitants may want to migrate to
urban centres of their countries in search of protection, food and medical assistance
during these periods of crisis. Interestingly, a fieldwork research was organised in
Nigeria on rural and urban migration using Ijebu waterside local government area of
Ogun state as a case study. The research questions were conducted by using a survey
design and the fieldwork techniques in order to collect reliable information from 144
respondents with the help of a 10 item structured questionnaire and personal

Additionally, Mitchel Todaro (1997), professor of economics found

that the factors motivating Nigerians to shift to urban areas are complex and
different. Primarily, one of the social push factors that provoked the migrants to leave
the mountain villages was to flee from traditional persecutions that the social
organisations were practising. Another physical factor to encourage the Nigerians to
shift to urban areas was meteorological disasters like droughts and famine. Eventually,
demographic factors such as a fall in mortality rate and a rise in the rural population
growth thus leading to overpopulation , obliged the Nigerians to shift elsewhere
notably in cities. Improved transportation, educational systems and the modernising
impact of television, radio and cinema, features that are omnipresent in cities, also
attract people to establish their homes in these luxurious areas.

In the light of the above ideas, we can conclude that migration

takes place basically from poor, politically unstable and conflict prone countries to
those who have a powerful economy, are politically stable and offer a better security
to its inhabitants. The reasons to why people migrates to urban areas are due to the
push and pull factors. Push and pull factors are forces which either prompt people to
shift to cities or forced them to leave their hometown or country of origin. They can
either be economic, political/social or cultural including lack of job opportunities,
education, better medical care or even natural disasters, poverty, overpopulation and
political fear among others.


1. Globalisation 101: A project of Suny Levin Institute

2.Chinas Young Rural to Urban Migrants: in search of fortune, Happiness and


3.Kate Cornwell and Brett Inder : When motivation surpasses the theory, Migration
and unemployment in South Africa. Monash University

4.H.Ricardo and T.Mitchell Aide, Mountain source and development, 27(2): 119-123.
2007, International Mountain Society. <>

5.Omonigho T. Okhankhuele and Olaniyan Z.Opafunso: Causes and consequences of

rural-urban migration Nigeria, A case study of Ogun waterside local government area
of Ogun state, Nigeria