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33

IB Post 20-10-98

Awards
salute
green
projects
A garbage-recycling scheme
in a ger district of Ulaanbaatar,
UB Post 30-09-97
an air-pollution project and an
awareness-raising campaign
targeted at herders were
among the winners at the first
A tree grows in UB
Environmental Public Aware- Every Mongolian should Australia, the Netherlands
ness awards. plant a tree a year, says and the United Nations
The October 16 awards The Mongolian Forestry Development Programme.
Association's Ts. The wide-ranging
capped the two-year
Banzragch. A newly projects, outlined at a
Environmental Public Aware-
adopted forestry law September 23 press
ness Programme. encourages local conference at the Press
Funded by the Dutch gov- authorities to organize Institute of Mongolia,
ernment, the United Nations citizen tree-planting, and include the Selbe River
Development Programme and Banzragch's group has protection project, plant
the Australian Embassy in completed a film. How to and animal research at
Beijing, the Programme Plant A Tree, to educate Otgon Tenger protected
supported, through training people on tree-planting area, the Blue Bag recycling
and small grants, 91 small techniques. scheme, an initiative to
projects designed to raise It's one of more than 60 fight air pollution in
awareness of the country's N6O- and government- Ulaanbaatar and a project
fragile ecology. initiated Environmenal dubbed Gobi Nature
Public Awareness projects Through Children's Eyes.
The projects were carried
supported by money from
out by Mongolian NGOs and
government agencies in
Ulaanbaatar and all 21 aimags.
The 22 projects saluted for
their accomplishments on
Friday ranged from a video
demonstrating how to plant a
tree to a campaign to erect road
signs in dusty Dalanzadgad
and a televised ecology Olym-
piad.
At the awards ceremony,
it was announced that the
project will be extended for
another two years.
The ceremony also
marked the launch of the news
published Green Book, a how-
to manual on environmental
protection in Mongolia.
34

UB Post 25-11-97

Warm and ecofriendly: why straw houses
have development agencies excited
Though it is Only par-
By David SAOOWAY
tially finished, the clinic is

A
woman stand* pleasantly 'warm. An ef-
poised on a ladder, ficient Chinese-built heater
plastering a wall recirculates warm water to
with earth-red mud. An radiator* throughout the
adjacent room, soon to b* building.
filled with doctors and "This building requires
nurses, Is covered with 20-30 kilograms of coal
bailed yellow straw. Wheat dally - four to five times
straw, mud and glue — leas fuel than conventional
these are the main ma- brick buildings of the same
terials in a straw-bale sii«," says Tsend. *\t
building. means the fire only needs
"Straw-bale construc- to be made twice a day.'
tion technology was in- That mean* less work, and
troduced to Mongolia in a lot fewer carbon and
1995 by A.D,R,A-, the sulphur oxides and harmful
Adventiat Development interior *moke-
Relief Agency, " says N. Another benefit of buil-
T**nd, the officer over- ding with straw Is the
seeing this project. "This environmentally friendly
technology has become to nature of the materials.
popular that 16 projects are Natural wheat Straw, clay
now under construction or and sand are non-toxic,
on the drafting table.' cheap and plentiful in
Recently the U.N.-fun- Mongolia. Straw-bale con-
ded Mongolian Action struction costs roughly half
Programme <0f the 21st the price per square metre
Century decided to marry of brick. The dry Mongolian
this energy-efficient build- climate means that the
ing technique to social- materials do not rot easily,
service pilot projects. The and straw is an excellent
twofold aim is to teach insulator.
employable skill* In con- "With proper construc-
struction while creating tion &nd maintenance, a
much needed community straw-bale house will last
services including a school, up to 80 year*," Tsend
8 kindergarten, a dormitory claims.
and a health clinic. At the Biocombinat
One of the straw-bale clinic 27 trainees, many of
projects is a community them women, are going
health clinic in Biocom through three weeks of
binat, a 4,000 person bed- intensive training. Travel
room community just west from theif home aimags
of Ulaanbaatar'c Buyant' and training allowances are
Ukhaa airport, When the provided by the Mongolian
work >$ complete by year's Action Programme's pilot-
end, the clinic will have project fund. After written
cheek-up rooms, visiting ymi oral tests, students
areas, offices and storage receive certification as
spaces. Tsend explains that (e&chers, technicians or
the total cost for the 160- workers.
vquaie-metre building will The project is providing
be around Tg 1Z million, -or training for s i x - p e r s o n
U,5. $14,000. crews"Irtjm"thr*e~e aimags," (See next page)
35

UB Post 25-11-97

Cheap and energy efficient: there's been a lot of huff and puff about straw-bale houses lately.
Crew members include a of Women. The Federation Now Oyunchimeg plans Many will also provide
cartified engineer and tech- intends to start a Women's to return home to Sukh- much-needed employment.
nician, two carpenters, a Development Centre, pro- baatar aimag in eastern Would a straw bale
r a s t e r e r and a metal viding free healthcare Mongolia and "look for house be a cheaper choice
worker. services, skills training and possibilities of private, than the classic ger? A
The clinic uses a stand- a temporary shelter for housing construction in the basic ger costs between Tg
ard concrete foundation battered women. countryside." She believes 750,000 and Tg 1 million,
ana floor, the later built The plan is to surround demand will be high and while a similar sized straw-
atop a straw-gravel bed. the building with gardens through her company's bale structure would be
The walls and.roof are also for food and traditional efforts she intends to build valued at around Tg 2
mutated with straw. The medicinal herbs. two or three houses. million. But the long-term
walls are mudded at Back at the clinic, Oy- Tsend, too, has high advantages of energy sav-
twice before receiving unchimeg is busy dis- hopes for the future of ings and extra rooms might
i coat of paint. cussing building techniques straw-bale construction. In make the straw-bale a more
Construction began in with carpenters and plas- 1998, with the co- appealing choice to some,
August on another straw .terers. For the last two operation of A.D.R.A, 10 especially to young
[>flot project at Am- months, she has been projects will be completed families.
, in Ulaanbaatar's east learning to teach straw-bale in nine aimags. And Tsend It will probably be a long
. Work was completed construction techniques. is working with the Asian time before Mongolians
toy 30 worker-trainees. This "I became interested in Development Bank and the give up their traditional
two-storey, 168-square- this technique after watch- private sector to get more mobile form'of housing. In
••cre structure was built at ing a television programme than 70 more projects off the meantime, for those
coct of U.S. $18,000. on this type of housing," the ground into the next building with wood and
The building ft Amgalan she says. "I wanted to learn century. Many of these brick, an energy efficient
finished. Soon the about it by taking the three projects will feature solar alternative is being demon-
t wiH be handed over to weeK teacher-training hot-air collection and basic strated in Ulaanbaatar and
Mongolian Federation course." greenhouse technology. five aimags .
36
*
Mongol Messenger 10-12-9"

Straw-bale
trainees
ready for
business
HOUSING
by Laura

deposit, bat n: •
portunitv to exti
straw," S'. Tsead
pants at a natioui i
construction wo
week.
MrTsend, wkobtfcel
Nations Doe
Programme (1NDP
Development Officer.:
ous local compaain
pressed interest in an
straw-bale building?
ers were keen to provide
dows and doors.
About 85 people fro*
aimags attended the
workshop which carried the
theme, Fields Of Gold.
Participants were issued with
straw-bale technology munis
and taken on a tour oTstr*w-bale
buildings in Amgalin.
Biocombinat and Microdistrkt
3.
The workshop was an impor-
tant part of the Provision of En-
ergy Efficient Social Services
Project, which has already re-
ceived requests from the State
and private sector for straw-bale
buildings in their local commu-
nities.
The project has coordinated
the construction of straw-ba'-
buildings for a health clinic ai._.
a centre for the Mongolian
Women's Federation. Over the
next two years, the project plans
the construction of a further 98
super-insulated buildings. Only
companies with experience in
straw-bale building will be eli-
gible to bid for these contracts.
National Project Manager S.
Ganbold, who has worked
closely with 163 Mongolians who
have been exposed to on-the-job
training, said many trainees
were interested in exploring em-
ployment opportunities in straw-
bale construction.
"Enkhbayar is a mother of
two who received training and is
working at the Amgalan site
where the two-storey building is
being constructed for the Mon-
golian Women's Federation,"
Mr Ganbold said.
"Next season she plans to
start up her own business and
take a straw-bale construction
crew to her native Dornogobi
Aimag."
The workshop was organised
by MAP-21, the Ad ventist Devel-
opment and Relief Agency
(ADRA) and the UNDP.
Keen interest in straw-bale technology Mongolia Is gearing up for a national seminar on More than 160 people from 18 efficient, south-facing windows
HOUSING straw-bale houses to demonstrate building
aimags have been exposed to on- that will either be sealed or double-
the-job training of which 32 have pane. This will be an improvement
technologies to State and private construction been awarded a teacher certificate. from poorly built double windows o
Hach winter healing costs fur a Only certified teacher-level train- with single glass that often results
Mongolian ger can reach Tg4200 companies. LAURA RYSER reports. ees can be construction managers in broken glass or non-aligned win- era
per square metre, while heating a on the project. dow frames from a lack of mainte- o
small straw-bale dwelling will cost Sixty percent of the trainees nance.
only Tg280. infrastructure and social problems. since the turn of the century. How- were previously unemployed or Trainees will also instal low-
Such a house can be built for Currently, instead of delivering ever many people continue to be were low-income family women. cost greenhouses for growing veg-
about Tg560,000, enabling fuel educational and health services skeptical about the durability of A two-story straw-bale house etables. This will allow institutions
savings to pay for its construction with their operating budgets, insti- straw-bale houses. for the Mongolian Women's Fed- to obtain nutritional foodstuffs, to
within seven years. tutes are instead consuming re- According to the Canada Mort- eration site in Amgalan and straw- reduce the costs of providing
Mongolians living in straw- gage and Housing Corporation, the bale health clinic for Ulaanbaatar meals, and to introduce an element TO
sources to heat outdated buildings.
bale houses can decrease their fuel Building straw-bale public fa- straw-bale/mortar structure wall on the Bio-Combinat site are be- of self-sufficiency.
use by more than 90 per cent, re- cilities will allow the social ser- has proven to fire-resistant. ing built by local construction The PEESS project has already
sulting in a cleaner and healthier vices infrastructure to be less de- Straw will not rot if the straw firms (trainees) with the technical received more than 100 requests
environment. pendent on nonrenewable re- used to make bales is dry, and a assistance of Adventist Develop- from State and private sector.
In addition to solving problems sources for its energy needs. This well-constructed roof keeps the ment Relief Agency (ADRA). Preparations for the next 10 straw-
related to economic and energy will free financial resources for water off. This will prevent water Other straw-bale buildings are be- bale buildings in nine aimags are
efficiency, the United Nations De- core activities and give a signifi- from accumulating or becoming ing constructed in rural areas underway.
velopment Programme and the cant contribution to the conserva- trapped inside the wall. where social services and living
Government of Mongolia hppe tion of the Since straw-bale walls are standards are underdeveloped. Laura Ryser graduated from
that the Pro- environ- strongly compacted and plastered, A unique feature of the PEESS
vision of ment. they also provide fewer havens for project is the advanced technology the University of Northern Brit-
Energy Effi- Straw- pests than conventional wooden of about 80 photovoltaic systems - ish Columbia in Canada and is
ciency So- bale build- walls. solar panels that collect electricity in Mongolia on an internship
cial Services ing tech- The three-year PEESS project - and the installation of 75 solar from the Sustainable Develop-
(PEESS) n iques began on May 20, 1997. The hot-air collectors in social service ment Research Institute. She is
project will have been project involves the participation buildings. Photovoltaic systems do
"solve some used in of the UNDP, the Mongolian Gov- not emit carbon dioxide into the currently working with the
o f N o r t h ernment, MAP-21, NGOs and in- atmosphere. UNDP environmental team on
Mongolia's A m e r re a dividuals. The project will design energy- the MAP-21 project.

O-N

Environment
38

Mongol Messenger 11-02-98

Pumphouse serves
rural eommunity
facilities. His salary will be paid
By Laura Ryser by the fees collected from the
pumphouse. To reduce ground
Mongolia's first straw-bale water pollution, the house :s
pumphouse was put into operation located upstream from the loca]
recently. settlement.
Located 50 kilometres south of The pumphouse is the firrt
Ulaanbaatar near Zunmod Soum, straw-bale structure buill in
•he pumphouse will be used by 500 winter. As a result the eiienor
of trie area's 2000 people. plastering of the building will be
Prior to the pumpnousc, water completed in Spring.
had been delivered by truck, a The building was created as
costly operation. Water will now be part of the National Water
more accessible and cheaper - Sanitation ar.d Hygiene
residents will save Tgl50 per 1,000 Education Prcgramc "or the
litres Of water. 21si Century It: was made with
Puntsogdorj and Nyamjav are support from L NDP, Australia,
two local residents now benefiting Sweden and the Netherlands.
from the hand pump. In the past, the The project will help 50
couple had to walk .100 metres to a communities Ln six aimaes with
difterent pump: a difficult task * a ' e r . sanitation and health
when carrying heavy loads of water ecj:;: :-. jver the next three
in sub-zero temperatures. years. 150 pumps are expected to
A caretaker will monitor the be installed.

UB Post 10-11-98

Straw-bale clinic
goes up in smoke
Fire has destroyed a straw-bale the problem lay in shoddy
health clinic built under a much- materials and construction
praised United Nations Devel- methods at unregulated sites, not
opment Programme project with the technology itself.
No .one was hurt in the The Bagakhangai clinic,
November 4 blaze, which star- built with Canadian government
ted in the attic of the structure funding, is one of six social-
in the Ulaanbaatar district of services buildings constructed
Bagakhangai. Ulaanbaatar Fire in 1998 under the UNDP
Department investigators are project.
working to determine the cause Its construction was moni-
of the fire, which smouldered tored by the Adventist De-
for 18 hours before it was velopment Relief Agency - the
extinguished by firefighters. well-regarded pioneer of straw-
Though large portions of the bale construction in Mongolia -
clinic's walls remained standing and the building had been given
after the fire, area residents soon high marks for quality and
began dismantling what was left safety.
of the structure. UNDP programme officer
Straw-bale construction has Paul Groenewegen stands by
been taken up enthusiastically straw-bale construction.
by development groups as He says the Bagakhangai
cheap, energy efficient and authorities have already re-
environmentally friendly. quested a straw-bale replace-
But a spate of fires earlier ment clinic.
this year that culminated in a "I think this is an isolated
Fire Department warning raised incident,", he says. "We'll have
concerns about the buildings' to learn the lessons and build
safety. buildings even more fire-safe in
Advocates said at the time the future."
o

Second Red Book makes its debut cover has been damaged by log-
I
ENVIRONMENT ging, fires, and insect infestation
over the last 50 years.
"Biological resources have
by B. Indra been depleted and irreparable dam-

Mongolian Environment Min-
age has been done to the environ-
ment. I
"Mongolian scientists and re-
ister Ts. Adiyasuren presented Brit- searchers nave given much time to
ish Ambassador to Mongolia, John the development of this second edi-
Durham, with a special edition of tion.
the recently-published Red Book "This book is presented to our
last week. readers in order to develop national
Mr Adiyasuren said the up- policies on conservation, sustain-
dated Red Book was the fruit of able use and the restoration of bio-
joint British-Mongolia cooperation logical resources, to initiate pub-
to protect Mongolia's nature and lic awareness programmes on rare
environment. and threatened species and imple-
The British Government con- ment conservation measures."
tributed more than $US 16,000 to Red Book Chief Editor Dr Ts.
the Red Book project. Shiifevdamba said that the book
"The Red Book is now printed had been edited in Mongolian and
in English and Mongolian lan- English to aid the implementation
guage and has met international of national laws and international
publishing and scientific stan- conventions, such as the Conven-
dards," the minister said. tion on International Trade in En-
In the first edition of the Red dangered Species of Wild Fauna
Book, published in Mongolia in and Flora (CITES), Convention oft British Ambassador to Mongolia John Durham was happy to receive his copy of the Red Book
1987, SO species of animals and 86 Biological Diversity, Convention from Environment Minister Ts. Adiyasuren last week.
plants were registered. on Wetlands of International Im-
Mr Adiyasuren said this year a portance especially as Waterfowl ing habitat degradation. measures based upon scientific Money for the prining of the
third of the country's total pasture Habitat (Ramsar Convention) and "Therefore, it was decided to principles. Red Book came from British Gov-
area (117 million hectares) and 40 the United Nations Convention to update the first Mongolian Red "Mongolian researchers and ernment and the Mongolian Envi-
million hectares of forest had been Combat Desertification. Book in order to use it as a conser- scientists gave their time and ex- ronmental Protection Fund
damaged by insects and rodents. "Latest research indicates that vation tool. pertise in the development of this (SUS6SOO) and the Endangered
"The number of rare and threat- the number of species which are "Research materials were gath- second edition of the Mongolian Species Conservation Fund
ened species is increasing and sev- in danger of extinction is growing ered from the Botanical Institute of Red Book. (SUS4500). Preparation of the
eral species are in danger of ex- - this is due to increasing aridity Biology and Applied Biology, the "The broad scope of this book book for printing, translation and
tinction," he said. and intensive natural resource use Mongolian State University, the may give rise to discrepancies and technical work was carried out by
"The government has been tak- in the last decades. State Pedagogical University and disagreements and the editorial the Mongolia Biodoveristy Project,
ing measures to protect and restore "The country's transition to a foreign scientists. board welcomes comments on the funded by the UNDP and the Glo-
Mongolia's biological resources. free market economy has increased "This book will play an impor- issue, 'content and format of the bal Environment Facility.
"One quarter of the total forest the use of natural resources caus- tant role in outlining protection book."

Environment
3o
New Tov B
TO
O

cheese VI
I
era

factory
set to open the factory now employees Twenty years ago the
Mrs Oostra, the wife of the Dutch Ambassador to Mongolia, accepts sopme gouda-style
cheese from factory worker D. Dolgor.
serve, although herders for the lost opportunities And herders are pro-
AGRICULTURE five people and collects milk Takhi almost ceased to exist would be permitted to use evolving from the protection vided with moulds and other
from 33 families. Between in Mongolia. the land for grazing as a re- measures taken by the necessary equipment that
by Laura Ryser June and August last year, In 1980, a Dutch initia- sult of extreme climatic con- Hustain Nuruu Steppe allow them to standardi/e
36,300 litres of rnilk valued tive was launched to estab- ditions. Project. The project has par- the steppe cheese.
Another dairy is ex- at Tg3,025,435 was bought lish semi-reserves for the With the reduction of t i c u l a r l y benefited the
pected to open inTovAimag by the facliiry, producing3.9 br.;ed and by 1991 Hustain their grazing rights, herders women in their role as the
• Laura Ryscr t;> iiiln
this month, allowing herders toniu-s til f,oml;i style Nuruu was chosen as a suit- faced serious problems con- main milkers in the family. atedfrom the llnir,-i\n\
to keep up with the growing cheese, able location for the release cerning the new economic Project consultant S. of Northern Htiti\/i < . •
demand for dairy products I he second tailory will of the zoo-bred animals into order, and the curtailment of Tsetgee said quality inspec- lumhiii in Cumuli! tniil i\
:h as cheese, yoghurt, he located in Atiir .Soum, the semi-wild. restrictions on animal own- tions were done at the cheese inMoiiKi'lin • "i"" mi'i"
>,.i:nk ;md creams. some lOdkin I'liini IH.ian The first horses were re- ership. They had an abun- factory every three months.
The first cheese factory 1>.1.1 i.i i .uul .iln ml ] '>() km leased in July 1994, as part
shift fnnn the .Sii\Mnn;Mi
dance of milk but limited All dairy staff and eli- l)l'\'fll>/IHIi III A'.
in Allanbulag, a soum cen- IIDIII Allanliiil.i); ol the reintroduction and opportunity to market the gible herders are trained in
tre about 40km from Ula;m ( 'hrcse I iiliKtiiin steppe ecology programme. surplus. relevant aspects of cheese V<
ti.i.ii.n, began production m I'loje I evolved illei Ihc The decision was popular The Cheese Production production, includiii); hy n nli i l l ,
I i-bruary 1996 with the hi l|> Mini) Mi'iil dc- among the herders as il rep- Project created new income giene, pricing and impinvnl ,-iniii'iuii> i i i i i / i i
nf the United Nations Drvrl c I ii i eo.ooohi lesenicd the return of a well- for herders as compensation livestock management (/., M \l
<>l>ment Programme Musi.mi MINIMI known icon of Mongolian
fONDP) and $115200,000 .in.l Mi-p|H- mrii, it Sliili- Nil culture.
f'lom the Dutcti (iovnn Inn- Ki-M-ivr in I'J'M. In ill According to UNDP
iin 111.
Run hy llic sm.tll nrivali'
< oiii|unv. liv.isl.if. (< in-('.I').
Inw Ihr MII i r^iliil i. mini
dm nun iif itn- wild Tiikln
(I'l/fWIll-l il II..IM
Iiioutanimc officer, S.
Inkhluyt, grazing and hunt-
ing were outlawed in the re-
.
41

Mongol Messenger 31-12-97

Few greenhouse gases but
temperature still on the rise that industrialised nations will re- change our development style, our
ENVIRONMENT duce their collective emissions of environment will gradually sour,"
greenhouse gases by 5.2 percent. said UNDP Deputy Resident Rep-
Overall emissions from a group of resentative, Bruno Pouzat.
In a effort to limit the emissions six greenhouse gases will be low- Although Mongolia releases
of greenhouse gases, more than ered by 2008-2012. By thai time, very few greenhouse gases in re-
1500 delegates from over 160 na- emissions of carbon dioxide, meth- lation to more developed countries,
tions convened in Kyoto, Japan for ane, and nitrous, oxide must be local effects will still be fell.
a 10-day treaty negotiation. equal to those of 1990. Cuts in Research shows that the green-
Mongolian E n v i r o n m e n t a l hydroflouride will be measured house effect has contributed to the
Minister Ts. Adiyasuren returned against emissions in either a 1990 0.7 degree rise in temperature,
from the conference last week to or!995. which has occurred over the past
announce the results of the Kyoto "Too much development has 50 years. This has resulted in de-
Climate Change conference this had a bad influence for our natural sertification, the loss of valuable
month. environment, our style of develop- steppe to desert. Desertification
The negotiations resulted in a ment needs to be changed. History has caused a decrease in water
legally binding protocol stating has taught us that if we don't supply, harvest and livestock.
o
3

Gobi faces desertification threat
Scientists have marked Mon-
trq

n
V
o

golia as a country in threat of mas- VI
n
sive desertification. The outlying
areas of the Gobi Desert are in- ora
re
cluded in the desertification region, •s
indicated Dr. C Davaadorj of the
Geo-ecology Institute.
Mr D a v a a d o r j recently at-
tended a seminar on 'Combating
Desertification by Agro-biology
Methods.' 20countries look pail in
the United Nations seminar, which
was held in Israel.
Due to an iiKTi-a.se in ears and
population, (lie desert's natural bal-
ance has been lost, particularly
around the /aniyii I did border area
near China. In this region, locals
have reported that sand is replac-
ing gra/.ing lands.
One problem has been die re-
cent boom in livestock population.
High numbers of livestock have
overgrazed many desert areas,
causing desert expansion. Re-
search is currently taking place to
determine how many animals the
Gobi region can accommodate.
Mr Davaadorj noted that he has
recently acquired the seeds of 20
plants which are known to be well
suited for desertified soil. Experi-
ments will lake place to determine
if the seeds should IK- planted
r,-ii<>n.\ of the Gobi near China are alrcml\ feeling ih, , / / / , , M ,./ ,/,
43

Mongol Messenger 19-11-97

Gobi surrenders to
small agricultural oasis from handmade bricks. He in-
by Laura Ryser stalled two underground storage
facilities with a combined capac-
ity of 10 tonnes - one for potatoes
The efforts of former veterinar- and the other for cabbages.
ian, -D. Baraduuz, extend far be- These days between April and
yond the tree-lined boundaries of October (depending on the sea-
his one hectare plantation. son), he produces medicinal seeds,
For the last five years, Mr plants and herbs for local animal
Baraduuz has been trying to com- fodder, as well as turnips, toma-
bat desertification in his native toes, potatoes, cabbage, carrots,
Omnogobi Aimag and he remains watermelon and two types of cu-
committed to educating others cumber.
while improving the state of the The plantation also processed
environment. vegetables in jars and in the future
By visiting different planta- has plans to establish a small can-
tions and agricultural works, Mr nine factory.
Baraduuz learned various planting Mr Baraduuz sells his produce
techniques. Before launching his locally, although he is currently
full-time farming career, he was looking for an extended market for
chairman of the Omnogobi Agri- medicinal herbs including jasmine
cultural Department. and the pagoda tree.
Concerns that many medicinal Part of the project site is dedi-
herbs and plants were disappear- cated to producing trees such as
ing from the Gobi region, Shar Khoshoon, a species which
prompted Mr Baraduuz to begin helps reduce salt content in the soil.
plantings about five years ago at a After just one year, this plant
site aoout 60km north of reduced the salt content enough to
Dalanzadgad. plant other types of trees such as
P. Tsetsgee, Project Adminis- aspen, almond, elm, willow and
trative Officer of MAP-21, the sea buckthorn.
UNDP-funded environmental According to Mr Baraduuz, he
project which has been supporting planted about 5000 of almond trees
Mr Baraduuz's efforts, recalls: "At to protect the area from erosion and
first his family was skeptical so he sand. About 1000 of these were
worked alone for a year before his planted last Spring.
wife conceded to help him - when Mr Baraduuz is looking for a
they finally harvested their first market for his trees and discussions
crop their thoughts became more are already underway with MAP-
positive." 21 about the possibility of buying
Last August MAP-21 provided elms next Spring for a desertifica-
Tg3 million for Mr Baraduuz's tion project in Zamyr Dud Soum. MAP-21 representatives inspected D. Baraduuz's Omnogobi
plantation project, allowing him to Previously the project assumed plantation last month.
test new seeds for the Gobi area. seeds would have to come from to transport goods and fertiliser. However Mr Baraduuz's hard
The funds will also enable Mr China, but now Mr Baraduuz may Out of 17 willow trees planted work and increased yields have
Baraduuz to develop and produce be given the opportunity to provide in Spring, only 12 have survived helped to eliminate the myths
seeds and trees for other Gobi resi- seeds and seedlings. their arid surroundings. The deep about the inability of the Gobi to
dents. But Mr Baraduuz's project is cracks in the soil around trees is a sustain crops.
En the beginning, the family not free of problems. The fact that stark reminder that water scarcity, During last month's Poverty
brought in 80 truckloads of animal he does not own a vehicle limits salt intrusion and soil condition Eradication Week, Mr Baraduuz
fertiliser for use on the plantation. Mr Baraduuz's ability to commu- continue to present barriers to lo- organised an educational seminar
During those early days Mr nicate his findings with other cal farmers. in Dalanzadgad and on-site farm
Baraduuz also built a family home people, and he must rent a vehicle Mr Baraduuz tour a bid to help others understand
realises that one agricultural economics,
spring would only He is currently writing a bro-
sustain one hectare of enure about his difficulties, success
cropland. And while and findings over the last five
there is not enough years.
water to expand his In the future Mr Baraduuz
project, he believes plans to expand his operation by
that the aimag's 300 planting trees and plants on Gurvan
natural springs have Saikhan (Three Beauties) Moun-
the capacity to irrigate tain.
300ha of trees and
vegetables. Laura Ryser graduated from
He said such a the University of Northern British
scheme would combat Columbia in Canada and is in
desertification and Mongolia on an internship from
provide jobs for about the Sustainable Development Re-
300 families, although search Institute. She is currently
the extent of compe-
tition for these water working with the United Nations
resources and the ca- Development Programme (UNDP)
pacity of the springs environmental team on the MAP-
remains unclear. 21 project.
44

UB Post
21-07-98
Warmer winters,
cooler summers:
global warming
comes to Mongolia
By T». ENKH "By the laws of physics,
any heated object creates'long-

M ongolia's climate is wave rays. These heat rays are
world famous for its absorbed by gases — carbon
extremes. But that monoxide, methane, nitrogen
may be changing. Recent evi- and so on— and some are
dence shows the country's released into the atmosphere,
temperatures are moderating as causing additional heat in the
a result of global warming. Earth's atmosphere.
"There is a worldwide ten- "In the past 100 years,
dency toward global wanning, because of human activity, the
and tfits—wanrrtrrg T>rrfic oysegases
noticed in high-altitude zones, has risen dramatically. At the
including Mongolia." says Dr. time of the Industrial Revo-
L. Natsagdorj, director of the lution, 1750-1800, there was
Institute of Hydrology and 30 per cent less carbon
Meteorology in Ulaanbaatar. monoxide in the air than there
"Our country's average is now, and half as much marsh
temperature has risen 0.7 de- gases.
grees in the last 60 years. The "It is important to reduce
average winter temperature has the level of greenhouse gas
increased two (o three degrees, emissions immediately, be-
depending on the region, while cause gases, depending on their
summers have become a little type, are stored in the at-
bit cooler. mosphere for between 50 and
"Over the last 30 years the 200 years. If we don't take any
number of cold days under -25 measures, by 2030-2060 green-
degrees has fallen by 10 to 15 house gases will have doubled
days and the number of warm from the 90s' level.
days over 25-degrees has also "This will cause * floW
fallen, by 10 to 20 days. The temperature increase of tmm
winters are getting warmer and dee
the summers cooler. The huge
gap between the highs and low 5
is shrinking."
In case you think a warmer
winter doesn't sound like such
a bad thing, Namgdorj mm
ofthedirceffecaoflungum
climate change on Mongolia.
"According uTafcmanal
scientists, Mongolia's aujjgc
monthlv temperature \*ifl rise
between three and 10 degrees
in the 2030-2060 period. SWB-
mer precipitation will increase,
but so will spring droughts.
That will have a negative
influence on pasture land ar. j
livestock breeding.
"Global warming will also ^,
mean a two to 15 per cent try, do 10 curt ike i
increase in desert areas and a Other devdopag Aan o_-
shrinking of mountain steppe, . ,
taiga and tundra zones." shining models.
Most scientists agree that Still, some moves arc afcof.
global warming is caused by an A project is underway, wok
accumulation of gases in the British assistance, to m»is
atmosphere, the so-called produce an energy-efficiemger
"greenhouse effect.1' stove.
"We can see our planet as And the UN Framework
a huge greenhouse," explains Convention on Climate Change
Natsagdorj. "Direct sunrays commits developed countries-
penetrate the walls of a green- producers of most of the
house, becoming heat. They are world's greenhouse gases — to
not able to rebound back com- aid developing ones.
pletely, causing additional heat. The World Bank, which
In the same way, the sun's rays recently opened an office in
penetrate the Earth's atmo- Ulaanbaatar, has established a
sphere and are reflected off the unit geared to promoting ener-
Earth's surface. A portion gy efficiency in Asian
rebounds back and a portion countries.
becomes heat, absorbed by the Will it be enough? Time
soil. will tell.
Mongolia taces burning issues in wake ot
landmark Kyoto climate-change conference management approaches
3d
By David SADOWAY sparsely populated country tatives to Kyoto were made "0
has one of the world's aware of a range of eco- have provided substantial
energy savings and em- §

A
t the start of highest per capita emission friendly energy technologies,
D e c e m b e r , rates of carbon dioxide, a key including automobile fuel ployment creation through
delegations from greenhouse gas (see table). cells, solar photovoltaics, renovating housing and
around the world met in The major causes of wind turbines, bio-gas/meth- offices, improving insulation,
Kyoto, Japan, for a gathering greenhouse gases are in- ane and small-scale hydro- installing compact florescent
the BBC dubbed, "the most dustry - particularly the electric production. In- lighting and using passive
important conference of the thermal energy, industry — novative green technologies
solar approaches. One
decade.".Officially known as and automobiles. In Mon- and infrastructure would not
the UN Conference of the golia, one can add the stoves only reduce greenhouse example of energy efficient
Parties to the United Nations from thousands of gers. gases but reduce air pollution construction currently being
Framework Convention on The Mongolian govern- and ecosystem damage. demonstrated in Mongolia is
Climate Change/the Kyoto ment says is it taking the According to the World the super-insulated, non-
congress drew repre- problem seriously. Watch and Rocky Mountain toxic straw-bale building
sentatives of government "Most effects of global Institutes, green tech- technology demonstrated by
and environmental groups, climate change are negative nologies can improve in- several development org-
as well as lobbyists from for Mongolia," says Adya- dustrial competitiveness and anizations and now being
both the traditional and suren. "As stated in the create long-run cost savings.
adopted by the private
alternative energy industries report of the Inter- They have proven effective
The conference met to governmental Panel on Cli- in wealthy nations such as sector.
grapple with the issue of mate Change, arid and semi- Denmark, the Netherlands The Mongolian govern-
greenhouse gases, blamed arid Asia could face ex- and Germany and are in- ment has agreed to develop
by«scientists for contributing acerbated water scarcity." creasingly being seen as a a strong made-in-Mongolia
to the worldwide atmo- One Mongolian scientist has solution for economies in protocol to reduce
spheric temperature increase projected a dramatic shift transition such as Mongolia. greenhouse gases and fulfill
known as global warming. northwards n the zone of But where will the money the Kyoto agreement.
Ten days of arduous desertification if Asian green- come from? "We have to understand
negotiations arrived at three house gases are not sta- Ironically, one financial
that any delay of action now
formal proposals that pre- bilized. hope for the green shift is the
scribe phased reductions in Mongolia's present eco- World Bank, which plans to will only make the problems
the amount of greenhouse nomic woes could be wor- open an office in Ulaanbaatar worse, and make future
gases well into the next sened with climate change, this year. In the past this solutions more difficult,"
century — proposals de- notes Adyasuren. major financier was known says Adyasuren. "We should
tractors say were fatally "Preliminary findings for funding wasteful energy not leave today's problems
watered down to appease show that agriculture, es- mega-projects which have for our children and grand-
the United States and other pecially livestock and water sparked popular protests in children." The Land of tha Blue Sky is too often the land of smog.
gaseous nations. resources, are the most many nations. Recently,
The conference was a vulnerable sectors to climate however, the bank appears
sobering experience for the change in Mongolia. These to have recognized the GREENHOUSE GAS FACTS : CO2 EMISSIONS PER CAPITA (tonnes, 1994}
Mongolian delegation led by sectors are the major eco- importance of eco-friendly os
Environment 'Minister Ts. nomic sectors of the approaches by launching an
Asia Alternative energy unit.
MONGOLIA 7o
Adyasuren. country." USA
One troubling problem for But is it possible to take This forward-thinking unit AUSTRALIA
Mongolia is the impact of a greener, energy-efficient has a mandate "to help client CANADA 00
regional greenhouse gases approach to the development countries and Bank N. KOREA
from its populous indust- that is so urgently needed in operations s t a f f pursue RUSSIAN FED
rializing neighbours: China, Mongolia? A partial solution energy-efficiency GERMANY
the Koreas and South and could lie lie with new eco- investments in Asia, where U.K.
Southeaste Asian countries logically friendly energy two-thirds of the world's JAPAN
like India, Pakistan and technologies, construction new power capacity will be POLAND
Indonesia. techniques and renovation installed in the next decade." CHINA
But the problem is not approaches. Mongolia's delegation INDIA
just across the border. This Mongolia's represen- also heard how demand- Sources: Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Mongolian Institute of Meteorology

Environment
46

Mongol Messenger 20-01-99

New tax law
designed to end
timber exports
A January 15 tax will see a
By B. Indra Tgl 50,000 fee weighed on every
one cubic metre of wood. The
Customs tax laws are set to ministry says the tax will preserve
change, and perhaps the most forests and revive n a t i o n a l
influential will be a tax on timber. industries, while still allowing for
The Ministry of Nature and domestic needs. The tax is
Environment is hoping to designed to make exporting wood
implement the tax which could ail but impossible.
have a lasting affect on Mongolian
forest lands. See TREE, page 5

the exported wood is pine, despite
from page 4 the fact that only four percent of
Mongolian forest is pine. Just 8.1
MP D. Enkhtaivan tried to take percent of Mongolia is covered in
the forest protection one step forest. This has prompted the Food
further by submitting a law draft and Agricultural Organisation of
to the government which would the United Nations to call
prohibit the export of wood from Mongolia's forest reserves 'poor.'
Mongolia- Enkhtaivan had been Mongolia has exported 60.000
working on the project since 1996, cubic metres of log and 360,000
but saw his'proposal shol down by sliced wood materials without any
Parliament. However, the new tax customs tax since 1993, at prices
effectively does what Enkhtaivan 'three times lower than the world
set out to do. standard. Meanwhile, little has
The General Customs office been done domestically to
reports that in 1998, 232,006.3 impro"e the investment and
cubic metre's of sliced wood were technical renovation of Mongolian
exported from Mongolia. The timber mills. The combination has
breakdown includes 207.8 cubic left Mongolia's timber industry' in
metre to Switzerland, 231,361.2 a shambles.
cubic metres to China, 130. 2 cubic Prior to 1990, ten organisations
metres lo Korea and 4.5 to used 20 machines to prepare
Zimbabwe. 278.3 cubic metres of wood. Nowadays, more timber
log were exported in all. mills have arrived, though many
108 train cars of cut wood had wood buyers agree that the quality
been prepared for export and of the product is low.
customs since January 9, 42 have "National products have
been exported. Until now, no legal decreased and people saw their get
acts or customs tax has inhibited rich quick opportunity and shipped
the export of wood. a lot of wood off to China at no
"The free export of wood was cost," Enkhtaivan said.
hurting national industries, the The lost wood has caused
price of wood products increased, havoc on the domestic market. The
and the supply of wood fuel price of wood drops and local
decreased. Most importantly, the companies can't gel their hands on
environment was suffering. The wood. The state policy to support
clear cutting in the Mongonmorit national manufacturers is lost.
and Terelj areas had an obvious "If we are going to live in
affect on the Tuul River, which harmony with nature, animals and
dropped in height," said elements, we have got to pay better
Enkhtaivan. attention to our forests and our
Researchers note that most of water reserves," Enkhtaivan says.